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    21 “DETERMINED” MEANS “CUT OFF”

    FIRST WITNESS. - “‘Seventy weeks are determined,’ literally, ‘cut off.’ Hebraists all admit that the word determined, in our English version, does signify ‘cutoff’. Not one has disputed it.” 1Josiah Litch, Midnight Cry, vol. iv. No. 25, on Daniel 9:24.LUJ 173.1

    Second Witness. - “Seventy weeks have been cut off upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin-offerings, and to make atonement for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy.” Daniel 9:24. 2Whiting’s Translation.LUJ 173.2

    Third Witness. - Gesenius, the standard Hebrew lexicographer, thus defines this word in his Hebrew lexicon: “Nechtak: Properly, to cut off; tropically, to divide; and so to determine, to decree.”LUJ 173.3

    Fourth Witness. - The Chaldeo-Rabbinic Dictionary of Stockius, defines the word nechtak as follows: “Scidit, abscidit, conscidit, incidit, excidit - to cut, to cut away, to cut in pieces, to cut or engrave, to cut off.”LUJ 173.4

    Fifth Witness. - Mercerus, in his “Thesaurus,” furnishes a specimen of Rabbinical usage in the phrase, chatikah shel basar, “a piece of flesh,” or “a cut of flesh.” He translates the word as it occurs in Daniel 9:24, by “praecisa est,” was cut off.LUJ 173.5

    Sixth Witness. - Arias Montanus in a literal version of the text translates it “decisa est,” was cut off; in the marginal reading, which is grammatically correct, the rendering is in the plural, “decisae sunt,” were cut off.LUJ 174.1

    Seventh Witness. - In the Latin version of Junius and Tremellius, nechtak (the passive of chathak) is rendered decisae sunt,” were cut off.LUJ 174.2

    Eighth Witness. - Theodotion’s Greek version of Daniel (which is the version used in the Vatican copy of the Septuagint, as being the most faithful), renders it by sunetmethesan, were cut off; and the Venetian copy by tetmentai, have been cut.LUJ 174.3

    Ninth Witness. - In the Vulgate the phrase is, “abbreviatae sunt,” have been shortened.LUJ 174.4

    “Thus Chaldaic and Rabbinical authority, and that of the earliest versions, the Septuagint and Vulgate, give the single signification of cutting off to this verb.”LUJ 174.5

    Tenth Witness. - Hengstenberg, who enters into a critical examination of the text, says: “But the very use of the word, which does not elsewhere occur, while others, much more frequently used, were at hand if Daniel had wished to express the idea of determination, and of which he had elsewhere, and even in this portion, availed himself, seems to argue that the word stands from regard to its original meaning, and represents the seventy weeks in contrast with a determination of time (en platei) as a period cut off from subsequent duration, and accurately limited.” 1Christology of the Old Testament, vol. ii. p. 301. Washington, 1839.LUJ 174.6

    This translation is further vindicated by Professor N.N. Whiting, from whom a quotation has already been given, in the following language: “As the period of 2300 days is first given, and verses 21, 23, compared with Daniel 8:16, show that the ninth chapter furnishes an explanation of the vision in which Gabriel appeared to Daniel, and of the ‘matter’ - (the commencement of the 2300 days) - the literal (or rather, to speak properly, the only) signification demanded by the subject-matter, is that of ‘cut off’” 1Midnight Cry, vol. iv, No. 17.LUJ 174.7

    No further nor better evidence could be required on this point. Beyond question the seventy weeks are cut off from some other period; and just as evidently that other period is the 2300 days of chapter 8. Should it be asked why our translators rendered the word “determined” when it so obviously signifies “cut off,” a sufficient answer would be that they doubtless overlooked the connection between the eighth and ninth chapters; and considering it improper to speak of a period of time as cut off, when nothing was given from which it could be cut off, they gave the word its tropical instead of its literal meaning.LUJ 175.1

    In connection with this point, testimony from prominent writers on the prophecies, who have acknowledged the connection between Daniel 8 and 9, will be of interest. The following is an extract from an article in the Advent Shield, which reads:-LUJ 175.2

    “We call attention to one fact which shows that there is a necessary ‘connection’ between the seventy weeks of the ninth chapter, and something else which precedes or follows it, called ‘the vision. ’ It is found in the twenty-fourth verse: ‘Seventy weeks are determined [or, cut off] upon thy people ... to seal up the vision,’ etc. Now there are but two significations to the phrase ‘seal up.’ They are, first, ‘to make secret,’ and, secondly, ‘to make sure.’ We care not now in which of these significations the phrase is supposed to be used. That is not the point now before us. Let the signification be what it may, it shows that the prediction of the seventy weeks necessarily relates to something else beyond itself, called ‘the vision,’ in reference to which it performs this work, ‘to seal up.’ To talk of its sealing up itself is as much of an absurdity as to suppose that Josephus was so much afraid of the Romans that he refrained from telling the world that he thought the fourth kingdom of Daniel was ‘the kingdom of the Greeks.’ It is no more proper to say that the ninth chapter of Daniel ‘is complete in itself,’ than it would be to say that a map which was designed to show the relation of Massachusetts to the United States, referred to nothing but Massachusetts. It is no more complete in itself than a bond given in security for a note, or some other document to which it refers, is complete in itself; and we doubt if there is a schoolboy of fourteen in the land, of ordinary capacity, who would not on reading the ninth chapter, with an understanding of the clause before us, decide that it referred to something distinct from itself, called the vision. What vision it is, there is no difficulty in determining. It naturally and obviously refers to the vision which was not fully explained to Daniel, and to which Gabriel calls his attention in the preceding verse - the vision of the eighth chapter. Daniel tells us that Gabriel was commanded to make him understand that vision (chapter 8:16). This was not fully done at that interview connected with the vision; he is therefore sent to give Daniel the needed ‘skill and understanding,’ to explain its ‘meaning’ by communicating to him the prediction of the seventy weeks.” 1Advent Shield, 1844.LUJ 175.3

    “We claim that the ninth of Daniel is an appendix to the eighth, and that the seventy weeks and the 2300 days, or years, commence together. Our opponents deny this.” 2Signs of the Times, 1843.LUJ 176.1

    “The grand principle involved in the interpretation of the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14, is that the seventy weeks of Daniel 9:24, are the first 490 days of the 2300 of the eighth chapter.” 3Advent Shield, p. 49.LUJ 176.2

    “If the connection between the seventy weeks of Daniel 9, and the 2300 days of Daniel 8, does not exist, the whole system is shaken to its foundation; if it does exist, as we suppose, the system must stand.” 4“Harmony of Prophetic Chronology,” p. 33.LUJ 176.3

    Says the learned Dr. Hales, in commenting upon the seventy weeks, “This chronological prophecy was evidently designed to explain the foregoing vision, especially in its chronological part of the 2300 days.”LUJ 176.4

    This question is thus authoritatively decided.LUJ 176.5

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