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    HAVE the foregoing predictions been justified, and the expectations of these great men been fulfilled? Every person whose reading is ordinarily extensive has something of an idea of what the United States is to-day; he likewise has an idea, so far as words can convey it to his mind, of what this country was at the commencement of its history. The only object, then, in presenting statistics and testimony on this point, is to show that our rapid growth has struck mankind with the wonder of a constant miracle.MANA 22.1

    Said Emile de Girardin in La Liberte (1868):—MANA 22.2

    “The population of America, not thinned by any conscription, multiplies with prodigious rapidity, and the day may before [long be] seen, when they will number sixty or eighty millions of souls. This parvenu [one recently risen to notice] is aware of his importance and destiny. Hear him proudly exclaim, ‘America for Americans!’ See him promising his alliance to Russia; and we see that power, which well knows what force is, grasp the hand of this giant of yesterday.MANA 22.3

    “In view of his unparalleled progress and combination, what are the little toys with which we vex ourselves in Europe? What is this needle gun we are anxious to get from Prussia, that we may beat her next year with it? Had we not better take from America the principle of liberty she embodies, out of which have come her citizen pride, her gigantic industry, and her formidable loyalty to the destinies of her republican land?”MANA 22.4

    The Dublin (Ireland) Nation, already quoted, about the year 1850 said:—MANA 22.5

    “In the East there is arising a colossal centaur called the Russian empire. With a civilized head and front, it has the sinews of a huge barbaric body. There one man’s brain moves 70,000,000. [In 1870, 87,795,987. —Lippincott] There all the traditions of the people are of aggression and conquest in the West. There but two ranks are distinguishable — serfs and soldiers. There the map of the future includes Constantinople and Vienna as outposts of St. Petersburg.MANA 23.1

    “In the West, an opposing and still more wonderful American empire is emerging. We islanders have no conception of the extraordinary events which amid the silence of the earth are daily adding to the power and pride of this gigantic nation. Within three years, territories more extensive than these three kingdoms [Great Britain, Ireland, and Scotland], France, and Italy put together, have been quietly, and in almost ‘matter-of-course’ fashion, annexed to the Union.MANA 23.2

    “Within seventy years, seventeen new Sovereignties, the smallest of them larger than Great Britain, have peaceably united themselves to the Federation. No standing army was raised, no national debt was sunk, no great exertion was made, but there they are. And the last mail brings news of three more great States about to be joined to the thirty, — Minnesota in the northwest, Deseret in the southwest, and California on the shores of the Pacific. These three States will cover an area equal to one-half of the European continent.”MANA 23.3

    Mitchell, in his “School Geography” (fourth revised edition), p. 101, speaking of the United States, says:—MANA 23.4

    “It presents the most striking instance of national growth to be found in the history of mankind.”MANA 23.5

    Let us reduce these general statements to the more tangible form of facts and figures. A short time before the great Reformation in the days of Martin Luther, not four hundred years ago, this western hemisphere was discovered. The Reformation awoke the nations, that were fast fettered in the galling bonds of superstition, to the fact that it is the heaven-born-born right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. But rulers are loath to lose their power, and religious intolerance still oppressed the people. Under these circumstances, a body of religious heroes at length determined to seek in the wilds of America that measure of civil and religious freedom which they so much desired. Two hundred and sixty-five years ago, Dec. 22, 1620, the Mayflower landed one hundred of these voluntary exiles on the coast of new England. “Here,” says Martyn, “New England was born,” and this was “its first baby cry, — a prayer and a thanksgiving to the Lord.”MANA 23.6

    Another permanent English settlement was made at Jamestown, Va., thirteen years before this, in 1607. In process of time other settlements were made and colonies organized, which were all subject to the English crown till the declaration of independence, July 4, 1776.MANA 24.1

    The population of these colonies, according to the United States Magazine of August, 1855, amounted in 1701, to 262,000; in 1749, to 1,046,000; in 1775 to 2,803,000. Then commenced the struggle of the American colonies against the oppression of the mother country. In 1776, they declared themselves, as in justice and right they were entitled to be, a free and independent nation. In 1777, delegates from the thirteen original States, — New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhodes Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, — in Congress assembled, adopted Articles of Confederation. In 1783, the war of the Revolution closed with a treaty of peace with Great Britain, whereby our independence was acknowledged, and territory ceded to the extent of 815,615 square miles. In 1787 the Constitution was framed, and ratified by the foregoing thirteen States; and on the first day of March, 1789, it went into operation. Then the American ship of State was fairly launched, with less than one million square miles of territory, and about three millions of souls.MANA 24.2

    Such was the situation when our nation took its position of independence, as one of the self-governing powers of the world. Our territorial growth since that time has been as follows: Louisiana, acquired from France in 1803, comprising 930,928 square miles of territory; Florida, from Spain in 1821, with 59,268 square miles; Texas, admitted into the Union in 1845, with 237,504 square miles; Oregon, as settled by treaty in 1846, with 380,425 square miles; California, as conquered from Mexico in 1847, with 649,762 square miles; Arizona (New Mexico), as acquired from Mexico by treaty in 1854, with 27,500 square miles; Alaska, as acquired by purchase from Russia in 1867, with 577,390 square miles. This gives a grand total of three million, six hundred seventy-eight thousand, three hundred and ninety-two (3,678,392) square miles of territory, which is about four-ninths of all North America, and more than one-fifteenth of the whole land surface of the globe.MANA 25.1

    And while this expansion has been thus rapidly going forward here, how has it been with the other leading nations of the the globe? Macmillan & Co., the London publishers, in announcing their “Statement’s Year Book” for 1867, make an interesting statement of the changes that took place in Europe during the half century between the years 1817 and 1867. They say:—MANA 25.2

    “The half century has extinguished three kingdoms, one grand duchy, eight duchies, four principalities, one electorate, and four republics. Three new kingdoms have arisen, and one kingdom has been transformed into an empire. There are now forty-one states in Europe against fifty-nine which existed in 1817. Not less remarkable is the territorial extension of the superior states in the world. Russia has annexed 567,364 square miles; the United States, 1,968,009; France, 4,620; Prussia, 29,781; Sardinia, expanding into Italy, has increased by 83,041; the Indian empire has been augmented by 431,616. The principal states that have lost territory are Turkey, Mexico, Austria, Denmark, and the Netherlands.”MANA 26.1

    We ask the especial attention of the reader to these particulars. During the last half century, twenty-one governments have disappeared altogether, and only three new ones have arisen. Five have lost in territory instead of gaining. Only five, besides our own, have added to their domain. And the one which has done the most in this direction has added only a little over half a million of square miles, while we have added nearly two millions. Thus the United States government has added over fourteen hundred thousand square miles of territory more than any other single nation, and over eight hundred thousand more than have been added by all the other nations of the earth put together.MANA 26.2

    In point of population, our increase since 1798, according to the census of the several decades, has been as follows: In 1800, the total number of inhabitants in the United States was 5,305,925; in 1810, 7,239,814; in 1820, 9,638,191; in 1830, 12,866,020; in 1840, 17,069,453; in 1850, 23,l9l,876; in 1860, 31,445,089; in 1870, 38,555,983; in l880, 50,000,000; and now (1885) estimated as not less than 55,000,000. These figures are almost too large for the mind to grasp readily. Perhaps a better idea can be formed of the rapid increase of population by looking at a few representative cities. Boston, in 1792, had 18,000 inhabitants; it now has [census of 1880] 362,839; New York, in 1792, 30,000; now 1,206,299. Chicago, about fifty years ago, was a little trading post, with a few huts; but yet it contained at the time of the great conflagration in October, 1871, nearly 350,000 souls, and now has 650,000. (See illustrations.) San Francisco, fifty years ago, was a barren waste, but contains to-day 233,956 inhabitants.MANA 26.3

    Our industrial growth has been equally remarkable. In 1792, the United States had no cotton-mills; in 1850, there were 1,074, employing 100,000 hands. Only fifty-five years ago the first section of the first railroad in this country — the Baltimore and Ohio — was opened to a distance of twenty-three miles. 1The first timid experiment in railroads was a tramway in Quincy, Mass., built in l826, chiefly by Thomas H. Perkins and Gridley Bryant, of Boston. Its only purpose was for the easier conveyance — by horses — of building-stone from the granite quarries of Quincy to tide-water. It was the germ, however, of a mighty movement in this country. The first railway in America for passengers and traffic — the Baltimore and Ohio — was chartered by the Maryland Legislature in March, 1827. The capital stock at first was only half a million dollars, and a portion of it was subscribed by the State and the city of Baltimore. Horses were its motive power, even after sixty-five miles of the road were built. But in 1829 Peter Cooper, of New York, built a locomotive in Baltimore which weighed one ton, and made eighteen miles an hour on a trial trip to Ellicott’s Mills. In 1830 there were twenty-three miles of railway in the United States, which were increased the next year to ninety-five, in 1835, to one thousand and ninety-eight, and in 1840, to nearly three thousand.— Bryant’s history of the United States, vol. 4., p. 314. We had, Jan. 1, 1883, 115,634 miles in operation, costingMANA 27.1



    $5,570,000,000. It was only forty-five years ago that the magnetic telegraph was invented. Now the estimated length of telegraph wire in operation is over 250,000 miles. In 1833, the first reaper and mower was constructed, and in 1846 the first sewing-machine was completed. Think of the hundreds of thousands of both of these classes of machines now in use. And there are now more lines of telegraph and railroad projected and in process of construction than ever before, and greater facilities and larger plans for manufactories of all kinds than at any previous point of time. And should these industries increase in the same geometrical ratio for a few years, the figures we now chronicle would than read about as the records of a century ago now read to us.MANA 30.1

    Since the last edition of this work was issued, the electric light, the phonograph, the microphone, and the telephone have appeared in this country, and astonished the world with their marvelous achievements. And recently notices appeared in the papers of a new application of electricity, by which one is actually enabled to see the person who is addressing him at the other end of the telephone, many miles, perhaps, away. This would seem to be reaching the last possible results in the way of the annihilation of time and space in regard to both hearing and seeing.MANA 30.2

    We take the following article from “The Centennial History of the United States,” published in 1876 at Hartford, Ct., pp. 768-779:—MANA 30.3

    “Here, on the verge of the centennial anniversary of the birth of our Republic, let us take a brief review of the material and intellectual progress of our country during the first hundred years of its political independence.MANA 30.4

    “The extent of the conceded domain of the United States, inMANA 30.5



    1776, was not more than half a million square miles; now [when the word now appears in this relation it means the year 1875] it is more than three millions, three hundred thousand square miles. Its population then was about a million and a half; now it is forty million.MANA 33.1

    “The products of the soil are the foundations of the material wealth of a nation. It has been eminently so with us, notwithstanding the science of agriculture and the construction of good implements of labor were greatly neglected until the early part of the present century.MANA 33.2

    “A hundred years ago the agricultural interests of our country were mostly in the hands of uneducated men. Science was not applied to husbandry. A spirit of improvement was scarcely known. The son copied the ways of his father. He worked with no other implements and pursued no other methods of cultivation; and he who attempted a change was regarded as a visionary or an innovator. Very little associated effort for improvement in the business of farming was then seen. The first association for such a purpose was formed in the South, and was known as the ‘South Carolina Agricultural Society,’ organized in 1784. A similar society was formed in Pennsylvania the following year. Now there are State, country, and even town agricultural societies in almost every part of the Union.MANA 33.3

    “Agricultural implements were rude and simple. They consisted chiefly of the plow, harrow, spade, hoe, hand-rake, scythe, sickle, and wooden forks. The plow had a clumsy, wrought-iron share with wooden mold-board, which was sometimes plated with old tin or sheet-iron. The rest of the structure was equally clumsy; and the implement required in its use, twice the amount of strength of man and beast that the present plow does. Improvements in the construction of plows during the past fifty years save to the country annually, in work and teams, at least $12,000,000. The first patent for a cast-iron plow was issued in 1797. To the beginning of 1875, about four hundred patents have been granted.MANA 33.4

    “A hundred years ago the seed was sown by hand, and the entire crop was harvested by hard, manual labor. The grass was cut with a scythe, and ‘cured’ and gathered with a fork and hand-rake. The grain was cut with a sickle, threshed with a flail or the treading of horses, and was cleared of the chaff by a large clamshell-shaped fan of wicker-work, used in a gentle breeze. The drills, seed-sowers, cultivators, mowers, reapers, threshing machines, and fanning-mills of our day, were all unknown. They are the inventions of a time within the memory of living men. Abortive attempts were made toward the close of the last century to introduce a threshing-machine from England, but the flail held sway until two generations ago. Indian corn, tobacco, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, and hay were staple products of the farm a hundred years ago. Timothy and orchard grass had just been introduced. At the present time these products amount annually, on an average, in round numbers, as follows: Indian corn, 900,000,000 bushels; wheat, 270,000,000; rye, 22,000,000; oats, 300,000,000; potatoes, 165,000,000; and buckwheat (introduced within the century) 15,000,000. The hay crop averages about 28,000,000 tons; the tobacco crop about 265,000,000 pounds; flax, 28,000,000 pounds; and hemp, 12,000 tons. To these agricultural products there have been added, within the century, barley, cotton, and sugar. The barley crop averages about 28,000,000 bushels; cotton, about 2,000,000,000 pounds; and sugar, 120,000 hogsheads of 1,000 pounds each. The expansion of the COTTON culture has been marvelous. In 1784, eight bales of cotton sent to England from Charleston were seized by the custom-house authorities in Liverpool, on the ground that so large a quantity could not have come from the United States. The progress of its culture was slow until the invention of the gin, by Mr. Whitney, for clearing the seed from the fiber. It did the work of many persons. The cultivation of cotton rapidly spread. From 1792 to 1800, the amount of cotton raised had increased from 138,000 pounds to 18,000,000 pounds, all of which was wanted in England, where improved machinery was manufacturing it into cloth. The value of slave labor was increased, and a then dying institution lived in vigor until killed by the civil war. The value of the cotton crop in 1792 was $30,000; now its average annual value is about $180,000,000.MANA 33.5

    “Fruit culture a hundred years ago was very little thought of. Inferior varieties of apples, pears, peaches, plums, and cherries were cultivated for family use. It was not until the beginning of the present century that any large orchards were planted. The cultivation of grapes and berries was almost wholly unknown fifty years ago. The first horticultural society was formed in 1829. Before that time fruit was not an item of commercial statistics in our country. Now, the average annual value of fruit is estimated at $40,000,000. Our grape crop alone exceeds in value $10,000,000.MANA 35.1

    “Improvements in live stock have all been made within the present century. The native breeds were descended from stock sent over to the colonies, and were generally inferior. In 1772 Washington wrote in his diary; ‘With one hundred milch cows on my farm, I have to buy butter for my family.’ Now 11,000,000 cows supply 40,000,000 inhabitants with milk, butter, and cheese, and allow large exports of the latter article. At least 255,000,000 gallons of milk are sold annually. The annual butter product of our country now is more than 500,000,000 pounds, and of cheese, 70,000,000. There are now about 30,000,000 horned cattle in the United States, equal in average quality to those of any country in the world.MANA 35.2

    “A hundred years ago, mules and asses were chiefly used for farming purposes and ordinary transportation. Carriage horses were imported from Europe. Now, our horses of every kind are equal to those of any other country. It is estimated that there are about 10,000,000 horses in the United States, or one to every four persons.MANA 35.3

    “Sheep husbandry has greatly improved. The inferior breeds of the last century, raised only in sufficient quantity to supply the table, and the domestic looms in the manufacture of yarns and coarse cloth, have been superseded by some of the finer varieties. Merino sheep were introduced early in this century. The embargo before the war of 1812, and the establishment of manufactures here afterward, stimulated sheep and wool raising, and these have been important items in our national wealth. There are now about 30,000,000 sheep in the United States. California is taking the lead as a wool-producing State. In 1870, the wool product of the United States amounted to 100,000,000 pounds.MANA 36.1

    “Improvements in the breed of swine during the last fifty years have been very great. They have become a large item in our national commercial statistics. At this time there are about 26,000,000 head of swine in this country. Enormous quantities of pork, packed and in the form of bacon, are exported annually.MANA 36.2

    “These brief statistics of the principal products of agriculture, show its development in this country and its importance. Daniel Webster said, ‘Agriculture feeds us; to a great extent it clothes us; without it we should not have manufactures; we should not have commerce. They all stand together like pillars in the cluster, the largest in the center, and that largest — AGRICULTURE. ’MANA 36.3

    “The great manufacturing interests of our country are the product of the century now closing. The policy of the British government was to suppress manufacturing in the English-American colonies, and cloth-making was confined to the household. When non-importation agreements cut off supplies from Great Britain, the Irish flax-wheel and the Dutch wool-wheel were made active in families. All other kinds of manufacturing were of small account in this country until the concluding decade of the last century. In Great Britain the inventions of Hargreaves, Arkwright, and Crompton, had stimulated the cotton and woolen manufactures, and the effects finally reached the United States. Massachusetts offered a grant of money to promote the establishment of a cotton-mill, and one was built at Beverly in 1787, the first erected in the United States. It had not the improved English machinery. In 1789, Samuel Slater came from England with a full knowledge of the machinery, and in connection with Messrs. Almy and Brown of Providence, R.I., established a cotton factory there in 1790, with the improved implements. Then was really begun the manufacture of cotton in the United States. Twenty years later, the number of cotton-mills in our country was one hundred and sixty-eight, with 90,000 spindles. The business has greatly expanded. In Massachusetts, the foremost State in the manufacture of cotton, there are now over two hundred mills, employing, in prosperous times, 50,000 persons, and a capital of more than $30,000,000. The city of Lowell was founded by the erection of a cotton-mill there in 1822; and there the printing of calico was first begun in the United States soon afterward.MANA 36.4

    “With wool, as with cotton, the manufacture into cloth was confined to households, for home use, until near the close of the last century. The wool was carded between two cards held in the hands of the operator, and all the processes were slow and crude. In 1797, Asa Whittemore of Massachusetts invented a carding-machine, and this led to the establishment of woolen manufactures outside the families. In his famous report on manufactures, in 1791, Alexander Hamilton said that of woolen goods, hats only had reached maturity. The business had been carried on with success in colonial times. The wool was felted by hand, and furs were added by the same slow process. This manual labor continued until a little more than thirty years ago, when it was supplanted by machinery. Immense numbers of hats of every kind are now made in our country.MANA 37.1

    “At the time of Hamilton’s report, there was only one woolen-mill in the United States. This was at Hartford, Connecticut. In it were made cloths and cassimeres. Now, woolen factories may be found in almost every State in the Union, turning out annually the finest cloths, cassimeres, flannels, carpets, and every variety of goods made of wool. In this business, as in cotton, Massachusetts has taken the lead. The value of manufactured woolens in the United States, at the close of the civil war, was estimated at about $60,000,000. The supply of wool in the United States has never been equal to the demand.MANA 37.2

    “The smelting of iron ore and the manufacture of iron has become an immense business in our country. The development of ore deposits and of coal used in smelting, are among the marvels of our history. English navigation laws discouraged iron manufacture in the colonies. Only blast-furnaces for making pig-iron were allowed. This product was nearly all sent to England in exchange for manufactured articles; and the whole amount of such exportation, at the beginning of the old war for independence, was less than 8,000 tons annually. The colonists were wholly dependent upon Great Britain for articles manufactured of iron and steel, excepting rude implements made by blacksmiths for domestic use. During the war, the Continental Congress were compelled to establish manufactures of iron and steel. These were chiefly in Northern New Jersey, the Hudson Highlands, and Western Connecticut, where excellent ore was found, and forests in abundance for making charcoal. The first use of anthracite coal for smelting iron was in the Continental Armory at Carlisle, in Pennsylvania, in 1775. But charcoal was universally used until 1840 for smelting ores.MANA 37.3

    “Now, iron is manufactured in our country in every form from a nail to a locomotive. A vast number of machines have been invented for carrying on these manufactures; and the products in cutlery, fire-arms, railway materials, and machinery of every kind, employ vast numbers of men and a great amount of capital. Our locomotive builders are regarded as the best in the world; and no nation on the globe can compete with us in in the construction of steam-boats of every kind, from the iron-clad war steamer to the harbor tug.MANA 38.1

    “In the manufacture of copper, silver, and gold there has been great progress. At the close of the Revolution, no manufactures of the kind existed in our country. Now, the manufacture of copper-ware yearly, of every kind, and jewelry and watches, has become a large item in our commercial tables.MANA 38.2

    “The manufacture of paper is a very large item in the business of our country. At the close of the Revolution there were only three mills in the United States. At the beginning of the war, a demand sprung up, and Wilcox, in his mill near Philadelphia, made the first writing-paper produced in this country. He manufactured the thick, coarse paper on which the continental money was printed. So early as 1794 the business had so increased that there were in Pennsylvania alone forty-eight paper-mills. There has been a steady increase in the business ever since. Within the last twenty-five years, that increase has been enormous, and yet not sufficient to meet the demand. Improvements in printing-presses have cheapened the production of books and newspapers, and the circulation of these has greatly increased. It is estimated that the amount of paper now manufactured annually in the United States for these, for paper-hangings, and for wrapping-paper is full 800,000,000 pounds. The supply of raw material here has not been equal to the demand, and rags to the value of about $2,000,000 in a year have been imported.MANA 38.3

    “The manufacture of ships, carriages, wagons, clocks and watches, pins, leather, glass, Indian rubber, silk, wood, sewing-machines, and a variety of other things wholly unknown or feebly carried on a hundred years ago, now flourish, and form very important items in our domestic commerce. The sewing-machine is an American invention, and the first really practical one was first offered to the public by Elias Howe. Jr., about thirty years ago. A patent had been obtained for one five years before. Great improvements have been made, and now a very extensive business in the manufacture and sale of sewing-machines is carried on by different companies, employing a large amount of capital and costly machinery, and a great number of persons.MANA 39.1

    “The mining interests of the United States have become an eminent part of the national wealth. The extraction of lead, iron, copper, the precious metals, and coal, from the bosom of the earth, is a business that has almost wholly grown up within the last hundred years. In 1754 a lead mine was worked in Southwestern Virginia; and in 1778, Dubuque, a French miner, worked lead ore deposits on the western bank of the upper Mississippi. The Jesuit missionaries discovered copper in the Lake Superior region more than two hundred years ago, and that remains the chief source of our native copper ore. That metal is produced in smaller quantities in other States, chiefly in the West and Southwest.MANA 39.2

    “A lust for gold, and the knowledge of its existence in America, was the chief incentive to emigration to these shores. But within the domain of our Republic, very little of it was found, until that domain was extended far toward the Pacific ocean. It was unsuspected until long after the Revolution. Finally, gold was discovered among the mountains of Virginia, North and South Carolina, and in Georgia. North Carolina was the first State in the Union to send gold to the mint in Philadelphia. Its first small contribution was in 1804. From that time until 1823 the average amount produced from North Carolina mines did not exceed $2,500 annually. Virginia’s first contribution was in 1829, when that of North Carolina, for that year, was $128,000. Georgia sent its first contribution in 1830. It amounted to $212,000. The product so increased that branch mints were established in North Carolina and Georgia in 1837 and 1838, and another in New Orleans.MANA 40.1

    “In 1848, gold was discovered on the American fork of the Sacramento River in California, and soon afterward elsewhere in that region. A gold fever seized the people of the United States, and thousands rushed to California in search of the precious metals. Within a year from the discovery, nearly 50,000 people were there. Less than five years afterward, California, in one year, sent to the United States mint full $40,000,000 in gold. Its entire gold product to this time is estimated at more than $800,000,000. Over all the far Western States and Territories the precious metals, gold and silver, seem to be scattered in profusion, and the amount of mineral wealth yet to be discovered there seems to be incalculable. Our coal fields seem to be inexhaustible; and out of the bosom of the earth, in portions of our country, flow millions of barrels annually of petroleum, or rock-oil, affording the cheapest illuminating material in the world.MANA 40.2

    “Mineral coal was first discovered and used in Pennsylvania at the period of the Revolution. A boat load was sent down the Susquehanna from Wilkes-Barre for the use of the Continental works at Carlisle. But it was not much used before the war of 1812; and the regular business of mining this fuel did not become a part of the commerce of the country before the year 1820, when 365 tons were sent to Philadelphia. At the present time the amount of coal sent to market from the American mines, of all kinds, is equal to full 15,000,000 tons annually.MANA 41.1

    “The commerce of the United States has had a wonderful growth. Its most active development was seen in New England. British legislation imposed heavy burdens upon it in colonial times, and like manufactures, it was greatly depressed. The New Englanders built many vessels for their own use, but more for others; and just before the breaking out of the Revolution, there was quite a brisk trade carried on between the English-American colonists and the West Indies, as well as with the mother country. The colonies exported tobacco, lumber, shingles, staves, masts, turpentine, hemp, flax, pot and pearl ashes, salted fish in great quantities, some corn, live stock, pig-iron, and skins and furs procured by traffic with the Indians. Whale and cod-fishing was an important branch of commerce. In the former, there was 160 vessels employed at the beginning of 1775, and sperm candles and whale oil were exported to Great Britain. In exchange for New England products, a large amount of molasses was brought from the West Indies, and made into rum to sell to the Indians and fishermen, and to exchange for slaves on the coast of Africa. The entire exports of the colonies in the year 1770 amounted in value to $14,262,000.MANA 41.2

    “At the close of the war, the British government refused to enter into commercial relations with the United States government believing that the weak league of States would soon be dissolved; but when a vigorous national government was formed in 1789, Great Britain, for the first, sent a resident minister to our government, and entered into a commercial arrangement with us. Meanwhile a brisk trade had sprung up between the colonies and Great Britain, as well as with other countries. From 1784 to 1790 the exports from the United States to Great Britain amounted to $33,000,000 and the imports from Great Britain to $87,000,000. At the same time several new and important branches of industry had appeared, and flourished with great rapidity.MANA 41.3

    “From that time expansion of American commerce was marvelous, in spite of the checks it received from British jealousy, wars, piracies in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere, and the effects of embargoes. The tonnage of American ships, which in 1789 was 201,562, was in 1870 more than 7,000,000. The exports from the United States in 1870 amounted to about $464,000,000, and the imports to about $395,000,000 in gold.MANA 42.1

    “The domestic commerce of the United States is immense. A vast sea-coast line, great lakes, large rivers, and many canals, afford scope for inter-State commerce and with adjoining countries, not equaled by those of any nation. The canal and railways systems in the United States are the product chiefly of the present century. So also is navigation by steam, on which river commerce chiefly relies for transportation. This was begun in the year 1807. The first canals made in this country were two short ones, for a water passage around the South Hadley and Montague Falls, in Massachusetts. These were constructed in 1792. At about the same time the Inland Lock Navigation Companies in the State of New York began their work. The Middlesex Canal, connecting Lowell with Boston Harbor, was completed in 1808, and the great Erie Canal, 363 miles in length, was finished in 1825, at a cost of almost $8,000,000. The aggregate length of canals built in the United States is 3,200 miles.MANA 42.2

    “The first railway built in the United States was one three miles in length, that connected the granite quarries at Quincy, Mass., with the Neponset River. It was completed in 1827; horse power was used. The first use of a locomotive in this country was in 1829, when one was put upon a railway that connected the coal mines of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company with Honesdale. 1This was for freight only. The first passenger railway was opened in 1830, as stated in page 27. Now, railways form a thick net-work all over the United States east of the Mississippi, and are rapidly spreading over the States and Territories beyond, to the Pacific ocean. To these facilities for commercial operations must be added the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, an American invention, as a method of transmitting intelligence, and giving warning signals to the shipping and agricultural interests concerning the actual and probable state of the weather each day. The first line, forty miles in length, was constructed between Baltimore and Washington in 1844. Now the lines are extended to every part of our Union, and all over the civilized world, traversing oceans and rivers, and bringing Persia and New York within one hour’s space of intercommunication.MANA 42.3

    “Banking institutions and insurance companies are intimately connected with commerce. The first bank in the United States was established in 1781, as a financial aid to the government. It was called the Bank of North America. The Bank of New York and Bank of Massachusetts were established soon afterward. On the recommendation of Hamilton, in 1791, a national bank was established at Philadelphia with a capital of $10,000,000, of which sum the government subscribed $2,000,000. Various banking systems, under State charters, have since been tried. During the civil war, a system of national banking was established, by which there is a uniform paper currency throughout the Union. The number of national banks at the close of 1863 was 66; theMANA 43.1



    number at the close of 1874 was not far from 1,700, involving capital to the amount of almost $500,000,000.MANA 46.1

    “Fire, marine, and life insurance companies have flourished greatly in the United States. The first incorporated company was established in 1792, in Philadelphia, and known as the ‘Fire Insurance Company of North America. ’MANA 46.2

    “Our growth in population has been steadily increased by immigration from Europe. It began very moderately after the Revolution. From 1784 to 1794 the average number of immigrants a year was 4,000. During the last ten years the number of persons who have immigrated to the United States from Europe is estimated at over 2,000,000, who brought with them, in the aggregate, $200,000,000 in money. This capital and the productive labor of the immigrants have added much to the wealth of our country. This immigration and wealth is less than during the ten years preceding the civil war, during which time there came to this country from Europe 2,814,554 persons, bringing with them an average of at least $100, or an aggregate of over $281,000,000.MANA 46.3

    “The Arts, Sciences, and Invention have made a great progress in our country during the last hundred years. These at the close of the Revolution, were of little account in estimating the advance of the race. The practitioners of the Arts of Design, at that period, were chiefly Europeans. Of native artists, C.W. Peale and J.S. Copley stood at the head of painters. There were no sculptors, and no engravers of any eminence. Architects, in the proper sense, there were none. After the Revolution a few good painters appeared, and these have gradually increased in numbers and excellence, without much encouragement, except in portraiture, until within the last twenty-five years. We have now good sculptors, architects, engravers, and lithographers; and in all of these departments, as well as in photography, very great progress has been made within the last thirty or forty years. In wood engraving, especially, the improvement has been wonderful. Forty years ago there were not more than a dozen practitioners of the art in this country; now there are between four and five hundred. At the head of that class of artists stands the name of Dr. Alexander Anderson, who was the first man who engraved on wood in the United States. He died in 1870 at the age of ninety-five years. In bank-note engraving we have attained to greater excellence than any other people. It is considered the most perfect branch of the art in design and execution.MANA 46.4

    “Associations have been formed for improvements in the Arts of Design. The first was organized in Philadelphia in 1791, by C.W. Peale, in connection with Ceracchi, the Italian sculptor. It failed. In 1802 the American Academy of Fine Arts was organized in the city of New York, and in 1807 the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, yet in existence, was established in Philadelphia. In 1826 the American Academy of Fine Arts was superseded by the National Academy of Design, in the city of New York, which is now a flourishing institution.MANA 47.1

    “In education and literature our progress has kept pace with other things. At the very beginning of settlements, the common school was made the special care of the State in New England. Not so much attention was given to this matter elsewhere in the colonies. The need of higher institutions of learning was early felt; and eighteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims from the Mayflower, Harvard College was founded. When the war for independence began, there were nine colleges in the colonies; namely, Harvard, at Cambridge, Mass.; William and Mary, at Williamsburg, Va.; Yale, at New Haven, Conn; College of New Jersey, at Princeton; University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia; King’s (now Columbus), in the city of New York; Brown University, at Providence, R.I.; Dartmouth, at Hanover, N.H.; and Rutgers at New Brunswick, N.J. There are now about 300 colleges in the United States.MANA 47.2

    “At the period of the Revolution, teaching in the common schools was very meager, and remained so for full thirty years. Only reading, spelling, and arithmetic were regularly taught. The Psalter, the New Testament, and the Bible constituted the reading-books. No history was read; no geography or grammar was taught; and until the putting forth of Webster’s spelling-book in 1783, pronunciation was left to the judgement of teachers. That book produced a revolution.MANA 48.1

    “As the nation advanced in wealth and intelligence, the necessity for correct popular education became more and more manifest, and associated efforts were made for the improvement of the schools by providing for the training of teachers, under the respective phase of Teachers’ Associations, Educational Periodicals, Normal Schools, and Teachers’ Institutes. The first of these societies in this country was the ‘Middlesex Country Association for the Improvement of Common Schools,’ established at Middletown, Connecticut, in 1799. But little of importance was done in that direction until within the last forty-five years. Now, provision is made in all sections of the Union, not only for the support of common schools, but for training-schools for teachers. Since the civil war, great efforts have been made to establish common-school system in the late slave-labor States, that should include among the beneficiaries the colored population. Much has been done in that regard.MANA 48.2

    “Very great improvements have been made in the organization and discipline of the public schools in cities within the last thirty years. Free schools are rapidly spreading their beneficent influence over the whole Union, and in some States laws have been made that compel all children of a certain age to go to school. Institutions for the special culture of young women in all that pertains to college education, have been established within a few years. The pioneer in this work is Vassar College, at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., which was first opened in the year 1865.MANA 48.3

    “Besides the ordinary means for education, others have been established for special purposes. There are Law, Scientific, Medical, Theological, Military, Commercial, and Agricultural schools and seminaries for the deaf, dumb, and blind. In many States school-district libraries have been established. There are continually enlarging means provided for the education of the whole people. Edmund Burke said, ‘Education is the cheap defense of nations. ’MANA 48.4

    “Our literature is as varied as the tastes of the people. No subject escapes the attention of our native scholars and authors. At the period of the Revolution, books were few in variety and numbers. The larger portion of them were devoted to theological subjects. Booksellers were few, and were only found in the larger cities. Various subjects were discussed in pamphlets, not generally in newspapers, as now. The editions of books were small, and as stereotyping was unknown, they became rare in a few years, because there was only a costly way of reproduction.MANA 49.1

    “In the year 1801, a new impetus was given to the book trade by the formation of the ‘American Company of Booksellers’— a kind of ‘union.’ Twenty years later, competition broke up the association. Before the war of 1812, the book trade in the United States was small. Only school books had very large sales. Webster’s spelling-book was an example of the increasing demand for such helps to education. During the twenty years he was engaged on his dictionary, the income from his spelling-book supported him and his family. It was published in 1783, and its sales have continually increased to the present time, when they amount to over 1,000,000 copies a year. Other school books of every kind now have an immense annual circulation. The general book trade in this country is now immense in the numbers of volumes issued and the capital and labor employed. Readers are rapidly increasing. An ardent thirst for knowledge or entertainment to be found in books, magazines and newspapers, makes a very large demand for these vehicles, while, at the same time, they produce wide-spread intelligence.MANA 49.2

    The magazine literature, now generally healthful, is a powerful coadjutor of books in this popular culture; and the newspaper, not always so healthful, supplies the daily and weekly demand for ephemerals in literature and general knowledge. To meet that demand required great improvements in printing machinery, and these have been supplied.MANA 50.1

    “The printing-press, at the time of the Revolution, is shown in that used by Franklin, in which the pressure force was obtained by means of a screw. The ink was applied by huge balls; and an expert workman could furnish about fifty impressions an hour. This was improved by Earl Stanhope in 1815, by substituting for the screw a jointed lever. Then came inking machines, and one man could work off 250 copies an hour. Years passed on, and the cylinder press was invented; and in 1847 it was perfected by Richard M. Hoe of New York. This has been further improved lately, and a printing-press is now used which will strike off 15,000 newspapers, printed on both sides, every hour.MANA 50.2

    “The newspapers printed in the United States at the beginning of the Revolution were few in number, small in size, and very meager in information of any kind. They were issued weekly, semi-weekly, and tri-weekly. The first daily newspaper issued in this country was the American Daily Advertiser, established in Philadelphia in 1784. In 1775 there were 37 newspapers and periodicals in the United States, with an aggregate issue that year of 1,200,000 copies. In 1870 the number of dailyMANA 50.3



    newspapers in the United States was 542; and of weeklies, 4,425. Of the dailies, 800,000,000 were issued that year; of the weeklies, 600,000,000; and of other serial publications, 100,000,000; making an aggregate of full 1,500,000,000 copies. To these figures should be made a large addition at the close of 1875. There are now about forty newspapers in the United States that have existed over fifty years.MANA 53.1

    “In the providing of means for moral and religious culture and benevolent enterprises, there has been great progress in this country during the century now closing. The various religious denominations have increased in membership fully in proportion to the increase of population. Asylums of every kind for the unfortunate and friendless have been multiplied in an equal ratio, and provision is made for all.MANA 53.2

    One of the most conspicuous examples of the growth of our republic is presented by the postal service. Dr. Franklin had been Colonial Postmaster-General, and he was appointed to the same office for one year by the Continental Congress in the summer of 1775. He held the position a little more than a year, and at the end of his official term there were about 50 post-offices-offices in the United States. All the accounts of the General Post-Office Department during that period were contained in a small book consisting of about two quires of foolscap paper, which is preserved in the Department at Washington City. Through all the gloomy years of the weak Confederacy, the business of the Department was comparatively light; and when the national government began its career in 1789, there were only about seventy-five post-offices, with an aggregate length of post-roads of about 1,900 miles. The annual income was $28,000, and the annual expenditures were $32,000. The mails were carried by postmen on horseback, and sometime on foot. Now the number of post-offices is over 33,000; the aggregate length of post-routes is 256,000 miles; the annual revenue, $23,000,000, and the annual expenditures, $29,000,000.MANA 53.3

    “We may safely claim for our people and country a progress in all that constitutes a vigorous and prosperous nation during the century just passed, equal, if not superior, to that of any other on the globe. And to the inventive genius and skill of the Americans may be fairly awarded a large share of the honor acquired by the construction of machinery, which has so largely taken the place of manual labor. In that progress the American citizen beholds a tangible prophecy of a brilliant future for his country.”MANA 54.1

    The following paragraphs which went the rounds of the papers a few years ago, present a good summary of the success “Brother Jonathan” has achieved thus far in his career:—MANA 54.2

    “Brother Jonathan commenced business in 1776, with thirteen States and 815,615 square miles of territory, which was occupied by about 3,000,000 of civilized human beings. He has now a family of 43,000,000, who occupy thirty-seven States and nine Territories, which embrace over 3,000,000 square miles. He has 65,000 miles of railroad, more than sufficient to reach twice and a half around the globe. The value of his annual agricultural productions is $2,500,000,000, and his gold mines are capable of producing $70,000,000 a year. He has more than 1,000 cotton factories, 580 daily newspapers, 4,300 weeklies, and 625 monthly publications. He has also many other things too numerous and too notorious to mention.”MANA 54.3

    “The United States of America issues more newspapers, in the number and in aggregate circulation, than all the rest of the world combined. America outnumbers the press of Great Britain, six to one, and has nearly half a dozen daily papers which print more copies every issue than does the London Times.”MANA 55.1

    The rate of growth maintained in this country since the compilation of the foregoing figures in 1876, may be best shown by comparing them with the figures on some of the items named above from the census of 1880. Thus the people of the United States, at this last-named date, possessed, in round numbers, 38,000,000 cattle and 48,000,000 swine. This is a larger number of cattle than any other nation can show, India having but 30,000,000, and Russia 29,000,000. We have 10,500,000 horses, being surpassed in this respect only by Russia, which has 20,000,000. We come fourth in the list of sheep-raising nations, having 36,000,000; but in the food-producing animals, cattle and hogs, our country leads the world.MANA 55.2

    According to returns for the year 1882, our corn crop amounted to 2,700,000,000 bushels; wheat, 520,000,000 bushels; hay, 32,000,000 tons; coal, 80,000,000 tons; petroleum, 27,500,000 barrels; pig iron, 4,000,000 tons; manufactured steel rails, 900,000 tons.MANA 55.3

    And nature herself, by the physical features she has stamped upon our country, has seemed to lay it out as a field for national development on the most magnificent scale. Here we have the largest lakes, the longest rivers, the mightiest cataracts, the deepest caves, the broadest and most fertile prairies, and the richest mines of gold and iron and coal and copper, to be found upon the globe.MANA 55.4


    One of the most important industries of the world is the lumber business, the traffic in timber for building houses, ships, etc., and manufacturing purposes. The principal nations engaged in this business, outside of the United States, are Norway, Russia, Germany, British North America, and to some extent, France. In our own country immense lumber districts are found in Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, some portions of the Southern States, California, and Oregon. The more important centers of the trade are Bangor, Me., Boston, Chicago, the lakes ports generally, Albany, N.Y., Savannah, and Brunswick, Ga., and Pensacola, Florida. There were in 1870, 26,945 lumber manufactories, employing 163,637 men, using $161,500,273 invested capital, paying $46,2?1,328 in wages, and producing $252,339,029 worth of lumber. Grave fears are excited by the meteorological effects which are likely to follow this removal of the forests.MANA 57.1

    “When America was discovered, there were but sixty millions of gold in Europe. California and the Territories around her have produced one thousand millions of dollars in gold in twenty years. Sixty-one million dollars was the largest annual gold yield ever made in Australia. California has several times produced ninety millions of gold in a year.” —Townsend, p. 384MANA 58.1

    “The area of workable coal-beds in all the world outside the United States is estimated at 26,000 square miles. That of the United States, not including Alaska, is estimated at over 200,000 square miles, or eight times as large as the available coal area of all the rest of the globe!” —American Year Book for 1869, p. 655.MANA 58.2

    “The iron product and manufacture of the United States has increased enormously within the last few years, and the vast beds of iron convenient to coal in various parts of the Union are destined to make America the chief source of supply for the world.” “Three mountains of solid iron [in Missouri], known as Iron Mountain, Pilot Knob, and Shepherd’s Mountain, are among the most remarkable natural curiosities on our continent,” —Id., p. 654.MANA 58.3

    And the people have taken hold to lay out their work on the grand scale that nature has indicated. Excepting only the Houses of Parliament in London, our national Capitol at Washington is the most spacious and imposing national edifice in the world. By the unparalleled feat of a subterranean tunnel two miles out under the bottom of the lake, Chicago obtains her water. Chicago is the most extensive grain and lumber market in the world; and Philadelphia and New York contain the largest and best-furnished printing establishments now in existence. The submarine cable, running like a thread of light through the depths of the broad Atlantic from the United States to England, a conception of American genius, is the greatest achievement in the telegraphic line. The Pacific Railroad, that iron highway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, stands at the head of all monuments of engineering skill in modern times.MANA 58.4



    Following the first Atlantic cable, soon came a second almost as a matter of course; and following the Central Pacific Railroad, a southern line has been opened, and a northern line has more recently been completed. And what results are expected to flow from these mighty enterprises? The Scientific American of Oct. 6, 1866, says:—MANA 61.1

    “To exaggerate the importance if this transcontinental highway is almost impossible. To a certain extent it will change the relative positions of this country, Europe, and Asia.... With the completion of the Pacific Railroad, instead of receiving our goods from India, China, and Japan, and the ‘isles of the sea,’ by way of London and Liverpool, we shall bring them direct by way of the Sandwich Islands and the railroad, and become the carriers, to a great extent, for Europe. But this is but a portion of the advantage of this work. Our Western mountains are almost literally mountains of gold and silver. In them the Arabian fable of Aladdin is realized.... Let the road be completed, and the comforts as well as the necessaries furnished by Asia, the manufactures of Europe, and the productions of the States, can be brought by the iron horse almost to the miner’s door; and in the production and possession of the precious metals, the blood of commerce, we shall be the richest nation on the globe. But the substantial wealth created by the improvement of the soil and the development of the resources of the country, is a still more important element in the result of this vast work.”MANA 61.2

    Thus, with the idea of becoming the carriers of the world, the highway of the nations, and the richest power on the globe, the American heart swells with pride, and mounts up with aspirations to which there is no limit.MANA 61.3

    And the extent to which we have come up is further shown by the influence which we are exerting on other nations. Speaking of America, Mr. Townsend, in the work above cited, p. 462, says:—MANA 61.4

    “Out of her discovery grew the European reformation in religion;MANA 61.5



    out of our Revolutionary war grew the revolutionary period of Europe. And out of the rapid development among great States and happy peoples, has come an immigration more wonderful than that which invaded Europe from Asia in the latter centuries of the Roman empire. When we raised our flag on the Atlantic, Europe sent her contributions; it appeared on the Pacific, and all Orientalism felt the signal. They are coming in two endless fleets, eastward and westward, and the highway is swung between the oceans for them to tread upon. We have lightened Ireland of half of her weight, and Germany is coming by the village-load every day. England herself is sending the best of her workingmen now (1869), and in such numbers as to dismay her Jack Bunsbys. What is to be the limit of this mighty immigration?”MANA 64.1

    J.P. Thompson (United States as a Nation, p. 180) says:—MANA 64.2

    “History gives examples of the migration of tribes and peoples for the occupation of new territories by settlement or conquest; but there is no precedent for a nation receiving into its bosom millions of foreigners as equal sharers in its political rights and powers. With a magnanimity almost reckless, the United States has done this and survived. Immigration first assumed proportions worthy of note in the decade from 1830 to 1840, when it reached the figure of 599,000. In the decade from 1840 to 1850, it increased to 1,713,000; and the report of the Bureau of Statistics for 1874 gives for the ten calendar years from Jan. 1, 1864, to Dec. 31, 1873, inclusive, a net immigration of 3,287,994. Compare these figures with the fact that the purchase of Louisiana, over a million square miles, brought with it scarcely twenty thousand white inhabitants, and nearly a million square miles acquired through Texas and the Mexican cessions, brought only some fifty thousand, and it will be seen how much more formidable has been the problem of immigration than that of territory.”MANA 64.3

    The American Traveler, published in Boston, Mass., in its issue of Feb. 24, 1883 says:—MANA 64.4

    “The growth of immigration is one of the most striking facts of the period. In 1881 the total arrivals were 720,000, and inMANA 64.5


    1882 they rose to 735,000. These figures are impressive. They foreshadow an addition to our population, by immigration alone, if this rate is maintained, of seven million persons in the next ten years.”MANA 66.1

    This would be more than twice the entire population of the country at the beginning of our independence. It is estimated that last year’s immigrants brought with them a cash capital of $62,470,000; and if each one is worth, as a producing machine, as is claimed from careful estimates, $1,000, Europe has added to our capital stock, the past two years, the handsome sum of $1,455,000,000.MANA 66.2

    Speaking of our influence and standing in the Pacific, Mr Townsend, p. 608, says:—MANA 66.3

    “In the Pacific ocean, these four powers [England, France, Holland, and Russia] are squarely met by the United States, which, without possessions or the wish for them, has paramount influence in Japan, the favor of China, the friendly countenance of Russia, and good feeling with all the great English colonies planted there. The United States is the only power on the Pacific which has not been guilty of intrigue, of double-dealing, of envy, and of bitterness, and it has taken the front rank in influence without awakening the dislike of any of its competitors, possibly excepting those English who are never magnanimous.”MANA 66.4

    And Hon. Wm. H. Seward, on his return from his celebrated trip around the world, said, “Americans are now the fashion all over the world.”MANA 66.5

    With one more extract we close the testimony on this point. In the New York Independent of July 7, 1870, Hon. Schuyler Colfax, then Vice-President of the United States, glancing briefly at the past history of this country, said:—MANA 66.6

    “Wonderful, indeed, has been that history. Springing into life from under the heel of tyranny, its progress has been onward, with the firm step of a conqueror. From the rugged clime ofMANA 66.7


    New England, from the banks of the Chesapeake, from the Savannahs of Carolina and Georgia, the descendants of the Puritans, the Cavalier, and the Huguenot, swept over the towering Alleghenies, but a century ago the barrier between civilization on the one side and almost unbroken barbarism on the other; and the banners of the Republic waved from flag-staff and highland, through the broad valleys of the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the Missouri. Nor stopped its progress there. Thence onward poured the tide of American civilization and progress, over the vast regions of the Western plains; and from the snowy crests of the Sierras you look down on American States fronting the calm Pacific, an empire of themselves in resources and wealth, but loyal in our darkest hours to the nation whose authority they acknowledge, and in whose glory they proudly share.MANA 68.1

    “From a territorial area of less than nine hundred thousand square miles, it has expanded into over three millions and a half, — fifteen time larger than that of Great Britain and France combined, — with a shore-line, including Alaska, equal to the entire circumference of the earth, and with a domain within these lines far wider than that of the Romans in their proudest days of conquest and renown. With a river, lake, and coastwise commerce estimated at over two thousand millions of dollars per year; with railway traffic of from four to six thousand millions per year, and the annual domestic exchanges of the country running up to nearly ten thousand millions per year; with over two thousand millions of dollars invested in manufacturing, mechanical, and mining industry; with over five hundred millions of acres of land in actual occupancy, valued, with their appurtenances, at over seven thousand millions of dollars, and producing annually crops valued at over three thousand millions of dollars; with a realm which, if the density of Belgium’s population were possible, would be vast enough to include all the present inhabitants of the world; and with equal rights guaranteed to even the poorest and humblest of over forty millions of people, we can, with a manly pride akin to that which distinguished the palmiest days of Rome, claim, as the noblest title of the world, ‘I am an American citizen.’ “MANA 68.2

    And how long a time has it taken for this wonderful transformation? In the language of Edward Everett, “They are but lately dead who saw the first-born of the Pilgrims;” and Mr Townsend (p. 21) says, “The memory of one man can swing from that time of primitive government to this — when thirty-eight millions of people [he could now say fifty-five millions] living on two oceans and in two zones, are represented in Washington, and their consuls and ambassadors are in every port and metropolis of the globe.”MANA 68.3


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