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    “With the commencement of this reign began the famous era called the Era of the Seleucidæ. It is the era from which the years are reckoned in the first and second book of Maccabees; but whereas the heathen historians began to reckon from the summer solstice, the reader, if he would avoid mistakes, must always bear in mind, that the author of the first book of Maccabees reckons each year as beginning with Nisan, the first ecclesiastical month of the Jews; while the author of the second makes his to begin with the civil year of the Jews, or the autumnal month, Isri. This era is called by the Jews the Era of Contracts, and by the Arabs, Dil-Carnaim, or the two horned, i. e., of Alexander, as the son of Jupiter Ammon.” Dr. Jarvis.ASC 155.2

    To continue the chronology, we have only to trace the succession of one of the lines of kings before mentioned, and will take the Egyptian, as in the Canon of Ptolemy, the astronomer.ASC 155.3

    Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, did not become firmly settled on his throne till twelve years from the death of Philip Aridæus, where Ptolemy, the astronomer, places the beginning of his reign. B. C. 305.ASC 156.1

    Ptolemy Soter, or Lagus, according to the Canon of the astronomer, reigned in Egypt twenty years from his assumption of the title of king, and thirty-nine from the death of Alexander; and then placed Ptolemy Philadelphus, one of his sons, in partnership with him on the throne. B. C. 285.ASC 156.2

    Ptolemy Philadelphus, according to the Canon, reigned from his accession to the throne in partnership with his father, thirty-eight years, to B. C. 247.ASC 156.3

    Ptolemy Euergetes, his successor, was his eldest son, who reigned, according to the Canon, twenty-five years, to B. C. 222.ASC 156.4

    Ptolemy Philopater succeeded him, a most profligate and wicked prince, who reigned, according to the same Canon, seventeen years, to B. C. 205.ASC 156.5

    Ptolemy Epiphanes, his son, succeeded him, and reigned, according to the Canon. twenty-four years, to B. C. 181.ASC 156.6

    Ptolemy Philometer, his son, a boy of six years old, under the guardianship of his mother, Cleopatra, succeeded him, and, according to the Canon, reigned thirty-five years.ASC 156.7

    “And there came out of them [of Alexander’s successors] a wicked root, Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus, the king [of one of the four divisions of Alexander’s empire-Syria] who had been a hostage in Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.” 1 Mac. 1:10. He was contemporary with Ptolemy Philometer, of Egypt. Reckoning by the Era of the Seleucidæ, he began to reign B. C. 176.ASC 156.8

    “Now, when the kingdom was established before Antiochus, he thought to reign over Egypt, that he might have dominion over two realms, ...and made war against Ptolemee, king of Egypt.... And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned again in the hundred and forty and third year, and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great multitude, and entered proudly into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof.” vs. 16-21. B. C. 170.ASC 157.1

    This brings us to the time when “the Romans gained their first foot-hold in the Macedonian Empire,” by the battle of Pydna, “of which we are able to fix its date with precision, by the total eclipse of the moon, which took place the evening before the battle, Tuesday, June 21st, P. M., 8 h. 2 m. A. J. P. 2546.” Dr. Jarvis. B. C. 168.ASC 157.2

    In this same year, as Antiochus was on his way to Egypt, “when within four miles of Alexandria, he was met at Eleusis, by the Roman ambassadors, at the head of whom was Popilius Lænas, with whom he had been acquainted, during a residence of thirteen years at Rome. Rejoiced to see him, Antiochus stretched out his arms to embrace him; but the Roman, rejecting his salute, first sternly demanded an answer to the written orders of the Senate, which he presented. The king declaring that he would deliberate on their contents with his friends, Popilius traced a circle round the king, on the sand, with his rod, saying, ‘I require an answer before you quit this circle;’ then Antiochus, with a faltering accent, replied, ‘I will obey the Senate;’ and immediately withdrew his army from Egypt.” Dr. Hales’ Chro., vol. ii., p. 595.ASC 157.3

    “Now, the fifteenth day of the month Casleu, in the hundred and forty and fifth year, they set up the abomination of desolation upon the altar, and builded idol-altars throughout the cities of Judah, on every side.... Now, in the five and twentieth day of the month, they did sacrifice upon the idol-altar which was upon the altar of God.” vs. 54-59. B. C. 168.ASC 158.1

    Antiochus committed great abominations in Jerusalem, putting to death the venerable Eleazar, in his ninetieth year, 2 Mac. 6:24, and great numbers of others, polluting the temple, etc. Matthias, a priest, died “in the hundred and forty-sixth year.” 1 Mac. 2:70. B. C. 167.ASC 158.2

    The next year he commissioned Lysias, a nobleman, to root out the remnant of Israel, while Antiochus went against Persia, in “the hundred and forty-seventh year.” So Lysias went against Jerusalem, with an army of 47,000, to destroy it; but was defeated by 6000 Jews. 1 Mac. 3. B. C. 166.ASC 158.3

    “The next year, therefore, following, Lysias gathered together” 65,000 men to “subdue them,” 4:28; and was again defeated by Judas Maccabeus, with 10,000 men. B. C. 165.ASC 159.1

    “Now, Maccabeus and his company, the Lord guiding them, recovered the temple, ...and having cleansed the temple, they made another altar, and striking stones, they took fire out of them, and offered a sacrifice after two years, 13After three years.-Dr. Hales. and set forth incense...Now, upon the same day that the strangers profaned the temple, on the very same day it was cleansed again, even the five and twentieth day of the same month, which is Casleu.” 2 Mac. 10:1-5. “On the five and twentieth day of the ninth month, which is called the month Casleu, in the hundred forty and eighth year, they rose up betimes in the morning, and offered sacrifice.” 1 Mac. 4:52. B. C. 165.ASC 159.2

    Soon after this, Antiochus died “a miserable death, in a strange country, in the mountains,” 2 Mac. 9:28, “in the hundred and forty and ninth year.” 1 Mac. 6:16. B. C. 164.ASC 159.3

    Antiochus Eupator, the son of Epiphanes, succeeded him, and in “the hundred and forty-ninth year, it was told Judas, that Antiochus Eupador was coming with a great power into Judea,” with an army of 110,000 foot, 5,300 horse, and 22 elephants. 2 Mac. 13:1, 2. In 1 Mac. 6:20, it reads “in the hundred and fiftieth year,” but it was a sabbatical year; “for that it was the seventh year, and they in Judea that were delivered from the Gentiles, had eaten up the residue of the store;” 1 Mac. 6:53; and so they made peace with the king. B. C. 163.ASC 159.4

    “In the hundred and one and fiftieth year, Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, departed from Rome, and came up with a few men, unto a city of the sea-coast, and reigned there.” 1 Mac. 7:1. B. C. 162.ASC 160.1

    He sent an army to chastise the Jews. “Now Judas had heard of the fame of the Romans, that they were mighty and valiant men, and such as would lovingly accept all that joined themselves unto them, and make a league of amity with all that came unto them.” 1 Mac. 8:1. Sent an embassy “to Rome, to make a league of amity and confederacy with them, and to entreat them that they would take the yoke from them; for they saw that the kingdom of the Grecians did oppress Israel with servitude,” vs. 17, 18; and so “did the Romans make a covenant with the people of the Jews.” v. 29.ASC 160.2

    This is the commencement of the Roman ascendency over the Jews.ASC 160.3

    In “the first month of the hundred fifty and second year,” the army of Demetrius again “encamped before Jerusalem.” 9:3. And before the return of the ambassadors from Rome, in a furious conflict, Judas was slain. v. 18. B. C. 161.ASC 160.4

    The death of Judas was followed by a merciless persecution of his adherents, so that there was “a great affliction in Israel, the like whereof was not since the time that a prophet was not seen among them”-or since the days of Malachi. 9:27. “In the hundred fifty and third year, in the second month, Alcimus [the high priest] commanded that the wall of the inner court of the sanctuary should be pulled down.... And as he began to pull down, ...he was taken with the palsy,” and “died in great torment.” 9:54-56. B. C. 160.ASC 161.1

    “Whereupon the land of Judea was in rest two years.” vs. 57 to B. C. 158.ASC 161.2

    “In the hundred and sixtieth year, Alexander, the son of Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, went up and took Ptolemais, [a seaport in Palestine:] for the people had received him, by means whereof he reigned there.” 10:1. B. C. 153.ASC 161.3

    Alexander made Jonathan the high priest of the Jews, “in the seventh month of the one hundred and sixtieth year.” v. 21. Demetrius, coming against him, was slain in battle. v. 50. “Afterward Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee, king of Egypt,” v. 51, requesting his daughter Cleopatra in marriage.” So Ptolemee went out of Egypt with his daughter Cleopatra, and they came unto Ptolemaise, in the hundred three score and second year.” v. 57. B. C. 151.ASC 161.4

    “In the hundred three score and fifth year, came Demetrius, son of Demetrius, out of Crete, into the land of his fathers.” v. 67. B. C. 148.ASC 162.1

    Ptolemy Philometer, king of Egypt, came up to assist Demetrius, and made war against Alexander, his son-in-law, who fled into Arabia, where he was killed. “King Ptolemec, [Philometer,] who died the third day after, and they that were in the strongholds, were slain, one after another. By this means Demetrius reigned [in Syria] in the hundred three score and seventh year.” 11:17-19. B. C. 146.ASC 162.2

    Ptolemy Physcon, his brother, succeeded Philometer in Egypt. He was a wicked prince, and assumed the name of “Euergertes,” the Benefactor; but the Alexandrians turned it into “Kakergetes,” the Malefactor. “In the hundred three score and twelfth year, King Demetrius gathered his forces together, and went into Media to get him help;” and when the king of Persia heard of it, he sent and took “him alive,” and put him “in ward.” 14:1-3. B. C. 141.ASC 162.3

    In the same year the Romans renewed with Simon the alliance they had made with Jonathan and Judas, “in the 18th day of the month Elul, ...being the third year of Simon the high priest.” v. 27.ASC 162.4

    “In the hundred three score and fourteenth year,” Antiochus “came unto the land of his fathers, and demanded five hundred talents, for tribute from the Jews.” 15:10, 31. B. C. 139.ASC 162.5

    To enforce this demand, he sent a powerful army against them, but was defeated.ASC 163.1

    “In the hundred three score and seventeenth year, in the eleventh month, .. called Sabat,” the venerable Simon came down to Jericho, where he was assassinated. B. C. 136.ASC 163.2

    Physcon reigned, according to Ptolemy’s Canon, twenty-nine years, to B. C. 117.ASC 163.3

    Ptolemy Soter, his son, was his successor. He reigned, according to the Canon, thirty-six years, to B. C. 81.ASC 163.4

    Ptolemy Auletes. Ptolemy Soter was succeeded by his daughter Berenice, who reigned six months, and then married Alexander, her father’s nephew, who murdered her at the end of nineteen days, and then reigned alone fifteen years.-Prideaux’s Hist. Jews, vol. ii., p. 257. He was succeeded by Dionysius Neos, an illegitimate son of Ptolemy Soter, who, according to Dr. Prideaux, had some part of the Egyptian empire from his father’s death; and for this reason, Ptolemy, the astronomer, makes no mention of Alexander, but makes Dionysius, called also Ptolemy Auletus, the successor of Soter, including in his reign that of Alexander, and continuing, according to the Canon, twenty-nine years, to B. C. 52.ASC 163.5

    Cleopatra. Dionysius, by his will, bequeathed his crown to his eldest son and eldest daughter, ordering them to be joined in marriage, and reign-they being minors-under the guardianship of Rome. Ptolemy, the son, attempted to deprive Cleopatra, the daughter, of her share in the government. This brought on a war with Rome, Julius Cæsar taking the part of Cleopatra. In five years from the death of Dionysius, Ptolemy was drowned in the Nile, attempting to escape from a battle in which Cæsar was victorious; after which all Egypt submitted to the conqueror, who settled the government on Cleopatra and a younger brother of eleven years, which, in effect, put the whole into her hands. From the death of her father, according to the Canon of Ptolemy, she reigned twenty-two years, when she caused herself to be bitten with an asp, and died. B. C. 30.ASC 163.6

    At the death of Cleopatra, Egypt fell into possession of Augustus Cæsar, who had defeated her and Mark Anthony at the battle of Actium, eleven months previous.ASC 164.1

    Augustus Cæsar. The reign of Augustus Cæsar is dated by chronologers from the battle of Actium, when Egypt became subject to Rome. The time of this battle, and consequently that of the commencement of the reign of Augustus, is accurately marked by an eclipse of the sun, which occurred twelve days previously, and which is ascertained astronomically to have been on the 20th of August, A. J. P. 4683, or B. C. 31. Consequently, the battle was fought on the 2nd of September following. Dio, who affirms that “the day of this eventful action was the second of September, observes, that he was so particular in mentioning the very day, because the whole sovereignty was then, for the first time, in Cæsar’s hands, and the years of his monarchy were counted from it.”-See Dr. Jarvis’ Ch. Hist., p. 197.ASC 164.2

    Herod was at this time king at Jerusalem. “His accession is dated by Josephus, in the consulate of Marcus Agrippa, and Caninius Gallus, B. C. 37; and in the [third year of the] 185th Olympus.”-Hales. After two years’ preparation, in the twentieth year of his reign, he began to repair the Jewish temple. 14It was not completed till A. D. 62. B. C. 17.ASC 165.1

    THE BIRTH OF CHRIST. “And it came to pass in those days that there went out a decree from Cæsar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. And this taxing began when Cyrenius was governor of Syria. And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.” Luke 2:1-3. On this occasion Mary, the mother of Jesus, with Joseph her husband, went up to Bethlehem, and there was born “in the city of David a Saviour, which is CHRIST THE LORD.” v. 11.ASC 165.2

    Cyrenius, a Roman senator and procurator, or collector of the emperor’s revenue, was employed to make the enrolment preparatory to the taxing. “This we learn from the joint testimony of Justin Martyr, Julian the Apostate, and Eusebius, when Saturninus was president of Syria, to whom it is attributed by Tertullian, and in the thirty-third year of Herod’s reign, or B. C. 5, the year of Christ’s birth, according to Eusebius.”-Dr. Hales. Four years before the Vulgar Era, or B. C. 5.ASC 165.3

    In order to destroy the infant Jesus, Herod “slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.” Matthew 2:16. This occurred a short time before Herod’s death, the time of which is determined by a lunar eclipse, a few days previous. (See p. 29.) March 13th. B. C. 4.ASC 166.1

    “And when he [the child Jesus] was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem, after the custom of the feast,” and he astonished the doctors by his “understanding and answers.” Luke 2:42-47 A. D. 8.ASC 166.2

    Tiberius was admitted by Augustus “colleague of the empire,” or partner in the government, in “the administration of the provinces,” and “in the command of the armies,” two or three years before his death, probably U. C. 765, which partnership was confirmed by a decree of the Roman Senate, (see p. 32.) This is the time from which most chronologers reckon the years of Tiberius. A. D. 12.ASC 166.3

    The reign of Augustus is reckoned forty-three years in the Canon of Ptolemy; but that dates, not from the battle of Actium, but from the death of Cleopatra, B. C. 30. Reckoning from the battle of Actium, it would lack but a few days of being forty-four years. Josephus reckons his reign fifty-seven and a half years, but dates from the death of Julius Cæsar, A. J. P. 4668. Following the Canon of Ptolemy, and dating from the death of Cleopatra, forty-three years extend to A. J. P. 4727. As the Vulgar Era is reckoned from January 1st, A. J. P. 4714, which is A. D. 1, it follows that the reign of Augustus extended to A. D. 14.ASC 166.4

    At the death of Augustus Cæsar, a portion of the imperial army, called the Pannonean legions, refused to acknowledge the authority of Tiberius as successor to Augustus, and were in a state of revolt, till an eclipse-which occurred a few days after the death of Augustus-frightened them into their duty. This eclipse occurred September 27th, U. C. 767. A. D. 14.ASC 167.1

    Tiberius Cæsar succeeded Augustus, and reigned, according to the Canon, twenty-two years, to A. D. 36.ASC 167.2

    “Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, [from his partnership with his father,] Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Ituria and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas the high priests, the word of God came unto John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.” Luke 3:1-3. A. D. 26.ASC 167.3

    Pontius Pilate continued ten years in the government of Judea, and was then deposed for the massacre of the Samaritans, some time before the Passover of U. C. 789, which preceded the death of Tiberius, March 16, U. C. 790. He was appointed U. C. 778, and reigned from A. D. 25 to A. D. 35.ASC 167.4

    Philip, tetrarch of Ituria, according to Josephus, died in the 20th year of Tiberius, U. C. 787, after he had governed Trachonitus 37 years, from B. C. 4, to A. D. 34.ASC 168.1

    Annas was appointed high priest by Quirinus, U. C. 760, in the 37th year after the battle of Actium, U. C. 723,-Josephus, Ant. 18, 2, 1,-and continued in office about 14 years, from A. D. 7 to A. D. 21. Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas, was appointed about U. C. 777,-A. D. 24,-and continued in office during the whole of the administration of Pilate-he being removed U. C. 789, A. D. 36. Annas, therefore, was the coadjutor of Caiaphas, the reigning high priest at this time; and on account of his age, rank, and consequence, was a man of the first consideration and influence in the state, and is therefore named in connection with Caiaphas.ASC 168.2

    “And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan. And straight way coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him: and there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” Mark 1:9-11. “Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came unto Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, and saying, The Time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand.” vs. 14, 15. “And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age.” Luke 3:23. A. D. 27.ASC 168.3

    This epoch must mark the fulfilment of some definite period, or it would not be asserted that “the time is fulfilled.” The time here fulfilled can be none other than that given in Daniel 9:25: “Unto MESSIAH THE PRINCE, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks”-483 years. This length of time, reckoned back from A. D. 27, reaches to B. C. 457-8. If the decree of the seventh year of Artaxerxes (see page 146.) was in the seventh current year, it would be in B. C. 458; but if after seven full years, it would be B. C. 457.ASC 169.1

    Thus, “when the fulness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.” Galatians 4:4, 5.ASC 169.2

    After the Saviour commenced his miracles, in Cana of Galilee, he went down to Capernaum; “and continued there not many days. And the Jews’ passover was at hand; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.” John 2:12, 13. On this occasion he drove out those who defiled the temple with merchandise. And when asked a sign, he said to them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days? But he spake of the temple of his body.” John 2:18-21. Herod the Great began his preparations for the rebuilding of the temple, by gathering materials two years previous to the commencement of the work on the temple, B. C. 19. Reckoning from this, forty-six years extend to, and bring his first passover in, A. D. 28.ASC 169.3

    Dr. Hales argues that as the Saviour was “to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God,” Isaiah 61:1,-and as “he closed the book” when he had read the former clause of this “prediction,” Luke 4:19, 20,-that this must have been a year of jubilee.ASC 170.1

    “After this there was a feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.” John 5:1. Dr. Hales says, “The correcter reading appears to be the feast, by way of eminence, as the passover was styled, Luke 2:42. John 4:45. 11:56. 12:12,”-which reading is sustained “by twenty-five MSS., including the three oldest.” This, then, was the second passover during Christ’s ministry. A. D. 29.ASC 170.2

    Again we read, “And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.” John 6:4. The Saviour did not go up openly to this feast, because his time was not then full come, and the Jews were seeking to kill him. After this, the Jews required of him a sign, and he told them that no sign should be given them, but the sign of Jonas the prophet. Matthew 16:4. Jonas had foretold the destruction of Nineveh in forty days, unless they should repent. Dr. Hales understands this a prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem in forty years,-fulfilled in A. D. 70,-and that, consequently, this must have been in A. D. 30.ASC 170.3

    Again, the Saviour said to his disciples, “Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.” Matthew 26:2. This was the fourth and last passover during his ministry, and, reckoning from the commencement of his ministry, in the autumn of A. D. 27, reaches to the midst of the week, when he should “cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.” Daniel 9:27. A. D. 31.ASC 171.1

    The Saviour “sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.” Luke 22:8. And “they made ready the passover. And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.” vs. 13, 14. On this occasion he instituted the Lord’s supper, as a memorial of his death, till he should again come. After this, the Jews seized on him, gave him a mock trial, and crucified him. “And it was about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened.” Luke 23:44, 45.ASC 171.2

    “This obscuration of the sun must have been preternatural, in its extent, duration, and opposition of the moon, at full, to the sun. It was observed at Heliopolis, in Egypt, by Dionysius, the Areopagite, afterwards the illustrious convert of Paul at Athens, Acts 17:34, who, in a letter to the martyr Polycarp, describes his own and his companion, the sophist Apollophanes’ astonishment at the phenomenon, when they saw the darkness commence at the eastern brink of the sun, and proceed to the western, till the whole was eclipsed; and then retrograde backwards, from the western to the eastern, till his light was fully restored; which they attributed to the miraculous passage of the moon across the sun’s disk. Apollophanes exclaimed, as if divining the cause, ‘These, O good Dionysius, are the vicissitudes of divine events!’ Dionysius answered, ‘Either the Deity suffers, or He sympathizes with the Sufferer.’ And that sufferer, according to tradition, recorded by Michael Syncellus, of Jerusalem, he declared to be ‘The Unknowable God,’ for whose sufferings all nature was darkened and convulsed.’”-Hales, vol. ii., page 897.ASC 171.3

    “A total eclipse of the moon may occasion a privation of her light for an hour and a half, during her total immersion in the shadow; whereas, a total eclipse of the sun can never last in any particular place above four minutes, when the moon is nearest to the earth, and her shadow thickest.ASC 172.1

    “Hence it appears, that the darkness which ‘overspread the whole land of Judea,’ at the time of our Lord’s crucifixion, was preternatural, or miraculous, in its extent; and ‘from the sixth until the ninth hour,’ or from noon till three in the afternoon, in its duration, and also in its time, about full moon, when the moon could not possibly eclipse the sun. The time it happened, and the fact itself, are recorded in a curious and valuable passage of a respectable Roman Consul, Aurelius Cassiodorius Senator, about A. D. 514.ASC 172.2

    “‘In the consulate of Tiberius Cæsar Aug. V. and Ælius Sejanus, (U. C. 784, A. D. 31,) our Lord Jesus Christ suffered on the eighth of the Calends of April, (twenty-fifth March,) when there happened such an eclipse of the sun as was never before nor since.ASC 173.1

    “In this year, and in this day, agree also the Council of Cæsarea, A. D. 196, or 198; the Alexandrian Chronicle, Maximus Monachus, Nicephorus Constantinus, Cedrenus; and in this year, but on different days, concur Eusebius and Epiphanius, followed by Kepler, Bucher, Patinus, and Petavius, some reckoning it the tenth of the Calends of April, others the thirteenth. Amidst this variety of days, we may look on the twenty-sixth or twenty-seventh of March as the most probable.ASC 173.2

    “And, indeed, that the passover of the crucifixion was an early one, may be collected from the circumstance of ‘the servants and officers having made a fire of coals in the hall of the high priest’s house, for it was cold, at which they and Peter warmed themselves.” John 18:19. Luke 22:55. Mark 14:54. Whereas, the passovers of the two ensuing years, A. D. 32, April 14, and A. D. 33, April 3, were later in the season, and probably milder.ASC 173.3

    “The preternatural darkness at the crucifixion, was accompanied by an earthquake, which altogether struck the spectators, and among them the centurion and Roman guard, with great fear, and a conviction that Jesus was the Son of God. Matthew 27:51-54.ASC 174.1

    “The apostolical father, Ignatius, a disciple of John the Evangelist, and Bishop of Antioch, the second in succession from Peter, who suffered martyrdom in the reign of Trajan, A. D. 107, in his epistle to the Trallians, gives the following curious and valuable testimony; (Cotelerius, Patres Apostol., tom. ii, p. 68):-ASC 174.2

    “‘God the Word-having lived in the world three decads of years,-was baptized by John truly, and not seemingly; and having preached the gospel three years, and wrought signs and wonders, he, the Judge, was judged by the false Jews and Pilate; was scourged, smitten on the cheek, spit upon, wore a crown of thorns and a purple robe, was condemned, was crucified, truly, not seemingly, nor in appearance, nor by deception; he died truly, and was buried, and was raised from the dead,’ etc.ASC 174.3

    “And this is confirmed by the testimony of Eusebius, the learned Bishop of Cæsarea, who flourished about A. D. 300, in his ‘Demonstratio Evangelica,’ page 400.ASC 174.4

    “‘It is recorded in history, that the whole time of our Saviour’s teaching and miracles was three years and a half, which is the half of a week [of years.] This, John the Evangelist will represent to those who critically attend to his gospel. One week of years, then, may be reckoned the whole time of his continuance with his apostles, both before his passion, and after his resurrection from the dead; for it is written, that, until his passion, he showed himself to all, disciples and not disciples; during which time, by his doctrines and extraordinary cures, he showed the powers of his Godhead to all without distinction, both Greeks and Jews; and also after his resurrection from the dead, he was with his disciples and apostles, as it is reasonable to think, an equal number of years; ‘being seen of them forty days, and conversing with them, and telling them the things pertaining to the kingdom of God,’ as contained in the Acts of the Apostles. So that this is the ‘one week of years’ signified by the prophecy, [of the seventy weeks in Daniel,] during which ‘he confirmed the covenant with many;’ namely, by strengthening the new covenant of the gospel-preaching. And who were ‘the many’ with whom he confirmed it? Plainly his disciples and apostles, and all those of the Hebrews that believed on him. Moreover, ‘in the half of this one week,’ in which he confirmed the covenant disclosed to the many, ‘was the sacrifice taken away,’ and the libation, and ‘the abomination of desolation’ began; since, in the midst of this week, after the three years and a half of his teaching, at the time of his passion, ‘the vail of the temple was rent from top to bottom;’ so that, from that time, the libation and the sacrifice were virtually taken away from them, and the abomination of desolation began to take place in the temple, that tutelary power which watched over and guarded the [holy] place from the beginning to that season, leaving them desolate.’ASC 175.1

    “These two admirable passages, which I have given at length, in order to render justice not only to the piety, but to the critical knowledge of the facts, the mysteries, and the prophecies of Holy Writ, which they display, by their consistency and harmony with each other, not only establish the authenticity of the former, which has been reckoned among the interpolated epistles of the venerable Ignatius, but the latter especially, furnishes the best clue, perhaps, anywhere to be found, to the whole scheme of the gospel dispensation, as being the consummation of ancient prophecy, no less in its precise period of time, than in every other respect. They are, indeed, a host against all the discordant and absurd guesses, ancient or modern, about the longer or shorter duration of our Lord’s ministry, which, to compare together, bring with them their own refutation. I shall not, therefore, waste the reader’s patience, nor trespass on the limits of this apparatus, by retailing them, in order to be rejected afterwards.ASC 176.1

    “Ignatius and Eusebius both assign three years for the duration of our Lord’s public ministry.”ASC 177.1

    “Eusebius dates the first half of the Passion Week of Years as beginning with our Lord’s baptism, and ending with his crucifixion. The same period, precisely, is recorded by Peter, as including our Lord’s personal ministry: ‘All the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of [or by] John, until the day that he was taken up from us,’ at his ascension, which was only forty-three days after the crucifixion. Acts 1:21, 22. And the remaining half of the Passion Week ended with the martyrdom of Stephen, in the seventh, or last year, of the week. For it is remarkable, that the year after, A. D. 35, began a new era in the church, namely, the conversion of Saul, or Paul, the apostle, by the personal appearance of Christ to him on the road to Damascus, when he received his mission to the Gentiles, after the Jewish Sanhedrim had formally rejected Christ by persecuting his disciples. Acts 9:1-18. And the remainder of the Acts principally records the circumstances of his mission to the Gentiles, and the churches he founded among them.” Hales, vol. i., pp. 176-7, 199, 200, 205-6.ASC 177.2

    In the thirteenth century, Roger Bacon found, by computation, that the Paschal full moon, A. D. 33, fell on Friday; and this circumstance led him, and several others, Scaliger, Usher, Pearson, etc., to conclude that this was the year of the crucifixion. The accuracy of the astronomical calculation has been repeatedly verified; and “this circumstance,” says Dr. Hales, “proves that it was not the year of the crucifixion; for the true Paschal moon was the day before, Thursday, when Christ celebrated the Passover with his disciples.” Vol. ii., page 205.ASC 177.3

    The Saviour eat the passover the night previous to his crucifixion, which took place on Friday, for “that day was the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on.” Luke 23:54. On the third day following-on the first day of the week, he rose triumphant from the tomb-the pledge of the resurrection of the dead.ASC 178.1

    Dr. Hales, Usher, and Pearson, place the martyrdom of Stephen, and the commencement of the first persecution, in A. D. 34.ASC 178.2

    With this act Dr. Hales closes the “one week” of Daniel 9:27, during which Christ should “confirm the covenant with many.” The conversion of Saul, Hales, Usher, Pearson, and others, assign to A. D. 35.ASC 178.3

    Caius Caligula succeeded Tiberius, and reigned, according to the Canon of Ptolemy, four years from A. D. 36.ASC 178.4

    After his conversion, Paul says, “I went into Arabia, and returned again to Damascus. Then, after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.” Galatians 1:17, 18. A. D. 38.ASC 178.5

    He then went to Tarsus, his native city, in Cilicia, Acts 9:30. Galatians 1:21, 22, and remained there three or four years, till Barnabas summoned him to assist in preaching the gospel. Acts 11:25.ASC 179.1

    About A. D. 39, Caligula commanded that his statue should be set up in the temple at Jerusalem, which so amazed the Jews, that they ceased persecuting the Christians. “Then had the churches rest throughout all Judea, and Galilee, and Samaria.”-9:31. Before the emperor could enforce his decree he was assassinated. A. D. 40.ASC 179.2

    Claudius succeeded him, and reigned, according to the Canon, fourteen years.ASC 179.3

    The conversion of Cornelius, Dr. Hales places in A. D. 41.ASC 179.4

    When Barnabas had found Saul, “he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people.” 11:26. About A. D. 43.ASC 179.5

    “In those days, Agabus signified by the spirit, that there should be great dearth throughout all the world; which came to pass in the days of Claudius Cæsar.” v. 27. This famine occurred in the fifth year of Claudius. A. D. 44.ASC 179.6

    “About that time, Herod, the king, stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the church. And he killed James, the brother of John, with the sword, and imprisoned Peter.” 12:1, 2. A. D. 44.ASC 179.7

    About this time, Dr. Hales supposes Paul had his remarkable visions, recorded in 2 Corinthians 12:1-4.ASC 180.1

    Barnabas and Saul are separated to the work to which God had called them. 13:2. A. D. 45.ASC 180.2

    “Fourteen years after” Paul’s first visit to Jerusalem, he “went up again.” Galatians 2:1. At this time, the first general council of the Christians was held there. Acts 15:1-41. A. D. 52.ASC 180.3

    Nero, after Claudius had reigned fourteen years, succeeded him, and reigned, according to the Canon, fourteen years from A. D. 54.ASC 180.4

    Paul’s last visit to Jerusalem, and imprisonment two years, before Felix was succeeded by Festus, (Acts 24th,) appears to have been in A. D. 59.ASC 180.5

    “After two years, Porcius Festus came into Felix’s room; and Felix, willing to show the Jews a pleasure, left Paul bound.” v. 27. Felix was deposed from office, according to Dr. Hales, A. D. 61.ASC 180.6

    Paul, on his appeal to Cæsar, was sent prisoner by Festus to Rome, A. D. 61, shortly before “the fast,” or great day of atonement, about the autumnal equinox. Acts 27:9. He was shipwrecked on the island of Malta, and wintered there for three months, 28:11, and so proceeded to Rome, (v. 14,) early in A. D. 62.ASC 180.7

    “And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him, preaching the kingdom of God,” “no man forbidding him,” vs. 30, 31, to A. D. 64.ASC 181.1

    “In the next year, we are warranted to date the martyrdom of Paul and Peter at Rome, commencing the first Roman persecution of the Christians by Nero, in the twelfth year of his reign, according to Epiphanius, followed by Orisius, from Tacitus. Ant. 16:13.” Hales. A. D. 65.ASC 181.2

    In this year war broke out in Judea. Cestius Gallus, president of Syria, besieged Jerusalem with a powerful army, and might easily have taken the city; but withdrew his forces from it. In his retreat, the Jews attacked and routed him with a great slaughter, Nov. 12, A. D. 65, in the twelfth year of Nero. Josephus says: “After this disaster, many of the distinguished Jews quitted the city like a sinking ship.” Bell. Judges 2:20, 1. These were principally Christians, obeying our Lord’s warning. Matthew 24:15. Luke 21:20.ASC 181.3

    Vespasian marched a great Roman army into Judea, and took many places, passing by Jerusalem. A. D. 67.ASC 181.4

    Nero was massacred at Rome, June 9, A. D. 68.ASC 181.5

    Vespasian, after a contest between the contending parties of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, which raged until the decisive battle of Cremona, Oct. 18, succeeded to the throne, A. D. 69.ASC 181.6

    Titus, son of Vespasian, who had been left to carry on the war, advanced with an army of 60,000 against Jerusalem, at the time of the Passover, which began that year, April 14,-forty years after the Saviour had told the Jews, they should have only the sign of Jonas, the prophet. The date of the destruction of Jerusalem is astronomically ascertained, by the date of the lunar eclipse the year previous, on the night of the battle of Cremona. The temple was burnt Sunday, Aug. 5th, and the upper city, Sunday, Sept 2. A. D. 70.ASC 182.1

    Cit[Original illegible]s succeeded Vespasian, after ten years from the death of Nero, according to the Canon, and reigned three years, from A. D. 78.ASC 182.2

    Domitian succeeded him, and reigned fifteen years, from A. D. 81.ASC 182.3

    “The unanimous voice of Christian antiquity attests that John was banished by order of Domitian. Irenæus, Origen, and other early fathers, refer the apostle’s exile to the latter part of Domitian’s reign, and they concur in saying, that he there received the Revelations described in the Apocalypse.” Horne’s Introduction, vol. ii., p. 382. Horne concurs with Dr. Mill, Le Clerk, Busnage, Dr. Lardner, Bishop Tomline, Dr. Woodhouse, and other eminent critics, in placing the Apocalypse in A. D. 96 or 97.ASC 182.4

    This closes the chronology of the inspired volume.ASC 182.5

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