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    THE KIDNEYS

    374. What are the kidneys, and what purpose do they serve in the system?HBH 177.3

    They are two similarly-shaped glands, of a dark brown color, about four and a half inches in length by two in breadth and one in thickness, of the form of kidney beans. They are situated on either side of the spinal column, the right one being a little lower than the left. The right kidney is in contact with the liver, the duodenum and ascending colon; the left is in contact with the spleen, pancreas, stomach, and descending colon. The kidneys are constructed of sinewy fibers, woven very densely together, being filled with an immense number of minute tubes, which empty their contents into a tube on each side of the bladder, which discharges its accumulated contents through the urinary ducts. The blood seems to pass through two distinct systems of capillary vessels in the kidneys, in its course from the arteries to the veins. They take up from the blood the water; they also eliminate from the blood saline and waste matters, sugar, albumen, etc.HBH 177.4

    375. What is essential to a healthful action of the kidneys?HBH 178.1

    It is important to attend to the solicitations of nature, and not retain for any length of time the accumulated urine. The kind of water we use greatly affects the action of the kidneys. Hard water, holding lime in solution, is liable to cause maladies most painful to be borne. None but the purest soft water should be used for culinary and drinking purposes.HBH 178.2

    376. What are the supra-renal capsules?HBH 178.3

    They seem to occupy some relation to the early action of the kidneys. They are two small, yellowish, flattened bodies, surmounting the kidneys and inclining toward the vertebral column.HBH 178.4

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