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    “And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.” Verses 23-25.LUJ 154.1

    This little horn is unquestionably a symbol of the power that succeeded Grecia in the dominion of the world. And this, according to the prophecies of Daniel 2 and 7, was Rome. Some special reasons must be given if we are to take the ground that this prophecy does not run parallel with the others, and from the time of its beginning bring to view the same universal kingdoms. In this case, of course, this little horn would represent Rome.LUJ 154.2

    The view is however taken by some that this prophecy is not parallel with Daniel 2 and 7, and that the little horn of this chapter does not symbolize Rome; but the good reasons upon which such a view ought to rest are not forthcoming. Romanists, to avoid the application of this part of the prophecy to the Roman power, which includes as one of its phases, the papacy, endeavor to shift the application from Rome to Antiochus Epiphanes. And this lead of the papists has been followed by the majority of Protestants, thoughtlessly, it would seem, or for some reason of their own. This view cannot be correct; for the reasons which show that this applies to Rome are more clear and numerous than those even which determine the application of the other symbols.LUJ 155.1

    This little horn of Daniel 8 does not symbolize Antiochus Epiphanes, but it does symbolize Rome. To prove this is easy. If people would only treat interpretations of prophecy as they treat bank-bills, that is, compare them with the detector to see if they are genuine, there would be no trouble. The only wonder is that any one could ever have supposed the application to Antiochus to be correct.LUJ 155.2

    The proposition here affirmed, then, is that the little horn of Daniel 8 does not symbolize Antiochus, but does symbolize Rome, because,-LUJ 155.3

    1. This horn came out of one of the four horns of the goat. Verse 9. It was therefore another horn separate and distinct from any of the four. One of these four horns, as we have seen, was the kingdom of Syria, founded by Seleucus, from whom sprung the famous line of kings known in history as the “Seleucidae.” Of these there were twenty-six, in order as follows:-LUJ 155.4

    (1) Seleucus Nicator, (2) Antiochus Soter, (3) Antiochus Theus, (4) Seleucus Callinicus, (5) Seleucus Ceraunus, (6) Antiochus the Great, (7) Seleucus Philopater, (8) Antiochus Epiphanes, (9) Antiochus Eupator, (10) Demetrius Soter, (11) Alexander Bala, (12) Demetrius Nicator, (13) Antiochus Theos, (14) Antiochus Sidetes, (15) Zebia, (16) Seleucus, son of Nicator, (17) Antiochus Grypus, (18) Antiochus the Cyzicenian, (19) Seleucus, the son of Grypus, (20) Antiochus Eusebes, (21) Antiochus, second son of Grypus, (22) Philip, third son of Grypus, (23) Demetrius Eucheres, (24) Antiochus Dionysius, (25) Tigranes, (26) Antiochus Asiaticus, who was the last of the Seleucidae, and who, after an insignificant reign of four years, was driven from his dominions by Pompey, the Roman, B.C. 65, and Syria made a Roman province.LUJ 156.1

    It will thus be seen that Antiochus Epiphanes was simply one of the twenty-six kings who constituted the Syrian horn of the goat. He was for the time being that horn; hence he could not be at the same time a separate and independent power, or another remarkable horn, as the little horn was.LUJ 156.2

    Rome was such a separate horn, and, from the standpoint of this prophecy, came out of one of the horns of the goat, thus answering exactly to the prophetic description. Why it was represented as coming out of one of the horns of the goat, will be clearly seen from the following facts: In the year 161 B.C., Rome became connected with the Jews by the famous Jewish League (1 Maccabees 8; “Josephus’s Antiquities,” b. xii, chap. 10, sec. 6; Prideaux, vol. ii, p. 166). Nations are mentioned in prophecy when their history becomes interwoven with that of God’s people. Therefore in the year B.C. 161, the conquering legions of the Roman power came into the prophet’s view. But just seven years before this, B.C. 168, Rome had conquered Macedonia (one of the four horns of the goat), adding it to its empire. The prophet was viewing the horns of the goat, and when Rome had made the Macedonian horn a part of itself, and seven years later came into the field of the prophet’s vision, by its league with the Jews, he would of course speak of it, from this point of view, as coming forth from that horn. And as if coming from that horn, the prophet beholds it from that point pursuing its triumphant career.LUJ 156.3

    2. Were we to apply the little horn to any one of these twenty-six Syrian kings, it should be to the most illustrious and powerful one of them all. But this was not Antiochus Epiphanes. For historians inform us that his name, “Epiphanes,” the “Illustrious,” was changed to “Epimanes,” the “fool,” on account of his vile and extravagant folly. Antiochus the Great was perhaps the most famous of the Syrian kings.LUJ 157.1

    The little horn cannot apply to Antiochus, but must signify the Roman power, because,-LUJ 157.2

    3. This little horn, in comparison with the preceding kingdoms, Media and Persia, waxed “exceeding great.” There is in the prophecy a regularly increasing gradation of power: great, very great, exceeding great. Applying the little horn to Antiochus, the following result is presented: 1. “Great,” Persia. True. 2. “Very great,” Grecia. True. 3. Exceeding great,” Antiochus. Nonsense!LUJ 157.3

    The Persian Empire is simply called “great,” though it ruled “from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and twenty and seven provinces.” Grecia, still more extensive and powerful, is called “very great.” Then comes the power in question, which is called “exceeding great.” Was Antiochus great in comparison with Alexander, who conquered the world? or with the Romans, who conquered vastly more than all of Alexander’s dominions? The kingdom of Antiochus was only a portion of the empire ruled by the goat. Is a part more than the whole? Of the relation between Antiochus and the Romans, the Religious Encyclopedia says: “Finding his resources exhausted, he [Antiochus] resolved to go into Persia to levy tributes, and collect large sums which he had agreed to pay the Romans.”LUJ 157.4

    Can any king be said to have waxed exceeding great, when he left his kingdom no larger than he found it? But Sir Isaac Newton testifies that Antiochus did not enlarge his dominions. He made some temporary conquests in Egypt, but immediately relinquished them when the Romans took the part of Ptolemy and commanded him to give them up.LUJ 158.1

    It surely cannot take any one long to decide which was the greater power, the one which evacuated Egypt or the one which commanded that evacuation; the one compelled to pay tribute, or the one to whom he was compelled to pay it. One was Antiochus; the other was Rome. With Rome as the third member of the series, we have this result: 1. “Great,” Persia. True. 2. “Very great,” Grecia. True. 3. “Exceeding great,” Rome. More emphatically true than either or both the others.LUJ 158.2

    4. The little horn was to stand up against the Prince of princes, by which title, without doubt, our Lord is meant. But Antiochus died one hundred and sixty four years before Christ was born. There was a power, however, which did stand up against the Saviour. Rome, in the days of our Lord, was in the zenith of its glory. And Rome, in the person of Herod, endeavored to destroy Jesus, when an infant. Subsequently, when Pilate was its mouthpiece in Judea, Rome, in obedience to the frenzied clamor of apostate Jews, nailed him to the cross.LUJ 158.3

    The same work is attributed to the great red dragon of Revelation 12, a symbol referring so evidently to Rome that there is no ground to dispute the application.LUJ 159.1

    Antiochus answers not one specification of the prophecy; and here we may therefore dismiss him. But, for a more full elucidation of the prophecy, we may further say of its application to Rome:-LUJ 159.2

    5. This horn was “little” at first. So was Rome, but it “waxed,” or grew, “exceeding great” in three several directions. What better terms could be used to describe the course of that power which from a small beginning rose to be the mistress of the world?LUJ 159.3

    6. It gathered dominion toward the south. Egypt was made a province of the Roman Empire B.C. 30, and continued such for over six centuries.LUJ 159.4

    7. It marched its conquering legions toward the east. Rome subjugated Syria B.C. 65, and made it a province of the empire.LUJ 159.5

    8. It set its face toward the pleasant land. Judea is so called in many scriptures. Psalm 106:24; Zechariah 7:14; etc. First by a league of assistance and friendship, the Romans took under their influence the holy land and people. They subsequently made Judea a Roman province B.C. 63, and finally destroyed the city of Jerusalem, A.D. 70, burned their beautiful temple with fire, and scattered the Jews over the face of the whole earth to be gathered no more till time shall end.LUJ 159.6

    9. It waxed great even to the host of heaven. The “host of heaven,” used in a symbolic sense in reference to earthly scenes, must denote persons of illustrious character or exalted position. The great red dragon (Revelation 12:4), pagan Rome, is said to have cast down a third part of the stars of heaven to the ground. This is the same power as the little horn under consideration, and that passage in Revelation refers to the same work; namely, the acts of the Romans in oppressing the Jews and depriving them of their rulers.LUJ 159.7

    10. By him the daily (not daily “sacrifice,” as our translators have supplied, for it has no reference to the Jewish sacrifices, but daily “desolation,” which is paganism) was taken away, and the transgression of desolation, the papacy, was set up. Chapter 11:31. Rome, and Rome alone, did this. While Rome was the ruling power in the world, a most singular revolution took place, - the religion of the empire was changed from pagan to Christian; that is, to that corrupted form of Christianity known as the papacy. And the place where paganism had long had “its sanctuary,” Rome, with its Pantheon, or temple of all the gods, was “cast down,” or degraded to the second rank, by the removal of the seat of government by Constantine, to Constantinople, in A.D. 330. So in Revelation 13:2, the dragon, pagan Rome, gave to the beast, papal Rome, his seat, the city of Rome, and great authority.LUJ 160.1

    11. An host was given him against the daily. The prophet now views it from the standpoint of its spiritual character. The nations that flocked to the standard of the papacy, turned from that desolating religion called “the daily,” which was paganism. The barbarians that subverted the Roman Empire became converts to that nominal Christianity before which they were thus brought face to face, and were soon transformed into willing instruments whereby their former religion, paganism, was dethroned. No other power has in any respect fulfilled this prophecy.LUJ 160.2


    12. In the interpretation (verse 23) it is called “a king of fierce countenance and understanding dark sentences.” Such was emphatically Rome, with its warlike paraphernalia, and its strange language which the Jews did not understand. Moses used similar language, referring, as all agree, to the Romans. Deuteronomy 28:49, 50.LUJ 161.1

    13. It was to stand up in the latter time of their kingdom, when the dominion of the four horns of the goat was drawing to an end. It was at that very time that Rome appeared.LUJ 161.2

    14. It was to destroy wonderfully. Hear all opposing powers, which it so rudely overthrew, testify, Thus did Rome.LUJ 162.1

    15. Rome (in its papal form) has destroyed the mighty and holy people, the people of God, more than all other powers combined. A many-tongued voice from the blood of more than fifty million martyrs, goes up to testify against it.LUJ 162.2

    16. And it has (through popery) “practised,” - practised its deceptions upon the people, and its schemes of cunning among the nations, to gain its own ends, and aggrandize its power.LUJ 162.3

    17. And it has “prospered.” It has made war with the saints, and worn them out, and prevailed against them.LUJ 162.4

    18. It has run its allotted career, and is to be “broken without hand.” Verse 25. How clear a reference is this expression to the stone cut out without hand which is to smite the image upon its feet and dash it to pieces. So the papacy is soon to perish in the consuming glories of the second coming of our Lord.LUJ 162.5

    Thus Rome fulfils all the specifications of the prophecy. No other kingdom meets even one. Rome is the power in question. No other can be.LUJ 162.6

    In view of all these facts, if any one still affirms that Antiochus was the little horn, or if he even hesitates to admit its application to Rome, all one can do for such a person is to take him by the hand, and exclaim, with the deepest commiseration for his unfortunate condition, “Non compos mentis. Farewell.”LUJ 162.7

    The bearing of the point here made upon the conclusion of the prophecy, will soon appear.LUJ 162.8

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