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    2. The vision relates to what the prophet saw respecting Media and Persia, Grecia, and Rome, as recorded in the eighth chapter of Daniel.BIAD 120.2

    Verses 1, 2: “In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar, a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first. And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.” In these verses the term, “a vision,” is mentioned three times. Referring to the same in verse 13, the question is asked, “How long shall be the vision?” The Son of God, in verse 16, commands Gabriel to make Daniel “understand the vision.” And Daniel says at the close of his prayer, in chapter 9, “While I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision.” This vision we will now consider.BIAD 120.3

    Verses 3, 4: “Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns; and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward, so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.” The symbol of the ram is explained in verse 20: —BIAD 121.1

    “The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.” This vision does not begin with the empire of Babylon, represented by the head of gold in chapter 2, and the lion of chapter 7 It begins with the empire of Media and Persia, at the height of its power, prevailing westward, northward, and southward, so that no power could stand before it. The two horns of the ram denote the union of these two powers in one government. Compare this with the arms of the metallic image of chapter 2, and the bear raising itself up on one side, of chapter 7.BIAD 121.2

    Verses 5-8: “And as I was considering, behold an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. And I saw him in the fury of his power. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him; and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. Therefore, the he goat waxed very great; and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.” The symbol of the goat is thus explained: —BIAD 121.3

    “And the rough goat is the king of Grecia; and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.” Verses 21, 22. The explanation of this symbol is also definite and certain. The power that should overthrow the Medes and Persians, and in their stead bear rule over the earth, is the empire of the Greeks. Greece succeeded Persia in the dominion of the world B.C.331. The great horn is here explained to be the first king of Grecia, who was Alexander the Great. The four horns that arose when this horn was broken, denote the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided after his death. The same is represented by the leopard with four heads and four wings, of chapter 7, and by the brazen sides of the metallic image of chapter 2. It is predicted without the use of symbols in Daniel 11:3, 4. These four kingdoms were Macedon, Thrace, Syria, and Egypt. They originated about B.C. 312.BIAD 122.1

    Verses 9-12: “And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great, even to the host of Heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnified himself even to the Prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced and prospered.” In verses 23-25, the symbol of the little horn is explained thus: —BIAD 123.1

    “And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many; he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.”BIAD 123.2

    To avoid the application of this prophecy to the Roman power, pagan and papal, the papists have changed it from Rome to Antiochus Epiphanes, a Syrian king, who could not resist the mandates of Rome. See notes of the Douay (Romish) Bible on Daniel 7;8;11. This application is made by the papists to save their church from any share in the fulfillment of the prophecy; and in this they have been followed by most of those who have opposed the Advent faith. The following facts show that the little horn was not Antiochus: —BIAD 123.3

    (1) The four kingdoms into which the dominion of Alexander was divided, are symbolized by the four horns of the goat. Now this Antiochus was but one of the twenty-five kings that constituted the Syrian horn. How, then, could he, at the same time, be another remarkable horn?BIAD 124.1

    (2) The ram, according to this vision, became great; the goat waxed very great; but the little horn became exceeding great. How absurd is the following application of this comparison: —BIAD 124.2

    Great. Very Great. Exceeding Persia. GRECIA. ANTIOCHUS.

    How easy and natural is the following: —

    Great. Very Great. Exceeding Persia. GRECIA. Rome.

    (3) The Medo-Persian empire is simply called great. Verse 4. The Bible informs us that it extended “from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces.” Esther 1:1. This was succeeded by the Grecian power, which is called VERY GREAT. Verse 8. Then comes the power in question, which is called EXCEEDING GREAT. Verse 9. Was Antiochus exceeding great when compared with Alexander, the conqueror of the world? Let an item from the Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge answer: —BIAD 124.3

    “Finding his resources exhausted, he resolved to go into Persia, to levy tributes and collect large sums which he had agreed to pay to the Romans.”BIAD 124.4

    Surely, we need not question which was exceeding great, the Roman power which exacted the tribute, or Antiochus who was compelled to pay it.BIAD 125.1

    (4) The power in question was little at first, but it waxed, or grew, “exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.” What can this describe but the conquering marches of a mighty power? Rome was almost directly north-west from Jerusalem, and its conquests in Asia and Africa were, of course, toward the east and south; but where were Antiochus’ conquests? He came into possession of a kingdom already established, and Sir Isaac Newton says, “He did not enlarge it.”BIAD 125.2

    (5) Out of many reasons that might be added to the above, we name but one: This power was to stand up against the Prince of princes. Verse 25. The Prince of princes is Jesus Christ. Revelation 1:5; 17:14; 19:16. But Antiochus died 164 years before our Lord was born. It is settled, therefore, that another power is the subject of this prophecy. The following facts demonstrate that Rome is the power in question: —BIAD 125.3

    (1) This power was to come forth from one of the four kingdoms of Alexander’s empire. Let us remember that nations are not brought into prophecy till connected with the people of God. Rome had been in existence many years before it was noticed in prophecy; and Rome had made Macedon, one of the four horns of the Grecian goat, a part of itself B.C.168, about seven years before its first connection with the people of God. See 1Mac.8 So that Rome could as truly be said to be “out of one of them,” as the ten horns of the fourth beast in the seventh chapter could be said to come out of that beast, when they were ten kingdoms set up by the conquerors of Rome.BIAD 125.4

    (2) It was to wax exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land (Palestine. Psalm 106:24; Zechariah 7:14). This was true of Rome in every particular. Witness its conquests in Africa and Asia, and its overthrow of the place and nation of the Jews. John 11:48.BIAD 126.1

    (3) It was to cast down some of the host and of the stars. This is predicted respecting the dragon. Revelation 12:3, 4. All admit that the dragon is Rome. Who can fail to see the identity of the dragon and the little horn?BIAD 126.2

    (4) Rome was emphatically a king of fierce countenance, and one that did understand dark sentences. Moses used similar language when, as all agree, he predicted the Roman power. Deuteronomy 28:49, 50.BIAD 126.3

    (5) Rome did destroy wonderfully. Witness its overthrow of all opposing powers.BIAD 126.4

    (6) Rome had destroyed more of “the mighty and the holy people,” than all other persecuting powers combined. From fifty to one hundred millions of the church have been slain by it.BIAD 126.5

    (7) Rome did stand up against the Prince of princes. The Roman power nailed Jesus Christ to the cross. Acts 4:26, 27; Matthew 27:2; Revelation 12:4.BIAD 126.6

    (8) This power is to “be broken without hand.” How clear the reference to the stone “cry out without hands,” that smote the image. Daniel 2:34. Its destruction, then, does not take place until the final overthrow of earthly powers. These facts are conclusive proof that Rome is the subject of this prophecy. The field of vision, then, is the empires of Persia, Greece, and Rome.BIAD 126.7

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