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    When we speak of the devil as a real personal being, the question immediately arises, Whence did he come? Did God create him? or how did he come into existence? Many stumble at this point, and, by specious or plausible arguments, are led to deny the teachings of the Bible on this subject. Thus a learned author said:-ATNM 51.1

    “I conceive that the existence of a devil is irreconcilable with all goodness and omnipotency; and that, were a devil created by God, the Creator would be answerable for all the acts of this being so created. Evidently the devil could be nothing else but what the Creator should make him, and could do nothing but what prescience could foresee. The acts of the devil would, therefore, be indirectly those of his Maker.”ATNM 51.2

    To this the Bible reader can readily reply that God never created a devil. But then comes the query, Seeing that God is the Creator of all things, how is it possible for the devil to exist if God did not create him? But this query is based upon the supposition that all things are now in the condition in which God created them, which is not the case. God made man upright, but they have sought out many inventions. Ecclesiastes 7:29. God never created a wicked man, yet wicked men exist God never created a murderer nor an adulterer; shall we therefore deny the existence of murderers and adulterers? With as much reason we might deny their existence as to deny the existence of the devil, because God never created a devil. The argument applies with equal force in both cases. God created man “very good,” but he corrupted his way and became a sinner. And so of the devil. God created him an angel, but he rebelled and became, or made himself, a devil.ATNM 51.3

    Before proceeding to the direct statements of the Bible on the subject, a few facts of the Scriptures may be laid before the reader to prepare his mind for the better understanding of the whole question. In the earthly or typical sanctuary, the symbol of God’s presence was between the two cherubim, whose wings shadowed the mercy-seat. Exodus 25:22. So, in the heavenly temple, God dwells between the two covering cherubim. “The Lord reigneth; let the people tremble; He sitteth between the cherubim; let the earth be moved.” “Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, Thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; Thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth.” “O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubim, Thou art the God, even Thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; Thou hast made heaven and earth.” Psalm 99:1; 80:1; Isaiah 37:16. This testimony shows that God’s dwelling-place is between the cherubim.ATNM 52.1

    Ezekiel gives a lengthy description of these cherubium in chapters 1 and 10, and in conclusion says: “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river of Chebar; and I knew that they were the cherubim.” Ezekiel 10:20. Zechariah refers to the same when he says: “These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth.” Chap. 4:14.ATNM 52.2

    God’s throne is in His holy temple. Revelation 7:15. This temple is in heaven. Revelation 11:19. There is a city in heaven called the new Jerusalem. Said Paul: “But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.” Galatians 4:26. We read much in the Bible about “the holy mountain of God,” the “hill of Zion,” “Mount Zion,” etc. That this does not always refer to the earthly Mount Zion is evident from the Scriptures. “But ye are come unto Mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem.” Hebrews 12:22. Joel says: “The Lord also shall roar out of Zion, and utter His voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake.” Joel 3:16. Paul also says that the shaking of heaven and earth by the voice of God is when He speaks from heaven. Hebrews 12:25, 26. And thus it is fully proved that Mount Zion and New Jerusalem, as well as the temple and throne of God, are in heaven.ATNM 53.1

    We next call the attention of the reader to a brief description of this city, as found in Revelation 21:10-21:-ATNM 53.2

    “And He carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God; and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; and had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels.” Now mark the names of the precious stones which form the wall of the city. “And the building of the wall of it was of jasper; and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass. And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, crysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl; and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.”ATNM 54.1

    Some of these precious gems would sparkle like fire, and some would emit light of themselves. In this heavenly city are the tree of life, and the river of the water of life, which are in the paradise of God. Revelation 2:7; 22:1-3; Genesis 2:8-17.ATNM 54.2

    The reader cannot now fail to appreciate the testimony of Ezekiel 28, as follows:-ATNM 54.3

    “Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord God: Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold; the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so. Thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee. By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.” Verses 12-16.ATNM 54.4

    Mark the character of the person here described. “Full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.” Again, “Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God.” Whether this refers to the Eden upon the earth or in heaven, no mortal has ever been in it except Adam and Eve; but this personage has been there; hence the one spoken of here is not a man.ATNM 55.1

    But we read that the serpent, who is also called the devil and Satan (Revelation 12:9), was in the garden of Eden when Adam and Eve were there (Genesis 3:1-6). The sequel will show that the Eden here referred to is in the city of God above. The Lord says: “Every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, the carbuncle, and gold.” See again the list given in Revelation 21.ATNM 55.2

    This shows that the personage introduced in Ezekiel 28 has been in that city. The Lord says to him, “Thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.” As before stated, many of these stones in the holy city emit light of themselves, and hence they could properly be called stones of fire. One is thus described by Dr. Clarke: “Carbuncle is a very elegant gem, of a deep red color, with an admixture of scarlet; from its bright, lively color it had the name of carbunculus, which signifies a little coal.” “Thou wast upon the holy mountain of God.” “Thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.” This must have been in the heavenly Jerusalem, where God Himself dwells. While the garden of God might apply to the garden of Eden, this description of the garniture of the city can only apply to heaven itself, for the city has never yet been upon the earth.ATNM 56.1

    The heathen, wicked king of the city of Tyre, the human ruler, could not be said to have been perfect in his ways, sealing up the sum, full of wisdom and beauty. A being more exalted than any mere man is here spoken to.ATNM 56.2

    The question naturally arises, If Satan was once in heaven, what position did he occupy there? What follows in the Scripture will answer this question, and utterly preclude the possibility of applying it to any being less than an angel: “Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so.” Verse 14. Evidently this is a reference to one of the mighty angels, also called cherubim, who cover the throne of God; for we have seen that God dwells between the cherubim. Then it is very clear what position was once occupied by the person called the king of Tyrus. He was a covering angel to the throne of God in heaven. God created him to fill that office, for he says, “I have set thee so.” This was his position, his office. This, certainly, is not true of any man that ever lived. Hence we must be correct in applying it to some superior being.ATNM 56.3

    With regard to this remarkable personage brought to view in Ezekiel 28, we have learned the following facts: 1. He has been in Eden, the garden of God. 2. The precious stones that compose the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem were his covering. 3. He has been upon the holy mountain of God. 4. He has walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire, i. e., he has walked the streets of the city of God. 5. He was perfect in his ways. 6. He was full of wisdom. 7. He was perfect in beauty. 8. He was the anointed covering cherub, and God created him thus. 9. His heart was lifted up because of his beauty. 10. He sinned. 11. He will be cast out and destroyed. We apply this to Satan, believing that no other application of it can be made which will harmonize the Scripture in all points.ATNM 57.1

    Of this person, addressed as the king of Tyre, Dr. Charles Beecher says:-ATNM 57.2

    “In this address to the king of Tyre are several expressions too high for a merely mortal sovereign. Hence the impression has extensively prevailed that the Holy Spirit regarded the king of Tyre as a kind of an image or symbol of Satan, and in addressing him uttered things passing beyond the emblem, and applying directly to the reality. Such was the view of Augustine, Jerome, Tertullian, Ambrose, and other early fathers. Indeed, Fairbairn remarks; ‘Most of the early commentators have supposed that verses 12-14 were not properly used of the king of Tyre, but mystically of Satan.’”—Redeemer and Redeemed, p. 75.ATNM 58.1

    “The cherub is the most exalted of all known emblems, nearest the throne of Jehovah, most vividly connected with His Majesty, and identified with His administration. That such was the exalted station originally held by Lucifer, may be considered the established belief. President Edwards observes; ‘Lucifer, before his fall, was the morning star, the covering cherub, the brightest and highest of all creatures.’ Dr. Hopkins speaks of him as one ‘who was the head of all the angels, and the most noble creature that God had made.’ And Dr. Dwight calls him ‘an angel of pre-eminent distinction in heaven.”-Ib., p. 81.ATNM 58.2

    Many have queried why Satan is addressed as the king of Tyrus. In the first part of Ezekiel 28 the prince of Tyre is addressed in a manner to show that it refers to the reigning monarch; to him it is said; Yet thou art a man,” and,” Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers.” The whole description shows that he was a self-exalted, haughty person. Tyre was a powerful city, rich and influential as a seat of commerce, and as wicked as she was rich. The ruler of Tyre was merely an instrument in the hands of Satan to do his will. Hence Satan was the real ruler, truly the king of Tyrus, and the recognized king was but a prince under his sway. In like manner the empire of Rome is represented in Revelation 12 as a great red dragon, but in chapter 20:2 the devil is called the old dragon. At the time of which the prophecy speaks, Rome had become the seat of earthly empire. Wicked, cruel, and relentless in her persecutions of the people of God, her relationship to Satan is not difficult to trace. Satan was then the king of Rome, as he had been the king of Tyre when she was mistress among the nations.ATNM 58.3

    Again, in Isaiah 14:12-14, for the reason here given, Satan is spoken to in an address to the king of Babylon: “How art thou fallen from heaven O, Lucifer, son of the morning! [Margin, “day-star.”] How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.” Who is this that has fallen from heaven? Jesus uses the same words in Luke 10:18: “And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.” Isaiah says: “How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer!” It is evident that they both refer to the same person. That person Jesus calls Satan.ATNM 59.1

    This, then, was the original condition of Satan, this the exalted position which he once occupied, high and glorious, near the throne of God. The Lord created him, and placed him there. He was wise, beautiful, holy, and happy. Alas, that sin should come in, to destroy such a character! Alas, that rebellion should blot so fair a universe! But so it was. Even while we are contemplating this picture, the scene is changed, oh, how changed! Evil thoughts brood in Lucifer’s mind. A dark cloud is gathering. Whispers of discontent are heard, insubordination is talked, till at length, O woful day! rebellion, dark, deep, wicked rebellion, bursts upon the astonished inhabitants of heaven.ATNM 60.1

    And since the day that iniquity entered his heart, and he set himself in opposition to God, he has left no wile untried to lead others to follow him in the way of rebellion. No one has been free from his assaults, no one so exalted in position, no one so wise and gifted, but Satan has endeavored to lead him astray. How necessary the exhortation of the Saviour, to watch and pray lest we enter into temptation. How timely the admonition of the servant of God, “Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall.”ATNM 60.2

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