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    Palmer, Edwin R — pygmies

    Palmer, Edwin R (1869—1931)

    Colporteur and publishing house manager. Born in Vermont, he attended the South Lancaster Academy in Massachusetts. He married Eva Maynard in 1893 and sold literature in Vermont, Oklahoma, and Australia. From 1901 to 1902, he served as the general agent of literature work for the world field and from 1907 to 1912 as the secretary of the Publishing Department of the General Conference. He was the general manager of the Review and Herald Publishing Association from 1912 to 1931. He also served as the principal of Avondale College (1899—1901) and as the manager of the Paradise Valley Sanitarium in California (1904—1905).EGWD Palmer, Edwin R.2

    panoply

    A term used in the title of the book The Divine Panoply by J. Walker, which was published in 1846. The term, as evinced in the second title of the book, refers to A Suit of Armour for the Soldier of Christ. While the book is not registered in the extant bibliography of Ellen G. White’s personal and office library, her usages of the phrase suggest that she was familiar with this particular volume. She therefore talks about being clothed “with the panoply of God” (DA 779), “with a divine panoply” (DA 353), “in the panoply of truth” (AA 495), or “with the panoply of heaven” (AA 220).EGWD panoply.2

    pantheism

    The idea that a force or power encompasses all of the universe (or *nature). Pantheism is the belief that God is greater than the universe but interpenetrates parts of it—namely animated beings. Ellen G. White used the term pantheism loosely while warning against the teachings of Dr. *J. H. Kellogg (which really were panentheistic), which she viewed as a serious threat to *Seventh-day Adventist theology (5BIO 287-289).EGWD pantheism.2

    paramour

    A lover, especially an illicit partner of a married person. Ellen G. White described Herodias, the wife of Herod’s brother, as the “vile paramour” (DA 215).EGWD paramour.2

    parenting

    Ellen G. White was the mother of four boys and wrote extensively about parenting. She told parents that they must “labor intelligently” for the *conversion of their children. She contrasted parents who do not *discipline their children, such as the biblical Eli, with other parents who carry *reproof too far, “especially when vital godliness is not exemplified in the life of those who administer the reproof” (4T 609).EGWD parenting.2

    parley

    A conference between opposing sides in a dispute. Ellen G. White often used the term to describe how Chris-tians should not “parley with temptation” (DA 120).EGWD parley.2

    paroxysm

    A convulsion; also an outburst. It derives from a Greek word that means to excite or sharpen. It was used in antebellum America to describe the intensification of a disease or a fever that could intermittently come and go (PP 650).EGWD paroxysm.2

    passing of the time.

    A phrase used by Ellen G. White to refer to the *Great Disappointment when Jesus Christ did not return as expected by faithful Millerites. As a young girl, Ellen had heard *William Miller preach, and, like many other Millerites, considered the year leading up to the great day of anticipation as “the happiest year of my life” (CET 51). When Christ did not return, like many others, she was deeply disappointed.EGWD passing of the time..2

    passions

    This word is most often used by Ellen G. White in the phrase “fie y passions” to describe an individual’sEGWD passions.2

    patent nostrums.

    See nostrums.EGWD patent nostrums..2

    pattern of Christ

    Although this phrase is used only nine times in Ellen G. White’s published writings, variations on this idea were used several hundred times. Every Christian should model his or her life upon the “pattern of Christ” (HR Nov. 1, 1878).EGWD pattern of Christ.2

    pauper (also pauperism)

    A person who is very poor and often unemployed and/or homeless. Ellen G. White wrote an entire chapter in The Ministry of Healing about the need to help such individuals (183—200).EGWD pauper (also pauperism).2

    Peck, Sarah Elizabeth (1868—1968)

    Educator, missionary, and author. Beginning in 1898, she served as a literary assistant to Ellen G. White in Australia, where she organized a new filing system and worked as a bookkeeper. She helped to compile Testimonies for the Church, volume 6 (1900) and Education (1903). After 1903, Peck served as a teacher at a nearby church school. She contributed her skills to the True Education Readers series and other denominational textbooks.EGWD Peck, Sarah Elizabeth.2

    peevish

    Easily irritated by unimportant things. “Fretful and peevish fathers and mothers are giving their children lessons which at some period in their lives they would give all the world, were it theirs, could they unlearn” (AH 322).EGWD peevish.2

    penury

    Extreme poverty or destitution (GC 20).EGWD penury.2

    perfection

    Ellen G. White used the terms “perfection,” “sanctification ” and “holiness” interchangeably throughout her writings to describe the process of the believer’s character transformation into the likeness of Christ. Her use of the term “perfection” never conveyed a point of sinless perfection that Christians attain. “So long as Satan reigns, we shall have self to subdue, besetting sins to overcome; so long as life shall last, there will be no stopping place, no point which we can reach and say, I have fully attained.” (AA 560—561). Rather, she described “perfection of Christian character” as an ongoing, lifelong process that involves continual advancement: “Every day we may advance in perfection of Christian character” (MH 503). Her view of perfection embraced several levels of Christian experience: (1) reckoned perfection when the believer is accounted as legally perfect through justification; (2) relative perfection when the believer is relatively perfect through ongoing sanctification and victory over known sin; (3) “time of trouble” perfection when believers would rather die than knowingly sin; (4) sinless perfection at glorification that is achieved only at the Second Coming when the saints receive immortality (see Woodrow W. Whidden, “Perfection,” in the Ellen G. White Encyclopedia, 1021—1024).EGWD perfection.2

    perfid

    Deceitfulness or untrustworthiness. Ellen G. White used this term as a characteristic of the priests who opposed Jesus (DA 722, 727).EGWD perfid.2

    persecution

    The use of force, whether coercive or willful, to pressure people to do something against their will. “In all ages Satan has persecuted the people of God” (MB 30). Ellen G. White states that “the character of the persecution changes with the times” (MB 29).EGWD persecution.2

    perspicuity of Scripture

    The *doctrine of the clarity of Scripture is a *Protestant Reformation notion that is closely aligned with sola scriptura, or the *Bible alone. This *Protestant doctrine differs with the Roman Catholic Church teaching that Scripture is imperspicuous (unclear) apart from its interpretation through the *church and tradition. Early Seventh-day Adventists were influenced by the restorationist movement, which emphasized a return to the early New Testament church, including the priesthood of all believers. Thus, early Adventists believed that an ordinary person is capable of comprehending God’s will through Scripture. Ellen G. White emphasized that through the *Holy Spirit the “vital truths” of salvation are “made so plain that none need err therein” (COL 113).EGWD perspicuity of Scripture.2

    pestilential

    Prone to plagues or infectious diseases. Ellen G. White noted the need for people to go to “the dark places of the earth” to proclaim the gospel, which requires sacrifice. In contrast, some people for “worldly advantage” are “willing to venture into pestilential regions” (PK 173).EGWD pestilential.2

    pet (also petting)

    Ellen G. White used this term to describe how parents indulge, or “pet,” their children. Such parents tend to be lax and avoid disciplining their children. Occasionally, this term was used to portray individuals who show favoritism by “petting” others or church members who indulge, or “pet,” their pastors by inflating their egos though praising their sermons.EGWD pet (also petting).2

    petulant (also petulance)

    Bad tempered or childish. Ellen G. White described certain individuals as being petulant (4T 129, 347; MH 219) and, in one instance, how people have prayed petulant *prayers (OHC 147).EGWD petulant (also petulance).2

    philanthropy

    See stewardship.EGWD philanthropy.2

    Phillips (Rice), Anna (1865—1926)

    Visionary, who for a brief time, claimed to have the prophetic gift. In 1892, Anna began to receive visions but was unable to obtain guidance from Ellen G. White. She counseled with *A. T. Jones instead. He believed in and strongly promulgated her prophetic gift through February 1894. Ellen G. White warned that such visions should not be endorsed “without sufficien evidence” (2SM 92). She did not blame Anna but, instead, rebuked those who promoted her in these visions. Jones and *W. W. Prescott expressed regret for their role, and Anna repudiated her claims. She later served the denomination as a Bible worker.EGWD Phillips (Rice), Anna.2

    phrenology

    A precursor to modern psychiatry and modern neuroscience that examined the physical contours of the skull to determine various physical and moral characteristics. It was common for patients to have their heads read when admitted to a medical institution.EGWD phrenology.2

    phthisic

    A *Victorian term referring to a wasting disease, particularly of the lungs (2T 349).EGWD phthisi.2

    physiognomy

    A phrenological term that is derived from the Greek words physis meaning “nature” and gnomon meaning to “judge” or “interpret.” Thus,physiognomy refers to ascertaining information from the physical characteristics of a person.EGWD physiognomy.2

    picnic

    A term used to describe a fashionable and public entertainment in which people contributed food to a com-mon table. In Ellen G. White’s time, large July 4th (American Independence Day) holiday picnics resembled a circus or fair. A Fourth of July picnic she attended in 1882 was characterized by a modest meal and thanksgiving to God,EGWD picnic.2

    piety

    For Ellen G. White, piety meant a daily, “consecrated life” to God that was not “outward forms” (4T 609).EGWD piety.2

    Pitcairn

    Missionary ship. As early as 1876, *James White and *J. N. Loughborough sent a box of literature to Pitcairn Island. Ten years later *John I. Tay (1832—1892) traveled to Pitcairn and, after Bible studies and requests for *baptism, promised to return later. The missionary schooner Pitcairn reached the island in 1890, after which most of the islanders were baptized. The vessel eventually made six missionary voyages before it was sold.EGWD Pitcairn.2

    plain teaching

    Although Ellen G. White never used the term plain reading, she did however use the term plain teaching to indicate the *perspicuity, or clarity, of Scripture, which is one of the great teachings of the *Protestant Reformation. Although God’s *revelation is full of mystery because a full understanding of God is beyond human comprehension, there are certain things that are clearly revealed. Most obvious is God’s *love, which is “made plain” for human beings (Ed 16).EGWD plain teaching.2

    plaudit

    Praise (4T 413).EGWD plaudit.2

    popish.

    Pertaining to the Roman Catholic Church, and in particular, the Roman Catholic curia or papacy. This term is often used to refer to the papacy’s tendency through the centuries to assert his primacy and authority over others and above the Word of God. In this sense, Ellen G. White warns against “popish superstition” and “popish rites” (GC 195, 235).EGWD popish..2

    porridge

    Cooked cereal, often as breakfast food. “Grains used for porridge or ‘mush’ should have several hours’ cooking” (MH 301).EGWD porridge.2

    positive

    Ellen G. White used the term in such phrases as “positive temperament” to mean a dogmatic or overly confident opinion (3T 536; cf. 3T 533). See also temperament.EGWD positive.2

    practical godliness (also religion)

    A term used in various forms to describe the practical implementation of *truth in the life of the believer. It is not enough to merely assent theoretically; the message of truth must change one’s behavior, otherwise it is useless. The best example of practical godliness is found in “the life of Christ and His lessons” (3T 214).EGWD practical godliness (also religion).2

    prayer

    Ellen G. White described prayer as “the opening of the heart to God as to a friend” (4T 533). Prayer is an act of worship. “God hears prayer,” she wrote (MH 226). The*Bible should never be studied without a “prayerful dependence upon God” (GC 599). God wants us to wrestle with Him in prayer (COL 232). “Prayer unites us with one another and with God. Prayer brings Jesus to our side, and gives to the fainting, perplexed soul new strength to overcome the world, the flesh, and the devil. Prayer turns aside the attacks of Satan” (COL 250). When our prayers are not answered or are not answered in the way we prefer, God may be testing us or may be planning to do something better for us than we can imagine. “God is too wise and good to answer our prayers always at just the time and in just the manner we desire” (MH 231). Similarly, if Christians see that “persons are not raised to health [even when prayed for], they should not on this account be judged as wanting in faith” (MH 230). Ellen G. White also warned that “prayer is not an expiation for sin; it has no virtue or merit of itself” (MB 86). The Pharisees’ lengthy prayers are examples of theEGWD prayer.2

    preaching

    The *work of the gospel minister through the preaching of the *Bible is a sacred and holy work. The earliest Sabbatarian Adventist ministers were largely itinerant and functioned primarily as evangelists. With few ministers available, they could, at best, only visit most churches periodically to conduct the *Lord’s Supper or officiate at *baptisms. Church members should not necessarily expect a sermon every week (7T 19). When the congregants were fortunate enough to hear such a sermon, those who listened were to have open hearts—no matter how fla ed the messenger and the delivery of the message—for a word of *truth in which they could discern truth that applied to their own lives. While church members should use common sense, Ellen G. White considered it a grave sin to exhibit *faultfinding with the delivery of the message. She furthermore encouraged ministers to be diligent to improve their gift through careful Bible study and delivery. The most important preparation is to make sure that the preacher, through *prayer and heart searching, wrestles with the Word of God. As the preacher’s heart is convicted, he or she will become a “living epistle” that will have greater impact upon listeners (5T 386). Every sermon preached is a sacred act and an opportunity to invite someone to accept Jesus Christ as Savior. “No discourse should ever be preached without presenting Christ and Him crucified as the foundation of the gospel” (GW 158).EGWD preaching.2

    Preble, Thomas M (1810—1907)

    A Millerite and an early proponent of the seventh-day *Sabbath. His article and tract were instrumental in the acceptance of the seventh-day Sabbath by *Joseph Bates, *J. N. Andrews, and James and Ellen G. White. He later renounced the seventh-day Sabbath.EGWD Preble, Thomas M.2

    preceptor or preceptress

    Dean of men or women at a school, respectively.EGWD preceptor or preceptress.2

    prejudice

    Ellen G. White lived during a turbulent time, particularly in the years leading up to the American Civil War (1861—1865), due to the issue of slavery. She was an ardent abolitionist. During the Reconstruction period, she worked to lessen racial prejudice and strongly supported the *Oakwood Industrial School as a school for black Americans. As Christians, we should put aside racial, socioeconomic, nationalist, and any other barriers through which people demean others. “Christ tears away the wall of partition,” she wrote, “the self-love, the dividing prejudice of nationality, and teaches a love for all the human family” (MB 42).EGWD prejudice.2

    Prescott, William Warren (1855—1944)

    Minister, educator, and administrator. From 1885 to 1944, he occupied many leadership positions. He served as a member of the General Conference Executive Committee for forty-two years. A talented researcher, he assisted Ellen G. White in obtaining historical sources for the 1911 edition of The Great Controversy. After her death, he played a leading role in the *1919 Bible Conference.EGWD Prescott, William Warren.2

    presentiment

    A previous conception, sentiment, or opinion; an apprehension of something future (PP 451).EGWD presentiment.2

    present truth

    The idea that God reveals new *truth to His people that is especially relevant for them at that time. Early Sabbatarian Adventists embraced a dynamic concept of present truth. Whereas God’s Word is revealed, a clearer and growing appreciation of the *character of God and the *moral government of God will continue to unfold throughoutEGWD present truth.2

    Preston, Rachel (Harris) Oakes (1809—1868)

    Seventh Day Baptist who later became a Seventh-day Adventist. During the *Millerite revival, she shared her convictions about the seventh-day *Sabbath with Frederick Wheeler, her minister, who presumably shared his views with *T. M. Preble, another nearby minister.EGWD Preston, Rachel (Harris) Oakes.2

    probation (also probationers)

    The time granted to each individual to prepare for eternity (4T 147). The close of probation occurs either when a person dies, or (for those who are alive) just before the *second coming of Jesus Christ and is followed immediately by the time of trouble.EGWD probation (also probationers).2

    profligate

    A licentious, dissolute individual who is excessively wasteful. Ellen G. White used this term to describe King Solomon as part of his spiritual decline (PK 58).EGWD profligate.2

    progress

    The “spirit of progress” is a characteristic of the Christian life. “We must guard continually against being filed in our views, feelings, and actions. The work of God is onward. Reforms must be carried on, and we must take hold and help move on the car [train] of reform” (3T 540). Antebellum America is generally characterized by most historians as the great age of reform movements.EGWD progress.2

    promiscuous.

    A term during Ellen G. White’s lifetime that referred to mingling or associating; it has nothing to do with the modern sexual connotation. For example, she frequentlyEGWD promiscuous..2

    propensity (also propensities)

    Ellen G. White described human beings as having “inclinations and propensities” toward sin (4T 215).EGWD propensity (also propensities).2

    prophecy, gift of

    According to 2 Timothy 3:16, “all Scripture [pasa graphe] is God-breathed” (NIV). This means that the entire *Bible is inspired and that no part is more or less inspired. In the same way, God inspires individuals (2 Peter 1:21). Some examples of biblical prophets include Balaam who delivered oracles (Numbers 23, 24); David, who said that “the Lord spoke by me, and His word was on my tongue” (2 Samuel 23:2, NKJV); and noncanonical prophets, such as Huldah, who was just as inspired as her contemporary Jeremiah. Thus, prophets act as a mouthpiece for God. Ellen G. White never claimed to be a prophet. When someone queried her on this point, she responded,EGWD prophecy.2

    prophet, tests of a

    The *gift of prophecy is a spiritual gift from the *Holy Spirit. Seventh-day Adventists believe that all claims to the prophetic gift should be evaluated by faithfulness to the teachings of Scripture. While their source (*revelation) and communication (*inspiration) are the same as Scripture, all postbiblical revelations are considered to be subject to the *authority of Scripture. Scripture warns against false prophets, so Christians must beware of them (MB 145, 146). A true prophet will profess the divine- human nature of Jesus Christ; the prophet’s predictions will come true; and the prophet’s life will be lived in a manner that is consistent with his or her teachings and that bears spiritual fruit (the orchard test).EGWD prophet, tests of a.2

    propriety

    Conformity to socially accepted standards of behavior. Children should be taught the rules of propriety (CG 101). Ministers are especially admonished about their need to set an example of “order” and “propriety” in their personal appearance (2T 610). Similarly, women should never be lured away from the strictest propriety (TSB 243). Ultimately, “love imparts to its possessor grace, propriety, and comeliness of deportment” (4T 559; MH 490).EGWD propriety.2

    proslavery men

    As the American Civil War (1861—1865) progressed, Ellen G. White warned against certain “proslavery men” and “traitors” in the *North who were sympathizers with “the South” (1T 268). They were often called “Copperheads” in the newspapers.EGWD proslavery men.2

    Protestant

    A reference to the religious upheaval of the sixteenth century that led to the Reformers’ “protest” against the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church. Ellen G. White called for Seventh-day Adventists to uphold the same principle of sola scriptura, or the Bible alone, as its greatEGWD Protestant.2

    protracted meeting

    A religious meeting typically lasting several days. The term took on significance in the 1830s during the Second Great Awakening. Ellen G. White generally referred to a “protracted meeting” by other denominations, although other early Adventist pioneers used the term.EGWD protracted meeting.2

    psychology

    Ellen G. White warned that the “sciences of phrenology, psychology, and *mesmerism” are tools used by Satan to deceive (1T 290). These were each broad terms used to describe any and all practices associated with the brain, and they should not be confused with the modern scientific study of psychology.EGWD psychology.2

    public house

    A *Victorian term used to describe an inn with a bar or saloon, sometimes abbreviated as a “pub” (MH 338). Such places frequently offered lodging (LS80 250).EGWD public house.2

    Puritan (also Puritanism)

    A group of English Reformed Protestants from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who sought to reform the Church of England. The Puritan revival of the seventeenth century in Europe culminated with efforts to carry out its reforms while under *persecution. Early settlements in New England were dominated by the Puritans as they sought to mold society after their ideals. Early New England was heavily influenced by Puritan thinking, and by extension, early Adventism was influenced by Puritan thinking. Most noticeable was the early observance of the seventh-day *Sabbath that reflected in many ways the strict practice of Sunday observance by the Puritans.EGWD Puritan (also Puritanism).2

    pygmies

    A reference to people groups of short stature. Ellen G. White makes a passing reference to such short individuals in Patriarchs and Prophets (436).EGWD pygmies.2

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