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    Keep, Keeping — Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown

    Keep, Keeping

    A — 1: τηρέω
    (Strong's #5083 — Verb — tereo — tay-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.2

    denotes (a) "to watch over, preserve, keep, watch," e.g., Acts 12:5, 6 ; Acts 16:23 ; in Acts 25:21 , RV (1st part), "kept" (AV, "reserved"); the present participle is translated "keepers" in Matthew 28:4 , lit. "the keeping (ones);" it is used of the "keeping" power of God the Father and Christ, exercised over His people, John 17:11, 12, 15 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , "preserved;" 1 John 5:18 , where "He that was begotten of God," RV, is said of Christ as the Keeper ("keepeth him," RV, for AV, "keepeth himself"); Jude 1:1 , RV, "kept for Jesus Christ" (AV, "preserved in Jesus Christ"); Revelation 3:10 ; of their inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4 ("reserved"); of judicial reservation by God in view of future doom, 2 Peter 2:4, 9, 17 ; 2 Peter 3:7 ; Jude 1:6, 13 ; of "keeping" the faith, 2 Timothy 4:7 ; the unity of the Spirit, Ephesians 4:3 ; oneself, 2 Corinthians 11:9 ; 1 Timothy 5:22 ; James 1:27 ; figuratively, one's garments, Revelation 16:15 ; (b) "to observe, to give heed to," as of keeping commandments, etc., e.g., Matthew 19:17 ; John 14:15 ; John 15:10 ; John 17:6 ; James 2:10 ; 1 John 2:3, 4, 5 ; 1 John 3:22, 24 ; 1 John 5:2 (in some mss.),3; Revelation 1:3 ; Revelation 2:26 ; Revelation 3:8, 10 ; Revelation 12:17 ; Revelation 14:12 ; Revelation 22:7, 9 . See RESERVE.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.3

    A — 2: διατηρέω
    (Strong's #1301 — Verb — diatereo — dee-at-ay-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.4

    "to keep carefully" (dia, intensive, and No. 1), is said of "the mother of Jesus," in keeping His sayings in her heart, Luke 2:51 , and of the command of the Apostles and elders in Jerusalem to Gentile converts in the churches to "keep" themselves from the evils mentioned in Acts 15:29 .VED-NT Keep, Keeping.5

    A — 3: συντηρέω
    (Strong's #4933 — Verb — suntereo — soon-tay-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.6

    denotes "to preserve, keep safe, keep close" (sun, "together with," used intensively, and No. 1), in Luke 2:19 , as in Luke 2:51 (see No. 2, above), of the mother of Jesus in regard to the words of the shepherds; in Mark 6:20 it is used of Herod's preservation of John the Baptist from Herodias, RV, "kept (him) safe," AV, "observed (him)" (marg., "kept"); in Matthew 9:17 (in some mss., Luke 5:38 ), of the preservation of wineskins. See OBSERVE , PRESERVE.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.7

    A — 4: φυλάσσω
    (Strong's #5442 — Verb — phulasso — foo-las'-so )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.8

    denotes (a) "to guard, watch, keep watch," e.g, Luke 2:8 ; in the Passive Voice, Luke 8:29 ; (b) "to keep by way of protection," e.g., Luke 11:21 ; John 12:25 ; John 17:12 (2nd part; No. 1 in 1st part and in John 17:11 ); (c) metaphorically, "to keep a law, precept," etc., e.g., Matthew 19:20 ; Luke 18:21 , "have observed;" Luke 11:28 ; John 12:47 (in the best mss.); Acts 7:53 ; Acts 16:4 ; Acts 21:24 ; Romans 2:26 ; Galatians 6:13 ; 1 Timothy 5:21 ("observe"); in the Middle Voice, Mark 10:20 ("have observed"); (d) in the Middle Voice, "to keep oneself from," Acts 21:25 ; elsewhere translated by the verb "to beware." See BEWARE , No. 3, GUARD, B, No. 1.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.9

    A — 5: διαφυλάσσω
    (Strong's #1314 — Verb — diaphulasso — dee-af-oo-las'-so )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.10

    an intensive form of No. 4, "to guard thoroughly;" see GUARD.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.11

    A — 6: φρουρέω
    (Strong's #5432 — Verb — phroureo — froo-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.12

    "to keep with a military guard," e.g., Galatians 3:23 , RV, "kept in ward;" see GUARD , B, No. 3VED-NT Keep, Keeping.13

    A — 7: ποιέω
    (Strong's #4160 — Verb — poieo — poy-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.14

    "to do, make," signifies "to keep," in Matthew 26:18 , in the Lord's statement, "I will keep the passover;" so in Acts 18:21 , in some mss.; in John 7:19 , where the AV has "keepeth (the law)," the RV adheres to the usual meaning "doeth."VED-NT Keep, Keeping.15

    A — 8: ἔχω
    (Strong's #2192 — Verb — echo — ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.16

    "to have, to hold," is rendered "I kept" in Luke 19:20 , RV (AV, "I have kept"), of "keeping" a pound laid up in a napkin. See HAVE.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.17

    A — 9: κρατέω
    (Strong's #2902 — Verb — krateo — krat-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.18

    "to be strong, get possession of, hold fast," is used in Mark 9:10 , "(and) they kept (the saying)," i.e., they held fast to the Lord's command to refrain from telling what they had seen in the mount of Transfiguration. See HOLD.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.19

    A — 10: νοσφίζω
    (Strong's #3557 — Verb — nosphizo — nos-fid'-som-ahee )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.20

    "to set apart, remove," signifies, in the Middle Voice, "to set apart for oneself, to purloin," and is rendered "purloining" in Titus 2:10 ; "kept back" (and "keep") in Acts 5:2, 3 , of the act of Ananias and his wife in "retaining" part of the price of the land.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.21

    A — 11: συνέχω
    (Strong's #4912 — Verb — sunecho — soon-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.22

    "to hold together," is translated "shall ... keep (thee) in," in Luke 19:43 . See also Note (8), below. See CONSTRAIN.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.23

    Notes: (1) In Acts 22:2 , AV, parecho, "to afford, give, cause," is rendered "kept (the more silence)," RV, "were (the more quiet)." (2) In Matthew 14:6 some mss. have the verb ago, "to lead, hold" (of a feast), of "keeping" Herod's birthday; the most authentic have ginomai, "to become, take place;" hence the RV, "when Herod's birthday came." The verb ago is used in Acts 19:38 of "keeping" certain occasions, as of the holding of law courts, RV "(the courts) are open," AV marg., "court days are kept;" Moulton and Milligan illustrate from the papyri the use of the adjective agoraios, in the plural with hemerai, "days," understood, in regard to certain market days; certain court days are what are indicated here. The conjecture that the meaning is "courts are now being held" (sunodoi being understood as meetings of the court instead of "days") is scarcely so appropriate to the circumstances. (3) In Matthew 8:33 , bosko, "to feed" (swine, etc.), is translated "(they that) fed," RV for AV "(they that) kept." (4) In Acts 9:33 , katakeimai, "to lie down," is used with epi, "upon," with the meaning "to keep one's bed" (see LIE , No. 2). (5) In Romans 2:25 , prasso, "to do" (continously), "to practice," is rendered "be a doer of," RV (AV, "keep"). (6) In Acts 20:20 , hupostello, "to shrink, draw back from," is translated "I shrank (not)" (Middle Voice), RV, AV, "I kept back (nothing)." (7) In Acts 27:43 , koluo, "to hinder," is translated "stayed (them from)," RV, AV, "kept (them from)." (8) In Luke 8:15 ; 1 Corinthians 11:2 , katecho, "to hold fast" (a strengthened form of echo, No. 8), is translated "hold fast," RV, AV, "keep;" in 1 Corinthians 15:2 , RV, "hold fast," AV, "keep in memory." (9) For "keep secret," see SECRET. (10) For "keep under," see BUFFET. (11) Paratithemi is rendered "commit the keeping" in 1 Peter 4:19 , AV, (12) For "keep the feast" see FEAST , B, No. 2.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.24

    B — 1: τήρησις
    (Strong's #5084 — Noun Feminine — teresis — tay'-ray-sis )
    VED-NT Keep, Keeping.25

    akin to A, No. 1, denotes (a) "a watching," and hence, "imprisonment, prison," Acts 4:3 ; Acts 5:18 , "ward," RV (AV, "hold" and "prison"); (b) "keeping," 1 Corinthians 7:19 . See HOLD , PRISON.VED-NT Keep, Keeping.26


    1: φύλαξ
    (Strong's #5441 — Noun Masculine — phulax — foo'-lax )
    VED-NT Keeper.2

    akin to A, No. 4, above, "a guard:" see GUARD.VED-NT Keeper.3

    Note: For tereo, in Matthew 28:4 , see A, No. 1, above.VED-NT Keeper.4


    1: κλείς
    (Strong's #2807 — Noun Feminine — kleis — klice )
    VED-NT Key.2

    "a key," is used metaphorically (a) of "the keys of the kingdom of heaven," which the Lord committed to Peter, Matthew 16:19 , by which he would open the door of faith, as he did to Jews at Pentecost, and to Gentiles in the person of Cornelius, acting as one commissioned by Christ, through the power of the Holy Spirit; he had precedence over his fellow disciples, not in authority, but in the matter of time, on the ground of his confession of Christ (Matthew 18:16 ); equal authority was committed to them (Matthew 18:18 ); (b) of "the key of knowledge," Luke 11:52 , i.e., knowledge of the revealed will of God, by which men entered into the life that pleases God; this the religious leaders of the Jews had presumptuously "taken away," so that they neither entered in themselves, nor permitted their hearers to do so; (c) of "the keys of death and of Hades," Revelation 1:18 , RV (see HADES), indicative of the authority of the Lord over the bodies and souls of men; (d) of "the key of David," Revelation 3:7 , a reference to Isaiah 22:22 , speaking of the deposition of Shebna and the investiture of Eliakim, in terms evidently Messianic, the metaphor being that of the right of entrance upon administrative authority; the mention of David is symbolic of complete sovereignty; (e) of "the key of the pit of the abyss," Revelation 9:1 ; here the symbolism is that of competent authority; the pit represents a shaft or deep entrance into the region (see ABYSS), from whence issued smoke, symbolic of blinding delusion; (f) of "the key of the abyss," Revelation 20:1 ; this is to be distinguished from (e): the symbolism is that of the complete supremacy of God over the region of the lost, in which, by angelic agency, Satan is destined to be confined for a thousand years.VED-NT Key.3


    1: λακτίζω
    (Strong's #2979 — Verb — laktizo — lak-tid'-zo )
    VED-NT Kick.2

    "to kick" (from lax, an adverb signifying "with the foot"), is used in Acts 26:14 (some mss. have it in Acts 9:5 ).VED-NT Kick.3


    * For KID see GOATVED-NT Kid.2


    1: ἀποκτείνω
    (Strong's #615 — Verb — apokteino — ap-ok-ti'-no )
    VED-NT Kill.2

    "to kill," is used (a) physically, e.g., Matthew 10:28 ; Matthew 14:5 , "put ... to death," similarly rendered in John 18:31 ; often of Christ's death; in Revelation 2:13 , RV, "was killed" (AV, "was slain"); Revelation 9:15 , RV, "kill" (AV, "slay"); Revelation 11:13 , RV, "were killed" (AV, "were slain"); so in Revelation 19:21 ; (b) metaphorically, Romans 7:11 , of the power of sin, which is personified, as "finding occasion, through the commandment," and inflicting deception and spiritual death, i.e., separation from God, realized through the presentation of the commandment to conscience, breaking in upon the fancied state of freedom; the argument shows the power of the Law, not to deliver from sin, but to enhance its sinfulness; in 2 Corinthians 3:6 , "the letter killeth," signifies not the literal meaning of Scripture as contrasted with the spiritual, but the power of the Law to bring home the knowledge of guilt and its punishment; in Ephesians 2:16 "having slain the enmity" describes the work of Christ through His death in annulling the enmity, "the Law" (Ephesians 2:15 ), between Jew and Gentile, reconciling regenerate Jew and Gentile to God in spiritual unity "in one body." See DEATH , C, No. 4, SLAY.VED-NT Kill.3

    2: ἀναιρέω
    (Strong's #337 — Verb — anaireo — an-ahee-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Kill.4

    denotes (a) "to take up" (ana, "up," haireo, "to take"), said of Pharaoh's daughter, in "taking up" Moses, Acts 7:21 ; (b) "to take away" in the sense of removing, Hebrews 10:9 , of the legal appointment of sacrifices, to bring in the will of God in the sacrificial offering of the death of Christ; (c) "to kill," used physically only (not metaphorically as in No. 1), e.g., Luke 22:2 ; in 2 Thessalonians 2:8 , instead of the future tense of this verb, some texts (followed by RV marg.) read the future of analisko, "to consume." See DEATH , C, No. 2, SLAY.VED-NT Kill.5

    3: θύω
    (Strong's #2380 — Verb — thuo — thoo'-o )
    VED-NT Kill.6

    primarily denotes "to offer firstfruits to a god;" then (a) "to sacrifice by slaying a victim," Acts 14:13, 18 , to do sacrifice; 1 Corinthians 10:20 , to sacrifice; 1 Corinthians 5:7 , "hath been sacrificed," of the death of Christ as our Passover; (b) "to slay, kill," Matthew 22:4 ; Mark 14:12 ; Luke 15:23, 27, 30 ; Luke 22:7 ; John 10:10 ; Acts 10:13 ; Acts 11:7 .VED-NT Kill.7

    4: φονεύω
    (Strong's #5407 — Verb — phoneuo — fon-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Kill.8

    "to murder," akin to phoneus, "a murderer," is always rendered by the verb "to kill" (except in Matthew 19:18 , AV, "do ... murder," and in Matthew 23:35 , AV and RV, "ye slew"); Matthew 5:21 (twice); 23:31; Mark 10:19 ; Luke 18:20 ; Romans 13:9 ; James 2:11 (twice); 4:2; 5:6.VED-NT Kill.9

    5: θανατόω
    (Strong's #2289 — Verb — thanatoo — than-at-o'-o )
    VED-NT Kill.10

    "to put to death" (from thanatos, "death"), is translated "are killed" in Romans 8:36 ; "killed" in 2 Corinthians 6:9 . See DEATH , C, No. 1.VED-NT Kill.11

    6: διαχειρίζω
    (Strong's #1315 — Verb — diacheirizo — dee-akh-i-rid'-zom-ahee )
    VED-NT Kill.12

    primarily, "to have in hand, manage" (cheir, "the hand"), is used in the Middle Voice, in the sense of "laying hands on" with a view to "kill," or of actually "killing," Acts 5:30 , "ye slew;" Acts 26:21 , "to kill." See SLAY.VED-NT Kill.13

    7: σφάζω
    (Strong's #4969 — Verb — sphazo | sphatto — sfad'-zo )
    VED-NT Kill.14

    "to slay, to slaughter," especially victims for sacrifice, is most frequently translated by the verb "to slay;" so the RV in Revelation 6:4 (AV, "should kill"); in Revelation 13:3 , RV, "smitten unto death" (AV, "wounded"). See SLAY , WOUND. Cp. katasphazo, "to kill off," Luke 19:27 ; sphage, "slaughter," e.g., Acts 8:32 , and sphagion, "a victim for slaughter," Acts 7:42 .VED-NT Kill.15

    Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman

    A — 1: συγγενής
    (Strong's #4773 — Adjective — sungenes — soong-ghen-ace' )
    VED-NT Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman.2

    primarily denoting "congenital, natural, innate" (sun, "with," genos, "a family, race, offspring"), then, "akin to," is used as a noun, denoting (a) of "family relationship, kin, a kinsman, kinsfolk(s)," Luke 1:58 , RV, "kinsfolk" (AV, "cousins"); 14:12; 21:16; John 18:26 ; Acts 10:24 ; (b) of "tribal or racial kinship, fellow nationals," Romans 9:3 ; Romans 16:7, 11, 21 .VED-NT Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman.3

    B — 1: συγγενής
    (Strong's #4773 — Adjective — sungenis — soong-ghen-ace' )
    VED-NT Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman.4

    a late feminine form of A (some mss. have sungenes), denotes "a kinswoman," Luke 1:36 , RV, "kinswoman" (AV, "cousin"). Cp. sungeneia (see KINDRED).VED-NT Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman.5

    B — 2: συγγενής
    (Strong's #4773 — Adjective — sungeneus — soong-ghen-ace' )
    VED-NT Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman.6

    an alternative form of A, is used in Mark 6:4 , "kin," and Luke 2:44 , "kinsfolk."VED-NT Kin, Kinsfolk, Kinsman, Kinswoman.7


    1: γένος
    (Strong's #1085 — Noun Neuter — genos — ghen'-os )
    VED-NT Kind.2

    akin to ginomai, "to become," denotes (a) "a family," Acts 4:6 , "kindred;" Acts 7:13 , RV, "race" (AV, "kindred"); Acts 13:26 , "stock;" (b) "an offspring," Acts 17:28 ; Revelation 22:16 ; (c) "a nation, a race," Mark 7:26 , RV, "race" (AV, "nation"); Acts 4:36 , RV "(a man of Cyprus) by race," AV, "of the country (of Cyprus);" genos does not mean "a country;" the word here signifies "parentage" (Jews had settled in Cyprus from, or even before, the reign of Alexander the Great); Acts 7:19 , RV, "race" (AV, "kindred"); Acts 18:2, 24 , RV, "by race" (AV, "born"); 2 Corinthians 11:26 , "countrymen;" Galatians 1:14 , RV, "countrymen" (AV, "nation"); Philippians 3:5 , "stock;" 1 Peter 2:9 , RV, "race" (AV, "generation"); (d) "a kind, sort, class," Matthew 13:47 , "kind;" in some mss. in Matthew 17:21 , AV, "kind;" Mark 9:29 , "kind;" 1 Corinthians 12:10, 28 , "kinds" (AV, "diversities"); 1 Corinthians 14:10 (ditto). See BEGET , B.VED-NT Kind.3

    2: φύσις
    (Strong's #5449 — Noun Feminine — phusis — foo'-sis )
    VED-NT Kind.4

    among its various meaning denotes "the nature, the natural constitution or power of a person or thing," and is translated "kind" in James 3:7 (twice), "kind" (of beasts etc.), and "(man)kind," lit., "human kind." See NATURE , NATURAL.VED-NT Kind.5

    Notes: (1) The indefinite pronoun tis, "some, a certain, one," is used adjectively with the noun aparche, "firstfruits," in James 1:18 , "a kind of." (2) In 1 Corinthians 15:37 , RV, "some other kind" (AV, "some other grain") translates a phrase which, lit. rendered, is "some (one) of the rest (loipos)." (3) In 2 Corinthians 6:13 , "(for a recompense) in like kind," RV, (AV, "in the same"), is, lit., "(as to) the same (recompense)."VED-NT Kind.6

    Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness

    A — 1: χρηστός
    (Strong's #5543 — Adjective — chrestos — khrase-tos' )
    VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.2

    "serviceable, good, pleasant" (of things), "good, gracious, kind" (of persons), is translated "kind" in Luke 6:35 , of God; in Ephesians 4:32 , enjoined upon believers. See BETTER , EASY , GOOD , GOODNESS , GRACIOUS.VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.3

    A — 2: ἀγαθός
    (Strong's #18 — Adjective — agathos — ag-ath-os' )
    VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.4

    "good," is translated "kind" in Titus 2:5 , RV. See GOOD.VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.5

    B — 1: χρηστεύομαι
    (Strong's #5541 — Verb — chresteuomai — khraste-yoo'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.6

    akin to A. No. 1, "to be kind," is said of love, 1 Corinthians 13:4 .VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.7

    C — 1: χρηστότης
    (Strong's #5544 — Noun Feminine — chrestotes — khray-stot'-ace )
    VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.8

    akin to A, No. 1, and B, used of "goodness of heart, kindness," is translated "kindness" in 2 Corinthians 6:6 ; Galatians 5:22 , RV (AV, "gentleness"); Ephesians 2:7 ; Colossians 3:12 ; Titus 3:4 . See GOODNESS.VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.9

    C — 2: φιλανθρωπία
    (Strong's #5363 — Noun Feminine — philanthropia — fil-an-thro-pee'-ah )
    VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.10

    from philos, "loving," anthropos, "man" (Eng., "philanthropy"), denotes "kindness," and is so translated in Acts 28:2 , of that which was shown by the inhabitants of Melita to the shipwrecked voyagers; in Titus 3:4 , of the "kindness" of God, translated "(His) love toward man." See LOVE.VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.11

    D — 1: φιλανθρώπως
    (Strong's #5364 — Adverb — philanthropos — fil-an-thro'-poce )
    VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.12

    akin to C, No. 2, "humanely, kindly," is translated "kindly" in Acts 27:3 (AV, "courteously"). See COURTEOUSLY.VED-NT Kind, Kind, Kindly, Kindness.13


    1: ἅπτω
    (Strong's #681 — Verb — hapto — hap'-to )
    VED-NT Kindle.2

    properly, "to fasten to," is used in Acts 28:2 (in the most authentic mss., some mss. have No. 3), of "kindling a fire." See No. 2.VED-NT Kindle.3

    Note: Hapto is used of "lighting a lamp," in Luke 8:16 ; Luke 11:33 ; Luke 15:8 . For the Middle Voice see TOUCH.VED-NT Kindle.4

    2: περί
    (Strong's #4012 681 — Preposition — periapto — per-ee' )
    VED-NT Kindle.5

    properly, "to tie about, attach" (peri, "around," and No. 1), is used of "lighting" a fire in the midst of a court in Luke 22:55 (some mss. have No. 1).VED-NT Kindle.6

    3: ἀνάπτω
    (Strong's #381 — Verb — anapto — an-ap'-to )
    VED-NT Kindle.7

    "to light up" (ana, "up," and No. 1), is used (a) literally, in James 3:5 , "kindleth;" (b) metaphorically, in the Passive Voice, in Luke 12:49 , of the "kindling" of the fire of hostility; see FIRE , A (f). For Acts 28:2 , see No. 1, above.VED-NT Kindle.8


    1: συγγένεια
    (Strong's #4772 — Noun Feminine — sungeneia — soong-ghen'-i-ah )
    VED-NT Kindred.2

    primarily denotes "kinship;" then, "kinsfolk, kindred" (cp. sungenes, "a kinsman;" see KIN), Luke 1:61 ; Acts 7:3, 14 .VED-NT Kindred.3

    2: γένος
    (Strong's #1085 — Noun Neuter — genos — ghen'-os )
    VED-NT Kindred.4

    see KIND (Noun), No. 1.VED-NT Kindred.5

    Notes: (1) Phule, "a tribe," rendered "kindreds" in the AV of Revelation 1:7 ; Revelation 7:9 ; Revelation 11:9 ; Revelation 13:7 , "kindred" in Revelation 5:9 ; Revelation 14:6 , and elsewhere, "tribe," "tribes," is always translated by the latter in the RV. See TRIBE. (2) For patria, rendered "kindreds" Acts 3:25 , AV, see FAMILY.VED-NT Kindred.6


    A — 1: βασιλεύς
    (Strong's #935 — Noun Masculine — basileus — bas-il-yooce' )
    VED-NT King.2

    "a king" (cp. Eng., "Basil"), e.g., Matthew 1:6 , is used of the Roman emperor in 1 Peter 2:13, 17 (a command of general application); this reference to the emperor is illustrated frequently in the Koine (see Preface to this volume); of Herod the Tetrarch (used by courtesy), Matthew 14:9 ; of Christ, as the "King" of the Jews, e.g., Matt, 2:2; 27:11,29,37; as the "King" of Israel, Mark 15:32 ; John 1:49 ; John 12:13 ; as "King of kings," Revelation 17:14 ; Revelation 19:16 ; as "the King" in judging nations and men at the establishment of the millennial kingdom, Matthew 25:34, 40 ; of God, "the great King," Matthew 5:35 ; "the King eternal, incorruptible, invisible," 1 Timothy 1:17 ; "King of kings," 1 Timothy 6:15 , see Note (2) below; "King of the ages," Revelation 15:3 , RV (AV, "saints"). Christ's "kingship" was predicted in the OT, e.g., Psalms 2:6 , and in the NT, e.g., Luke 1:32, 33 ; He came as such, e.g., Matthew 2:2 ; John 18:37 ; was rejected and died as such, Luke 19:14 ; Matthew 27:37 ; is now a "King" Priest, after the order of Melchizedek, Hebrews 5:6 ; Hebrews 7:1, 17 ; and will reign for ever and ever, Revelation 11:15 .VED-NT King.3

    Notes: (1) In Revelation 1:6 ; Revelation 5:10 , the most authentic mss. have the word basileia, "kingdom," instead of the plural of basileus, AV, "kings," RV, "a kingdom (to be priests)," and "a kingdom (and priests)." The kingdom was conditionally offered by God to Israel, that they should be to Him "a kingdom of priests," Exodus 19:6 , the entire nation fulfilling priestly worship and service. Their failure to fulfil His covenant resulted in the selection of the Aaronic priesthood. The bringing in of the new and better covenant of grace has constituted all believers a spiritual kingdom, a holy and royal priesthood, 1 Peter 2:5, 9 . (2) In 1 Timothy 6:15 , the word "kings" translates the present participle of the verb basileuo, "to be king, to have kingship," lit., "of (those) who are kings." See REIGN , (3) Deissmann has shown that the title "king of kings" was "in very early eastern history a decoration of great monarchs and also a divine title" (Light from the Ancient East, pp. 367ff.). Moulton and Milligan illustrate the use of the title among the Persians, from documents discovered in Media.VED-NT King.4

    B — 1: βασίλειος
    (Strong's #934 — Adjective — basileios — bas-il'-i-os )
    VED-NT King.5

    denoting "royal," as in 1 Peter 2:9 , is used in the plural, of the courts or palaces of kings, Luke 7:25 , "kings' courts;" a possible meaning is "among royal courtiers or persons."VED-NT King.6

    B — 2: βασιλικός
    (Strong's #937 — Adjective — basilikos — bas-il-ee-kos' )
    VED-NT King.7

    "royal, belonging to a king," is used in Acts 12:20 with "country" understood, "their country was fed from the king's," lit., "the royal (country)." See NOBLEMAN , ROYAL.VED-NT King.8


    1: βασιλεία
    (Strong's #932 — Noun Feminine — basileia — bas-il-i'-ah )
    VED-NT Kingdom.2

    is primarily an abstract noun, denoting "sovereignty, royal power, dominion," e.g., Revelation 17:18 , translated "(which) reigneth," lit., "hath a kingdom" (RV marg.); then, by metonymy, a concrete noun, denoting the territory or people over whom a king rules, e.g., Matthew 4:8 ; Mark 3:24 . It is used especially of the "kingdom" of God and of Christ.VED-NT Kingdom.3

    "The Kingdom of God is (a) the sphere of God's rule, Psalms 22:28 ; Psalms 145:13 ; Daniel 4:25 ; Luke 1:52 ; Romans 13:1, 2 . Since, however, this earth is the scene of universal rebellion against God, e.g., Luke 4:5, 6 ; 1 John 5:19 ; Revelation 11:15-18 , the "kingdom" of God is (b) the sphere in which, at any given time, His rule is acknowledged. God has not relinquished His sovereignty in the face of rebellion, demoniac and human, but has declared His purpose to establish it, Daniel 2:44 ; Daniel 7:14 ; 1 Corinthians 15:24, 25 . Meantime, seeking willing obedience, He gave His law to a nation and appointed kings to administer His "kingdom" over it, 1 Chronicles 28:5 . Israel, however, though declaring still a nominal allegiance shared in the common rebellion, Isaiah 1:2-4 , and, after they had rejected the Son of God, John 1:11 (cp. Matthew 21:33-43 ), were "cast away," Romans 11:15, 20, 25 . Henceforth God calls upon men everywhere, without distinction of race or nationality, to submit voluntarily to His rule. Thus the "kingdom" is said to be "in mystery" now, Mark 4:11 , that is, it does not come within the range of the natural powers of observation, Luke 17:20 , but is spiritually discerned, John 3:3 (cp. 1 Corinthians 2:14 ). When, hereafter, God asserts His rule universally, then the "kingdom" will be in glory, that is, it will be manifest to all; cp. Matthew 25:31-34 ; Philippians 2:9-11 ; 2 Timothy 4:1, 18 .VED-NT Kingdom.4

    "Thus, speaking generally, references to the Kingdom fall into two classes, the first, in which it is viewed as present and involving suffering for those who enter it, 2 Thessalonians 1:5 ; the second, in which it is viewed as future and is associated with reward, Matthew 25:34 , and glory, Matthew 13:43 . See also Acts 14:22 .VED-NT Kingdom.5

    "The fundamental principle of the Kingdom is declared in the words of the Lord spoken in the midst of a company of Pharisees, "the Kingdom of God is in the midst of you," Luke 17:21 , marg., that is, where the King is, there is the Kingdom. Thus at the present time and so far as this earth is concerned, where the King is and where His rule is acknowledged, is, first, in the heart of the individual believer, Acts 4:19 ; Ephesians 3:17 ; 1 Peter 3:15 ; and then in the churches of God, 1 Corinthians 12:3, 5, 11 ; 1 Corinthians 14:37 ; cp. Colossians 1:27 , where for "in" read "among."VED-NT Kingdom.6

    "Now, the King and His rule being refused, those who enter the Kingdom of God are brought into conflict with all who disown its allegiance, as well as with the desire for ease, and the dislike of suffering and unpopularity, natural to all. On the other hand, subjects of the Kingdom are the objects of the care of God, Matthew 6:33 , and of the rejected King, Hebrews 13:5 .VED-NT Kingdom.7

    "Entrance into the Kingdom of God is by the new birth, Matthew 18:3 ; John 3:5 , for nothing that a man may be by nature, or can attain to by any form of self-culture, avails in the spiritual realm. And as the new nature, received in the new birth, is made evident by obedience, it is further said that only such as do the will of God shall enter into His Kingdom, Matthew 7:21 , where, however, the context shows that the reference is to the future, as in 2 Peter 1:10, 11 . Cp. also 1 Corinthians 6:9, 10 ; Galatians 5:21 ; Ephesians 5:5 .VED-NT Kingdom.8

    "The expression 'Kingdom of God' occurs four times in Matthew, 'Kingdom of the Heavens' usually taking its place. The latter (cp. Daniel 4:26 ) does not occur elsewhere in NT, but see 2 Timothy 4:18 , "His heavenly Kingdom." ... This Kingdom is identical with the Kingdom of the Father (cp. Matthew 26:29 with Mark 14:25 ), and with the Kingdom of the Son (cp. Luke 22:30 ). Thus there is but one Kingdom, variously described: of the Son of Man, Matthew 13:41 ; of Jesus, Revelation 1:9 ; of Christ Jesus, 2 Timothy 4:1 ; "of Christ and God," Ephesians 5:5 ; "of our Lord, and of His Christ," Revelation 11:15 ; "of our Lord, and of His Christ," Revelation 11:15 ; "of our God, and the authority of His Christ," 12:10; "of the Son of His love," Colossians 1:13 .VED-NT Kingdom.9

    "Concerning the future, the Lord taught His disciples to pray, "Thy Kingdom come," Matthew 6:10 , where the verb is in the point tense, precluding the notion of gradual progress and development, and implying a sudden catastrophe as declared in 2 Thessalonians 2:8 .VED-NT Kingdom.10

    "Concerning the present, that a man is of the Kingdom of God is not shown in the punctilious observance of ordinances, which are external and material, but in the deeper matters of the heart, which are spiritual and essential, viz., 'righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit,' Romans 14:17 ." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians by Hogg and Vine, pp. 68-70.]VED-NT Kingdom.11

    "With regard to the expressions "the Kingdom of God" and the "Kingdom of the Heavens," while they are often used interchangeably, it does not follow that in every case they mean exactly the same and are quite identical.VED-NT Kingdom.12

    "The Apostle Paul often speaks of the Kingdom of God, not dispensationally but morally, e.g., in Romans 14:17 ; 1 Corinthians 4:20 , but never so of the Kingdom of Heaven. 'God' is not the equivalent of 'the heavens.' He is everywhere and above all dispensations, whereas 'the heavens' are distinguished from the earth, until the Kingdom comes in judgment and power and glory (Revelation 11:15 , RV) when rule in heaven and on earth will be one.VED-NT Kingdom.13

    "While, then, the sphere of the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven are at times identical, yet the one term cannot be used indiscriminately for the other. In the 'Kingdom of Heaven' (32 times in Matt.), heaven is in antithesis to earth, and the phrase is limited to the Kingdom in its earthly aspect for the time being, and is used only dispensationally and in connection with Israel. In the 'Kingdom of God', in its broader aspect, God is in antithesis to 'man' or 'the world,' and the term signifies the entire sphere of God's rule and action in relation to the world. It has a moral and spiritual force and is a general term for the Kingdom at any time. The Kingdom of Heaven is always the Kingdom of God, but the Kingdom of God is not limited to the Kingdom of Heaven, until in their final form, they become identical; e.g., Revelation 11:15 , RV; John 3:5 ; Revelation 12:10 ." (An Extract).VED-NT Kingdom.14

    Kinsfolk and Kinsman

    * For KINSFOLK and KINSMAN see KINVED-NT Kinsfolk and Kinsman.2


    A — 1: φίλημα
    (Strong's #5370 — Noun Neuter — philema — fil'-ay-mah )
    VED-NT Kiss.2

    "a kiss" (akin to B), Luke 7:45 ; Luke 22:48 , was a token of Christian brotherhood, whether by way of welcome or farewell, "a holy kiss," Romans 16:16 ; 1 Corinthians 16:20 ; 2 Corinthians 13:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:26 , "holy" (hagios), as free from anything inconsistent with their calling as saints (hagioi); "a kiss of love," 1 Peter 5:14 . There was to be an absence of formality and hypocrisy, a freedom from prejudice arising from social distinctions, from discrimination against the poor, from partiality towards the well-to-do. In the churches masters and servants would thus salute one another without any attitude of condescension on the one part or disrespect on the other. The "kiss" took place thus between persons of the same sex. In the "Apostolic Constitutions," a writing compiled in the 4th century, A.D., there is a reference to the custom whereby men sat on one side of the room where a meeting was held, and women on the other side of the room (as is frequently the case still in parts of Europe and Asia), and the men are bidden to salute the men, and the women the women, with "the kiss of the Lord."VED-NT Kiss.3

    B — 1: φιλέω
    (Strong's #5368 — Verb — phileo — fil-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Kiss.4

    "to love," signifies "to kiss," in Matthew 26:48 ; Mark 14:44 ; Luke 22:47 .VED-NT Kiss.5

    B — 2: καταφιλέω
    (Strong's #2705 — Verb — kataphileo — kat-af-ee-leh'-o )
    VED-NT Kiss.6

    denotes "to kiss fervently" (kata, intensive, and No. 1); the stronger force of this verb has been called in question, but the change from phileo to kataphileo in Matthew 26:49 ; Mark 14:45 can scarcely be without significance, and the act of the traitor was almost certainly more demonstrative than the simple kiss of salutation. So with the kiss of genuine devotion, Luke 7:38, 45 ; Luke 15:20 ; Acts 20:37 , in each of which this verb is used.VED-NT Kiss.7


    1: γόνυ
    (Strong's #1119 — Noun Neuter — gonu — gon-oo' )
    VED-NT Knee.2

    "a knee" (Latin, genu), is used (a) metaphorically in Hebrews 12:12 , where the duty enjoined is that of "courageous self-recovery in God's strength;" (b) literally, of the attitude of a suppliant, Luke 5:8 ; Ephesians 3:14 ; of veneration, Romans 11:4 ; Romans 14:11 ; Philippians 2:10 ; in mockery, Mark 15:19 . See KNEEL.VED-NT Knee.3


    1: γονυπετέω
    (Strong's #1120 — Verb — gonupeteo — gon-oo-pet-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Kneel.2

    denotes "to bow the knees, kneel," from gonu (see above) and pipto, "to fall prostrate," the act of one imploring aid, Matthew 17:14 ; Mark 1:40 ; of one expressing reverence and honor, Mark 10:17 ; in mockery, Matthew 27:29 . A phrase consisting of tithemi, "to put," with gonata, the plural of gonu, "the knee" (see above), signifies "to kneel," and is always used of an attitude of prayer, Luke 22:41 (lit., "placing the knees"); Acts 7:60 ; Acts 9:40 ; Acts 20:36 ; Acts 21:5 .VED-NT Kneel.3

    Knit Together

    1: συμβιβάζω
    (Strong's #4822 — Verb — sumbibazo — soom-bib-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Knit Together.2

    signifies "to cause to coalesce, to join or knit together," Ephesians 4:16 , RV, "knit together" (AV, "compacted);" Colossians 2:2 , where some would assign the alternative meaning, "to instruct," as, e.g., in 1 Corinthians 2:16 ; in Colossians 2:19 , "knit together," it is said of the church, as the body of which Christ is the Head. See COMPACTED.VED-NT Knit Together.3

    Note: In Acts 10:11 some mss. have the verb deo, "to bind," translated "knit," of the four corners of the sheet in Peter's vision. The RV "let down" translates the verb kathiemi, found in the best texts.VED-NT Knit Together.4


    1: κρούω
    (Strong's #2925 — Verb — krouo — kroo'-o )
    VED-NT Knock.2

    "to strike, knock," is used in the NT of "knocking" at a door, (a) literally, Luke 12:36 ; Acts 12:13, 16 ; (b) figuratively, Matthew 7:7, 8 ; Luke 11:9, 10 (of importunity in dealing with God); 13:25; Revelation 3:20 .VED-NT Knock.3

    Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown

    A — 1: γινώσκω
    (Strong's #1097 — Verb — ginosko — ghin-oce'-ko )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.2

    signifies "to be taking in knowledge, to come to know, recognize, understand," or "to understand completely," e.g., Mark 13:28, 29 ; John 13:12 ; John 15:18 ; John 21:17 ; 2 Corinthians 8:9 ; Hebrews 10:34 ; 1 John 2:5 ; 1 John 4:2, 6 (twice),7,13; 5:2,20; in its past tenses it frequently means "to know in the sense of realizing," the aorist or point tense usually indicating definiteness, Matthew 13:11 ; Mark 7:24 ; John 7:26 ; in John 10:38 "that ye may know (aorist tense) and understand, (present tense);" John 19:4 ; Acts 1:7 ; Acts 17:19 ; Romans 1:21 ; 1 Corinthians 2:11 (2nd part),14; 2 Corinthians 2:4 ; Ephesians 3:19 ; Ephesians 6:22 ; Philippians 2:19 ; Philippians 3:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:5 ; 2 Timothy 2:19 ; James 2:20 ; 1 John 2:13 (twice),14; 3:6; 4:8; 2 John 1:1 ; Revelation 2:24 ; Revelation 3:3, 9 . In the Passive Voice, it often signifies "to become known," e.g., Matthew 10:26 ; Philippians 4:5 . In the sense of complete and absolute understanding on God's part, it is used e.g., in Luke 16:15 ; John 10:15 (of the Son as well as the Father); 1 Corinthians 3:20 . In Luke 12:46 , AV, it is rendered "he is ... aware."VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.3

    In the NT ginosko frequently indicates a relation between the person "knowing" and the object known; in this respect, what is "known" is of value or importance to the one who knows, and hence the establishment of the relationship, e.g., especially of God's "knowledge," 1 Corinthians 8:3 , "if any man love God, the same is known of Him;" Galatians 4:9 , "to be known of God;" here the "knowing" suggests approval and bears the meaning "to be approved;" so in 2 Timothy 2:19 ; cp. John 10:14, 27 ; Genesis 18:19 ; Nahum 1:7 ; the relationship implied may involve remedial chastisement, Amos 3:2 . The same idea of appreciation as well as "knowledge" underlies several statements concerning the "knowledge" of God and His truth on the part of believers, e.g., John 8:32 ; John 14:20, 31 ; John 17:3 ; Galatians 4:9 (1st part); 1 John 2:3, 13, 14 ; 1 John 4:6, 8, 16 ; 1 John 5:20 ; such "knowledge" is obtained, not by mere intellectual activity, but by operation of the Holy Spirit consequent upon acceptance of Christ. Nor is such "knowledge" marked by finality; see e.g., 2 Peter 3:18 ; Hosea 6:3 , RV.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.4

    The verb is also used to convey the thought of connection or union, as between man and woman, Matthew 1:25 ; Luke 1:34 .VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.5

    A — 2: οἶδα
    (Strong's #1492 — Verb — oida — i'-do )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.6

    from the same root as eidon, "to see," is a perfect tense with a present meaning, signifying, primarily, "to have seen or perceived;" hence, "to know, to have knowledge of," whether absolutely, as in Divine knowledge, e.g., Matthew 6:8, 32 ; John 6:6, 64 ; John 8:14 ; John 11:42 ; John 13:11 ; John 18:4 ; 2 Corinthians 11:31 ; 2 Peter 2:9 ; Revelation 2:2, 9, 13, 19 ; Revelation 3:1, 8, 15 ; or in the case of human "knowledge," to know from observation, e.g, 1 Thessalonians 1:4, 5 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:1 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:7 .VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.7

    The differences between ginosko (No. 1) and oida demand consideration: (a) ginosko, frequently suggests inception or progress in "knowledge," while oida suggests fullness of "knowledge," e.g., John 8:55 , "ye have not known Him" (ginosko), i.e., begun to "know," "but I know Him" (oida), i.e., "know Him perfectly;" John 13:7 , "What I do thou knowest not now," i.e. Peter did not yet perceive (oida) its significance, "but thou shalt understand," i.e., "get to know (ginosko), hereafter;" John 14:7 , "If ye had known Me" (ginosko), i.e., "had definitely come to know Me," "ye would have known My Father also" (oida), i.e., "would have had perception of:" "from henceforth ye know Him" (ginosko), i.e., having unconsciously been coming to the Father, as the One who was in Him, they would now consciously be in the constant and progressive experience of "knowing" Him; in Mark 4:13 , "Know ye not (oida) this parable? and how shall ye know (ginosko) all the parables?" (RV), i.e., "Do ye not understand this parable? How shall ye come to perceive all ..." the intimation being that the first parable is a leading and testing one; (b) while ginosko frequently implies an active relation between the one who "knows" and the person or thing "known" (see No. 1, above), oida expresses the fact that the object has simply come within the scope of the "knower's" perception; thus in Matthew 7:23 "I never knew you" (ginosko) suggests "I have never been in approving connection with you," whereas in Matthew 25:12 , "I know you not" (oida) suggests "you stand in no relation to Me."VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.8

    A — 3: ἐπιγινώσκω
    (Strong's #1921 — Verb — epiginosko — ep-ig-in-oce'-ko )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.9

    denotes (a) "to observe, fully perceive, notice attentively, discern, recognize" (epi, "upon," and No. 1); it suggests generally a directive, a more special, recognition of the object "known" than does No. 1; it also may suggest advanced "knowledge" or special appreciation; thus, in Romans 1:32 , "knowing the ordinance of God" (epiginosko) means "knowing full well," whereas in verse Romans 1:21 "knowing God" (ginosko) simply suggests that they could not avoid the perception. Sometimes epiginosko implies a special participation in the object "known," and gives greater weight to what is stated; thus in John 8:32 , "ye shall know the truth," ginosko is used, whereas in 1 Timothy 4:3 , "them that believe and know the truth," epiginosko lays stress on participation in the truth. Cp. the stronger statement in Colossians 1:6 (epiginosko) with that in 2 Corinthians 8:9 (ginosko), and the two verbs in 1 Corinthians 13:12 , "now I know in part (ginosko); but then shall I know (piginosko) even as also I have been known (epiginosko)," "a knowledge which perfectly unites the subject with the object; (b) "to discover, ascertain, determine," e.g., Luke 7:37 ; Luke 23:7 ; Acts 9:30 ; Acts 19:34 ; Acts 22:29 ; Acts 28:1 ; in Acts 24:11 the best mss. have this verb instead of No. 1; hence the RV, "take knowledge." J. Armitage Robinson (on Ephesians) points out that epignosis is "knowledge directed towards a particular object, perceiving, discerning," whereas gnosis is knowledge in the abstract. See ACKNOWLEDGE.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.10

    A — 4: προγινώσκω
    (Strong's #4267 — Verb — proginosko — prog-in-oce'-ko )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.11

    "to know beforehand," is used (a) of the Divine "foreknowledge" concerning believers, Romans 8:29 ; Israel, 11:2; Christ as the Lamb of God, 1 Peter 1:20 , RV, "foreknown" (AV, "foreordained"); (b) of human previous "knowledge," of a person, Acts 26:5 , RV, "having knowledge of" (AV, "which knew"); of facts, 2 Peter 3:17 . See FOREKNOW.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.12

    A — 5: ἐπίσταμαι
    (Strong's #1987 — Verb — epistamai — ep-is'-tam-ahee )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.13

    "to know, know of, understand" (probably an old Middle Voice form of ephistemi, "to set over"), is used in Mark 14:68 , "understand," which follows oida "I (neither) know;" most frequently in the Acts, 10:28; 15:7; 18:25; 19:15,25; 20:18; 22:19; 24:10; 26:26; elsewhere, 1 Timothy 6:4 ; Hebrews 11:8 ; James 4:14 ; Jude 1:10 . See UNDERSTAND.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.14

    A — 6: συνοδία
    (Strong's #4923 — Noun Feminine — sunoida — soon-od-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.15

    sun, "with," and No. 2, a perfect tense with a present meaning, denotes (a) "to share the knowledge of, be privy to," Acts 5:2 ; (b) "to be conscious of," especially of guilty consciousness, 1 Corinthians 4:4 , "I know nothing against (AV, by) myself." The verb is connected with suneidon, found in Acts 12:12 ; Acts 14:6 (in the best texts). See CONSIDER , PRIVY , WARE.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.16

    A — 7: ἀγνοέω
    (Strong's #50 — Verb — agnoeo — ag-no-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.17

    "not to know, to be ignorant:" See IGNORANT.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.18

    A — 8: γνωρίζω
    (Strong's #1107 — Verb — gnorizo — gno-rid'-zo )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.19

    signifies (a) "to come to know, discover, know," Philippians 1:22 , "I wot (not)," i.e., "I know not," "I have not come to know" (the RV, marg. renders it, as under (b), "I do not make known"); (b) "to make known," whether (I) communicating things "before unknown," Luke 2:15, 17 ; in the latter some mss. have the verb diagnorizo (hence the AV, "made known abroad);" John 15:15 , "I have made known;" 17:26; Acts 2:28 ; Acts 7:13 (1st part), see Note (3) below; Romans 9:22, 23 ; Romans 16:26 (Passive Voice); 2 Corinthians 8:1 , "we make known (to you)," RV, AV, "we do (you) to wit;" Ephesians 1:9 ; Ephesians 3:3, 5, 10 (all three in the Passive Voice); 6:19,21; Colossians 1:27 ; Colossians 4:7, 9 , "shall make known" (AV, "shall declare"); 2 Peter 1:16 ; or (II) reasserting things already "known," 1 Corinthians 12:3 , "I give (you) to understand" (the Apostle reaffirms what they knew); 1 Corinthians 15:1 , of the Gospel; Galatians 1:11 (he reminds them of what they well knew, the ground of his claim to Apostleship); Philippians 4:6 (Passive Voice), of requests to God. See CERTIFY , DECLARE (Note), UNDERSTAND , WIT , WOT.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.20

    Notes: (1) In 2 Timothy 3:10 , AV, parakoloutheo, "to follow closely, follow as a standard of conduct," is translated "hast fully known" (RV, "didst follow"). See FOLLOW. (2) In 2 Timothy 4:17 , AV, plerophoreo, "to fulfill, accomplish," is translated "might be fully known" (RV, "might be fully proclaimed"). See FULFILL. (3) In Acts 7:13 , some mss. have the verb anagnorizo, "to make oneself known," "was made known," instead of No. 8 (which see). (4) In Acts 7:13 (2nd part) the AV, "was made known" translates the phrase phaneros ginomai, "to become manifest" (RV, "became manifest"). See MANIFEST. (5) For diagnorizo, "to make known," in Luke 2:17 , see No. 8. (6) For diagnosko, in Acts 24:22 , "I will know the uttermost of," See DETERMINE , No. 5.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.21

    B — 1: γνωστός
    (Strong's #1110 — Adjective — gnostos — gnoce-tos' )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.22

    a later form of gnostos (from No. 1), most frequently denotes "known;" it is used ten times in the Acts, always with that meaning (save in Acts 4:16 , where it means "notable"); twice in the Gospel of John, John 18:15, 16 ; in Luke 2:44 ; Luke 23:49 it denotes "acquaintance;" elsewhere only in Romans 1:19 , "(that which) may be known (of God)," lit., "the knowable of God," referring to the physical universe, in the creation of which God has made Himself "knowable," that is, by the exercise of man's natural faculties, without such supernatural revelations as those given to Israel. See ACQUAINTANCE.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.23

    B — 2: φανερός
    (Strong's #5318 — Adjective — phaneros — fan-er-os' )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.24

    "visible, manifest," is translated "known" in Matthew 12:16 ; Mark 3:12 . See APPEAR , MANIFEST , OPENLY , OUTWARDLY.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.25

    B — 3: ἐπιστήμων
    (Strong's #1990 — Adjective — epistemon — ep-ee-stay'-mone )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.26

    akin to A, No. 5, "knowing, skilled," is used in James 3:13 , AV, "endued with knowledge" (RV "understanding").VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.27

    B — 4: ἄγνωστος
    (Strong's #57 — Adjective — agnostos — ag'-noce-tos )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.28

    the negative of No. 1, "unknown," is found in Acts 17:23 .VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.29

    C — 1: γνῶσις
    (Strong's #1108 — Noun Feminine — gnosis — gno'-sis )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.30

    primarily "a seeking to know, an enquiry, investigation" (akin to A, No. 1), denotes, in the NT, "knowledge," especially of spiritual truth; it is used (a) absolutely, in Luke 11:52 ; Romans 2:20 ; Romans 15:14 ; 1 Corinthians 1:5 ; 1 Corinthians 8:1 (twice),7,10,11; 13:2,8; 14:6; 2 Corinthians 6:6 ; 2 Corinthians 8:7 ; 2 Corinthians 11:6 ; Ephesians 3:19 ; Colossians 2:3 ; 1 Peter 3:7 ; 2 Peter 1:5, 6 ; (b) with an object: in respect of (1) God, 2 Corinthians 2:14 ; 2 Corinthians 10:5 ; (2) the glory of God, 2 Corinthians 4:6 ; (3) Christ Jesus, Philippians 3:8 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ; (4) salvation, Luke 1:77 ; (c) subjectively, of God's "knowledge," Romans 11:33 ; the word of "knowledge," 1 Corinthians 12:8 ; "knowledge" falsely so called, 1 Timothy 6:20 .VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.31

    C — 2: ἐπίγνωσις
    (Strong's #1922 — Noun Feminine — epignosis — ip-ig'-no-sis )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.32

    akin to A, No. 3, denotes "exact or full knowledge, discernment, recognition," and is a strengthened form of No. 1, expressing a fuller or a full "knowledge," a greater participation by the "knower" in the object "known," thus more powerfully influencing him. It is not found in the Gospels and Acts. Paul uses it 15 times (16 if Hebrews 10:26 is included) out of the 20 occurrences; Peter 4 times, all in his 2nd Epistle. Contrast Romans 1:28 (epignosis) with the simple verb in Romans 1:21 . "In all the four Epistles of the first Roman captivity it is an element in the Apostle's opening prayer for his correspondents' well-being, Philippians 1:9 ; Ephesians 1:17 ; Colossians 1:9 ; Philemon 1:6 " (Lightfoot).VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.33

    It is used with reference to God in Romans 1:28 ; Romans 10:2 ; Ephesians 1:17 ; Colossians 1:10 ; 2 Peter 1:3 ; God and Christ, 2 Peter 1:2 ; Christ, Ephesians 4:13 ; 2 Peter 1:8 ; 2 Peter 2:20 ; the will of the Lord, Colossians 1:9 ; every good thing, Philemon 1:6 , RV (AV, "acknowledging"); the truth, 1 Timothy 2:4 ; 2 Timothy 2:25 , RV; 3:7; Titus 1:1 , RV; the mystery of God. Colossians 2:2 , RV, "(that they) may know" (AV, "to the acknowledgment of"), lit., "into a full knowledge." It is used without the mention of an object in Philippians 1:9 ; Colossians 3:10 , RV, "(renewed) unto knowledge." See ACKNOWLEDGE.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.34

    C — 3: ἀγνωσία
    (Strong's #56 — Noun Feminine — agnosia — ag-no-see'-ah )
    VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.35

    the negative of No. 1, "ignorance," is rendered "no knowledge" in 1 Corinthians 15:34 , RV (AV, "not the knowledge"); in 1 Peter 2:15 , ignorance. See IGNORANCE.VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.36

    Note: In Ephesians 3:4 , AV, sunesis, "understanding," is translated "knowledge;" RV, "understanding." For kardiognostes see HEART (knowing the).VED-NT Know, Known, Knowledge, Unknown.37

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