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    Sabbatarian Conferences — systematic benevolence

    Sabbatarian Conferences

    A series of Bible conferences held from 1848 to 1850. By the time these Conferences occurred, Adventist positions on the seventh-day *Sabbath, the state of the dead, the *Second Advent, and the *sanctuary had already been formulated, but what was truly significant was how they integrated these beliefs together into a coherent system of faith. This loose coalition of Sabbatarian Adventists coalesced into a movement that by 1860 took the name Seventh-day Adventist and by 1863 had organized into a General Conference.EGWD Sabbatarian Conferences.2


    Ellen G. White accepted the seventh-day Sabbath after initially resisting the idea as presented by *Joseph Bates. After her own study of the *Bible, she received a vision in which she saw a halo surrounding the fourthEGWD Sabbath.2


    Sanctification is the outworking of *grace in the life of the believer. Such outward fruits must first be preceded by God’s *love (4T 610). See also character.EGWD sanctification.2


    The biblical *doctrine of the sanctuary belongs at the heart of *Seventh-day Adventist theology. It is a prominent feature of the life and writings of Ellen G. White. Like many Millerites, she believed, based upon the day-year principle for the twenty-three hundred days of Daniel 8:14, that the sanctuary to be cleansed was this earth at the *second coming of Jesus Christ. She believed that the twenty-three hundred days began in 457 b.c. and terminated, based upon the Karaite calendar, on October 22, 1844. Soon afterward, *Hiram Edson, *O. R. L. Crosier, and Dr. F. B. Hahn studied the Bible to understand their disappointment and came to the conclusion that the sanctuary to be cleansed was in heaven, not on earth. Two of Ellen G. White’s earliest visions confirm this position. In her first vision (December 1844), she received confirmation that their understanding of Bible prophecy was the beginning of a pathway; in a subsequent vision, she was shown that the Father and Son had moved to the Holy of Holies in the heavenly sanctuary. “The subject of the sanctuary,” she observed years later, “was the key which unlocked the mystery of the disappointment of 1844. It opened to view a complete system of truth, connected and harmonious, showing that God’s hand had directed the great advent movement and revealing present duty as it brought to light the position and work of His people” (GC 423).EGWD sanctuary.2


    *Victorian expression for “student.” Ellen G. White counseled teachers to be patient with “dull scholars” (4T 420).EGWD scholar.2

    school home. A dormitory

    Ellen G. White admonished that boarding students “should be taught that they are not independent atoms, but that each one is a thread which is to unite with other threads in composing a fabric” (6T 172). Thus, students should be given responsibilities that teach them to become dependable and productive members of society.EGWD school home. A dormitory.2

    Second Advent (also Coming)

    The Second Coming refers to the literal, personal return of Christ to earth with His angels in great glory to deliver His people and resurrect the righteous dead (DA 632). Also referred to as the Second Advent (arrival). This pervasive theme in Ellen White’s writings left no part of her thinking unaffected. Some of her most eloquent and inspiring prose was written in connection with the events surrounding the second coming of Christ (EW 285-298; GC 635-652).EGWD Second Advent (also Coming).2

    secret prayer

    Private prayer that is done alone. Ellen G. White noted that “secret prayer” is vital to the Christian experience, for it “is the life of the soul” (CSA 27).EGWD secret prayer.2

    secret vice

    See vice.EGWD secret.2


    Showing dedication and diligence (PP 729).EGWD sedulous.2


    A term used to describe human nature. Ellen G. White repeatedly admonished that “self” should “be hid in Christ” (4T 613). In contrast, she warned, “To live for self is to perish” (COL 259). See also self-denial.EGWD self.2


    See solitary vice.EGWD self-abuse.2


    The ability “to rule the spirit when passion is seeking for the mastery” (4T 521). “The most difficult sermon to preach and the hardest to practice is self-denial” (RC 232).EGWD self-denial.2


    A term used 341 times in the published writings of Ellen G. White to describe selfishness and/or someone who is full of self-love. This selfish disposition was S a *vice.EGWD self-esteem.2


    A term used by Ellen G. White to indicate suicide (PP 682).EGWD self-murder.2


    A term used 215 times in the published writings of Ellen G. White; it is associated with human dignity and moral purity (AH 404, 426).EGWD self-respect.2


    A term used in the nineteenth century to describe an abounding expression of sentiment or opinions, or being able to quickly express intellectual feeling (PP 594).EGWD sentimentalism.2


    An adjective indicating rows of people or things standing close together. Ellen G. White described the “serried ranks” of Satan’s host at the end of the millennium who will wage war against Jesus and God’s people who are safely in the New Jerusalem (GC 664).EGWD serried.2

    Seventh-day Adventist theology

    Seventh-day Adventist theology formed during the 1840s after the Millerite *Great Disappointment. The central unifying theme was the *sec- ond coming of Christ. During the *Millerite revival, a number of people accepted the seventh-day *Sabbath; theEGWD Seventh-day Adventist theology.2


    Another term for arrows or the bodies of arrows. Ellen G. White referred to the “shafts of Satan” (PP 751).EGWD shafts.2


    Someone who cheats (4T 617).EGWD sharper.2


    One of the most common terms to describe loss or destruction, such as making a “shipwreck of faith” (AA 76).EGWD shipwreck.2


    An earthquake (GC 304, 305).EGWD Shock.2

    shut door

    A biblical expression from Matthew 25:10 and Revelation 3:7 that the Millerites applied to the close of human *probation just before Christ’s *second coming. Thus believers felt that the door of probation closed onEGWD shut door.2


    Sin is any form of evil that is the transgression of God’s law. “Sin is the greatest of all evils” (COL 387). It originated with Satan’s rebellion in heaven. The actual origin of sin is a mystery “too deep for the human mind to explain, or even fully to comprehend” (SC 106). Sin began on Earth with the fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Satan misrepresented God’s *character as “severe and tyrannical” (GC 500; cf. MB 31). As a result, human minds have been perverted by sin. “For earth’s sin and misery the gospel is the only antidote” (MH 141). “Every sin cherished,” warned Ellen G. White, “weakens the character and strengthens habit,” thus lessening the ability “to distinguish between right and wrong” (COL 281).EGWD sin.2

    sitz bath

    An antebellum expression for a bath taken by sitting in water up to one’s hips. These baths were often used to relieve discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen. The bath could be either warm or hot, and substances including salts, baking soda, and vinegar were often used to relieve itching, hemorrhoids, and genital problems. During Ellen G. White’s lifetime, it was believed that sitz baths relieved inflammation and constipation. Ellen G. White was known to occasionally partake of a sitz bath (see her diary entry for January 8, 1868, in Ms 12, 1868).EGWD sitz bath.2

    slave power

    The social, economic, and political influence that slaveholders exerted in the *South and on the federal government during the decades prior to the American Civil War. Ellen G. White referred to this term in her writings during the war (1T 264; RH Aug. 27, 1861).EGWD slave power.2


    A term used to refer to a bench (1T 656).EGWD slip.2

    Smith, Annie Rebekah (1828—1855)

    Editor, poet, and hymn writer. With her brother *Uriah Smith, she experienced the *Great Disappointment. After this, she was no longer interested in Adventism. Reconverted by *Joseph Bates in 1851, she joined the * Review and Herald staff a short time later. While the Whites traveled, she was left in charge of press operations. She tragically died from tuberculosis at the age of twenty-seven.EGWD Smith, Annie Rebekah.2

    Smith, Uriah (1832—1903)

    Minister, editor, and educator. Converted with his sister *Annie Smith, he joined the *Review and Herald staff in Rochester, New York. He later became the editor of the Review and Herald, a position he held for almost fifty years. Smith is perhaps best known for his writings on Bible prophecy, especially his Thoughts, Critical and Practical, on the Book of Daniel and Thoughts, Critical and Practical, on the Book of on Revelation (which were eventually compiled into a single volume in 1882). Smith was a close friend of James and Ellen G. White and, at times, was the recipient of some of her *reproofs. Although they experienced conflict he ultimately conceded and benefited from her reproof. He became a staunch defender of her prophetic ministry. Perhaps the greatest test came in conjunction with the *General Conference Session of 1888. Ellen G. White admonished him for having a critical attitude, which he subsequently repented of and admitted to being on the wrong side.EGWD Smith, Uriah.2

    social meeting

    A social meeting was an integral part of early Seventh-day Adventist worship. Such meetings were best when all participated and testimonies were short and frequent (GW 171). A social meeting was often interspersed with hymn singing and Bible study.EGWD social meeting.2


    Carefulness; concern; anxiety; uneasiness of mind occasioned by fear of evil or the desire for good (AA 201). Ellen G. White noted how some people “felt little solicitude” (PP 636).EGWD solicitude.2

    solitary vice

    A term used to indicate sexual addictions, especially masturbation. Ellen G. White wrote sternly against any and all forms of solitary vice (2T 390—411). Unlike other health reformers of her time, who suggested harsh physical restraints and even castration, Ellen G. White recommended that parents talk with their children about purity and make dietary changes to help resolve this problem.EGWD solitary vice.2


    See justification y faith; sanctificationEGWD soteriology.2


    A reference, particularly during the American Civil War (1861—1865), to the slave-holding Confederate States of America, which consisted of the governments of eleven Southern states that seceded from the Union (1860—1861) and that carried on all the affairs of a separate government and conducted a major war until defeated in the spring of 1865 (see 1T 253-268).EGWD South.2

    special revelation

    See Bible.EGWD special revelation.2


    The nineteenth century was rampant with various get-rich-quick schemes, such as patent rights (3T 400). Ellen G. White was not against creativity andEGWD speculation.2


    A term sometimes used to denote a person’s dis-position, such as whether someone is happy or sad. At other times, Ellen G. White warned against evil spirits in the nineteenth-century *spiritualism movement.EGWD spirit(s).2

    Spirit of Prophecy series

    A series of four volumes published between 1870 and 1884 that expanded the earlier * Spiritual Gifts series that expounded upon the biblical and historical narrative related to the *great controversy theme.EGWD Spirit of Prophecy.2

    Spiritual Gifts series

    A series of four volumes published between 1858 and 1864. It was the earliest exposition of the *great controversy theme after Ellen G. White’s far-reaching great controversy vision of 1858. The volumes were later expanded into the *Spirit of Prophecy series of volumes and ultimately the *Conflict of the Ages seriesEGWD Spiritual Gifts series.2


    Ellen G. White considered all communication with Satan and his angels as evil and a form of spiritualism. The movement known as Modern Spiritualism began in 1848 with the mysterious spirit *rapping in Hydesville, New York, and flourished during the 1850s. It continued throughout the rest of the nineteenth century and found new forms of expression in the twentieth and twenty-firs centuries. Ellen G. White described the rise of these spirit manifestations as an eschatological marker denoting the imminent *Second Advent of Christ. She compared the “magicians of heathen times” as equivalent to “spiritualistic mediums, clairvoyants, and the fortune-tellers of today” (AA 290). Similarly, she warned that none need be deceived by the lies of spiritualism because “God has given . . . sufficie light . . . to discover the snare.” She noted that spiritualism, at its core, “is at war with the plainest statements of Scripture.” Such communication with the dead, she observed, is “expressly forbidden” in Scripture (GC 556). “Satan has long been preparing for his final effort to deceive the world. . . . Little by little he has prepared the way for his masterpiece of deception in the development of spiritualism. He has not yet reached the full accomplishment of his designs; but it will be reached in the last remnant of time” (GC 561). “Except those who are kept by the power of God, through faith in His word, the whole world will be swept into the ranks of this delusion” (GC 562). (See Jud Lake, A Nation in God’s Hands, Chapter 13: “Officers and the spirits.”)EGWD spiritualism.2


    Spirituality for Ellen G. White was an essential part of the Christian experience. She most often referred to spirituality as communion with Christ that entails daily Bible study, *prayer, and *meditation. Such spiritual disciplines provide “fresh inspirations” for the inner life (5T 161).EGWD spirituality.2

    state agent

    The leader who coordinated the publication of denominational literature through the state *conference, typically through the *tract society, and directs the colporteurs in selling that literature.EGWD state agent.2


    Copied. The stereo view was a technique created to give the illusion of depth through binocular vision. The typical method was to present two offset images separately to the viewer’s left eye and right eye to create depth perception. The two images were identical; thus, Ellen G. White’s expression meant that something was exactly copied, or “stereotyped.”EGWD stereotyped.2


    Ellen G. White urged faithful Christian stewardship of believers’ whole lives. This involves one’s time and all resources, including finances. Christians should be careful not to waste such resources. “We are to save, that we may give,” she observed (MH 206). In another place, she stated that “to give is to live” (COL 86, 87). The principle of liberality is such that humans should give “wherever the cause of God or the needs of humanity demand our aid” (COL 85, 86). “There is no sin in being rich if riches are not acquired by injustice” (COL 266). “Money cannot be carried into the next life; it is not needed there; but the good deeds done in winning souls to Christ are carried to the heavenly courts” (COL 266).EGWD stewardship.2

    stoic (also stoical)

    A generic reference to the Stoics or their *doc- trines. In antebellum America, this was a common term to refer to someone who was not affected by passion or feeling or who manifested indifference to pleasure or pain. Ellen G. White encouraged people to be faithful in proclaiming the *truth, even if some who listen manifest “stoical indifference” at the peril of their very souls (1MCP 35).EGWD stoic (also stoical).2


    Being calm and dependable; showing little emotion or animation. Ellen G. White described people who “may appear stoical and stolid. But under the ministration of the Holy Spirit, the stupidity that makes their uplifting appear so hopeless will pass away” (MH 169).EGWD stolid.2


    Mental insensibility or a state of near unconsciousness. Ellen G. White, for example, noted how she tried to rouse the *church from a “stupor and deathlike slumber” in describing the spiritual state of the church at the time (RH S Dec. 18, 1888).EGWD stupor.2


    The gradual sinking of a piece of land. Ellen G.White quoted from a book that described the subsidence of a *quay in conjunction with the Lisbon earthquake (GC 305).EGWD subsidence.2

    Sunday law

    During Ellen G. White’s lifetime, there were a number of efforts to legislate Sunday observance (particularly in the United States, Canada, and Australia). Ellen G.White claimed that a central issue before Christ’s *Second Advent will be the keeping of the seventh-day Sabbath versus Sunday observance. She stated that the faithful observance of the seventh-day Sabbath will be a great test of faith and will distinguish God’s people. She argued that the same Roman Catholic Church that claimed the authority to change the seventh-day Sabbath to Sunday “never changes” (GC 581). Right before the end, as church and state seek to dominate *conscience, religious *persecution similar to that of the medieval period will be repeated. “The United States shall enforce Sunday observance” (GC 579). Thus, the keeping of the true “Sabbath will be the great test of loyalty” to the Creator (GC 605).EGWD Sunday law.2


    To cause a person to desire no more of something as a result of having consumed or done it in excess (4T 609).EGWD surfeited.2

    Sutherland, Edward Alexander (1865—1955)

    Educator and minister. After several years of training and teaching, Sutherland participated in the 1891 Harbor Springs, Michigan, educational convention. At this meeting, he was converted and determined to implement educational reforms. In 1892, he founded and became the principal of Walla Walla College in College Place, Washington. In 1897, he became the principal of * Battle Creek College, where he collaborated with *P. T. Magan on relocating the school. In 1904, they started a self-supporting school—the Nashville Agricultural and Normal Institute. (After 1937, its name was changed to Madison College.)EGWD Sutherland, Edward Alexander.2

    systematic benevolence

    See benevolence.EGWD systematic benevolence.2

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