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    baleful — Byington, John


    The eatening harm or menace. Ellen G. White used the word most often in the expression “baleful influence ” to describe a variety of threats to the Christian life. For example, she describes “doubt and unbelief” that exercise “their baleful influence ver mind and heart” (PK 170).EGWD baleful.2

    Ballenger, Albion Fox (1861—1921)

    Seventh-day Adventist minister known for his advocacy of religious liberty. In 1894, he became an associate editor of the *American Sentinel. He is best known for his 1897 sermon “Receive Ye the Holy Ghost” that ushered in a strong holiness version of Adventism. By 1905, he questioned the *sanctuary *doctrine; this led to his ultimate dismissal from the denomination. Ellen G. White strongly warned against his views. He later wrote Cast Outfor the Cross of Christ (1909) about his journey out of Adventism and published the Gathering Call, a dissident magazine.EGWD Ballenger, Albion Fox.2

    Bangs, Elizabeth (Harmon) (1827—1891)

    Twin sister of Ellen G. White. She never became a Sabbath keeper, but the two sisters enjoyed a close relationship.EGWD Bangs, Elizabeth (Harmon) .2


    A method of soaking the body or cleansing it in water. In an age in which baths were infrequent, Ellen White encouraged regular baths. She also understood the word bath as a treatment room for hydrotherapy. Hydrotherapy is the use of water, particularly through alternating hot and cold treatments, for the cure of disease.EGWD bath.2

    Battle Creek Church

    Battle Creek is a town in south-central Michigan that from 1855 to 1903 housed the headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, including major church institutions such as the *Battle Creek Sanitarium, *Battle Creek College, and the Review and Herald Publishing Association. Ellen G. White wrote more testimonies to the church in Battle Creek than to any other congregation during her lifetime. “Our people in Battle Creek have greater responsibilities to bear than those in any other place,” she noted (4T 518).EGWD Battle Creek Church.2

    Battle Creek College

    The school was founded in 1874 as the first permanent Seventh-day Adventist educational institution. It operated in Battle Creek, Michigan, until 1901 when it was relocated to Berrien Springs, Michigan, and renamed Emmanuel Missionary College. In 1960, the institution was renamed Andrews University.EGWD Battle Creek College.2

    Battle Creek Sanitarium

    Founded in 1866 as the Western *Health Reform Institute, it was renamed in 1877 by Dr. *J. H. Kellogg as the Battle Creek Medical and Surgical Sanitarium. During its heyday (by 1900), it was the largest medical institution of its kind in the world. Ellen G. White issued a series of strong admonitions, warning about the spiritual condition of church leaders in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tragically, the institution burned to the ground in 1902. Despite warnings from Ellen G. White to disperse resources, Dr. J. H. Kellogg rebuilt the institution to be evenEGWD Battle Creek Sanitarium.2


    Selling goods as a fund-raiser. Ellen G. White warns against careless raising of money in churches, particularly if the place for God’s worship is desecrated (COL 54).EGWD bazaar.2

    Belden, Franklin Edson (1858—1945)

    Talented musician and son of Ellen G. White’s sister Sarah. At the age of thirty, he worked for the Review and Herald Publishing Association but subsequently left the denomination after a series of lawsuits. He later went on to compose songs for Billy Sunday. In his later life, he became one of Ellen G. White’s most bitter critics.EGWD Belden, Franklin Edson.2

    Bell, Goodloe Harper (1832—1899)

    Pioneer Seventh-day Adventist educator. He started the “Select School” in Battle Creek in 1872 that evolved two years later into *Battle Creek College. Some of his first students included *James Edson White and *W C. White, the children of James and Ellen G. White, and Dr. *J. H. Kellogg. Despite some behavioral challenges from students, Ellen G. White recognized his fine qualities as a consummate educator and called for church members to support him.EGWD Bell, Goodloe Harper.2


    The desire to do good for others; goodwill. Ellen G. White especially liked to use the term * disinterested benevolence to describe Jesus’ unselfish example in coming to this earth (DA 541). In early Adventism, the first method for the support of ministry was called systematic benevolence (ca. 1859—1879).EGWD benevolence.2


    Intoxicated or drunk. Ellen G. White describes how the “intoxicating cup,” referring to alcoholic wine, has a “besotting power.” Such inebriation causes the senses to become benumbed (DA 222).EGWD besotted.2


    Ellen G. White believed that the Bible was the very Word of God, the supreme *revelation of His will, and thus the “standard by which all teaching and experience must be tested” (GC vii). “The whole Bible is a manifestation of Christ” (MH 122). As such, the whole world needs to learn about the gospel. “The e is a famine for the word of God” (COL 228). The Bible is the “foundation of all true knowledge” (FE 393) and serves as “God’s great lesson book” (COL 107). It “is to be our study” and is “an inexhaustible treasure” (COL 109). “This Word, arranged into books, the Old and New Testaments,” she explained, “is the guidebook to the inhabitants of a fallen world, bequeathed to them that, by studying and obeying the directions, not one soul would lose its way to heaven” (FLB 10). When approaching the Bible, it is vital not to make it “vindicate your own opinions.” It can only be properly understood “by those who are humbly seeking for a knowledge of the truth that they may obey it” (COL 112). “We need the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit in order to discern the truths in God’s word” (COL 113). Her view of the Bible is succinctly stated: “The Bible is God’s voice speaking to us, just as surely as though we could hear it with our ears. If we realized this, with what awe would we open God’s word, and with what earnestness would we search its precepts! The reading and contemplation of the Scriptures would be regarded as an audience with the Infinite One” (6T 393). She also warned that part of Satan’s snare at the end of time is to undermine and deny the divine origin of the Bible (GC 557).EGWD Bible.2

    Bible Conference, 1919

    The first significant dialogueEGWD Bible Conference, 1919.2

    Bible institute

    A small convention of ministers, teachers, colporteurs, and their spouses gathered for a period of in-tense Bible study. They typically lasted anywhere from two to eight weeks, with classes led by prominent church leaders, most notably Uriah Smith and J. N. Loughborough. Bible institutes were frequently referenced during the 1870s through the 1890s.EGWD Bible institute.2

    black Americans, work for

    Race relations was the dominant issue in nineteenth-century America as Americans were polarized over the issue of slavery with significant discrimination against blacks in the South that continued through the Reconstruction and Jim Crow era. The issue of slavery was only resolved after a bloody Civil War (1861–1865). Ellen G. White strongly supported abolitionist attempts to free 45 braggadocio spirit B slaves. During the outbreak of hostilities, she had a vision in Parkville, Michigan, on January 12, 1861, in which she was shown that there would be some who would lose sons in the war. At the time, popular sentiment suggested that this would be a short conflict, but it lasted four years. She described the conflict as God’s punishment for the evil of slavery. During the Reconstruction period (1865–1877), she advocated for the uplifting of black Americans in the South. As a response, her son *James Edson White did missionary work on the boat The Morning Star. These and related efforts culminated in the birth of a school known today as Oakwood University.EGWD black Americans.2

    Bourdeau, Augustin Cornelius (1834—1916)

    Early Seventh-day Adventist minister born in Saint Armand, Lower Canada (now Quebec); brother of *D. T. Bourdeau. Originally a Baptist, he converted in 1856 and was ordained to the ministry in 1857. In 1862, he helped to organize the Vermont Conference, and later he served as president of the Quebec Conference. He traveled to Europe in 1884, returned in 1888, and resumed ministry in Canada and New England.EGWD Bourdeau, Augustin Cornelius.2

    Bourdeau, Daniel (1835—1905)

    Early Seventh-day Adventist minister born in Enosburg Falls, Vermont; brother of *A. C. Bourdeau. In 1868, he went to California with *J. N. Loughborough but returned in 1870 to evangelize French-speaking immigrants in Wisconsin and Illinois. In 1876, he joined *J. N. Andrews in Switzerland for a year. He returned to Europe again in 1883, where he stayed until 1887. While in Europe, he had a falling out with Ellen G. White over missionary methods, but ultimately he heeded her warnings.EGWD Bourdeau, Daniel.2

    braggadocio spirit

    Someone who has a tendency to brag (3T 459).EGWD braggadocio spirit.2


    A large piece of paper printed on one side. Some of Ellen G. White’s earliest visions were printed in this format.EGWD broadside.2


    To bear, endure, or support. Ellen G. White described some people who received a slight that they could not brook (PP 611). Similarly, she described young men who advised Rehoboam that he should deal sternly with his subjects and that “he would brook no interference with his personal wishes” (PK 89).EGWD brook.2

    Brownsberger, Sidney (1845—1930)

    Adventist educator. He was active in the development of *Battle Creek College and later *Healdsburg College (now Pacific Union College). Before arriving in Healdsburg, California, he experienced a turbulent divorce.EGWD Brownsberger, Sidney.2

    Butler, George Ide (1834—1918)

    Adventist minister and administrator originally from Vermont. His parents were active in the *Millerite revival and early Sabbatarian Adventist movement. In 1853, he relocated to Iowa, where he was converted and briefly taught school. In 1865, after the defection of B. F. Snook and W. H. Brinkerhoff, he was elected as president of the Iowa Conference and received a ministerial license two years later. He was a strong supporter of Ellen G. White’s prophetic ministry. In 1872, due to *James White’s failing health, he was elected General Conference president (until 1874 when James White resumed the post). In 1880, he again became General Conference president. During the *General Conference Session of 1888, he opposed *E. J. Waggoner and *A. T. Jones but later repented for his hardness of heart. Shortly after the session, he had a serious health setback and relocated to a citrus farm in Florida. The next year his wife, Lentha, suffe ed a debilitating stroke.EGWD Butler, George Ide.2

    Byington, John (1798—1887)

    Adventist minister, abolitionist, and first president of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. Originally a Deist, he was converted in 1816 at a Methodist camp meeting. Afterward he became a circuit-riding preacher. His convictions against slavery motivated his departure from the Methodist Episcopal Church to help form the Wesleyan Methodist Church. He joined the Liberty Party (the first truly antislavery political organization) and the Free-Soil Party (opposed to the spread of slavery in new territories west of the Mississippi River). He named three of his sons after prominent abolitionists. He converted to Sabbatarian Adventism in 1852 after reading a copy of the * Review and Herald at his home in Bucks Bridge, New York. He continued to serve as a circuit-riding minister dividing his time between ministering to groups of believers and working on the farm—this enabled him to support himself so that he never drew a salary from the denomination and also allowed him to give generously to support church projects. Five years later, he relocated to Michigan to help combat fanaticism. In October 1862, he was granted ministerial ordination. The next year he was elected as the first (and oldest) president of the General Conference. Although Ellen White did admonish him, he is notable because he is the only church president she did not rebuke for abuse of power. He deeply respected and promoted the prophetic gift within the denomination, including requiring ministerial candidates to affirm the gift of prophecy. During his administration, he organized ministers into districts and encouraged congregations to build meetinghouses. Deeply loved by many church members, he was known as “theEGWD Byington, John.2

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