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    Rabbi — Restrain


    1: ῥαββί
    (Strong's #4461 — Noun Masculine — rabbei | rabbi — hrab-bee' )
    VED-NT Rabbi.2

    from a word rab, primarily denoting "master" in contrast to a slave; this with the added pronominal suffix signified "my master" and was a title of respect by which teachers were addressed. The suffix soon lost its specific force, and in the NT the word is used as courteous title of address. It is applied to Christ in Matthew 26:25, 49 ; Mark 9:5 ; Mark 11:21 ; Mark 14:45 ; John 1:38 (where it is interpreted as didaskalos, "master," marg., "teacher" (see also "Rabboni" in John 20:16 ); John 1:49 ; John 3:2 ; John 4:31 ; John 6:25 ; John 9:2 ; John 11:8 ; to John the Baptist in John 3:26 . In Matthew 23:7, 8 Christ forbids his disciples to covet or use it. In the latter verse it is again explained as didaskalos, "master" (some mss. have kathegetes, "a guide").VED-NT Rabbi.3


    * For RABBLE see COURT , No. 1 12 (AV, "silence"); in Acts 22:2 , RV, "(they were the more) quiet," AV, "(they kept the more) silence," lit., "they kept quietness the more."VED-NT Rabble.2


    1: ῥαββουνί
    (Strong's #4462 — Noun Masculine — rabbounei | rabboni — hrab-bon-ee', hrab-boo-nee' )
    VED-NT Rabboni.2

    formed in a similar way to the above, was an Aramaic form of a title almost entirely applied to the president of the Sanhedrin, if such was a descendant of Hillel. It was even more respectful than Rabbi, and signified "My great master;" in its use in the NT the pronominal force of the suffix is apparently retained (contrast Rabbi above); it is found in Mark 10:51 in the best texts, RV, "Rabboni" (AV, "Lord"), addressed to Christ by blind Bartimaeus, and in John 20:16 by Mary Magdalene, where it is interpreted by didaskalos, "Master" (marg., "Teacher").VED-NT Rabboni.3


    1: ῥακά
    (Strong's #4469 — Noun — raka — rhak-ah' )
    VED-NT Raca.2

    is an Aramaic word akin to the Heb. req, "empty," the first "a" being due to a Galilean change. In the AV of 1611 it was spelled racha; in the edition of 1638, raca. It was a word of utter contempt, signifying "empty," intellectually rather than morally, "empty-headed," like Abimelech's hirelings, Judges 9:4 , and the "vain" man of James 2:20 . As condemned by Christ, Matthew 5:22 , it was worse than being angry, inasmuch as an outrageous utterance is worse than a feeling unexpressed or somewhat controlled in expression; it does not indicate such a loss of self-control as the word rendered "fool," a godless, moral reprobate.VED-NT Raca.3


    1: ἀγών
    (Strong's #73 — Noun Masculine — agon — ag-one' )
    VED-NT Race.2

    is translated "race" in Hebrews 12:1 , one of the modes of athletic contest, this being the secondary meaning of the word. See CONFLICT.VED-NT Race.3

    2: στάδιον
    (Strong's #4712 — Noun Neuter — stadion — stad'-ee-on )
    VED-NT Race.4

    "a stadium," denotes a "racecourse," 1 Corinthians 9:24 . The stadium (about 600 Greek feet or 1/8 of a Roman mile) was the length of the Olympic course. See FURLONG.VED-NT Race.5

    Note: No. 1 signifies the "race" itself; No. 2 the "course."VED-NT Race.6

    Rage, Raging

    A — 1: φρυάσσω
    (Strong's #5433 — Verb — phruasso — froo-as'-so )
    VED-NT Rage, Raging.2

    was primarily used of "the snorting, neighing and prancing of horses;" hence, metaphorically, of "the haughtiness and insolence of men," Acts 4:25 . In the Sept., Psalms 2:1 .VED-NT Rage, Raging.3

    B — 1: κλύδων
    (Strong's #2830 — Noun Masculine — kludon — kloo'-dohn )
    VED-NT Rage, Raging.4

    "a billow, surge" (akin to kluzo, "to wash over," said of the sea; cp. kludonizomai, "to be tossed by the waves," Ephesians 4:14 ), is translated "raging" in Luke 8:24 ; in James 1:6 , RV, "surge" (AV, "wave").VED-NT Rage, Raging.5

    Note: In Jude 1:13 , AV, the adjective agrios, "wild," is translated "raging" (RV, "wild"). See WILD.VED-NT Rage, Raging.6

    Rail, Railer, Railing

    A — 1: βλασφημέω
    (Strong's #987 — Verb — blasphemeo — blas-fay-meh'-o )
    VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.2

    "to blaspheme, rail, revile" (for the meanings of which see BLASPHEME), is translated "to rail at, or on," in Matthew 27:39 , RV (AV, "reviled"); Mark 15:29 ; Luke 23:39 ; 2 Peter 2:10 , RV (AV, "to speak evil of"); Luke 2:12 , RV (AV, "speak evil of"). Cp. loidoreo, "to revile" (see REVILE), and B, No. 2 and C, No. 2.VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.3

    B — 1: βλασφημία
    (Strong's #988 — Noun Feminine — blasphemia — blas-fay-me'-ah )
    VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.4

    is translated "railings" in Matthew 15:19 , RV; 1 Timothy 6:4 , AV and RV; "railing" in Mark 7:22 , RV; Colossians 3:8 , RV; Jude 1:9 , AV and RV, lit., "judgment of railing;" in Ephesians 4:31 , RV (AV, "evil speaking"). See BLASPHEMY.VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.5

    B — 2: λοιδορία
    (Strong's #3059 — Noun Feminine — loidoria — loy-dor-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.6

    "abuse, railing, reviling," is rendered "reviling" in the RV, 1 Peter 3:9 (twice); in 1 Timothy 5:14 , AV marg., "for their reviling." See REVILE , C.VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.7

    C — 1: βλάσφημος
    (Strong's #989 — Adjective — blasphemos — blas'-fay-mos )
    VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.8

    akin to A, and B, No. 1; see BLASPHEME , C.VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.9

    C — 2: λοίδορος
    (Strong's #3060 — Noun Masculine — loidoros — loy'-dor-os )
    VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.10

    an adjective denoting "reviling, railing" (akin to B, No. 2), is used as a noun, "a railer," 1 Corinthians 5:11 . See REVILE.VED-NT Rail, Railer, Railing.11


    * Notes: (1) For himation, rendered "raiment" in Matthew 17:2 , AV (RV, "garments"), so Matthew 27:31 ; Mark 9:3 ; Luke 23:34 ; John 19:24 ; Acts 22:20 ; Revelation 3:5, 18 ; Revelation 4:4 ; AV and RV, Acts 18:6 , see CLOTHING , No. 2 and ROBE. Himatismos is rendered "raiment" in Luke 9:29 ; enduma in Matthew 3:4 ; Matthew 6:25, 28 ; Matthew 28:3 ; Luke 12:23 . For esthes, translated "raiment" in James 2:2 (2nd part), AV, see APPAREL. (2) For skepasma, "a covering," rendered "raiment" in 1 Timothy 6:8 , AV, see COVER , B, No. 2.VED-NT Raiment.2


    A — 1: ὑετός
    (Strong's #5205 — Noun Masculine — huetos — hoo-et-os' )
    VED-NT Rain.2

    from huo, "to rain," is used especially, but not entirely, of "showers," and is found in Acts 14:17 ; Acts 28:2 ; Hebrews 6:7 ; James 5:7 (see EARLY and LATTER); 5:18; Revelation 11:6 (see B).VED-NT Rain.3

    A — 2: βροχή
    (Strong's #1028 — Noun Feminine — broche — brokh-ay' )
    VED-NT Rain.4

    akin to B, below, lit., "a wetting," hence, "rain," is used in Matthew 7:25, 27 . In the Sept., Psalms 68:9 ; Psalms 105:32 . It is found in the papyri in connection with irrigation in Egypt (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East).VED-NT Rain.5

    B — 1: βρέχω
    (Strong's #1026 — Verb — brecho — brekh'-o )
    VED-NT Rain.6

    akin to A, No. 2, signifies (a) "to wet," Luke 7:38, 44 , RV (AV, to wash); (b) "to send rain," Matthew 5:45 ; to rain, Luke 17:29 (of fire and brimstone); James 5:17 , used impersonally (twice); Revelation 11:6 , where huetos (A, No. 1) is used as the subject, lit., "(that) rain rain (not)."VED-NT Rain.7


    1: ἶρις
    (Strong's #2463 — Noun Feminine — iris — ee'-ris )
    VED-NT Rainbow.2

    whence Eng., "iris," the flower, describes the "rainbow" seen in the heavenly vision, "round about the throne, like an emerald to look upon," Revelation 4:3 , emblematic of the fact that, in the exercise of God's absolute sovereignty and perfect counsels, He will remember His covenant concerning the earth (Genesis 9:9-17 ); in Revelation 10:1 , "the rainbow," RV, the definite article suggests a connection with the scene in Revelation 4:3 ; here it rests upon the head of an angel who declares that "there shall be delay no longer" (ver. 6, RV marg., the actual meaning); the mercy to be shown to the earth must be preceded by the execution of Divine judgments upon the nations who defy God and His Christ. Cp. Ezekiel 1:28 .VED-NT Rainbow.3


    1: ἐγείρω
    (Strong's #1453 — Verb — egeiro — eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Raise.2

    for the various meanings of which see ARISE , No. 3, is used (a) of "raising" the dead, Active and Passive Voices, e.g., of the resurrection of Christ, Matthew 16:21 ; Matthew 17:23 ; Matthew 20:19 , RV; 26:32, RV, "(after) I am raised up" (AV, "... risen again"); Luke 9:22 ; Luke 20:37 ; John 2:19 ; Acts 3:15 ; Acts 4:10 [not 5:30, see (c) below]; 10:40 [not 13:23 in the best texts, see (c) below]; 13:30,37; Romans 4:24, 25 ; Romans 6:4, 9 ; Romans 7:4 ; Romans 8:11 (twice); 8:34, RV; 10:9; 1 Corinthians 6:14 (1st part); 15:13,14, RV; 15:15 (twice),16,17; 15:20, RV; 2 Corinthians 4:14 ; Galatians 1:1 ; Ephesians 1:20 ; Colossians 2:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:10 ; 1 Peter 1:21 ; in 2 Timothy 2:8 , RV , "risen;" (b) of the resurrection of human beings, Matthew 10:8 ; Matthew 11:5 ; Matthew 27:52 , RV (AV, "arose"); Mark 12:26 , RV; Luke 7:22 ; John 5:21 ; John 12:1, 9, 17 ; Acts 26:8 ; 1 Corinthians 15:29, 32 , RV; 15:35,42,43 (twice),44,52; 2 Corinthians 1:9 ; 2 Corinthians 4:14 ; Hebrews 11:19 ; (c) of "raising" up a person to occupy a place in the midst of a people, said of Christ, Acts 5:30 ; in Acts 13:23 , AV only (the best texts have ago, to bring, RV , "hath ... brought"); of David, Acts 13:22 (for ver. 33 see No. 2); (d) metaphorically, of a horn of salvation, Luke 1:69 ; (e) of children, from stones, by creative power, Luke 3:8 ; (f) of the Temple, as the Jews thought, John 2:20 , RV, "wilt thou raise (it) up" (AV, "rear"); (g) of "lifting" up a person, from physical infirmity, Mark 1:31 , RV, "raised ... up" (AV, "lifted"); so Mark 9:27 ; Acts 3:7 ; Acts 10:26 , RV (AV, "took"); James 5:15 , "shall raise ... up;" (h) metaphorically, of "raising" up affliction, Philippians 1:17 , RV (in the best texts; the AV, ver. 16, following those which have epiphero, has "to add"). See AWAKE , No. 1.VED-NT Raise.3

    2: ἀνίστημι
    (Strong's #450 — Verb — anistemi — an-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Raise.4

    for the various applications of which See ARISE , No. 1, is translated "to raise or raise up," (a) of the resurrection of the dead by Christ, John 6:39, 40, 44, 54 ; (b) of the resurrection of Christ from the dead, Acts 2:24 (for ver. 30 see RV , kathizo, "to set," as in the best texts); 2:32; 13:34, see (c) below; Acts 17:31 ; (c) of "raising" up a person to occupy a place in the midst of a nation, said of Christ, Acts 3:26 ; Acts 7:37 ; Acts 13:33 , RV , "raised up Jesus," not here by resurrection from the dead, as the superfluous "again" of the AV would suggest; this is confirmed by the latter part of the verse, which explains the "raising" up as being by way of His incarnation, and by the contrast in ver. 34, where stress is laid upon His being "raised" from the dead, the same verb being used: (d) of "raising" up seed, Matthew 22:24 ; (e) of being "raised" from natural sleep, Matthew 1:24 , AV, "being raised" (RV, "arose"); here some mss. have diegeiro, "to arouse completely;" see ARISE , No. 4.VED-NT Raise.5

    Note: for the contrast between No. 1 and No. 2 see ARISE , No. 3 (parag. 2).VED-NT Raise.6

    3: ἐξεγείρω
    (Strong's #1825 — Verb — exegeiro — ex-eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Raise.7

    ek, "out of," and No. 1, is used (a) of the "resurrection" of believers, 1 Corinthians 6:14 [2nd part; see No. 1 (a) for the 1st part]; (b) of "raising" a person to public position, Romans 9:17 , "did I raise thee up," RV, said of Pharaoh.VED-NT Raise.8

    4: ἐξανίστημι
    (Strong's #1817 — Verb — exanistemi — ex-an-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Raise.9

    ek, "out of," and No. 2, is used of "raising" up seed, Mark 12:19 ; Luke 20:28 ; elsewhere, Acts 15:5 , "to rise up." See RISE.VED-NT Raise.10

    5: συνεγείρω
    (Strong's #4891 — Verb — sunegeiro — soon-eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Raise.11

    "to raise together" (sun, "with," and No. 1), is used of the believer's spiritual resurrection with Christ. Ephesians 2:6 ; Passive Voice in Colossians 2:12 , RV, "ye were ... raised (with Him)," AV, "ye are risen;" so Colossians 3:1 . See RISE.VED-NT Raise.12

    Notes: (1) In Acts 13:50 , AV, epegeiro, "to rouse up, excite," is translated "raised" (RV, "stirred up," as in AV and RV in Acts 14:2 ). (2) In Acts 24:12 , poieo, to make, is used with epistasis, a collection of people, and translated "stirring up (a crowd)," RV, lit., 'making a collection (of a crowd)'; some mss. have episustasis, a resurrection, preceded by ex (i.e., ek), "out of, or by," instrumental, is translated "raised to life again" (a paraphrase), RV, "by a resurrection."VED-NT Raise.13


    * For RAN see RUNVED-NT Ran.2


    1: πρασιά
    (Strong's #4237 — Noun Feminine — prasia — pras-ee-ah' )
    VED-NT Ranks.2

    "a garden bed or plot" (probably from prason, "a leek"), is used metaphorically in Mark 6:40 of "ranks" of persons arranged in orderly groups.VED-NT Ranks.3


    1: λύτρον
    (Strong's #3083 — Noun Neuter — lutron — loo'-tron )
    VED-NT Ransom.2

    "a means of loosing" (from luo, "to loose"), occurs frequently in the Sept., where it is always used to signify "equivalence." Thus it is used of the "ransom" for a life, e.g., Exodus 21:30 , of the redemption price of a slave, e.g., Leviticus 19:20 , of land, Leviticus 25:24 , of the price of a captive, Isaiah 45:13 . In the NT it occurs in Matthew 20:28 ; Mark 10:45 , where it is used of Christ's gift of Himself as "a ransom for many." Some interpreters have regarded the "ransom" price as being paid to Satan; others, to an impersonal power such as death, or evil, or "that ultimate necessity which has made the whole course of things what it has been." Such ideas are largely conjectural, the result of an attempt to press the details of certain Old Testament illustrations beyond the actual statements of New Testament doctrines.VED-NT Ransom.3

    That Christ gave up His life in expiatory sacrifice under God's judgment upon sin and thus provided a "ransom" whereby those who receive Him on this ground obtain deliverance from the penalty due to sin, is what Scripture teaches. What the Lord states in the two passages mentioned involves this essential character of His death. In these passages the preposition is anti, which has a vicarious significance, indicating that the "ransom" holds good for those who, accepting it as such, no longer remain in death since Christ suffered death in their stead. The change of preposition in 1 Timothy 2:6 , where the word antilutron, a substitutionary "ransom," is used, is significant. There the preposition is huper, "on behalf of," and the statement is made that He "gave Himself a ransom for all," indicating that the "ransom" was provisionally universal, while being of a vicarious character. Thus the three passages consistently show that while the provision was universal, for Christ died for all men, yet it is actual for those only who accept God's conditions, and who are described in the Gospel statements as "the many." The giving of His life was the giving of His entire person, and while His death under Divine judgment was alone expiatory, it cannot be dissociated from the character of His life which, being sinless, gave virtue to His death and was a testimony to the fact that His death must be of a vicarious nature.VED-NT Ransom.4

    ( — — — )
    VED-NT Ransom.5

    1 Timothy 2:6 . See under No. 1.VED-NT Ransom.6

    Rash, Rashly

    * For RASH, RASHLY see HEADSTRONGVED-NT Rash, Rashly.2


    A — 1: μᾶλλον
    (Strong's #3123 — Adverb — mallon — mal'-lon )
    VED-NT Rather.2

    the comparative degree of mala, "very, very much," is frequently translated "rather," e.g., Matthew 10:6, 28 ; 1 Corinthians 14:1, 5 ; sometimes followed by "than," with a connecting particle, e.g., Matthew 18:13 ("more than"); or without, e.g., John 3:19 ; Acts 4:19 , RV (AV, "more"); in 1 Corinthians 9:12 , AV, "rather" (RV, "yet more"); 1 Corinthians 12:22 , RV, "rather" (AV, "more"); 2 Corinthians 3:9 (ditto); Philemon 1:16 (ditto); in 2 Peter 1:10 , AV, "the rather" (RV, "the more"). See MORE.VED-NT Rather.3

    B — 1: θέλω
    (Strong's #2309 — Verb — thelo — )
    VED-NT Rather.4

    "to will, wish," is translated "I had rather" in 1 Corinthians 14:19 . See DESIRE , B, No. 6.VED-NT Rather.5

    C — 1: παρά
    (Strong's #3844 — Preposition — para — par-ah' )
    VED-NT Rather.6

    "beyond, in comparison with," is translated "rather than" in Romans 1:25 , RV (AV, "more than;" marg., "rather").VED-NT Rather.7

    D — 1: ἀλλά
    (Strong's #235 — Conjunction — alla — al-lah' )
    VED-NT Rather.8

    "but, on the contrary," is translated "and rather" in Luke 17:8 .VED-NT Rather.9

    Notes: (1) In Hebrews 13:19 , AV, perissoteros, "the more exceedingly" (RV), is translated "the rather." (2) In Luke 11:41 ; Luke 12:31 , AV, plen, an adverb signifying "yet, howbeit," is translated "rather" (RV, "howbeit"). (3) In Romans 3:8 , AV, the negative particle me, "not," is translated with "rather" in italics (RV, "why not"). (4) In Luke 10:20 , AV, "rather rejoice," there is no word in the original for "rather" (see the RV).VED-NT Rather.10


    1: κόραξ
    (Strong's #2876 — Noun Masculine — korax — kor'-ax )
    VED-NT Raven.2

    "a raven" (perhaps onomatopoeic, representing the sound), occurs in the plural in Luke 12:24 . The Heb. oreb and the Arabic ghurab are from roots meaning "to be black;" the Arabic root also has the idea of leaving home. Hence the evil omen attached to the bird. It is the first bird mentioned in the Bible, Genesis 8:7 . Christ used the "ravens" to illustrate and enforce the lesson of God's provision and care.VED-NT Raven.3


    A — 1: ἅρπαξ
    (Strong's #727 — Adjective — harpax — har'-pax )
    VED-NT Ravening.2

    an adjective signifying "rapacious," is translated "ravening" (of wolves) in Matthew 7:15 : see EXTORT , C.VED-NT Ravening.3

    B — 1: ἁρπαγή
    (Strong's #724 — Noun Feminine — harpage — har-pag-ay' )
    VED-NT Ravening.4

    is translated "ravening" in Luke 11:39 , AV: see EXTORT , B, No. 1.VED-NT Ravening.5


    1: ἀκολουθέω
    (Strong's #190 — Verb — akoloutheo — ak-ol-oo-theh'-o )
    VED-NT Reach.2

    "to follow," is translated "have reached," in Revelation 18:5 , of the sins of Babylon. Some mss. have the verb kollaomai, "to cleave together," RV, marg.; see FOLLOW.VED-NT Reach.3

    2: ὀρέγω
    (Strong's #3713 — Verb — orego — or-eg'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Reach.4

    "to reach or stretch out," is rendered "reached after" in 1 Timothy 6:10 , RV; see DESIRE , B, No. 5.VED-NT Reach.5

    3: φέρω
    (Strong's #5342 — verb — phero — fer'-o )
    VED-NT Reach.6

    "to bear, carry," is used of "reaching" forth the hand in John 20:27 (twice). See BEAR , No. 2.VED-NT Reach.7

    4: ἐφικνέομαι
    (Strong's #2185 — Verb — ephikneomai — ef-ik-neh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Reach.8

    "to come to, reach," is used in 2 Corinthians 10:13, 14 .VED-NT Reach.9

    5: καταντάω
    (Strong's #2658 — Verb — katantao — kat-an-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Reach.10

    "to come to a place," is translated "reach" in Acts 27:12 , RV (AV, "attain to"). See COME , No. 28.VED-NT Reach.11

    Note: In Philippians 3:13 , AV, epekteino, in the Middle Voice, "to stretch forward," is translated "reaching forth" (RV, "stretching forward").VED-NT Reach.12

    Read, Reading

    A — 1: ἀναγινώσκω
    (Strong's #314 — Verb — anaginosko — an-ag-in-oce'-ko )
    VED-NT Read, Reading.2

    primarily, "to know certainly, to know again, recognize" (ana, "again," ginosko, "to know"), is used of "reading" written characters, e.g., Matthew 12:3, 5 ; Matthew 21:16 ; Matthew 24:15 ; of the private "reading" of Scripture, Acts 8:28, 30, 32 ; of the public "reading" of Scripture, Luke 4:16 ; Acts 13:27 ; Acts 15:21 ; 2 Corinthians 3:15 ; Colossians 4:16 (thrice); 1 Thessalonians 5:27 ; Revelation 1:3 . In 2 Corinthians 1:13 there is a purposive play upon words; firstly, "we write none other things unto you, than what ye read (anaginosko)" signifies that there is no hidden or mysterious meaning in his Epistles; whatever doubts may have arisen and been expressed in this respect, he means what he says; then follows the similar verb epiginosko, "to acknowledge," "or even acknowledge, and I hope ye will acknowledge unto the end." The paronomasia can hardly be reproduced in English. Similarly, in 2 Corinthians 3:2 the verb ginosko, "to know," and anaginosko, "to read," are put in that order, and metaphorically applied to the church at Corinth as being an epistle, a message to the world, written by the Apostle and his fellow missionaries, through their ministry of the gospel and the consequent change in the lives of the converts, an epistle "known and read of all men." For other instances of paronomasia see, e.g., Romans 12:3 , phroneo, huperphroneo, sophroneo; 1 Corinthians 2:13, 14 , sunkrino, anakrino; 2 Thessalonians 3:11 , ergazomai, and periergazomai; 1 Corinthians 7:31 , chraomai and katachraomai; 1 Corinthians 11:31 , diakrino and krino; 1 Corinthians 12:2 , ago and apago; Philippians 3:2, 3 , katatome and peritome.VED-NT Read, Reading.3

    B — 1: ἀνάγνωσις
    (Strong's #320 — — anagnosis — an-ag'-no-sis )
    VED-NT Read, Reading.4

    in nonbiblical Greek denoted "recognition" or "a survey" (the latter found in the papyri); then, "reading;" in the NT the public "reading" of Scripture, Acts 13:15 ; 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; 1 Timothy 4:13 , where the context makes clear that the reference is to the care required in reading the Scriptures to a company, a duty ever requiring the exhortation "take heed." Later, readers in churches were called anagnostai. In the Sept., Nehemiah 8:8 .VED-NT Read, Reading.5


    1: προθυμία
    (Strong's #4288 — Noun Feminine — prothumia — proth-oo-mee'-ah )
    VED-NT Readiness.2

    "eargerness, willingness, readiness" (pro, "forward," thumos, "mind, disposition," akin to prothumos, READY, A, No. 2), is translated "readiness of mind" in Acts 17:11 , "readiness" in 2 Corinthians 8:11 ; in 2 Corinthians 8:12 , RV (AV, "a willing mind"); in 2 Corinthians 8:19 , RV "(our) readiness," AV, "(your) ready mind;" in 2 Corinthians 9:2 , RV, "readiness" (AV, "forwardness of ... mind;" see FORWARDNESS , Note (4).VED-NT Readiness.3

    2: ἕτοιμος
    (Strong's #2092 — Adjective — hetoimos — het-oy'-mos )
    VED-NT Readiness.4

    an adjective (see READY , A, No. 1), is used with echo, "to have," and en, "in," idiomatically, as a noun in 2 Corinthians 10:6 , RV, "being in readiness" (AV, "having in readiness"), of the Apostle's aim for the church to be obedient to Christ. Cp. READY, C.VED-NT Readiness.5


    A — 1: ἕτοιμος
    (Strong's #2092 — Adjective — hetoimos — het-oy'-mos )
    VED-NT Ready.2

    "prepared, ready" (akin to hetoimasia, "preparation"), is used (a) of persons, Matthew 24:44 ; Matthew 25:10 ; Luke 12:40 ; Luke 22:33 ; Acts 23:15, 21 (for 2 Corinthians 10:6 , see above); Titus 3:1 ; 1 Peter 3:15 ; (b) of things, Matthew 22:4 (2nd part),8; Mark 14:15 , RV , "ready" (AV, "prepared"); Luke 14:17 ; John 7:6 ; 2 Corinthians 9:5 ; 2 Corinthians 10:16 , RV , "things ready" (AV, "things made ready"); 1 Peter 1:5 . See PREPARE , No. 5, Note (2).VED-NT Ready.3

    A — 2: πρόθυμος
    (Strong's #4289 — Adjective — prothumos — proth'-oo-mos )
    VED-NT Ready.4

    "predisposed, willing" (akin to prothumia, see READINESS), is translated "ready" in Romans 1:15 , expressive of willingness, eagerness: in Mark 14:38 , RV , "willing" (AV, "ready"); in Matthew 26:41 . "willing." See WILLING.VED-NT Ready.5

    B — 1: μέλλω
    (Strong's #3195 — Verb — mello — mel'-lo )
    VED-NT Ready.6

    "to be about to," is translated "to be ready" in 2 Peter 1:12 , RV, where the future indicates that the Apostle will be prepared, as in the past and the present, to remind his readers of the truths they know (some mss. have ouk ameleso, "I will not be negligent," AV; cp., however, ver. 15. Field, in Notes on the Translation of the NT, suggests that the true reading is meleso, the future of melo, "to be a care, or an object of care"); in Revelation 3:2 , RV, "were ready" (some texts have the present tense, as in the AV). Elsewhere, where the AV has the rendering to be ready, the RV gives renderings in accordance with the usual significance as follows: Luke 7:2 , "was ... at the point of;" Acts 20:7 , "intending;" Revelation 12:4 , "about (to)."VED-NT Ready.7

    B — 2: ἑτοιμάζω
    (Strong's #2090 — Verb — hetoimazo — het-oy-mad'-zo )
    VED-NT Ready.8

    "make ready:" see PREPARE , B, No. 1.VED-NT Ready.9

    B — 3: παρασκευάζω
    (Strong's #3903 — Verb — paraskeuazo — par-ask-yoo-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Ready.10

    "to prepare, make ready:" see PREPARE , B, No. 4.VED-NT Ready.11

    Note: On the difference between No. 2 and No. 3, see PREPARE , Note (1) under No. 5.VED-NT Ready.12

    C — 1: ἑτοίμως
    (Strong's #2093 — Adverb — hetoimos — het-toy'-moce )
    VED-NT Ready.13

    "readily" (akin to A, No. 1), is used with echo, "to have," lit., "to have readily," i.e., "to be in readiness, to be ready," Acts 21:13 ; 2 Corinthians 12:14 ; 1 Peter 4:5 .VED-NT Ready.14

    Notes: (1) In Hebrews 8:13 , AV, engus, "near," is translated "ready" (RV, "nigh"). See NIGH. (2) For "ready to distribute," 1 Timothy 6:18 , see DISTRIBUTE , B. (3) In 2 Timothy 4:6 , AV, spendomai, "I am being offered," RV, with ede, "already," is translated "I am now ready to be offered." See OFFER. (4) In 1 Peter 5:2 prothumos, "willingly, with alacrity," is rendered "of a ready mind."VED-NT Ready.15


    1: θερίζω
    (Strong's #2325 — Verb — therizo — ther-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Reap.2

    "to reap" (akin to theros, "summer, harvest"), is used (a) literally, Matthew 6:26 ; Matthew 25:24, 26 ; Luke 12:24 ; Luke 19:21, 22 ; James 5:4 (2nd part), AV, "have reaped;" (b) figuratively or in proverbial expressions, John 4:36 (twice),37,38, with immediate reference to bringing Samaritans into the kingdom of God, in regard to which the disciples would enjoy the fruits of what Christ Himself had been doing in Samaria; the Lord's words are, however, of a general application in respect of such service; in 1 Corinthians 9:11 , with reference to the right of the Apostle and his fellow missionaries to receive material assistance from the church, a right which he forbore to excerise; in 2 Corinthians 9:6 (twice), with reference to rendering material help to the needy, either "sparingly" or "bountifully," the "reaping" being proportionate to the sowing; in Galatians 6:7, 8 (twice), of "reaping" corruption, with special reference, according to the context, to that which is naturally shortlived, transient (though the statement applies to every form of sowing to the flesh), and of "reaping" eternal life (characteristics and moral qualities being in view), as a result of sowing "to the Spirit," the reference probably being to the new nature of the believer, which is, however, under the controlling power of the Holy Spirit, Galatians 6:9 , the "reaping" (the effect of well doing) being accomplished, to a limited extent, in this life, but in complete fulfillment at and beyond the Judgment-Seat of Christ; diligence or laxity here will then produce proportionate results; in Revelation 14:15 (twice),16, figurative of the discriminating judgment Divinely to be fulfilled at the close of this age, when the wheat will be separated from the tares (see Matthew 13:30 ).VED-NT Reap.3

    Reap Down

    * For REAP DOWN, James 5:4 , see MOWVED-NT Reap Down.2


    1: θεριστής
    (Strong's #2327 — Noun Masculine — theristes — ther-is-tace' )
    VED-NT Reaper.2

    "a reaper" (akin to therizo, see above), is used of angels in Matthew 13:30, 39 .VED-NT Reaper.3

    Rear Up

    * For REAR UP, John 2:20 , see RAISE , No. 1 (f)VED-NT Rear Up.2


    * For the prepositions rendered BY REASON OF see +, p. 9VED-NT Reason.2


    1: λογικός
    (Strong's #3050 — Adjective — logikos — log-ik-os' )
    VED-NT Reasonable.2

    pertaining to "the reasoning faculty, reasonable, rational," is used in Romans 12:1 , of the service (latreia) to be rendered by believers in presenting their bodies "a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God." The sacrifice is to be intelligent, in contrast to those offered by ritual and compulsion; the presentation is to be in accordance with the spiritual intelligence of those who are new creatures in Christ and are mindful of "the mercies of God." For the significance of the word in 1 Peter 2:2 , see under MILK.VED-NT Reasonable.3


    1: διαλογισμός
    (Strong's #1261 — Noun Masculine — dialogismos — dee-al-og-is-mos' )
    VED-NT Reasoning.2

    "a thought, reasoning, inward questioning" [akin to dialogizomai, see REASON (Verb), No. 1], is translated "reasoning" or "reasonings" in Luke 5:22 , RV (AV, "thoughts"); Luke 9:46 ; Luke 9:47 , RV (AV, "thoughts"); 24:38 (AV, "thoughts"); Romans 1:21 (AV, "imaginations"); 1 Corinthians 3:20 (AV, "thoughts"). See DISPUTE , A, No. 1.VED-NT Reasoning.3

    Note: In those mss. which contain Acts 28:29 , occurs suzetesis, "a disputation," which is translated "reasoning" (AV).VED-NT Reasoning.4


    A — 1: ἐπιτιμάω
    (Strong's #2008 — Verb — epitimao — ep-ee-tee-mah'-o )
    VED-NT Rebuke.2

    primarily, "to put honor upon," then, "to adjudge," hence signifies "to rebuke." Except for 2 Timothy 4:2 ; Jude 1:9 , it is confined in the NT to the Synoptic Gospels, where it is frequently used of the Lord's rebukes to (a) evil spirits, e.g., Matthew 17:18 ; Mark 1:25 ; Mark 9:25 ; Luke 4:35, 41 ; Luke 9:42 ; (b) winds, Matthew 8:26 ; Mark 4:39 ; Luke 8:24 ; (c) fever, Luke 4:39 ; (d) disciples, Mark 8:33 ; Luke 9:55 ; contrast Luke 19:39 . For rebukes by others see Matthew 16:22 ; Matthew 19:13 ; Matthew 20:31 ; Mark 8:32 ; Mark 10:13 ; Mark 10:48 , RV , "rebuke" (AV, "charged"); Luke 17:3 ; Luke 18:15, 39 ; Luke 23:40 . See CHARGE , C, No. 7.VED-NT Rebuke.3

    A — 2: ἐλέγχω
    (Strong's #1651 — Verb — elencho — el-eng'-kho )
    VED-NT Rebuke.4

    "to convict, refute, reprove," is translated "to rebuke" in the AV of the following (the RV always has the verb "to reprove"): 1 Timothy 5:20 ; Titus 1:13 ; Titus 2:15 ; Hebrews 12:5 ; Revelation 3:19 . See CONVICT , No. 1.VED-NT Rebuke.5

    Note: While epitimao signifies simply "a rebuke" which may be either undeserved, Matthew 16:22 , or ineffectual, Luke 23:40 , elencho implies a "rebuke" which carries conviction.VED-NT Rebuke.6

    A — 3: ἐπιπλήσσω
    (Strong's #1969 — Verb — epiplesso — ep-ee-place'-so )
    VED-NT Rebuke.7

    "to strike at" (epi, "upon" or "at," plesso, "to strike, smite"), hence, "to rebuke," is used in the injunction against "rebuking" an elder, 1 Timothy 5:1 .VED-NT Rebuke.8

    Note: In Philippians 2:15 , the best texts have amomos, "without blemish" (a, negative, momos, "a blemish, a moral disgrace"), RV, "without blemish;" some mss. have amometos (a, negative, and momaomai, "to blame"), AV, "without rebuke." Contrast amemptos in the same verse, "blameless on account of absence of inconsistency" or "ground of reproof," whereas amomos indicates "absence of stain or blemish." We may have blemish, with freedom from blame.VED-NT Rebuke.9

    B — 1: ἔλεγξις
    (Strong's #1649 — Noun Feminine — elenxis — el'-eng-xis )
    VED-NT Rebuke.10

    akin to A, No. 2, denotes "rebuke;" in 2 Peter 2:16 , it is used with echo, "to have," and translated "he was rebuke," lit., "he had rebuke." In the Sept., Job 21:4 , "reproof;" Job 23:2 , "pleading."VED-NT Rebuke.11


    * For RECEIPT see CUSTOM (Toll), No. 2VED-NT Receipt.2

    Receive, Receiving

    A — 1: λαμβάνω
    (Strong's #2983 — Verb — lambano — lam-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.2

    denotes either "to take" or "to receive," (I) literally, (a) without an object, in contrast to asking, e.g., Matthew 7:8 ; Mark 11:24 , RV, "have received" (the original has no object); (b) in contrast to giving, e.g., Matthew 10:8 ; Acts 20:35 ; (c) with objects, whether things, e.g., Mark 10:30 ; Luke 18:30 , in the best mss. (some have No. 4); John 13:30 ; Acts 9:19 , RV, "took" (AV, "received"); 1 Corinthians 9:25 , RV, "receive" (AV, "obtain"); or persons, e.g., John 6:21 ; John 13:20 ; John 16:14 , RV, "take;" 2 John 1:10 ; in Mark 14:65 , RV, "received (Him with blows of their hands);" this has been styled a vulgarism; (II) metaphorically, of the word of God, Matthew 13:20 ; Mark 4:16 ; the sayings of Christ, John 12:48 ; the witness of Christ, John 3:11 ; a hundredfold in this life, and eternal life in the world to come, Mark 10:30 ; mercy, Hebrews 4:16 , RV, "may receive" (AV, "may obtain"); a person (prosopon, see FACE), Luke 20:21 , "acceptest," and Galatians 2:6 , "accepteth," an expression used in the OT either in the sense of being gracious or kind to a person, e.g., Genesis 19:21 ; Genesis 32:20 , or (negatively) in the sense of being impartial, e.g., Leviticus 19:15 ; Deuteronomy 10:17 ; this latter is the meaning in the two NT passages just mentioned. See ACCEPT , A, No. 4, TAKE, etc.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.3

    Lambano and prosopon are combined in the nouns prosopolempsia, "respect of persons," and prosopolemptes, "respecter of persons," and in the verb prosopolempto, "to have respect of persons:" see PERSON.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.4

    A — 2: παραλαμβάνω
    (Strong's #3880 — Verb — paralambano — par-al-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.5

    "to receive from another" (para, "from beside"), or "to take," signifies "to receive," e.g., in Mark 7:4 ; John 1:11 ; John 14:3 ; 1 Corinthians 11:23 ; 1 Corinthians 15:1, 3 ; Galatians 1:9, 12 ; Philippians 4:9 ; Colossians 2:6 ; Colossians 4:17 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:13 (1st part); 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ; Hebrews 12:28 . See TAKE.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.6

    A — 3: ἀναλαμβάνω
    (Strong's #353 — Verb — analambano — an-al-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.7

    "to take up" (ana), "to take to oneself, receive," is rendered "to receive" in Mark 16:19 ; Acts 1:2, 11, 22 , RV, "He was received up" (AV, "taken"); Mark 10:16 ; 1 Timothy 3:16 . See TAKE.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.8

    A — 4: ἀπολαμβάνω
    (Strong's #618 — Verb — apolambano — ap-ol-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.9

    signifies "to receive from another," (a) to "receive" as one's due (for Luke 18:30 , see No. 1); Luke 23:41 ; Romans 1:27 ; Colossians 3:24 ; 2 John 1:8 ; (b) without the indication of what is due, Luke 16:25 ; Galatians 4:5 (in some mss. 3 John 1:8 , for No. 7); (c) to receive back, Luke 6:34 (twice); 15:27. For its other meaning, "to take apart," Mark 7:33 , see TAKE.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.10

    A — 5: προσλαμβάνω
    (Strong's #4355 — Verb — proslambano — pros-lam-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.11

    denotes "to take to oneself" (pros, "to") or "to receive," always in the Middle Voice, signifying a special interest on the part of the receiver, suggesting a welcome, Acts 28:2 ; Romans 14:1, 3 ; Romans 15:7 ; Philemon 1:12 (in some mss; the best omit it); Philemon 1:17 . See TAKE.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.12

    A — 6: μεταλαμβάνω
    (Strong's #3335 — Verb — metalambano — met-al-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.13

    "to have or get a share of, partake of" (meta, with), is rendered "receiveth" in Hebrews 6:7 . See EAT , HAVE , PARTAKE , TAKE. In the Sept., Esther 5:1 .VED-NT Receive, Receiving.14

    A — 7: ὑπολαμβάνω
    (Strong's #5274 — Verb — hupolambano — hoop-ol-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.15

    "to take or bear up" (hupo, "under"), "to receive," is rendered "received" in Acts 1:9 , of the cloud at the Ascension; in 3 John 1:8 , RV, "welcome" (AV, "receive"). See ANSWER , B, No. 3, SUPPOSE, WELCOME.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.16

    A — 8: δέχομαι
    (Strong's #1209 — Verb — dechomai — dekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.17

    "to receive by deliberate and ready reception of what is offered," is used of (a) taking with the hand, taking hold, taking hold of or up, e.g., Luke 2:28 , RV, "he received (Him)," AV, "took he (Him) up;" 16:6,7; 22:17; Ephesians 6:17 ; (b) "receiving," said of a place "receiving" a person, of Christ into the Heavens, Acts 3:21 ; or of persons in giving access to someone as a visitor, e.g., John 4:45 ; 2 Corinthians 7:15 ; Galatians 4:14 ; Colossians 4:10 ; by way of giving hospitality, etc., e.g., Matthew 10:14, 40 (four times),41 (twice); 18:5; Mark 6:11 ; Mark 9:37 ; Luke 9:5, 48, 53 ; Luke 10:8, 10 ; Luke 16:4 ; Luke 16:9 , of reception, "into the eternal tabnacles," said of followers of Christ who have used "the mammon of unrighteousness" to render assistance to ("make ... friends of") others; of Rahab's reception of the spies, Hebrews 11:31 ; of the reception, by the Lord, of the spirit of a departing believer, Acts 7:59 ; of "receiving" a gift, 2 Corinthians 8:4 (in some mss; RV follows those which omit it); of the favorable reception of testimony and teaching, etc., Luke 8:13 ; Acts 8:14 ; Acts 11:1 ; Acts 17:11 ; 1 Corinthians 2:14 ; 2 Corinthians 8:17 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:6 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:13 , where paralambano (No. 2) is used in the 1st part, "ye received," dechomai in the 2nd part, "ye accepted," RV (AV, "received"), the former refers to the ear, the latter, adding the idea of appropriation, to the heart; James 1:21 ; in 2 Thessalonians 2:10 , "the love of the truth," i.e., love for the truth; cp. Matthew 11:14 , "if ye are willing to receive it," an elliptical construction frequent in Greek writings; of "receiving," by way of bearing with, enduring, 2 Corinthians 11:16 ; of "receiving" by way of getting, Acts 22:5 ; Acts 28:21 ; of becoming partaker of benefits, Mark 10:15 ; Luke 18:17 ; Acts 7:38 ; 2 Corinthians 6:1 ; 2 Corinthians 11:4 (last clause "did accept:" cp. lambano in previous clauses); Philippians 4:18 .VED-NT Receive, Receiving.18

    Note: There is a certain distinction between lambano and dechomai (more pronounced in the earlier, classical use), in that in many instances lambano suggests a self-prompted taking, whereas dechomai more frequently indicates "a welcoming or an appropriating reception" (Grimm-Thayer).VED-NT Receive, Receiving.19

    A — 9: ἀναδέχομαι
    (Strong's #324 — Verb — anadechomai — an-ad-ekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.20

    "to receive gladly," is used in Acts 28:7 , of the reception by Publius of the shipwrecked company in Melita; in Hebrews 11:17 , of Abraham's reception of God's promises, RV, "gladly (ana, "up," regarded as intensive) received." Moulton and Milligan point out the frequency of this verb in the papyri in the legal sense of taking the responsibility of something, becoming security for, undertaking, and say "The predominance of this meaning suggests its application in Hebrews 11:17 . The statement that Abraham had 'undertaken,' 'assumed the responsibility of,' the promises, would not perhaps be alien to the thought." The responsibility would surely be that of his faith in "receiving" the promises. In Classical Greek it had the meaning of "receiving," and it is a little difficult to attach any other sense to the circumstances, save perhaps that Abraham's faith undertook to exercise the assurance of the fulfillment of the promises.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.21

    A — 10: ἀποδέχομαι
    (Strong's #588 — Verb — apodechomai — ap-od-ekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.22

    "to welcome, to accept gladly" (apo, "from"), "to receive without reserve," is used (a) literally, Luke 8:40 , RV, "welcomed;" Luke 9:11 (in the best texts, some have No. 8); Acts 18:27 ; Acts 21:17 ; Acts 28:30 ; (b) metaphorically, Acts 2:41 ; Acts 24:3 , "we accept," in the sense of acknowledging, the term being used in a tone of respect. See ACCEPT , A No. 2.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.23

    A — 11: εἰσδέχομαι
    (Strong's #1523 — Verb — eisdechomai — ice-dekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.24

    "to receive into" (eis), is used only in 2 Corinthians 6:17 , where the verb does not signify "to accept," but "to admit" (as antithetic to "come ye out," and combining Isaiah 52:11 with Zephaniah 3:20 ).VED-NT Receive, Receiving.25

    A — 12: ἐπιδέχομαι
    (Strong's #1926 — Verb — epidechomai — ep-ee-dekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.26

    lit., "to accept besides" (epi, "upon"), "to accept" (found in the papyri, of accepting the terms of a lease), is used in the sense of accepting in 3 John 1:9 ; in 3 John 1:10 , in the sense of "receiving" with hospitality, in each verse said negatively concerning Diotrephes.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.27

    A — 13: παραδέχομαι
    (Strong's #3858 — Verb — paradechmoai — par-ad-ekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.28

    "to receive or admit with approval" (para, "beside"), is used (a) of persons, Acts 15:4 (in some texts, No. 10); Hebrews 12:6 ; (b) of things, Mark 4:20 , AV, "receive" (RV, "accept"); Acts 16:21 ; Acts 22:18 ; 1 Timothy 5:9 . In the Sept., Exodus 23:1 ; Proverbs 3:12 .VED-NT Receive, Receiving.29

    A — 14: προσδέχομαι
    (Strong's #4327 — Verb — prosedechomai — pros-dekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.30

    "to receive to oneself, to receive favorably," also "to look for, wait for," is used of "receiving" in Luke 15:2 ; Romans 16:2 ; Philippians 2:29 . See ACCEPT , A, No. 3, ALLOW, LOOK (for), TAKE, WAIT.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.31

    A — 15: ὑποδέχομαι
    (Strong's #5264 — Verb — hupodechomai — hoop-od-ekh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.32

    denotes "to receive under one's roof" (hupo, "under"), "receive as a guest, entertain hospitably," Luke 10:38 ; Luke 19:6 ; Acts 17:7 ; James 2:25 .VED-NT Receive, Receiving.33

    A — 16: κομίζω
    (Strong's #2865 — Verb — komizo — kom-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.34

    denotes "to bear, carry," e.g., Luke 7:37 ; in the Middle Voice, "to bear for oneself," hence (a) "to receive," Hebrews 10:36 ; Hebrews 11:13 (in the best texts; some have lambano, No. 1),39; 1 Peter 1:9 ; 1 Peter 5:4 ; in some texts in 2 Peter 2:13 (in the best mss. adikeomai, "suffering wrong," RV); (b) "to receive back, recover," Matthew 25:27 ; Hebrews 11:19 ; metaphorically, of requital, 2 Corinthians 5:10 ; Colossians 3:25 , of "receiving back again" by the believer at the Judgment-Seat of Christ hereafter, for wrong done in this life; Ephesians 6:8 , of "receiving," on the same occasion, "whatsoever good thing each one doeth," RV; see BRING , No. 20.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.35

    A — 17: ἀπέχω
    (Strong's #568 — Verb — apecho — ap-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.36

    denotes (a) transitively, "to have in full, to have received;" so the RV in Matthew 6:2, 5, 16 (for AV, "they have"); Luke 6:24 , AV, and RV; in all these instances the present tense (to which the AV incorrectly adheres in the Matthew 6 verses) has a perfective force, consequent upon the combination with the prefix apo ("from"), not that it stands for the perfect tense, but that it views the action in its accomplished result; so in Philippians 4:18 , where the AV and RV translate it "I have;" in Philemon 1:15 , "(that) thou shouldest have (him for ever)," AV, "shouldest receive;" see HAVE , No. 2, and the reference to illustrations from the papyri of the use of the verb in receipts; (b) intransitively, "to be away, distant," used with porro, "far," Matthew 15:8 ; Mark 7:6 ; with makran, "far off, afar," Luke 7:6 ; Luke 15:20 ; without an accompanying adverb, Luke 24:13 , "which was from." See ABSTAIN , ENOUGH , HAVE.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.37

    A — 18: χωρέω
    (Strong's #5562 — Verb — choreo — kho-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.38

    "to give space, make room for" (chora, "a place"), is used metaphorically, of "receiving" with the mind, Matthew 19:11, 12 ; into the heart, 2 Corinthians 7:2 , RV, "open your hearts," marg., "make room" (AV, "receive"). See COME , No. 24, CONTAIN, No. 1, COURSE, B.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.39

    A — 19: λαγχάνω
    (Strong's #2975 — Verb — lanchano — lang-khan'-o )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.40

    "to obtain by lot," is translated "received" in Acts 1:17 , RV (AV, "had obtained"). See LOT.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.41

    Notes: (1) In Mark 2:2 , AV, choreo is translated "there was (no) room to receive" [RV, "there was (no longer) room (for);] (2) In Revelation 13:16 , AV, didomi is translated "to receive" (marg., "to give them"), RV, "(that) there be given (them)." (3) In 2 Corinthians 7:9 , AV, zemioo, "to suffer loss" (RV), is translated "ye might receive damage." (4) In Luke 7:22 , RV, anablepo, "to recover sight," is translated "receive their sight" (AV, "see"). (5) For "received (RV, 'hath taken') tithes," Hebrews 7:6 , see TITHE. (6) For eleeo, in the Passive Voice, 2 Corinthians 4:1 , AV, "having received mercy" (RV, "obtained"), see MERCY. (7) For patroparadotos, in 1 Peter 1:18 , AV, "received by tradition from your fathers," see HANDED DOWN. (8) In the AV of Matthew 13:19, 20, 22, 23 , speiro, "to sow seed," is translated "received seed;" see sow.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.42

    B — 1: λῆψις
    (Strong's #3028 — Noun Feminine — lepsis | lempsis — lape'-sis )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.43

    "a receiving" (akin to lambano, A, No. 1), is used in Philippians 4:15 . In the Sept., Proverbs 15:27, 29 .VED-NT Receive, Receiving.44

    B — 2: ἀνάλημψις
    (Strong's #354 — Noun Feminine — anale(m)psis — an-al'-ape-sis )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.45

    "a taking up" (ana, "up," and No. 1), is used in Luke 9:51 with reference to Christ's ascension; "that He should be received up" is, lit., "of the receiving up (of Him)."VED-NT Receive, Receiving.46

    B — 3: μετάλημψις
    (Strong's #3336 — Noun Feminine — metale(m)psis — met-al'-ape-sis )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.47

    "a participation, taking, receiving," is used in 1 Timothy 4:3 , in connection with food, "to be received," lit., "with a view to (eis) reception."VED-NT Receive, Receiving.48

    B — 4: πρόσληψις
    (Strong's #4356 — Noun Feminine — prosle(m)psis — pros'-lape-sis )
    VED-NT Receive, Receiving.49

    pros, "to," and No. 1, is used in Romans 11:15 , of the restoration of Israel.VED-NT Receive, Receiving.50

    Reckon, Reckoning

    1: λογίζομαι
    (Strong's #3049 — Verb — logizomai — log-id'-zom-ahee )
    VED-NT Reckon, Reckoning.2

    is properly used (a) of "numerical calculation," e.g., Luke 22:37 ; (b) metaphorically, "by a reckoning of characteristics or reasons, to take into account," Romans 2:26 , "shall ... be reckoned," RV (AV, "counted"), of "reckoning" uncircumcision for circumcision by God's estimate in contrast to that of the Jew regarding his own condition (ver. 3); in Romans 4:3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 22-24 , of "reckoning" faith for righteousness, or "reckoning" righteousness to persons, in all of which the RV uses the verb "to reckon" instead of the AV "to count or to impute;" in Romans 4:4 the subject is treated by way of contrast between grace and debt, which latter involves the "reckoning" of a reward for works; what is owed as a debt cannot be "reckoned" as a favor, but the faith of Abraham and his spiritual children sets them outside the category of those who seek to be justified by self-effort, and, vice versa, the latter are excluded from the grace of righteousness bestowed on the sole condition of faith; so in Galatians 3:6 (RV, "was reckoned," AV, "was accounted"); since Abraham, like all the natural descendants of Adam, was a sinner, he was destitute of righteousness in the sight of God; if, then, his relationship with God was to be rectified (i.e., if he was to be justified before God), the rectification could not be brought about by works of merit on his part; in James 2:23 , RV, "reckoned," the subject is viewed from a different standpoint (see under JUSTIFICATION , B, last four paragraphs); for other instances of "reckoning" in this respect see Romans 9:8 , RV , "are reckoned" (AV, "are counted"); 2 Corinthians 5:19 , RV , "(not) reckoning (trespasses)," AV, "imputing;" (c) "to consider, calculate," translated "to reckon" in Romans 6:11 ; Romans 8:36 ; 2 Corinthians 10:11 , RV , "let (such a one) reckon (this)," RV (AV, "thinkest"); 2 Corinthians 3:28 (AV, "we conclude"); 8:18; 2 Corinthians 11:5 (AV, "I suppose"); see ACCOUNT , A, No. 4, CONSIDER, No. 6, COUNT, No. 3, SUPPOSE: (e) "to purpose, decide," 2 Corinthians 10:2 , RV, "count" (AV, "think"); see COUNT , No. 3.VED-NT Reckon, Reckoning.3

    2: λέγω
    (Strong's #3004 — Verb — lego — leg'-o )
    VED-NT Reckon, Reckoning.4

    "to say, speak," also has the meaning "to gather, reckon, account," used in this sense in Hebrews 7:11 , RV, "be reckoned" (AV, "be called"). See ASK , A, No. 6.VED-NT Reckon, Reckoning.5

    3: συναίρω
    (Strong's #4868 — Verb — sunairo — soon-ah'ee-ro )
    VED-NT Reckon, Reckoning.6

    "to take up together" (sun, "with," airo, "to take"), is used with the noun logos, "an account," signifying "to settle account," Matthew 18:23 , RV, "make a reckoning" (AV, "take account"); Matthew 18:24 , AV and RV, "to reckon" (logos being understood); Matthew 25:19 , RV, "maketh a reckoning" (AV, "reckoneth"). This phrase occurs not infrequently in the papyri in the sense of settling accounts (see Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, 118). In the Sept. the verb occurs in its literal sense in Exodus 23:5 , "thou shalt help to raise" (lit., "raise with").VED-NT Reckon, Reckoning.7


    1: ἀνάκειμαι
    (Strong's #345 — Verb — anakeimai — an-ak-i'-mahee )
    VED-NT Recline.2

    lit., and in classical usage, "to be laid up, laid," denotes, in the NT, "to recline at table;" it is translated "reclining" in John 13:23 , RV (AV, "leaning"); cp. anapipto in John 13:25 , RV, "leaning back." See also John 13:12 , marg. See LEAN , SIT , TABLE (at the).VED-NT Recline.3


    * For RECOMMEND, Acts 14:26 ; Acts 15:40 , AV, see COMMEND , No. 2VED-NT Recommend.2

    Recompence, Recompense

    A — 1: ἀνταπόδομα
    (Strong's #468 — Noun Neuter — antapodoma — an-tap-od'-om-ah )
    VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.2

    akin to antapodidomi, "to recompense" (see below), lit., "a giving back in return" (anti, "in return," apo, back, didomi, "to give"), a requital, recompence, is used (a) in a favorable sense, Luke 14:12 ; (b) in an unfavorable sense, Romans 11:9 , indicating that the present condition of the Jewish nation is the retributive effect of their transgressions, on account of which that which was designed as a blessing ("their table") has become a means of judgment.VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.3

    A — 2: ἀνταπόδοσις
    (Strong's #469 — Noun Feminine — antapodosis — an-tap-od'-os-is )
    VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.4

    derived, like No. 1, from antapodidomi, is rendered "recompense" in Colossians 3:24 , RV (AV, "reward").VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.5

    A — 3: ἀντιμισθία
    (Strong's #489 — Noun Feminine — antimisthia — an-tee-mis-thee'-ah )
    VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.6

    "a reward, requital" (anti, "in return," misthos, "wages, hire"), is used (a) in a good sense, 2 Corinthians 6:13 ; (b) in a bad sense, Romans 1:27 .VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.7

    A — 4: μισθαποδοσία
    (Strong's #3405 — Noun Feminine — misthapodosia — mis-thap-od-os-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.8

    "a payment of wages" (from mithos, see No. 3, and apodidomi, B, No. 2), "a recompence," is used (a) of reward, Hebrews 10:35 ; Hebrews 11:26 ; (b) of punishment, Hebrews 2:2 . Cp. misthapodotes, "a rewarder," Hebrews 11:6 .VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.9

    B — 1: ἀνταποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #467 — Verb — antapodidomi — an-tap-od-ee'-do-mee )
    VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.10

    akin to A, No. 1 and No. 2, "to give back as an equivalent, to requite, recompense" (the anti expressing the idea of a complete return), is translated "render" in 1 Thessalonians 3:9 , here only in the NT of thanksgiving to God (cp. the Sept. of Psalms 116:12 ); elsewhere it is used of "recompense," "whether between men (but in that case only of good, not of evil, see No. 2 in 1 Thessalonians 5:15 ), Luke 14:14 , cp. the corresponding noun in Luke 14:12 ; or between God and evil-doers, Romans 12:19 , RV (AV, "repay"); Hebrews 10:30 , cp. the noun in Romans 11:9 ; or between God and those who do well, Luke 14:14 ; Romans 11:35 , cp. the noun in Colossians 3:24 ; in 2 Thessalonians 1:6 both reward and retribution are in view." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 226.]VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.11

    B — 2: ἀποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #591 — Verb — apodidomi — ap-od-eed'-o-mee )
    VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.12

    "to give up or back, restore, return," is translated "shall recompense" in the RV of Matthew 6:4, 6, 18 (AV, "shall reward"); in Romans 12:17 , AV, "recompense" (RV, "render"); in 1 Thessalonians 5:15 , "render," See DELIVER , GIVE , PAY , PERFORM , RENDER , REPAY , REQUITE , RESTORE , REWARD , SELL , YIELD.VED-NT Recompence, Recompense.13

    Reconcile, Reconciliation

    A — 1: καταλλάσσω
    (Strong's #2644 — Verb — katallasso — kat-al-las'-so )
    VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.2

    properly denotes "to change, exchange" (especially of money); hence, of persons, "to change from enmity to friendship, to reconcile." With regard to the relationship between God and man, the use of this and connected words shows that primarily "reconciliation" is what God accomplishes, exercising His grace towards sinful man on the ground of the death of Christ in propitiatory sacrifice under the judgment due to sin, 2 Corinthians 5:19 , where both the verb and the noun are used (cp. No. 2, in Colossians 1:21 ). By reason of this men in their sinful condition and alienation from God are invited to be "reconciled" to Him; that is to say, to change their attitude, and accept the provision God had made, whereby thier sins can be remitted and they themselves be justified in His sight in Christ.VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.3

    Romans 5:10 expresses this in another way: "For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son...;" that we were "enemies" not only expresses man's hostile attitude to God but signifies that until this change of attitude takes place men are under condemnation, exposed to God's wrath. The death of His Son is the means of the removal of this, and thus we "receive the reconciliation," Romans 5:11 , RV. This stresses the attitude of God's favor toward us. The AV rendering "atonement" is incorrect. Atonement is the offering itself of Christ under Divine judgment upon sin. We do not receive atonement. What we do receive is the result, namely, "reconciliation."VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.4

    The removal of God's wrath does not contravene His immutability. He always acts according to His unchanging righteousness and lovingkindness, and it is because He changes not that His relative attitude does change towards those who change. All His acts show that He is Light and Love. Anger, where there is no personal element, is a sign of moral health if, and if only, it is accompanied by grief. There can be truest love along with righteous indignation, Mark 3:5 , but love and enmity cannot exist together. It is important to distinguish "wrath" and "hostility." The change in God's relative attitude toward those who receive the "reconciliation" only proves His real unchangeableness. Not once is God said to be "reconciled." The enmity is alone on our part. It was we who needed to be "reconciled" to God, not God to us, and it is propitiation, which His righteousness and mercy have provided, that makes the "reconciliation" possible to those who receive it.VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.5

    When the writers of the NT speak upon the subject of the wrath of God, "the hostility is represented not as on the part of God, but of man. And this is the reason why the Apostle never uses diallasso [a word used only in Matthew 5:24 , in the NT] in this connection, but always katallasso, because the former word denotes mutual concession after mutual hostility [frequently exemplified in the Sept.], an idea absent from katallasso" (Lightfoot, Notes on the Epistles of Paul, p. 288).VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.6

    The subject finds its great unfolding in 2 Corinthians 5:18-20 , which states that God "reconciled us (believers) to Himself through Christ," and that "the ministry of reconciliation" consists in this, "that God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself." The insertion of a comma in the AV after the word "Christ" is misleading; the doctrine stated here is not that God was in Christ (the unity of the Godhead is not here in view), but that what God has done in the matter of reconciliation He has done in Christ, and this is based upon the fact that "Him who knew no sin He made to be sin on our behalf; that we might become the righteousness of God in Him." On this ground the command to men is "be ye reconciled to God."VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.7

    The verb is used elsewhere in 1 Corinthians 7:11 , of a woman returning to her husband.VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.8

    A — 2: ἀποκαταλλάσσω
    (Strong's #604 — Verb — apokatallasso — ap-ok-at-al-las'-so )
    VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.9

    "to reconcile completely" (apo, from, and No. 1), a stronger form of No. 1, "to change from one condition to another," so as to remove all enmity and leave no impediment to unity and peace, is used in Ephesians 2:16 , of the "reconciliation" of believing Jew and Gentile "in one body unto God through the Cross;" in Colossians 1:21 not the union of Jew and Gentile is in view, but the change wrought in the individual believer from alienation and enmity, on account of evil works, to "reconciliation" with God; in Colossians 1:20 the word is used of the Divine purpose to "reconcile" through Christ "all things unto Himself ... whether things upon the earth, or things in the heavens," the basis of the change being the peace effected "through the blood of His Cross." It is the Divine purpose, on the ground of the work of Christ accomplished on the Cross, to bring the whole universe, except rebellious angels and unbelieving man, into full accord with the mind of God, Ephesians 1:10 . Things "under the earth," Philippians 2:10 , are subdued, not "reconciled."VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.10

    A — 3: διαλλάσσω
    (Strong's #1259 — Verb — diallasso — dee-al-las'-so )
    VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.11

    "to effect an alteration, to exchange," and hence, "to reconcile," in cases of mutual hostility yielding to mutual concession, and thus differing from No. 1 (under which see Lightfoot's remarks), is used in the Passive Voice in Matthew 5:24 , which illustrates the point. There is no such idea as "making it up" where God and man are concerned.VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.12

    B — 1: καταλλαγή
    (Strong's #2643 — Noun Feminine — katallage — kat-al-lag-ay' )
    VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.13

    akin to A, No. 1, primarily "an exchange," denotes "reconciliation," a change on the part of one party, induced by an action on the part of another; in the NT, the "reconciliation" of men to God by His grace and love in Christ. The word is used in Romans 5:11 ; Romans 11:15 . The occasioning cause of the world-wide proclamation of "reconciliation" through the Gospel, was the casting away (partially and temporarily) of Israel. A new relationship Godward is offered to the Gentiles in the Gospel. The word also occurs in 2 Corinthians 5:18, 19 , where "the ministry of reconciliation" and "the word of reconciliation" are not the ministry of teaching the doctrine of expiation, but that of beseeching men to be "reconciled" to God on the ground of what God has wrought in Christ. See No. 1, above.VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.14

    Note: In the OT in some passages the AV incorrectly has "reconciliation," the RV rightly changes the translation to "atonement," e.g., Leviticus 8:15 ; Ezekiel 45:20 , RV, "make atonement for" (AV, "reconcile").VED-NT Reconcile, Reconciliation.15


    * For RECONCILIATION (MAKE), Hebrews 2:17 , AV, see PROPITIATIONVED-NT Reconciliation.2


    * For RECORD (AV) see TESTIFY , No. 3, TESTIMONY, No. 2VED-NT Record.2


    1: σῴζω
    (Strong's #4982 — Verb — sozo — sode'-zo )
    VED-NT Recover.2

    "to save," is sometimes used of "healing" or "restoration to health," the latter in John 11:12 , RV, "he will recover," marg., "be saved" (AV, "he shall do well"). See HEAL , PRESERVE , SAVE , WHOLE.VED-NT Recover.3

    2: ἀνανήφω
    (Strong's #366 — Verb — ananepho — an-an-ay'-fo )
    VED-NT Recover.4

    "to return to soberness," as from a state of delirium or drunkenness (ana, "back," or "again," nepho, "to be sober, to be wary"), is used in 2 Timothy 2:26 , "may recover themselves" (RV marg., "return to soberness," AV marg., "awake"), said of those who, opposing the truth through accepting perversions of it, fall into the snare of the Devil, becoming intoxicated with error; for these "recovery" is possible only by "repentance unto the knowledge of the truth." For a translation of the verse see CAPTIVE , B, No. 3.VED-NT Recover.5

    Notes: (1) For "recovering of sight," Luke 4:18 , see SIGHT. (2) In Mark 16:18 , the phrase echo kalos, lit., "to have well," i.e., "to be well," is rendered "they shall recover."VED-NT Recover.6


    A — 1: πυρρός
    (Strong's #4450 — Adjective — purrhos — poor-hros' )
    VED-NT Red.2

    denotes "fire-colored" (pur, "fire"), hence, "fiery red," Revelation 6:4 ; Revelation 12:3 , in the latter passage said of the Dragon, indicative of the cruelty of the Devil.VED-NT Red.3

    A — 2: ἐρυθρός
    (Strong's #2063 — Adjective — eruthros — er-oo-thros' )
    VED-NT Red.4

    denotes "red" (the ordinary color); the root rudh---, is seen, e.g., in the Latin rufus, Eng., "ruby," "ruddy," "rust," etc. It is applied to the Red Sea, Acts 7:36 ; Hebrews 11:29 . The origin of the name is uncertain; it has been regarded as due, e.g., to the color of the corals which cover the Red Sea bed or line its shores, or to the tinge of the mountains which border it, or to the light of the sky upon its waters.VED-NT Red.5

    B — 1: πυρράζω
    (Strong's #4449 — Verb — purrhazo — poor-hrad'-zo )
    VED-NT Red.6

    "to be fiery red" (akin to A, No. 1), is used of the sky, Matthew 16:2, 3 . In the Sept., purrhizo, Leviticus 13:19, 42, 43, 49 ; Leviticus 14:37 .VED-NT Red.7

    Redeem, Redemption

    A — 1: ἐξαγοράζω
    (Strong's #1805 — Verb — exagorazo — ex-ag-or-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.2

    a strengthened form of agorazo, "to buy" (see BUY , No. 1), denotes "to buy out" (ex for ek), especially of purchasing a slave with a view to his freedom. It is used metaphorically (a) in Galatians 3:13 ; Galatians 4:5 , of the deliverance by Christ of Christian Jews from the Law and its curse; what is said of lutron (RANSOM, No. 1) is true of this verb and of agorazo, as to the Death of Christ, that Scripture does not say to whom the price was paid; the various suggestions made are purely speculative; (b) in the Middle Voice, "to buy up for oneself," Ephesians 5:16 ; and Colossians 4:5 , of "buying up the opportunity" (RV marg.; text, "redeeming the time," where "time" is kairos, "a season," a time in which something is seasonable), i.e., making the most of every opportunity, turning each to the best advantage since none can be recalled if missed.VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.3

    Note: In Revelation 5:9 ; Revelation 14:3, 4 , AV, agorazo, "to purchase" (RV) is translated "redeemed." See PURCHASE.VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.4

    A — 2: λυτρόω
    (Strong's #3084 — Verb — lutroo — loo-tro'-o )
    VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.5

    "to release on receipt of ransom" (akin to lutron, "a ransom"), is used in the Middle Voice, signifying "to release by paying a ransom price, to redeem" (a) in the natural sense of delivering, Luke 24:21 , of setting Israel free from the Roman yoke; (b) in a spiritual sense, Titus 2:14 , of the work of Christ in "redeeming" men "from all iniquity" (anomia, "lawlessness," the bondage of self-will which rejects the will of God); 1 Peter 1:18 (Passive Voice), "ye were redeemed," from a vain manner of life, i.e., from bondage to tradition. In both instances the Death of Christ is stated as the means of "redemption."VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.6

    Note: While both No. 1 and No. 2 are translated "to redeem," exagorazo does not signify the actual "redemption," but the price paid with a view to it, lutroo signifies the actual "deliverance," the setting at liberty.VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.7

    B — 1: λύτρωσις
    (Strong's #3085 — Noun Feminine — lutrosis — loo'-tro-sis )
    VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.8

    "a redemption" (akin to A, No. 2), is used (a) in the general sense of "deliverance," of the nation of Israel, Luke 1:68 RV, "wrought redemption;" Luke 2:38 ; (b) of "the redemptive work" of Christ, Hebrews 9:12 , bringing deliverance through His death, from the guilt and power of sin. In the Sept., Leviticus 25:29, 48 ; Numbers 18:16 ; Judges 1:15 ; Psalms 49:8 ; Psalms 111:9 ; Psalms 130:7 ; Isaiah 63:4 .VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.9

    B — 2: ἀπολύτρωσις
    (Strong's #629 — Noun Feminine — apolutrosis — ap-ol-oo'-tro-sis )
    VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.10

    a strengthened form of No. 1, lit., "a releasing, for (i.e., on payment of) a ransom." It is used of (a) "deliverance" from physical torture, Hebrews 11:35 , see DELIVER , B, No. 1; (b) the deliverance of the people of God at the coming of Christ with His glorified saints, "in a cloud with power and great glory," Luke 21:28 , a "redemption" to be accomplished at the "outshining of His Parousia," 2 Thessalonians 2:8 , i.e., at His second advent; (c) forgiveness and justification, "redemption" as the result of expiation, deliverance from the guilt of sins, Romans 3:24 , "through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus;" Ephesians 1:7 , defined as "the forgiveness of our trespasses," RV; so Colossians 1:14 , "the forgiveness of our sins," indicating both the liberation from the guilt and doom of sin and the introduction into a life of liberty, "newness of life" (Romans 6:4 ); Hebrews 9:15 , "for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant," RV, here "redemption of" is equivalent to "redemption from," the genitive case being used of the object from which the "redemption" is effected, not from the consequence of the transgressions, but from the trangressions themselves; (d) the deliverance of the believer from the presence and power of sin, and of his body from bondage to corruption, at the coming (the Parousia in its inception) of the Lord Jesus, Romans 8:23 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; Ephesians 4:30 . See also PROPITIATION.VED-NT Redeem, Redemption.11


    * For REDOUND, 2 Corinthians 4:15 (RV, "abound"), see ABUNDANCE , B, No. 1 (c)VED-NT Redound.2


    1: κάλαμος
    (Strong's #2563 — Noun Masculine — kalamos — kal'-am-os )
    VED-NT Reed.2

    denotes (a) "the reed" mentioned in Matthew 11:7 ; Matthew 12:20 ; Luke 7:24 , the same as the Heb., qaneh (among the various reeds in the OT), e.g., Isaiah 42:3 , from which Matthew 12:20 is quoted (cp. Job 40:21 ; Ezekiel 29:6 , "a reed with jointed, hollow stalk"); (b) "a reed staff, staff," Matthew 27:29, 30, 48 ; Mark 15:19, 36 (cp. rhabdos, "a rod;" in 2 Kings 18:21 , rhabdos kalamine); (c) "a measuring reed or rod," Revelation 11:1 ; Revelation 21:15, 16 ; (d) "a writing reed, a pen," 3 John 1:13 ; see PEN.VED-NT Reed.3


    1: πυρόω
    (Strong's #4448 — Verb — puroomai — poo-ro'-o )
    VED-NT Refined.2

    "to burn," is translated "refined," as of metals, in Revelation 1:15 ; Revelation 3:18 , RV (AV, "burned," and "tried"). See BURN , No. 4.VED-NT Refined.3


    * For REFLECTING, 2 Corinthians 3:18 , RV, see BEHOLD , No. 12VED-NT Reflecting.2


    1: διόρθωσις
    (Strong's #1357 — Noun Feminine — diorthosis — dee-or'-tho-sis )
    VED-NT Reformation.2

    properly, "a making straight" (dia, "through," orthos, "straight;" cp. diorthoma in Acts 24:2 ; see CORRECTION , No. 1), denotes a "reformation" or reforming, Hebrews 9:10 ; the word has the meaning either (a) of a right arrangement, right ordering, or, more usually, (b) of restoration, amendment, bringing right again; what is here indicated is a time when the imperfect, the inadequate, would be superseded by a better order of things, and hence the meaning (a) seems to be the right one; it is thus to be distinguished from that of Acts 24:2 , mentioned above. The word is used in the papyri in the other sense of the rectification of things, whether by payments or manner of life.VED-NT Reformation.3


    1: παύω
    (Strong's #3973 — Verb — pauo — pow'-o )
    VED-NT Refrain.2

    "to stop," is used in the Active Voice in the sense of "making to cease, restraining" in 1 Peter 3:10 , of causing the tongue to refrain from evil; elsewhere in the Middle Voice, see CEASE , No. 1.VED-NT Refrain.3

    2: ἀφίστημι
    (Strong's #868 — Verb — aphistemi — af-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Refrain.4

    "to cause to depart," is used intransitively, in the sense of "departing from, refraining from," Acts 5:38 . See DEPART , No. 20.VED-NT Refrain.5

    Refresh, Refreshing

    A — 1: ἀναπαύω
    (Strong's #373 — Verb — anapauo — an-ap-ow'-o )
    VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.2

    "to give intermission from labor, to give rest, refresh" (ana, "back," pauo, "to cause to cease"), is translated "to refresh" in 1 Corinthians 16:18 ; 2 Corinthians 7:13 ; Philemon 1:7, 20 . See REST.VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.3

    A — 2: συναναπαύομαι
    (Strong's #4875 — Verb — sunanapauomai — soon-an-ap-ow'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.4

    "to lie down, to rest with" (sun, "with," and No. 1 in the Middle Voice), is used metaphorically of being "refreshed" in spirit with others, in Romans 15:32 , AV, "may with (you) be refreshed" (RV, "... find rest"). In the Sept., Isaiah 11:6 .VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.5

    A — 3: ἀναψύχω
    (Strong's #404 — Verb — anapsucho — an-aps-oo'-kho )
    VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.6

    "to make cool, refresh" (ana, "back," psucho, "to cool"), is used in 2 Timothy 1:16 (cp. B). In the papyri it is used of "taking relaxation."VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.7

    Note: In Acts 27:3 , the verb tunchano, "to obtain or receive," with the object epimeleia, "care," is translated "to refresh himself" (RV, marg., "to receive attention," i.e., to enjoy the kind attention of his friends).VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.8

    B — 1: ἀνάψυξις
    (Strong's #403 — Noun Feminine — anapsuxis — an-aps'-ook-sis )
    VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.9

    "a refreshing" (akin to A, No. 3), occurs in Acts 3:19 . In the Sept., Exodus 8:15 . In the papyri it is used of "obtaining relief."VED-NT Refresh, Refreshing.10


    * For REFUGE see FLEE , No. 3VED-NT Refuge.2


    1: ἀρνέομαι
    (Strong's #720 — Verb — arneomai — ar-neh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Refuse.2

    "to deny, renounce, reject," in late Greek came to signify "to refuse to acknowledge, to disown," and is translated "to refuse" in Acts 7:35 ; Hebrews 11:24 . See DENY , No. 1.VED-NT Refuse.3

    2: παραιτέομαι
    (Strong's #3868 — Verb — paraiteomai — par-ahee-teh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Refuse.4

    for the various meanings of which see AVOID , No. 3, denotes "to refuse" in Acts 25:11 ; 1 Timothy 4:7 ; 1 Timothy 5:11 ; 2 Timothy 2:23 , RV (AV, "avoid"); Titus 3:10 , RV (marg., "avoid;" AV, "reject"); Hebrews 12:25 (twice), perhaps in the sense of "begging off." See EXCUSE , INTREAT , REJECT.VED-NT Refuse.5

    3: δοκιμάζω
    (Strong's #1381 — Verb — dokimazo — dok-im-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Refuse.6

    "to prove, to approve," used with a negative in Romans 1:28 , is translated "they refused," RV (AV, "they did not like"); RV marg., "did not approve." See APPROVE , No. 1.VED-NT Refuse.7

    Notes: (1) For parakouo, "to refuse to hear," RV in Matthew 18:17 (twice), see HEAR , A, No. 7. (2) In 1 Timothy 4:4 , AV, apobletos, "rejected" (RV), is translated "refused." See REJECT.VED-NT Refuse.8


    1: βλέπω
    (Strong's #991 — Verb — blepo — blep'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.2

    "to behold, look, perceive, see," has the sense of "regarding" by way of pariality, in Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 12:14 . See BEHOLD , No. 2.VED-NT Regard.3

    2: ἐντρέπω
    (Strong's #1788 — Verb — entrepo — en-trep'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.4

    "to turn about" (en, "in," trepo, "to turn"), is metaphorically used of "putting to shame," e.g., 1 Corinthians 4:14 ; in the Middle Voice, "to reverence, regard," translated "regard" in Luke 18:2, 4 . See ASHAMED , REVERENCE , SHAME.VED-NT Regard.5

    3: φρονέω
    (Strong's #5426 — Verb — phroneo — fron-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.6

    "to think, set the mind on," implying moral interest and reflection, is translated "to regard" in Romans 14:6 (twice); the second part in the AV represents an interpolation and is not part of the original. The Scripture does not speak of not "regarding" a day. See CARE , B, No. 6, MIND, SAVOR, THINK, UNDERSTAND.VED-NT Regard.7

    4: ἐπιβλέπω
    (Strong's #1914 — Verb — epiblepo — ep-ee-blep'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.8

    "to look upon" (epi, "upon," and No. 1), in the NT "to look on with favor," is used in Luke 1:48 , AV, "hath regarded" (RV, "hath looked upon"); in James 2:3 , RV, "ye have regard to" (AV, "ye have respect to"). See LOOK , No. 6, RESPECT.VED-NT Regard.9

    5: ὀλιγωρέω
    (Strong's #3643 — Verb — oligoreo — ol-ig-o-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.10

    denotes "to think little of" (oligos, "little," ora, "care"), "to regard lightly," Hebrews 12:5 , RV (AV, "despise"). See DESPISE , Note (3). In the Sept., Proverbs 3:11 .VED-NT Regard.11

    6: προσέχω
    (Strong's #4337 — Verb — prosecho — pros-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.12

    "to take or give heed," is translated "they had regard" in Acts 8:11 , AV (RV, "they gave heed"). See ATTEND , No. 1.VED-NT Regard.13

    7: ἀμελέω
    (Strong's #272 — Verb — ameleo — am-el-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Regard.14

    "not to care," is translated "I regared ... not" in Hebrews 8:9 . See NEGLECT.VED-NT Regard.15

    Notes: (1) In Galatians 6:4 , RV, eis, "into," is translated "in regard of (himself)," AV, "in;" so in 2 Corinthians 10:16 ; Ephesians 5:32 . (2) In Romans 6:20 , the dative case of dikaiosune, "righteousness," signifies, not "from righteousness," AV, but "in regard of righteousness," RV, lit., "free to righteousness;" i.e., righteousness laid no sort of bond upon them, they had no relation to it in any way. (3) In 2 Corinthians 8:4 the accusative case of charis and koinonia is, in the best texts, used absolutely, i.e., not as the objects of an expressed verb; hence the RV, "in regard to" (AV, "that we would receive," where the verb is the result of a supplementary gloss). (4) For "not regarding" in Philippians 2:30 , AV (RV, "hazarding"), see HAZARD , No. 2.VED-NT Regard.16


    1: παλιγγενεσία
    (Strong's #3824 — Noun Feminine — palingenesia — pal-ing-ghen-es-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Regeneration.2

    "new birth" (palin, "again," genesis, "birth"), is used of "spiritual regeneration," Titus 3:5 , involving the communication of a new life, the two operating powers to produce which are "the word of truth," James 1:18 ; 1 Peter 1:23 , and the Holy Spirit, John 3:5, 6 ; the loutron, "the laver, the washing," is explained in Ephesians 5:26 , "having cleansed it by the washing (loutron) of water with the word."VED-NT Regeneration.3

    The new birth and "regeneration" do not represent successive stages in spiritual experience, they refer to the same event but view it in different aspects. The new birth stresses the communication of spiritual life in contrast to antecedent spiritual death; "regeneration" stresses the inception of a new state of things in contrast with the old; hence the connection of the use of the word with its application to Israel, in Matthew 19:28 . Some regard the kai in Titus 3:5 as epexegetic, "even;" but, as Scripture marks two distinct yet associated operating powers, there is not sufficient ground for this interpretation. See under EVEN.VED-NT Regeneration.4

    In Matthew 19:28 the word is used, in the Lord's discourse, in the wider sense, of the "restoration of all things" (Acts 3:21 , RV), when, as a result of the second advent of Christ, Jehovah "sets His King upon His holy hill of Zion" (Psalms 2:6 ), and Israel, now in apostasy, is restored to its destined status, in the recognition and under the benign sovereignty of its Messiah. Thereby will be accomplished the deliverance of the world from the power and deception of Satan and from the despotic and anti-christian rulers of the nations. This restitution will not in the coming millennial age be universally a return to the pristine condition of Edenic innocence previous to the Fall, but it will fulfill the establishment of God's covenant with Abraham concerning his descendants, a veritable rebirth of the nation, involving the peace and prosperity of the Gentiles. That the worldwide subjection to the authority of Christ will not mean the entire banishment of evil, is clear from Revelation 20:7, 8 . Only in the new heavens and earth, "wherein dwelleth righteousness," will sin and evil be entirely absent.VED-NT Regeneration.5


    1: χώρα
    (Strong's #5561 — Noun Feminine — chora — kho'-rah )
    VED-NT Region.2

    "a space lying between two limits, a country, land," is translated "region" in Matthew 4:16 ; Luke 3:1 ; Acts 8:1 ; Acts 13:49 ; Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:23 , RV. In the last three passages it has the technical sense of a subdivision of a Roman province, Lat. regio; as also No. 2 in Acts 14:6 . See COUNTRY , No. 3.VED-NT Region.3

    2: περίχωρος
    (Strong's #4066 — Adjective — perichoros — per-ikh'-o-ros )
    VED-NT Region.4

    "a country or region round about" (peri), is translated "region round about" in Matthew 3:5 ; Matthew 14:35 , RV; Mark 1:28 (in some mss. Mark 6:55 ); Luke 3:3 , RV; 4:14; 4:37, RV; 7:17; Acts 14:6 (see No. 1). See COUNTRY , No. 4.VED-NT Region.5

    3: κλίμα
    (Strong's #2824 — Noun Neuter — klima — klee'-mah )
    VED-NT Region.6

    "an inclination, slope," is translated "regions" in Romans 15:23 RV; 2 Corinthians 11:10 ; Galatians 1:21 . See PART , A, No. 3.VED-NT Region.7

    Note: For "regions beyond," 2 Corinthians 10:16 , AV, see PART , A, Note (9).VED-NT Region.8


    A — 1: μεταμέλομαι
    (Strong's #3338 — Verb — metamelomai — met-am-el'-lom-ahee )
    VED-NT Regret.2

    "to regret, to repent one," is translated "to regret" in 2 Corinthians 7:8 , RV (twice), AV, "repent." See REPENT.VED-NT Regret.3

    B — 1: ἀμεταμέλητος
    (Strong's #278 — Adjective — ametameletos — am-et-am-el'-ay-tos )
    VED-NT Regret.4

    "not repented of" (a, negative, and A), is translated "which bringeth no regret" in 2 Corinthians 7:10 , RV, said of repentance (AV, "not to be repented of"); elsewhere, in Romans 11:29 . See REPENT.VED-NT Regret.5


    * For REGULAR, Acts 19:39 , RV, see LAW , C, No. 2VED-NT Regular.2


    1: ἀναγγέλλω
    (Strong's #312 — Verb — anagello — an-ang-el'-lo )
    VED-NT Rehearse.2

    "to bring back word" (ana, "back," angello, "to announce"), is translated "to rehearse" in Acts 14:27 ; Acts 15:4 , RV. See ANNOUNCE.VED-NT Rehearse.3

    2: ἐξηγέομαι
    (Strong's #1834 — Verb — exegeomai — ex-ayg-eh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Rehearse.4

    primarily, "to lead, show the way," is used metaphorically with the meaning "to unfold, declare, narrate," and is translated "to rehearse" in the RV of Luke 24:35 ; Acts 10:8 ; Acts 15:12, 14 , RV. See DECLARE , No. 8.VED-NT Rehearse.5

    Note: In Acts 11:4 , the AV translates the Middle Voice of archo, "to begin," "rehearsed ... from the beginning," RV, "began, (and)."VED-NT Rehearse.6


    1: βασιλεύω
    (Strong's #936 — Verb — basileuo — bas-il-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Reign.2

    "to reign," is used (I) literally, (a) of God, Revelation 11:17 ; Revelation 19:6 , in each of which the aorist tense (in the latter, translated "reigneth") is "ingressive," stressing the point of entrance; (b) of Christ, Luke 1:33 ; 1 Corinthians 15:25 ; Revelation 11:15 ; as rejected by the Jews, Luke 19:14, 27 ; (c) of the saints, hereafter, 1 Corinthians 4:8 (2nd part), where the Apostle, casting a reflection upon the untimely exercise of authority on the part of the church at Corinth, anticipates the due time for it in the future (see No. 2); Revelation 5:10 ; Revelation 20:4 , where the aorist tense is not simply of a "point" character, but "constative," that is, regarding a whole action as having occurred, without distinguishing any steps in its progress (in this instance the aspect is future); Revelation 20:6 ; Revelation 22:5 , (d) of earthly potentates, Matthew 2:22 ; 1 Timothy 6:15 , where "kings" is, lit., "them that reign;" (II) metaphorically, (a) of believers, Romans 5:17 , where "shall reign in life" indicates the activity of life in fellowship with Christ in His sovereign power, reaching its fullness hereafter; 1 Corinthians 4:8 (1st part), of the carnal pride that laid claim to a power not to be exercised until hereafter; (b) of Divine grace, Romans 5:21 ; (c) of sin, Romans 5:21 ; Romans 6:12 ; (d) of death, Romans 5:14, 17 .VED-NT Reign.3

    2: συμβασιλεύω
    (Strong's #4821 — Verb — sumbasileuo — soom-bas-il-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Reign.4

    "to reign together with" (sun, "with," and No. 1), is used of the future "reign" of believers together and with Christ in the kingdom of God in manifestation, 1 Corinthians 4:8 (3rd part); of those who endure 2 Timothy 2:12 , cp. Revelation 20:6 .VED-NT Reign.5

    Notes: (1) In Romans 15:12 , AV, archo, "to rule" (RV, is translated "to reign." (2) In Revelation 17:18 , echo, "to have," with basileia, "a kingdom," is translated "reigneth," lit., "hath a kingdom," suggestive of a distinction between the sovereignty of mystic Babylon and that of ordinary sovereigns. (3) In Luke 3:1 , hegemonia, "rule," is rendered "reign."VED-NT Reign.6


    1: νεφρός
    (Strong's #3510 — Noun Masculine — nephros — nef-ros' )
    VED-NT Reins.2

    "a kidney" (Eng., "nephritis," etc.), usually in the plural, is used metaphorically of "the will and the affections," Revelation 2:23 , "reins" (cp. Psalms 7:9 ; Jeremiah 11:20 ; Jeremiah 17:10 ; Jeremiah 20:12 ). The feelings and emotions were regarded as having their seat in the "kidneys."VED-NT Reins.3


    A — 1: ἀποδοκιμάζω
    (Strong's #593 — Verb — apodokimazo — ap-od-ok-ee-mad'-zo )
    VED-NT Reject.2

    "to reject" as the result of examination and disapproval (apo, "away from," dokimazo, "to approve"), is used (a) of the "rejection" of Christ by the elders and chief priests of the Jews, Matthew 21:42 ; Mark 8:31 ; Mark 12:10 ; Luke 9:22 ; Luke 20:17 ; 1 Peter 2:4, 7 (AV, "disallowed"); by the Jewish people, Luke 17:25 ; (b) of the "rejection" of Esau from inheriting "the blessing," Hebrews 12:17 . See DISALLOW. Cp. and contrast exoutheneo, Acts 4:11 . See DESPISE.VED-NT Reject.3

    A — 2: ἀθετέω
    (Strong's #114 — Verb — atheteo — ath-et-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Reject.4

    properly, "to do away" with what has been laid down, to make atheton (i.e., "without place," a, negative, tithemi, "to place"), hence, besides its meanings "to set aside, make void, nullify, disannul," signifies "to reject;" in Mark 6:26 , regarding Herod's pledge to Salome, it almost certainly has the meaning "to break faith with" (cp. the Sept. of Jeremiah 12:6 , and Lamentations 1:2 , "dealt treacherously"). Moulton and Milligan illustrate this meaning from the papyri. Field suggests "disappoint." In Mark 7:9 "ye reject (the commandment)" means "ye set aside;" in Luke 7:30 , "ye reject" may have the meaning of "nullifying or making void the counsel of God;" in Luke 10:16 (four times), "rejecteth," RV (AV, "despiseth"); "rejecteth" in John 12:48 ; "reject" in 1 Corinthians 1:19 (AV, "bring to nothing"); 1 Thessalonians 4:8 , "to despise," where the reference is to the charges in ver. 2; in 1 Timothy 5:12 RV, "have rejected" (AV, "have cast off"). See DESPISE , Notes (1), DISANNUL , No. 1.VED-NT Reject.5

    A — 3: ἐκπτύω
    (Strong's #1609 — Verb — ekptuo — ek-ptoo'-o )
    VED-NT Reject.6

    "to spit out" (ek, "out," and ptuo, "to spit"), i.e., "to abominate, loathe," is used in Galatians 4:14 , "rejected" (marg., "spat out"), where the sentence is elliptical: "although my disease repelled you, you did not refuse to hear my message."VED-NT Reject.7

    A — 4: παραιτέομαι
    (Strong's #3868 — Verb — paraiteomai — par-ahee-teh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Reject.8

    besides the meanings "to beg from another," Mark 15:6 (in the best texts); "to entreat that ... not," Hebrews 12:19 ; "to beg off, ask to be excused," Luke 14:18, 19 ; Luke 12:25 (see REFUSE , No. 2), is translated to reject in Titus 3:10 , AV. See EXCUSE , INTREAT , REFUSE.VED-NT Reject.9

    B — 1: ἀδόκιμος
    (Strong's #96 — Adjective — adokimos — ad-ok'-ee-mos )
    VED-NT Reject.10

    "not standing the test" (see CAST , C), is translated "rejected" in 1 Corinthians 9:27 , RV; Hebrews 6:8 , AV and RV. See REPROBATE.VED-NT Reject.11

    B — 2: ἀπόβλητος
    (Strong's #579 — Adjective — apobletos — ap-ob'-lay-tos )
    VED-NT Reject.12

    lit., "cast away" (apo, "from," ballo, "to throw"), occurs in 1 Timothy 4:4 , RV, "rejected" (AV, "refused"). See REFUSE.VED-NT Reject.13


    1: χαίρω
    (Strong's #5463 — Verb — chairo — khah'ee-ro )
    VED-NT Rejoice.2

    "to rejoice," is most frequently so translated. As to this verb, the following are grounds and occasions for "rejoicing," on the part of believers: in the Lord, Philippians 3:1 ; Philippians 4:4 ; His incarnation, Luke 1:14 ; His power, Luke 13:17 ; His presence with the Father, John 14:28 ; His presence with them, John 16:22 ; John 20:20 ; His ultimate triumph, John 8:56 ; hearing the gospel, Acts 13:48 ; their salvation, Acts 8:39 ; receiving the Lord, Luke 19:6 ; their enrollment in Heaven, Luke 10:20 ; their liberty in Christ, Acts 15:31 ; their hope, Romans 12:12 (cp. Romans 5:2 ; Revelation 19:7 ); their prospect of reward, Matthew 5:12 ; the obedience and godly conduct of fellow believers, Romans 16:19 , RV, "I rejoice" (AV, "I am glad"); 2 Corinthians 7:7, 9 ; 2 Corinthians 13:9 ; Colossians 2:5 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:9 ; 2 John 1:4 ; 3 John 1:3 ; the proclamation of Christ, Philippians 1:18 ; the gospel harvest, John 4:36 ; suffering with Christ, Acts 5:41 ; 1 Peter 4:13 ; suffering in the cause of the gospel, 2 Corinthians 13:9 (1st part); Philippians 2:17 (1st part); Colossians 1:24 ; in persecutions, trials and afflictions, Matthew 5:12 ; Luke 6:23 ; 2 Corinthians 6:10 ; the manifestation of grace, Acts 11:23 ; meeting with fellow believers, 1 Corinthians 16:17 , RV, "I rejoice;" Philippians 2:28 ; receiving tokens of love and fellowship, Philippians 4:10 ; the "rejoicing" of others, Romans 12:15 ; 2 Corinthians 7:13 ; learning of the well-being of others, 2 Corinthians 7:16 . See FAREWELL , GLAD , GREETING , etc.VED-NT Rejoice.3

    2: συγχαίρω
    (Strong's #4796 — Verb — sunchairo — soong-khah'ee-ro )
    VED-NT Rejoice.4

    "to rejoice with" (sun, and No. 1), is used of "rejoicing" together in the recovery of what was lost, Luke 15:6, 9 ; in suffering in the cause of the gospel, Philippians 2:17 (2nd part),18; in the joy of another, Luke 1:58 ; in the honor of fellow believers, 1 Corinthians 12:26 ; in the triumph of the truth, 1 Corinthians 13:6 , RV, "rejoiceth with."VED-NT Rejoice.5

    3: ἀγαλλιάω
    (Strong's #21 — Verb — agalliao — ag-al-lee-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Rejoice.6

    "to rejoice greatly, to exult," is used, (I) in the Active Voice, of "rejoicing" in God, Luke 1:47 ; in faith in Christ, 1 Peter 1:8 , RV (Middle Voice in some mss.), "ye rejoice greatly;" in the event of the marriage of the Lamb, Revelation 19:7 , "be exceeding glad," RV; (II) in the Middle Voice, (a) of "rejoicing" in persecutions, Matthew 5:12 (2nd part); in the light of testimony for God, John 5:35 ; in salvation received through the gospel, Acts 16:34 , "he rejoiced greatly," RV; in salvation ready to be revealed, 1 Peter 1:6 ; at the revelation of His glory, 1 Peter 4:13 , "with exceeding joy," lit., "ye may rejoice (see No. 1) exulting;" (b) of Christ's "rejoicing" (greatly) "in the Holy Spirit," Luke 10:21 , RV; said of His praise, as foretold in Psalms 16:9 , quoted in Acts 2:26 (which follows the Sept., "My tongue"); (c) of Abraham's "rejoicing," by faith, to see Christ's day, John 8:56 .VED-NT Rejoice.7

    4: εὐφραίνω
    (Strong's #2165 — Verb — euphraino — yoo-frah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Rejoice.8

    in the Active Voice, "to cheer, gladden" (eu, "well," phren, "the mind"), signifies in the Passive Voice "to rejoice, make merry;" it is translated "to rejoice" in Acts 2:26 , RV, "was glad," AV, "did ... rejoice," of the heart of Christ as foretold in Psalms 16:9 [cp. No. 3, II (b)]; in Acts 7:41 , of Israel's idolatry; in Romans 15:10 (quoted from the Sept. of Deuteronomy 32:43 , where it is a command to the Gentiles to "rejoice" with the Jews in their future deliverance by Christ from all their foes, at the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom) the Apostle applies it to the effects of the gospel; in Galatians 4:27 (touching the barrenness of Sarah as referred to in Isaiah 54:1 , and there pointing to the ultimate restoration of Israel to God's favor, cp. Isaiah 51:2 ), the word is applied to the effects of the gospel, in that the progeny of grace would greatly exceed the number of those who had acknowledged allegiance to the Law; grace and faith are fruitful, law and works are barren as a means of salvation; in Revelation 12:12 , it is used in a call to the heavens to "rejoice" at the casting out of Satan and the inauguration of the Kingdom of God in manifestation and the authority of His Christ; in Revelation 18:20 , of a call to heaven, saints, apostles, prophets, to "rejoice" in the destruction of Babylon. See GLAD , No. 3, MERRY, No. 1.VED-NT Rejoice.9

    5: καυχάομαι
    (Strong's #2744 — Verb — kauchaomai — kow-khah'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Rejoice.10

    "to boast, to glory," is rendered "to rejoice," (a) Romans 5:2 , in hope of the glory of God; (b) Romans 5:3 , RV (AV "glory"), in tribulation; (c) Romans 5:11 , RV (AV, "we joy"), in God; (d) Philippians 3:3 , RV, "glory" (AV, "rejoice") in Christ Jesus; (e) James 1:9 (RV, "glory," AV, "rejoice"), the brother of low degree in his high estate; the rich brother in being made low; (f) James 4:16 , of evil glorying. See GLORY (to boast).VED-NT Rejoice.11

    Notes: (1) In James 2:13 , AV, katakauchaomai, "to glory, boast against," is translated "rejoiceth against" (RV, "glorieth against"). See GLORY (to boast), A, No. 2. (2) The nouns kauchema, kauchesis, signifying "glorying, boasting," are always so rendered in the RV, where the AV has "rejoicing," the former in 2 Corinthians 1:14 ; Galatians 6:4 ; Philippians 1:26 ; Philippians 2:16 ; Hebrews 3:6 ; the latter in 1 Corinthians 15:31 ; 2 Corinthians 1:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:19 ; James 4:16 . See GLORY , B, Nos. 1 and 2.VED-NT Rejoice.12


    1: ἀπολύω
    (Strong's #630 — Verb — apoluo — ap-ol-oo'-o )
    VED-NT Release.2

    "to loose from," is translated "to release" in Matthew 18:27 , RV (AV, "loosed"); 27:15,17,21,26; Mark 15:6, 9, 11, 15 ; Luke 6:37 (twice), RV (AV, "forgive" and "ye shall be forgiven"); 23:16 (ver. 17, in some mss.),18,20,25; 23:22, RV (AV, "let ... go"); John 18:39 (twice); 19:10; in John 19:12 , in the 1st part, AV and RV; in the 2nd part, RV, "release" (AV, "let ... go"); so in Acts 3:13 . See DEPART , DISMISS.VED-NT Release.3

    Note: For aphesis, "release," Luke 4:18 , RV, see DELIVERANCE.VED-NT Release.4


    1: διακονία
    (Strong's #1248 — Noun Feminine — diakonia — dee-ak-on-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Relief.2

    "ministry," is translated "relief" in Acts 11:29 [RV, marg., "for (eis) ministry"].VED-NT Relief.3

    2: ἄνεσις
    (Strong's #425 — Noun Feminine — anesis — an'-es-is )
    VED-NT Relief.4

    "a loosening, relaxation" (akin to aniemi, "to send away, let go, loosen"), is translated "relief" in 2 Corinthians 2:13 ; 2 Corinthians 7:5 (AV, "rest"). See REST.VED-NT Relief.5


    1: ἐπαρκέω
    (Strong's #1884 — Verb — eparkeo — ep-ar-keh'-o )
    VED-NT Relieve.2

    signifies "to be strong enough for," and so either "to ward off," or "to aid, to relieve" (a strengthened form of arkeo, which has the same three meanings, epi being intensive); it is used in 1 Timothy 5:10, 16 (twice).VED-NT Relieve.3


    1: θρησκεία
    (Strong's #2356 — Noun Feminine — threseia — thrace-ki'-ah )
    VED-NT Religion.2

    signifies "religion" in its external aspect (akin to threskos, see below), "religious worship," especially the ceremonial service of "religion;" it is used of the "religion" of the Jews, Acts 26:5 ; of the "worshiping" of angels, Colossians 2:18 , which they themselves repudiate (Revelation 22:8, 9 ); "there was an officious parade of humility in selecting these lower beings as intercessors rather than appealing directly to the Throne of Grace" (Lightfoot); in James 1:26, 27 the writer purposely uses the word to set in contrast that which is unreal and deceptive, and the "pure religion" which consists in visiting "the fatherless and widows in their affliction," and in keeping oneself "unspotted from the world." He is "not herein affirming. ... these offices to be the sum total, nor yet the great essentials, of true religion, but declares them to be the body, the threskeia, of which godliness, or the love of God, is the informing soul" (Trench).VED-NT Religion.3

    2: δεισιδαιμονία
    (Strong's #1175 — Noun Feminine — deisidaimonia — dice-ee-dahee-mon-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Religion.4

    primarily denotes "fear of the gods" (from deido, "to fear," daimon, "a pagan deity," Eng., "demon"), regarded whether as a religious attitude, or, in its usual meaning, with a condemnatory or contemptuous significance, "superstition." That is how Festus regarded the Jews' "religion," Acts 25:19 , AV and RV marg., "superstition" (RV, "religion"). See RELIGIOUS , Note (1), and under SUPERSTITIOUS.VED-NT Religion.5

    Notes: (1) Threskeia is external, theosebeia is the reverential worship of God (see GODLINESS), eusebeia is piety (see GODLINESS), eulabeia the devotedness arising from godly fear (see FEAR). (2) For "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13, 14 , see JEWS , B.VED-NT Religion.6


    1: θρῆσκος
    (Strong's #2357 — Adjective — threskos — thrace'-kos )
    VED-NT Religious.2

    "religious, careful of the externals of divine service," akin to threskeia (see above), is used in James 1:26 .VED-NT Religious.3

    Notes: (1) For deisidaimon, Acts 17:22 , RV, marg., "religious," see SUPERSTITIOUS. (2) For "religious (proselytes)," AV in Acts 13:43 , see DEVOUT , No. 3.VED-NT Religious.4


    1: μένω
    (Strong's #3306 — Verb — meno — men'-o )
    VED-NT Remain.2

    "to stay, abide," is frequently rendered "to remain," e.g., Matthew 11:23 ; Luke 10:7 ; John 1:33 , AV (RV, "abiding"); 9:41 (in 15:11, the best texts have the verb to be, see RV); 15:16, AV (RV, "abide"); 19:31; Acts 5:4 (twice), RV , "whiles it remained, did it (not) remain (thine own)?;" 27:41; 1 Corinthians 7:11 ; 1 Corinthians 15:6 ; 2 Corinthians 3:11, 14 ; 2 Corinthians 9:9 , AV (RV, "abideth"); Hebrews 12:27 ; 1 John 3:9 . See ABIDE.VED-NT Remain.3

    2: διαμένω
    (Strong's #1265 — Verb — diameno — dee-am-en'-o )
    VED-NT Remain.4

    "to remain throughout" (dia, "through," and No. 1), is translated "to remain" in Luke 1:22 ; Hebrews 1:11 , AV (RV, "Thou continuest"). See CONTINUE , No. 4.VED-NT Remain.5

    3: ἀπολείπω
    (Strong's #620 — Verb — apoleipo — ap-ol-ipe'-o )
    VED-NT Remain.6

    in the Passive Voice, "to be reserved, to remain," is translated "remaineth" in Hebrews 4:6, 9 ; Hebrews 10:26 . See LEAVE , No. 4.VED-NT Remain.7

    4: περιλείπομαι
    (Strong's #4035 — Verb — perileipo — per-ee-li'-po )
    VED-NT Remain.8

    "to leave over," used in the Middle Voice, is translated "remain" in 1 Thessalonians 4:15, 17 , AV (RV, "are left"), where it stands for the living believers at the coming (the beginning of the Parousia) of Christ.VED-NT Remain.9

    5: περισσεύω
    (Strong's #4052 — Verb — perisseuo — per-is-syoo'-o )
    VED-NT Remain.10

    "to abound, to be over and above, to remain over," is rendered "(that which) remained over" in Matthew 14:20 , RV; and Luke 9:17 , RV (AV, "remained"); John 6:12, 13 (AV, "... over and above"). See ABUNDANCE , B, No. 1.VED-NT Remain.11

    Notes: (1) In Mark 8:8 , perisseuma, "an abundance," is used in the plural, RV, "(of broken pieces) that remained over" (AV "that was left"). (2) In 1 Corinthians 7:29 , AV, to loipon, lit., "(as to) what is left," "(as for) the rest," is translated "it remaineth" (RV, "henceforth"); in Revelation 3:2 , ta loipa, the plural, "the things that remain."VED-NT Remain.12

    Remember, Remembrance, Reminded

    A — 1: μιμνῄσκομαι
    (Strong's #3403 — Verb — mimnesko — mim-nace'-ko )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.2

    from the older form mnaomai, in the Active Voice signifies "to remind;" in the Middle Voice, "to remind oneself of," hence, "to remember, to be mindful of;" the later form is found only in the present tense, in Hebrews 2:6 , "are mindful of," and Hebrews 13:3 , "remember;" the perfect tense in 1 Corinthians 11:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:4 (RV, "remembering," AV, "being mindful of"), is used with a present meaning. RV variations from the AV are, in Luke 1:54 , RV, "that He might remember" (AV, "in remembrance of"); 2 Peter 3:2 , "remember" (AV, "be mindful of"); Revelation 16:19 (Passive Voice), "was remembered" (AV, "came in rememberance"). The Passive Voice is used also in Acts 10:31 , AV and RV, "are had in remembrance." See MINDFUL OF (to be).VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.3

    A — 2: μνημονεύω
    (Strong's #3421 — Verb — mnemoneuo — mnay-mon-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.4

    signifies "to call to mind, remember;" it is used absolutely in Mark 8:18 ; everywhere else it has an object, (a) persons, Luke 17:32 ; Galatians 2:10 ; 2 Timothy 2:8 , where the RV rightly has "remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead;" Paul was not reminding Timothy (nor did he need to) that Christ was raised from the dead (AV), what was needful for him was to "remember" (to keep in mind) the One who rose, the Source and Supplier of all his requirements; (b) things, e.g., Matthew 16:9 ; John 15:20 ; John 16:21 ; Acts 20:35 ; Colossians 4:18 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:9 ; Hebrews 11:15 , "had been mindful of;" Hebrews 13:7 ; Revelation 18:5 ; (c) a clause, representing a circumstance, etc., John 16:4 ; Acts 20:31 ; Ephesians 2:11 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:5 ; Revelation 2:5 ; Revelation 3:3 ; in Hebrews 11:22 it signifies "to make mention of." See MENTION.VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.5

    A — 3: ἀναμιμνῄσκω
    (Strong's #363 — Verb — anamimnesko — an-am-im-nace'-ko )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.6

    ana, "back," and No. 1, signifies in the Active Voice "to remind, call to one's mind," 1 Corinthians 4:17 , "put (AV, bring) ... into remembrance;" so 2 Timothy 1:6 ; in the Passive Voice, "to remember, call to (one's own) mind," Mark 11:21 , "calling to remembrance;" Mark 14:72 , "called to mind;" 2 Corinthians 7:15 , "remembereth;" Hebrews 10:32 , "call to remembrance."VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.7

    A — 4: ὑπομιμνῄσκω
    (Strong's #5279 — Verb — hupomimnesko — hoop-om-im-nace'-ko )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.8

    signifies "to cause one to remember, put one in mind of" (hupo, "under," often implying suggestion, and No. 1), John 14:26 , "shall ... bring ... to (your) remembrance;" 2 Timothy 2:14 , "put ... in remembrance;" Titus 3:1 , "put ... in mind;" 3 John 1:10 , RV, "I will bring to remembrance" (AV, "I will remember"); Jude 1:5 , "to put ... in remembrance." In Luke 22:61 it is used in the Passive Voice, "(Peter) remembered," lit., "was put in mind."VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.9

    A — 5: ἐπαναμιμνῄσκω
    (Strong's #1878 — Verb — epanamimnesko — ep-an-ah-mim-nace'-ko )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.10

    "to remind again" (epi, "upon," and No. 3), is used in Romans 15:15 , RV, "putting (you) again in remembrance," AV, "putting (you) in mind." See MIND.VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.11

    Note: In 1 Timothy 4:6 , AV, hupotithemi, "to lay under, to suggest," is translated "put ... in remembrance" (RV, "put ... in mind"). See MIND.VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.12

    B — 1: ἀνάμνησις
    (Strong's #364 — Noun Feminine — anamnesis — an-am'-nay-sis )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.13

    "a remembrance" (ana, "up," or "again," and A, No. 1), is used (a) in Christ's command in the institution of the Lord's Supper, Luke 22:19 ; 1 Corinthians 11:24, 25 , not "in memory of" but in an affectionate calling of the Person Himself to mind; (b) of the "remembrance" of sins, Hebrews 10:3 , RV, "a remembrance" (AV, "a remembrance again;" but the prefix ana does not here signify "again"); what is indicated, in regard to the sacrifices under the Law; is not simply an external bringing to "remembrance," but an awakening of mind. In the Sept., Leviticus 24:7 ; Numbers 10:10 ; Psalms 38:1 ; Psalms 70:1 , Titles.VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.14

    B — 2: ὑπόμνησις
    (Strong's #5280 — Noun Feminine — hupomnesis — hoop-om'-nay-sis )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.15

    denotes "a reminding, a reminder;" in 2 Timothy 1:5 it is used with lambano, "to receive," lit., "having received a reminder," RV, "having been reminded" (AV, "when I call to remembrance"); in 2 Peter 1:13 ; 2 Peter 3:1 , "remembrance."VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.16

    Note: A distinction has been drawn between Nos. 1 and 2, in that anamnesis indicates an unassisted recalling, hupomnesis, a "remembrance" prompted by another.VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.17

    B — 3: μνεία
    (Strong's #3417 — Noun Feminine — mneia — mni'-ah )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.18

    denotes "a rembrance," or "a mention." See MENTION.VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.19

    B — 4: μνήμη
    (Strong's #3420 — Noun Feminine — mneme — mnay'-may )
    VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.20

    denotes "a memory" (akin to mnaomai, A, No. 1), "remembrance, mention," 2 Peter 1:15 , "remembrance;" here, however, it is used with poieo, "to make" (Middle Voice), and some suggest that the meaning is "to make mention."VED-NT Remember, Remembrance, Reminded.21

    Remission, Remit

    A — 1: ἄφεσις
    (Strong's #859 — Noun Feminine — aphesis — af'-es-is )
    VED-NT Remission, Remit.2

    "a dismissal, release" (from aphiemi, B), is used of the forgiveness of sins and translated "remission" in Matthew 26:28 ; Mark 1:4 ; Luke 1:77 ; Luke 3:3 ; Luke 24:47 ; Acts 2:38 ; Acts 5:31 (AV, "forgiveness"); 10:43; 13:38, RV (AV, "forgiveness"); 26:18 (ditto); Hebrews 9:22 ; Hebrews 10:18 . See FORGIVE , B, and A, No. 1.VED-NT Remission, Remit.3

    A — 2: πάρεσις
    (Strong's #3929 — Noun Feminine — paresis — par'-es-is )
    VED-NT Remission, Remit.4

    "a passing by of debt or sin," Romans 3:25 , AV, "remission" (RV and AV marg., "passing over"). See PASSING OVER.VED-NT Remission, Remit.5

    Note: No. 2 is a matter of forbearance, No. 1 a matter of grace.VED-NT Remission, Remit.6

    B — 1: ἀφίημι
    (Strong's #863 — Verb — aphiemi — af-ee'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Remission, Remit.7

    "to send away" (akin to A, No. 1), is translated "to remit" in John 20:23 (twice), AV (RV, "to forgive"). Scripture makes clear that the Lord's words could not have been intended to bestow the exercise of absolution, which Scripture declares is the prerogative of God alone. There is no instance in the NT of this act on the part of the Apostles. The words are to be understood in a "declarative" sense; the statement has regard to the effects of their ministry of the gospel, with its twofold effects of "remisson" or retention. They could not, nor could anyone subsequently, forgive sins, any more than that Joseph actually restored the butler to his office and hanged the baker (Genesis 41:13 ), or any more than that the prophets actually accomplished things when they declared that they were about to be done (Jeremiah 1:10 ; Ezekiel 43:3 ). See FORGIVE , No. 1.VED-NT Remission, Remit.8


    1: λοιπός
    (Strong's #3062 — Adverb — loipos — loy-poy' )
    VED-NT Remnant.2

    an adjective (akin to leipo, "to leave") signifying "remaining," is used as a noun and translated "the rest" in the RV, where the AV has "the remnant," Matthew 22:6 ; Revelation 11:13 ; Revelation 12:17 ; Revelation 19:21 . See OTHER , RESIDUE , REST (the).VED-NT Remnant.3

    2: λεῖμμα
    (Strong's #3005 — Noun Neuter — leimma — lime'-mah )
    VED-NT Remnant.4

    "that which is left" (akin to leipo, "to leave"), "a remnant," is used in Romans 11:5 , "there is a remnant," i.e., there is a spiritual "remnant" saved by the gospel from the midst of apostate Israel. While on one sense there has been and is a considerable number, yet, compared with the whole nation, past and present, the "remnant" is small, and as such is an evidence of God's electing grace (see ver. 4). In the Sept., 2 Kings 19:4 .VED-NT Remnant.5

    3: ὑπό
    (Strong's #5259 3005 — Preposition — hupolemma — hoop-o' )
    VED-NT Remnant.6

    hupo, "under," signifying "diminution," and No. 2, is used in Romans 9:27 : some mss. have kataleimma, which has virtually the same meaning (kata, "down, behind"), "a remnant," where the contrast is drawn between the number of Israel as a whole, and the small number in it of those who are saved through the Gospel. The quotation is chiefly from the Sept. of Isaiah 10:22, 23 , with a modification recalling Hosea 1:10 , especially with regard to the word "number." The return of the "remnant" is indicated in the name "Shear-Jashub," see Isaiah 7:3 , marg. The primary reference was to the return of a remnant from captivity to their own land and to God Himself; here the application is to the effects of the gospel. There is stress on the word "remnant."VED-NT Remnant.7

    Remove, Removing

    A — 1: μεταβαίνω
    (Strong's #3327 — Verb — metabanio — met-ab-ah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.2

    "to pass over from one place to another" (meta, implying "change," and baino, "to go"), is translated "to remove" in Matthew 17:20 (twice). See PASS , No. 7.VED-NT Remove, Removing.3

    A — 2: μεθίστημι
    (Strong's #3179 — Verb — methistemi — meth-is'-tay-mee, -is-tan'-o )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.4

    is used transitively in the sense of causing "to remove," in Acts 13:22 , of the "removing" of King Saul, by bringing about his death; in 1 Corinthians 13:2 , of "removing" mountains. See PUT , No. 23, TRANSLATE, TURN.VED-NT Remove, Removing.5

    A — 3: μετατίθημι
    (Strong's #3346 — Verb — metatithemi — met-at-ith'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.6

    "to remove a person or thing from one place to another" (meta, implying "change," tithemi, "to put"), e.g., Acts 7:16 , "were carried over," signifies, in the Middle Voice, "to change oneself," and is so used in Galatians 1:6 "(I marvel that) ye are ... removing," RV (not as AV, "removed"); the present tense suggests that the defection of the Galatians from the truth was not yet complete and would continue unless they changed their views. The Middle Voice indicates that they were themselves responsible for their declension, rather than the Judaizers who had influenced them. See CARRY , No. 5.VED-NT Remove, Removing.7

    A — 4: παραφέρω
    (Strong's #3911 — Verb — paraphero — par-af-er'-o )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.8

    lit., "to bring to or before" (para, "beside," phero, "to carry"), "to take or carry away," is translated "remove" in the Lord's prayer in Gethsemane, Mark 14:36 , RV (AV, "take away"); Luke 22:42 . See TAKE. In the Sept., 1 Samuel 21:13 .VED-NT Remove, Removing.9

    A — 5: μετοικίζω
    (Strong's #3351 — Verb — metoikizo — met-oy-kid'-zo )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.10

    "to remove to a new abode, cause to migrate" (meta, implying "change," oikos, "a dwelling place"), is translated "removed" in Acts 7:4 ; "I will carry ... away" (Acts 7:43 ). See CARRYING AWAY , B.VED-NT Remove, Removing.11

    A — 6: ἀποχωρίζω
    (Strong's #673 — Verb — apochorizo — ap-okh-o-rid'-zo )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.12

    "to separate, part asunder," is used in the Passive Voice in Revelation 6:14 , "(the heaven) was removed," RV (AV, "departed"). See DEPART , No. 14.VED-NT Remove, Removing.13

    Notes: (1) In Matthew 21:21 ; Mark 11:23 , airo, "to lift, take up," is translated "be thou removed" (RV, "be thou taken up"). (2) In Revelation 2:5 , AV, kineo, "to move" (RV), is translated "will remove." See MOVE.VED-NT Remove, Removing.14

    B — 1: μετάθεσις
    (Strong's #3331 — Noun Feminine — metathesis — met-ath'-es-is )
    VED-NT Remove, Removing.15

    "change of position" (transliterated in Eng., "metathesis," a transposition of the letter of a word), from meta, implying "change," and tithemi, "to place," is used only in Hebrews and translated "removing" in Hebrews 12:27 ; "translation" in Hebrews 11:5 ; "change" in Hebrews 7:12 . See CHANGE , A.VED-NT Remove, Removing.16

    Rend, Rent

    A — 1: ῥήσσω
    (Strong's #4486 — Verb — rhegnumi — hrayg'-noo-mee, hrace'-so )
    VED-NT Rend, Rent.2

    "to tear, rend," is translated "to rend" in Matthew 7:6 , of swine. See BREAK , A, No. 6.VED-NT Rend, Rent.3

    A — 2: διαρρήσσω
    (Strong's #1284 — Verb — diarrhesso | diaresso — dee-ar-hrayce'-so )
    VED-NT Rend, Rent.4

    a late form of diarrhegnumi, "to break asunder, rend" (dia, "through," and No. 1), is used of "rending" one's garments, Matthew 26:65 ; Mark 14:63 ; Acts 14:14 . See BREAK , A, No. 7.VED-NT Rend, Rent.5

    A — 3: περιρήγνυμι
    (Strong's #4048 — Verb — perirrhegnumi | periregnumi — per-ir-hrayg'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Rend, Rent.6

    "to tear off all round" (peri, "around"), is said of garments in Acts 16:22 .VED-NT Rend, Rent.7

    A — 4: σχίζω
    (Strong's #4977 — Verb — schizo — skhid'-zo )
    VED-NT Rend, Rent.8

    "to split, rend open," translated "to rend" in Matthew 27:51 (twice); Mark 1:10 , RV, "rent asunder" (AV, "open"); Mark 15:38 ; Luke 5:36 , RV, "rendeth (from);" the AV follows the mss. which omit it in the 1st part of this verse; Luke 23:45 ; John 19:24 ; John 21:11 , RV, "rent" (AV, "broken"), of a net. See BREAK , A, No. 12.VED-NT Rend, Rent.9

    A — 5: διασπάω
    (Strong's #1288 — Verb — diaspao — dee-as-pah'-o )
    VED-NT Rend, Rent.10

    "to tear asunder," is translated "rent asunder" in Mark 5:4 , RV (AV, "plucked asunder"); for Acts 23:10 , see TEAR.VED-NT Rend, Rent.11

    Note: In Mark 9:26 , AV, sparasso, "to tear" (RV), is rendered "rent." See TEAR.VED-NT Rend, Rent.12

    B — 1: σχίσμα
    (Strong's #4978 — Noun Neuter — schisma — skhis'-mah )
    VED-NT Rend, Rent.13

    "a rent, division" (akin to A, No. 4), signifies a "rent" in wine-skins in Matthew 9:16 ; Mark 2:21 . See DIVISION , No. 3.VED-NT Rend, Rent.14


    1: ἀποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #591 — Verb — apodidomi — ap-od-eed'-o-mee )
    VED-NT Render.2

    "to give up or back," is translated "to render," (a) of righteous acts, (1) human, Matthew 21:41 ; Matthew 22:21 ; Mark 12:17 ; Luke 16:2 , RV (AV, "give"); Luke 20:25 ; Romans 13:7 ; 1 Corinthians 7:3 ; (2) Divine, Matthew 16:27 , RV, "shall render" (AV, "shall reward"), an important RV change; Romans 2:6 ; 2 Timothy 4:14 , RV (AV, "reward"); Revelation 18:6 (ditto); 22:12, RV (AV, "give"); (b) of unrighteous acts, Romans 12:17 , RV (AV, "recompense"); 1 Thessalonians 5:15 ; 1 Peter 3:9 . See DELIVER , A, No. 3, RECOMPENSE, B, No. 2.VED-NT Render.3

    2: ἀνταποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #467 — Verb — antapodidomi — an-tap-od-ee'-do-mee )
    VED-NT Render.4

    "to give in return for," is translated "render" in 1 Thessalonians 3:9 . See RECOMPENSE , REPAY.VED-NT Render.5

    3: παρέχω
    (Strong's #3930 — Verb — parecho — par-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Render.6

    "to furnish, provide, supply," is translated "render" in Colossians 4:1 , RV (AV, "give"), of what is due from masters to servants. See GIVE , No. 8.VED-NT Render.7

    4: δίδωμι
    (Strong's #1325 — Verb — didomi — did'-o-mee )
    VED-NT Render.8

    "to give," is translated "rendering" in 2 Thessalonians 1:8 , RV (AV, "taking"), of the Divine execution of vengeance at the revelation of Christ from heaven hereafter. See GIVE , No. 1.VED-NT Render.9

    Renew, Renewing

    A — 1: ἀνακαινόω
    (Strong's #341 — Verb — anakainoo — an-ak-ahee-no'-o )
    VED-NT Renew, Renewing.2

    "to make new" (ana, "back" or "again," kainos, "new," not recent but different), "to renew," is used in the Passive Voice in 2 Corinthians 4:16 , of the daily renewal of "the inward man" (in contrast to the physical frame), i.e., of the "renewal" of spiritual power; in Colossians 3:10 , of "the new man" (in contrast to the old unregenerate nature), which "is being renewed unto knowledge," RV (cp. No. 3 in Ephesians 4:23 ), i.e., the true knowledge in Christ, as opposed to heretical teachings.VED-NT Renew, Renewing.3

    Note: This word has not been found elsewhere in Greek writings as yet, though No. 2 is, which would prevent the supposition that the Apostle coined a new word.VED-NT Renew, Renewing.4

    A — 2: ἀνακαινίζω
    (Strong's #340 — Verb — anakainizo — an-ak-ahee-nid'-zo )
    VED-NT Renew, Renewing.5

    is a variant form of No. 1, used in Hebrews 6:6 , of the imposibility of "renewing" to repentance those Jews who professedly adhered to the Christian faith, if, after their experiences of it (not actual possession of its regenerating effects), they apostatized into their former Judaism. In the Sept., 2 Chronicles 15:8 ; Psalms 39:2 ; Psalms 103:5 ; Psalms 104:30 ; Lamentations 5:21 .VED-NT Renew, Renewing.6

    A — 3: ἀνανεόω
    (Strong's #365 — Verb — ananeoo — an-an-neh-o'-o )
    VED-NT Renew, Renewing.7

    "to renew, make young" (ana, as in No. 1, and neos, "recent," not different), is used in Ephesians 4:23 , "be renewed (in the spirit of your mind)." The "renewal" here mentioned is not that of the mind itself in its natural powers of memory, judgment and perception, but "the spirit of the mind," which, under the controlling power of the indwelling Holy Spirit, directs its bent and energies Godward in the enjoyment of "fellowship with the Father and with His Son, Jesus Christ," and of the fulfillment of the will of God. The word is frequent in inscriptions and in the papyri.VED-NT Renew, Renewing.8

    B — 1: ἀνακαίνωσις
    (Strong's #342 — Noun Feminine — anakainosis — an-ak-ah'ee-no-sis )
    VED-NT Renew, Renewing.9

    akin to A, No. 1, "a renewal," is used in Romans 12:2 , "the renewing (of your mind)," i.e., the adjustment of the moral and spiritual vision and thinking to the mind of God, which is designed to have a transforming effect upon the life; in Titus 3:5 , where "the renewing of the Holy Spirit" is not a fresh bestowment of the Spirit, but a revival of His power, developing the Christian life; this passage stresses the continual operation of the indwelling Spirit of God; the Romans passage stresses the willing response on the part of the believer.VED-NT Renew, Renewing.10


    1: ἀπεῖπον
    (Strong's #550 — Verb — apeipon — ap-i-pom'-ane )
    VED-NT Renounce.2

    lit., "to tell from" (apo, "from," eipon, an aorist form used to supply parts of lego, "to say"), signifies "to renounce," 2 Corinthians 4:2 (Middle Voice), of disowning "the hidden things of shame." In the Sept. of 1 Kings 11:2 it signifies "to forbid," a meaning found in the papyri. The meaning "to renounce" may therefore carry with it the thought of forbidding the approach of the things disowned.VED-NT Renounce.3

    2: ἀποτάσσω
    (Strong's #657 — Verb — apotasso — ap-ot-as'-som-ahee )
    VED-NT Renounce.4

    "to set apart, to appoint," a meaning found in the papyri (apo, from, tasso, "to arrange"), is used in the Middle Voice in the sense either of "taking leave of," e.g., Acts 18:18 , or "forsaking," Luke 14:33 , RV, "renounceth" (AV "forsaketh"). See FORSAKE , LEAVE.VED-NT Renounce.5


    1: ἀποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #591 — Verb — apodidomi — ap-od-eed'-o-mee )
    VED-NT Repay.2

    "to give back," is translated "I will repay" in Luke 10:35 . See DELIVER , A, No. 3, RECOMPENSE, B, No. 2, RENDER, No. 1.VED-NT Repay.3

    2: ἀνταποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #467 — Verb — antapodidomi — an-tap-od-ee'-do-mee )
    VED-NT Repay.4

    "to give in return for," is translated "I will repay" in Romans 12:19 , AV (RV, "I will recompense"). See RECOMPENSE , B, No. 1, RENDER, No. 2.VED-NT Repay.5

    3: ἀποτίνω
    (Strong's #661 — Verb — apotino | apotio — ap-ot-ee'-no )
    VED-NT Repay.6

    signifying "to pay off" (apo, "off," tino, "to pay a fine"), is used in Philemon 1:19 , of Paul's promise to "repay" whatever Onesimus owed Philemon, or to whatever extent the runaway slave had wronged his master. The verb is very common in the papyri, e.g., in a contract of apprenticeship the father has to pay a forfeit for each day of the son's absence from work. Moulton and Milligan, who draw this and other illustrations in the way of "repayment," point out that "this verb is stronger than apodidomi (No. 1), and carries with it the idea of 'repayment' by way of a fine or punishment, a fact which lends emphasis to its use in Philemon 1:19 ."VED-NT Repay.7

    Repent, Repentance

    A — 1: μετανοέω
    (Strong's #3340 — Verb — metanoeo — met-an-o-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Repent, Repentance.2

    lit., "to perceive afterwards" (meta, "after," implying "change," noeo, "to perceive;" nous, "the mind, the seat of moral reflection"), in contrast to pronoeo, "to perceive beforehand," hence signifies "to change one's mind or purpose," always, in the NT, involving a change for the better, an amendment, and always, except in Luke 17:3, 4 , of "repentance" from sin. The word is found in the Synoptic Gospels (in Luke, nine times), in Acts five times, in the Apocalypse twelve times, eight in the messages to the churches, Revelation 2:5 (twice),16,21 (twice), RV, "she willeth not to repent" (2nd part); Revelation 3:3, 19 (the only churches in those chapters which contain no exhortation in this respect are those at Smyrna and Philadelphia); elsewhere only in 2 Corinthians 12:21 . See also the general Note below.VED-NT Repent, Repentance.3

    A — 2: μεταμέλομαι
    (Strong's #3338 — Verb — metamelomai — met-am-el'-lom-ahee )
    VED-NT Repent, Repentance.4

    meta, as in No. 1, and melo, "to care for," is used in the Passive Voice with the Middle Voice sense, signifying "to regret, to repent oneself," Matthew 21:29 , RV, "repented himself;" Matthew 21:32 , RV, "ye did (not) repent yourselves" (AV, "ye repented not"); Matthew 27:3 , "repented himself" 2 Corinthians 7:8 (twice), RV, "regret" in each case; Hebrews 7:21 , where alone in the NT it is said (negatively) of God.VED-NT Repent, Repentance.5

    B — 1: ἀμεταμέλητος
    (Strong's #278 — Adjective — ametameletos — am-et-am-el'-ay-tos )
    VED-NT Repent, Repentance.6

    "not repented of, unregretted" (a, negative, and a verbal adjective of A, No. 2), signifies "without change of purpose;" it is said (a) of God in regard to his "gifts and calling," Romans 11:29 ; (b) of man, 2 Corinthians 7:10 , RV, "[repentance (metanoia, see C)] ... which bringeth no regret" (AV, "not to be repented of"); the difference between metanoia and metamelomai, illustrated here, is briefly expressed in the contrast between "repentance" and "regret."VED-NT Repent, Repentance.7

    C — 1: μετάνοια
    (Strong's #3341 — Noun Feminine — metanoia — met-an'-oy-ah )
    VED-NT Repent, Repentance.8

    "afterthought, change of mind, repentance," corresponds in meaning to A, No. 1, and is used of "repentance" from sin or evil, except in Hebrews 12:17 , where the word "repentance" seems to mean, not simply a change of Isaac's mind, but such a change as would reverse the effects of his own previous state of mind. Esau's birthright-bargain could not be recalled; it involved an irretrievable loss. As regards "repentance" from sin, (a) the requirement by God on man's part is set forth, e.g., in Matthew 3:8 ; Luke 3:8 ; Acts 20:21 ; Acts 26:20 ; (b) the mercy of God in giving "repentance" or leading men to it is set forth, e.g., in Acts 5:31 ; Acts 11:18 ; Romans 2:4 ; 2 Timothy 2:25 . The most authentic mss. omit the word in Matthew 9:13 ; Mark 2:17 , as in the RV.VED-NT Repent, Repentance.9

    Note: In the OT, "repentance" with reference to sin is not so prominent as that change of mind or purpose, out of pity for those who have been affected by one's action, or in whom the results of the action have not fulfilled expectations, a "repentance" attributed both to God and to man, e.g., Genesis 6:6 ; Exodus 32:14 (that this does not imply anything contrary to God's immutability, but that the aspect of His mind is changed toward an object that has itself changed, see under RECONCILE).VED-NT Repent, Repentance.10

    In the NT the subject chiefly has reference to "repentance" from sin, and this change of mind involves both a turning from sin and a turning to God. The parable of the Prodigal Son is an outstanding illustration of this. Christ began His ministry with a call to "repentance," Matthew 4:17 , but the call is addressed, not as in the OT to the nation, but to the individual. In the Gospel of John, as distinct from the Synoptic Gospels, referred to above, "repentance" is not mentioned, even in connection with John the Baptist's preaching; in John's Gospel and 1st Epistle the effects are stressed, e.g., in the new birth, and, generally, in the active turning from sin to God by the exercise of faith (John 3:3 ; John 9:38 ; 1 John 1:9 ), as in the NT in general.VED-NT Repent, Repentance.11


    1: βατταλογέω
    (Strong's #945 — Verb — battalogeo | battologeo — bat-tol-og-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Repetitions.2

    "to repeat idly," is used in Matthew 6:7 , "use (not) vain repetitions;" the meaning "to stammer" is scarcely to be associated with this word. The word is probably from an Aramaic phrase and onomatopoeic in character. The rendering of the Sinaitic Syriac is "Do not be saying battalatha, idle things," i.e., meaningless and mechanically repeated phrases, the reference being to pagan (not Jewish) modes of prayer. Battalos, "the Gabbler," was a nickname for Demosthenes, the great orator, assigned to him by his rivals.VED-NT Repetitions.3


    1: ἀνταποκρίνομαι
    (Strong's #470 — Verb — antapokrinomai — an-tap-ok-ree'-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Reply.2

    is translated "repliest against" in Romans 9:20 (anti, "against," apokrinomai, "to answer"); in Luke 14:6 , "answer again." See ANSWER , B, No. 2.VED-NT Reply.3


    A — 1: ἀκοή
    (Strong's #189 — Noun Feminine — akoe — ak-o-ay' )
    VED-NT Report.2

    "a hearing," is translated "report" in John 12:38 ; Romans 10:16 , and in the RV of Matthew 4:24 ; Matthew 14:1 ; Mark 1:28 . See HEARING , B, No. 1.VED-NT Report.3

    A — 2: εὐφημία
    (Strong's #2162 — Noun Feminine — euphemia — yoo-fay-mee'-ah )
    VED-NT Report.4

    "a good report, good reputation" (eu, "well," pheme "a saying or report"), is used in 2 Corinthians 6:8 . Contrast No. 3.VED-NT Report.5

    A — 3: δυσφημία
    (Strong's #1426 — Noun Feminine — dusphemia — doos-fay-mee'-ah )
    VED-NT Report.6

    "evil-speaking, defamation" (dus-, an inseparable prefix, the opposite to eu, "well," see No. 2), is used in 2 Corinthians 6:8 .VED-NT Report.7

    A — 4: λόγος
    (Strong's #3056 — Noun Masculine — logos — log'-os )
    VED-NT Report.8

    "a word," is translated "report," i.e., "a story, narrative;" in Luke 5:15 (AV, "fame"); 7:17 (AV, "rumor"); Acts 11:22 (AV, "tidings"). See WORD.VED-NT Report.9

    Note: For marturia, rendered "report" in 1 Timothy 3:7 , AV, see TESTIMONY , WITNESS.VED-NT Report.10

    B — 1: καταδικάζω
    (Strong's #2613 — Verb — euphemos — kat-ad-ik-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Report.11

    akin to A, No. 2, primarily, "uttering words or sounds of good omen," then, "avoiding ill-omened words," and hence "fair-sounding," "of good report," is so rendered in Philippians 4:8 .VED-NT Report.12

    C — 1: μαρτυρέω
    (Strong's #3140 — Verb — martureo — mar-too-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Report.13

    "to be a witness, bear witness, testify," signifies, in the Passive Voice, "to be well testified of, to have a good report," Acts 6:3 , "of good (AV, honest) report," lit., "being well testified of;" 10:22; 16:2; 22:12; 1 Timothy 5:10 ; in Hebrews 11:2, 39 , AV, "obtained a good report" (RV, "had witness borne to them"); in 3 John 1:12 , AV, "hath good report" (RV, "hath the witness"), lit., "witness hath been borne." See TESTIFY , WITNESS.VED-NT Report.14

    C — 2: ἀπαγγέλλω
    (Strong's #518 — Verb — apangello — ap-ang-el'-lo )
    VED-NT Report.15

    "to report" (apo, "from," angello, "to give a message"), "announce, declare" (by a messenger, speaker, or writer), is translated "reported" in Acts 4:23 ; Acts 16:36 , RV (AV, "told"); 16:38 (some mss. have No. 3; AV, "told"); "report" in 1 Corinthians 14:25 , AV (RV, "declaring"); 1 Thessalonians 1:9 , RV, "report" (AV, "shew"); so Acts 28:21 . See DECLARE , No. 2.VED-NT Report.16

    C — 3: ἀναγγέλλω
    (Strong's #312 — Verb — anangello — an-ang-el'-lo )
    VED-NT Report.17

    "to bring back word," in later Greek came to have the same meaning as No. 2, "to announce, declare;" it is translated "are reported" in 1 Peter 1:12 , AV (RV, "have been announced"). See DECLARE , No. 1.VED-NT Report.18

    C — 4: ἀκούω
    (Strong's #191 — Verb — akouo — ak-oo'-o )
    VED-NT Report.19

    "to hear," is used in the Passive Voice, impersonally, in 1 Corinthians 5:1 , lit., "it is heard" or "there is heard," translated "it is reported." See HEAR.VED-NT Report.20

    C — 5: βλασφημέω
    (Strong's #987 — Verb — blasphemeo — blas-fay-meh'-o )
    VED-NT Report.21

    "to speak slanderously, impiously, profanely" (blapto, "to injure," and pheme, "a saying"), is translated "we be slanderously reported" in Romans 3:8 (Passive Voice). See BLASPHEME , B.VED-NT Report.22

    Note: In Matthew 28:15 , AV, diaphemizo, "to spread abroad" (dia, "throughout," pheme, "a saying, report"), is translated "is commonly reported" (RV, "was spread abroad"). See BLAZE ABROAD.VED-NT Report.23

    Reproach, Reproachfully

    A — 1: ὀνειδισμός
    (Strong's #3680 — Noun Masculine — oneidismos — on-i-dis-mos' )
    VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.2

    "a reproach, defamation," is used in Romans 15:3 ; 1 Timothy 3:7 ; Hebrews 10:33 ; Hebrews 11:26 ; Hebrews 13:13 .VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.3

    A — 2: ὄνειδος
    (Strong's #3681 — Noun Neuter — oneidos — on'-i-dos )
    VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.4

    akin to No. 1, is used in Luke 1:25 in the concrete sense of "a matter of reproach, a disgrace." To have no children was, in the Jewish mind, more than a misfortune, it might carry the implication that this was a Divine punishment for some secret sin. Cp. Genesis 30:1 ; 1 Samuel 1:6-10 .VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.5

    A — 3: ἀτιμία
    (Strong's #819 — Noun Feminine — atimia — at-ee-mee'-ah )
    VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.6

    "dishonor," is translated "reproach" in 2 Corinthians 11:21 , AV (RV, "disparagement"). See DISHONOR , SHAME , VILE.VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.7

    Note: In 2 Corinthians 12:10 , AV, hubris, "insolence, injury," is translated "reproaches" (RV, "injuries"). See HARM.VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.8

    B — 1: ὀνειδίζω
    (Strong's #3679 — Verb — oneidizo — on-i-did'-zo )
    VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.9

    akin to A, Nos. 1 and 2, signifies (a), in the Active Voice, "to reproach, upbraid," Matthew 5:11 , RV, "shall reproach" (AV, "shall revile"); Matthew 11:20 , "to upbraid;" Matthew 27:44 , RV, "cast ... reproach" [AV, "cast ... in (His) teeth"]; Mark 15:32 RV, "reproached" (AV, "reviled"); Mark 16:14 "upbraided;" Luke 6:22 "shall reproach;" Romans 15:3 ; James 1:5 , "upbraideth;" (b) in the Passive Voice, "to suffer reproach, be reproached," 1 Timothy 4:10 (in some mss. in the 2nd part); 1 Peter 4:14 .VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.10

    B — 2: ὑβρίζω
    (Strong's #5195 — Verb — hubrizo — hoo-brid'-zo )
    VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.11

    akin to hubris (see A, Note), used transitively, denotes "to outrage, insult, treat insolently;" it is translated "Thou reproachest" in Luke 11:45 . The word is much stronger than "to reproach;" the significance is "Thou insultest (even us)," i.e., who are superior to ordinary Pharisees. The lawyer's imputation was unjust; Christ's rebuke was not hubris, "insult." What He actually said was by way of "reproach" (oneidizo). See DESPITEFULLY.VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.12

    Notes: (1) For anepileptos, "without reproach," RV, in 1 Timothy 3:2 ; 1 Timothy 5:7 ; 1 Timothy 6:14 , see BLAMELESS , B No. 5. (2) In 1 Timothy 5:14 , AV, loidoria, "reviling" (RV), used in the genitive case with charin, "in respect of," "for," is translated "reproachfully" (RV, "for reviling"). Cp. loidoreo, "to revile." See RAILING.VED-NT Reproach, Reproachfully.13


    1: ἀδόκιμος
    (Strong's #96 — Adjective — adokimos — ad-ok'-ee-mos )
    VED-NT Reprobate.2

    signifying "not standing the test, rejected" (a, negative, dokimos, "approved"), was primarily applied to metals (cp. Isaiah 1:22 ); it is used always in the NT in a Passive sense, (a) of things, Hebrews 6:8 , "rejected," of land that bears thorns and thistles; (b) of persons, Romans 1:28 , of a "reprobate mind," a mind of which God cannot approve, and which must be rejected by Him, the effect of refusing "to have God in their knowledge;" in 1 Corinthians 9:27 (for which see CAST , REJECTED); 2 Corinthians 13:5, 6, 7 , where the RV rightly translates the adjective "reprobate" (AV, "reprobates"), here the reference is to the great test as to whether Christ is in a person; in 2 Timothy 3:8 of those "reprobate concerning the faith," i.e., men whose moral sense is perverted and whose minds are beclouded with their own speculations; in Titus 1:16 , of the defiled, who are "unto every good work reprobate," i.e., if they are put to the test in regard to any good work (in contrast to their profession), they can only be rejected. In the Sept., Proverbs 25:4 ; Isaiah 1:22 .VED-NT Reprobate.3

    Reproof, Reprove

    A — 1: ἔλεγχος
    (Strong's #1650 — Noun Masculine — elegmos — el'-eng-khos )
    VED-NT Reproof, Reprove.2

    "a reproof" (akin to B), is found in the best texts in 2 Timothy 3:16 (some mss. have elenchos, which denotes "a proof, proving, test," as in Hebrews 11:1 , "proving," RV marg., "test"). Cp. elenxis, "rebuke," 2 Peter 2:16 (lit., "had rebuke").VED-NT Reproof, Reprove.3

    B — 1: ἐλέγχω
    (Strong's #1651 — Verb — elencho — el-eng'-kho )
    VED-NT Reproof, Reprove.4

    "to convict, rebuke, reprove," is translated "to reprove" in Luke 3:19 ; John 3:20 , RV marg., "convicted;" the real meaning here is "exposed" (AV marg., "discovered"); Ephesians 5:11, 13 , where "to expose" is again the significance; in John 16:8 , AV, "will reprove" (RV, "will convict"); in 1 Corinthians 14:24 , RV, "reproved" (AV, "convinced"); in the following the RV has "to reprove," for AV, "to rebuke," 1 Timothy 5:20 ; Titus 2:15 ; Hebrews 12:5 ; Revelation 3:19 ; for synonymous words see CONVICT and REBUKE.VED-NT Reproof, Reprove.5

    Reputation, Repute

    1: δοκέω
    (Strong's #1380 — verb — dokeo — dok-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Reputation, Repute.2

    signifies (a) "to be of opinion" (akin to doxa, "an opinion"), "to suppose," e.g., Luke 12:51 ; Luke 13:2 (see SUPPOSE); (b) "to seem, to be reputed;" in Galatians 2:2 , RV , "who were of repute" (AV, "which were of reputation"); in Galatians 2:6 (twice),9, RV , "were reputed" and "were of repute" (AV, "seemed"); in each case the present participle of the verb with the article is used, lit., "(well) thought of" by them, persons held in consideration; in Galatians 2:6 , RV, "(those) who were reputed to be somewhat" (AV, "who seemed to be somewhat"); so Galatians 2:9 , where there is no irony [cp. the rendering "are accounted" in Mark 10:42 (i.e., not rulers nominally)], Paul recognized that James, Cephas, and John were, as they were "reputed" by the church at Jerusalem, its responsible guides; (c) impersonally, "to think, to seem good." See SEEM and THINK.VED-NT Reputation, Repute.3

    The first meaning, "to suppose," implies a subjective opinion based on thought; the second meaning, exemplified in the Galatians passages, expresses, from the standpoint of the observer, his own judgment about a matter (Trench, Syn., lxxx).VED-NT Reputation, Repute.4

    Notes: (1) In Acts 5:34 , AV, timios, "honored, had in honor" (RV), is translated "had in reputation." (2) In Philippians 2:29 , AV, entimos, "honorable," with echo, "to have," i.e., "to hold in honor," is translated "hold ... in reputation" (RV, "hold ... in honor"). (3) For kenoo, in Philippians 2:7 , AV, "made (Himself) of no reputation," see EMPTY.VED-NT Reputation, Repute.5


    A — 1: αἴτημα
    (Strong's #155 — Noun Neuter — aitema — ah'ee-tay-mah )
    VED-NT Request.2

    denotes "that which has been asked for" (akin to aiteo, "to ask"); in Luke 23:24 , RV, "what they asked for" (AV, "as they required"), lit., "their request (should be done, ginomai);" in Philippians 4:6 , "requests;" in 1 John 5:15 , "petitions." See PETITION , REQUIRE.VED-NT Request.3

    A — 2: δέησις
    (Strong's #1162 — Noun Feminine — deesis — deh'-ay-sis )
    VED-NT Request.4

    "an asking, entreaty, supplication," is translated "request" in Philippians 1:4 , AV (RV, "supplication"). See PRAYER , SUPPLICATION.VED-NT Request.5

    B — 1: δέομαι
    (Strong's #1189 — Verb — deomai — deh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Request.6

    akin to A, No. 2, "to beseech, pray, request," is translated "to make request" in Romans 1:10 . See BESEECH , No. 3.VED-NT Request.7

    B — 2: αἰτέω
    (Strong's #154 — Verb — aiteo — ahee-teh'-o )
    VED-NT Request.8

    "to ask," is translated "to make request" in Colossians 1:9 , RV (AV, "to desire"). See ASK , No. 1.VED-NT Request.9

    B — 3: ἐρωτάω
    (Strong's #2065 — Verb — erotao — er-o-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Request.10

    "to ask," is translated "to make request" in 1 John 5:16 . See ASK , No. 2 and remarks on the difference between Nos. 1 and 2.VED-NT Request.11


    1: ζητέω
    (Strong's #2212 — Verb — zeteo — dzay-teh'-o )
    VED-NT Require.2

    "to seek, seek after," also signifies "to require, demand," "shall be required," Luke 12:48 ; in 1 Corinthians 4:2 , "it is required (in stewards)." See DESIRE , Note (2), ENDEAVOR , GO , Note (2) (a), SEEK.VED-NT Require.3

    2: ἐκζητέω
    (Strong's #1567 — Verb — ekzeteo — ek-zay-teh'-o )
    VED-NT Require.4

    "to seek out" (ek, "out," and No. 1), also denotes "to demand, require," Luke 11:50, 51 , of executing vengeance for the slaughter of the prophets (cp. 2 Samuel 4:11 ; Ezekiel 3:18 ). See SEEK.VED-NT Require.5

    3: ἀπαιτέω
    (Strong's #523 — — apaiteo — ap-ah'ee-teh-o )
    VED-NT Require.6

    "to ask back, demand back" (apo, "from," or "back," aiteo, "to ask"), is translated "shall be required" in Luke 12:20 , lit. "do they require," in the impersonal sense; elsewhere, Luke 6:30 , "to ask again." It is used in the papyri frequently in the sense of "demanding, making demands."VED-NT Require.7

    4: πράσσω
    (Strong's #4238 — Verb — prasso — pras'-so )
    VED-NT Require.8

    "to do, practice, perform," is used financially in the sense of "exacting" payment, in Luke 19:23 . See EXTORT , A.VED-NT Require.9

    Notes: (1) In Luke 23:23 , AV, aiteo, "to ask" (Middle Voice) is translated "requiring" (RV, "asking'); so in 1 Corinthians 1:22 (Active Voice, AV, "require" (RV, "ask"). (2) In Luke 23:24 , AV, the noun aitema (see REQUEST), "that which is asked for," is translated "as they required" (RV, "what they asked for"). (3) In 1 Corinthians 7:36 the rendering "need so requireth" (RV) represents the phrase houtos ("thus") opheilei ("it ought") genesthai ("to become," i.e., "to be done").VED-NT Require.10


    1: ἀμοιβή
    (Strong's #287 — Noun Feminine — amoibe — am-oy-bay' )
    VED-NT Requite.2

    "a requital, recompence" (akin to ameibomai, "to repay," not found in the NT), is used with the verb apodidomi, "to render," in 1 Timothy 5:4 , and translated "to requite." This use is illustrated in the papyri by way of making a return, conferring a benefaction in return for something (Moulton and Milligan).VED-NT Requite.3


    1: ἐξαιρέω
    (Strong's #1807 — Verb — exaireo — ex-ahee-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Rescue.2

    "to take out" (ek, "from," haireo, "to take"), is used of "delivering" from persons and circumstances, and translated "rescued" in Acts 23:27 . See DELIVER , No. 8, PLUCK.VED-NT Rescue.3


    * For RESEMBLE, Luke 13:18 , AV, see LIKEN , B, No. 1.VED-NT Resemble.2


    1: τηρέω
    (Strong's #5083 — Verb — tereo — tay-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Reserve.2

    "to guard, keep, preserve, give heed to," is translated "to reserve," (a) with a happy issue, 1 Peter 1:4 ; (b) with a retributive issue, 2 Peter 2:4 ; 2 Peter 2:9 , AV (RV, "keep"); 2:17; 3:7; Jude 1:6 , AV (RV, "hath kept"); 1:13; (c) with the possibility either of deliverance or execution, Acts 25:21 , AV (RV, "kept"). See KEEP.VED-NT Reserve.3

    Note: In Romans 11:4 , AV, kataleipo, "to leave behind, leave remaining," is translated "I have reserved" (RV, "I have left"). See LEAVE.VED-NT Reserve.4


    1: κατάλοιπος
    (Strong's #2645 — Adjective — kataloipos — kat-al'-oy-pos )
    VED-NT Residue.2

    an adjective denoting "left remaining" (kata, "after, behind," leipo, "to leave"), akin to the verb in the Note above, is translated "residue" in Acts 15:17 , from the Sept. of Amos 9:12 .VED-NT Residue.3

    Note: In Mark 16:13 , AV, the plural of loipos, "left," is translated "residue" (RV, "rest").VED-NT Residue.4


    1: ἀνθίστημι
    (Strong's #436 — Verb — anthistemi — anth-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Resist.2

    "to set against" (anti, "against," histemi, "to cause to stand"), used in the Middle (or Passive) Voice and in the intransitive 2nd aorist and perfect Active, signifying "to withstand, oppose, resist," is translated "to resist" in Matthew 5:39 ; Acts 6:10 , AV (RV, "withstand"); Romans 9:19 , AV (RV, "withstandeth"); 13:2 (2nd and 3rd parts; for 1st part, see No. 3), AV (RV, "withstandeth" and "withstand"); Galatians 2:11 , RV (AV, "withstood"); 2 Timothy 3:8 (2nd part), AV (RV, "withstand"); James 4:7 ; 1 Peter 5:9 , AV (RV, "withstand"); "to withstand" in Acts 13:8 ; Ephesians 6:13 ; 2 Timothy 3:8 (1st part); 4:15.VED-NT Resist.3

    2: ἀντικαθίστημι
    (Strong's #478 — Verb — antikathistemi — an-tee-kath-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Resist.4

    "to stand firm against" (anti, "against," kathistemi, "to set down," kata), is translated "ye have (not) resisted" in Hebrews 12:4 . In the Sept., Deuteronomy 31:21 ; Joshua 5:7 ; Micah 2:8 .VED-NT Resist.5

    3: ἀντιτάσσω
    (Strong's #498 — Verb — antitasso — an-tee-tas'-som-ahee )
    VED-NT Resist.6

    anti, "against," tasso, "to arrange," originally a military term, "to range in battle against," and frequently so found in the papyri, is used in the Middle Voice signifying "to set oneself against, resist," (a) of men, Acts 18:6 , "opposed themselves;" elsewhere "to resist," of resisting human potentates, Romans 13:2 ; (b) of God, James 4:6 ; James 5:6 , negatively, of leaving persistent evildoers to pursue their self-determined course, with eventual retribution; 1 Peter 5:5 . See OPPOSE.VED-NT Resist.7

    4: ἀντιπίπτω
    (Strong's #496 — Verb — antipipto — an-tee-pip'-to )
    VED-NT Resist.8

    lit., and primarily, "to fall against or upon" (anti, "against," pipto, "to fall"), then, "to strive against, resist," is used in Acts 7:51 of "resisting" the Holy Spirit.VED-NT Resist.9


    1: γινώσκω
    (Strong's #1097 — Verb — ginosko — ghin-oce'-ko )
    VED-NT Resolve.2

    "to come to know, perceive, realize," is used in the 2nd aorist tense in Luke 16:4 . "I am resolved," expressing the definiteness of the steward's realization, and his consequent determination of his course of action. See KNOW.VED-NT Resolve.3


    1: ἔρχομαι
    (Strong's #2064 — Verb — erchomai — er'-khom-ahee )
    VED-NT Resort.2

    "to come," is translated "resorted" in Mark 2:13 ; in John 10:41 (RV, "came"). See COME , No. 1.VED-NT Resort.3

    2: ἐπιπορεύομαι
    (Strong's #1975 — Verb — epiporeuomai — ep-ee-por-yoo'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Resort.4

    "to travel or journey to a place" (epi, "to," poreuomai, "to go"), is translated "resorted" in Luke 8:4 , RV (AV, "were come").VED-NT Resort.5

    3: συνάγω
    (Strong's #4863 — Verb — sunago — soon-ag'-o )
    VED-NT Resort.6

    "to gather or bring together" (sun, "with," ago, "to bring"), in the Passive Voice, "to be gathered or come together," is translated "resorted" in John 18:2 (the aorist tense expressing repeated action viewed cumulatively). See ASSEMBLE , GATHER , LEAD , Note (1).VED-NT Resort.7

    Notes: (1) In the AV of John 18:20 ; Acts 16:13 , sunerchomai, "to come together" (RV), is translated "to resort." (2) In Mark 10:1 , AV, sumporeuomai, "to come together" (RV), is translated "resort."VED-NT Resort.8


    A — 1: μέρος
    (Strong's #3313 — Noun Neuter — meros — mer'-os )
    VED-NT Respect.2

    "a part," has occasionally the meaning of "a class" or category," and, used in the dative case with en, "in," signifies "in respect of," 2 Corinthians 3:10 , "in (this) respect;" 2 Corinthians 9:3 , RV, AV, "in (this) behalf;" Colossians 2:16 , "in respect of (a feast day)."VED-NT Respect.3

    B — 1: ἀποβλέπω
    (Strong's #578 — Verb — apoblepo — ap-ob-lep'-o )
    VED-NT Respect.4

    "to look away from all else at one object" (apo, "from"), hence, "to look steadfastly," is translated "he had respect" in Hebrews 11:26 , AV (RV, "looked"). See LOOK.VED-NT Respect.5

    B — 2: ἐπιβλέπω
    (Strong's #1914 — Verb — epiblepo — ep-ee-blep'-o )
    VED-NT Respect.6

    "to look upon" (epi), is translated "have respect" in James 2:3 (RV "regard"); see LOOK , No. 6.VED-NT Respect.7

    Notes: (1) The following prepositions are translated "in respect of:" peri, "concerning," in John 16:8 , RV; epi, "upon, over," in Hebrews 11:4 , RV; marg., "over (his gifts);" kata, "in regard to," in Philippians 4:11 . (2) For "respect of persons" and "respecter of persons" see PERSON.VED-NT Respect.8


    A — 1: ἀνάπαυσις
    (Strong's #372 — Noun Feminine — anapausis — an-ap'-ow-sis )
    VED-NT Rest.2

    "cessation, refreshment, rest" (ana, "up," pauo, "to make to cease"), the constant word in the Sept. for the Sabbath "rest," is used in Matthew 11:29 ; here the contrast seems to be to the burdens imposed by the Pharisees. Christ's "rest" is not a "rest" from work, but in work, "not the rest of inactivity but of the harmonious working of all the faculties and affections, of will, heart, imagination, conscience, because each has found in God the ideal sphere for its satisfaction and development" (J. Patrick, in Hastings' Bib. Dic.); it occurs also in Matthew 12:43 ; Luke 11:24 ; Revelation 4:8 , RV, "(they have no) rest" [AV, "(they) rest (not)"], where the noun is the object of the verb echo, "to have;" so in 14:11.VED-NT Rest.3

    A — 2: κατάπαυσις
    (Strong's #2663 — Noun Feminine — katapausis — kat-ap'-ow-sis )
    VED-NT Rest.4

    in classical Greek, denotes "a causing to cease" or "putting to rest;" in the NT, "rest, repose;" it is used (a) of God's "rest;" Acts 7:49 ; Hebrews 3:11, 18 ; Hebrews 4:1, 3 (twice), RV (1st part), "that rest" (the AV, "rest," is ambiguous), Hebrews 4:5, 11 ; (b) in a general statement, applicable to God and man, Hebrews 4:10 .VED-NT Rest.5

    A — 3: ἄνεσις
    (Strong's #425 — Noun Feminine — anesis — an'-es-is )
    VED-NT Rest.6

    for the significance of which see EASE , B, is translated "rest" in 2 Corinthians 2:13 , AV (RV, "relief"); 7:5 (ditto); in 2 Thessalonians 1:7 , the subject is not the "rest" to be granted to the saints, but the Divine retribution on their persecutors; hence the phrase "and to you that are afflicted rest with us," is an incidental extension of the idea of recompense, and is to be read parenthetically. The time is not that at which the saints will be relieved of persecution, as in 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 , when the Parousia of Christ begins, but that at which the persecutors will be punished, namely, at the epiphany (or out-shining) of His Parousia (2 Thessalonians 2:8 ). For similar parentheses characteristic of epistolary writings see 1 Thessalonians 4:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:6 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:15, 16 .VED-NT Rest.7

    A — 4: σαββατισμός
    (Strong's #4520 — Noun Masculine — sabbatismos — sab-bat-is-mos' )
    VED-NT Rest.8

    "a Sabbath-keeping," is used in Hebrews 4:9 , RV, "a sabbath rest," AV marg., "a keeping of a sabbath" (akin to sabbatizo, "to keep the Sabbath," used, e.g., in Exodus 16:30 , not in the NT); here the sabbath-keeping is the perpetual sabbath "rest" to be enjoyed uninterruptedly by believers in their fellowship with the Father and the Son, in contrast to the weekly Sabbath under the Law. Because this sabbath "rest" is the "rest" of God Himself, Hebrews 4:10 , its full fruition is yet future, though believers now enter into it. In whatever way they enter into Divine "rest," that which they enjoy is involved in an indissoluble relation with God.VED-NT Rest.9

    A — 5: κοίμησις
    (Strong's #2838 — Noun Feminine — koimesis — koy'-may-sis )
    VED-NT Rest.10

    "a resting, reclining" (akin to keimai, "to lie"), is used in John 11:13 , of natural sleep, translated "taking rest," RV.VED-NT Rest.11

    Note: In Acts 9:31 , AV, eirene, "peace" (RV), is translated "rest."VED-NT Rest.12

    B — 1: ἀναπαύω
    (Strong's #373 — Verb — anapauo — an-ap-ow'-o )
    VED-NT Rest.13

    akin to A, No. 1, in the Active Voice, signifies "to give intermission from labor, to give rest, to refresh," Matthew 11:28 ; 1 Corinthians 16:18 , "have refreshed;" Philemon 1:7 , "are refreshed;" in the Middle Voice, "to take or enjoy rest," Matthew 26:45 ; Mark 6:31 ; Mark 14:41 ; Luke 12:19 , "take thine ease;" 1 Peter 4:14 ; Revelation 6:11 ; Revelation 14:13 . See REFRESH. In the papyri it is found as an agricultural term, e.g., of giving land "rest" by sowing light crops upon it. In inscriptions it is found on gravestones of Christians, followed by the date of death (Moulton and Milligan).VED-NT Rest.14

    B — 2: καταπαύω
    (Strong's #2664 — Verb — katapauo — kat-ap-ow'-o )
    VED-NT Rest.15

    akin to A, No. 2, used transitively, signifies "to cause to cease, restrain," Acts 14:18 ; "to cause to rest," Hebrews 4:8 ; intransitively, "to rest," Hebrews 4:4, 10 . See CEASE , A, No. 6, RESTRAIN.VED-NT Rest.16

    B — 3: ἐπισκηνόω
    (Strong's #1981 — Verb — episkenoo — ep-ee-skay-no'-o )
    VED-NT Rest.17

    "to spread a tabernacle over" (epi, "upon," skene, "a tent"), is used metaphorically in 2 Corinthians 12:9 , "may rest upon (me)," RV, marg., "cover," "spread a tabernacle over."VED-NT Rest.18

    B — 4: κατασκηνόω
    (Strong's #2681 — Verb — kataskenoo — kat-as-kay-no'-o )
    VED-NT Rest.19

    "to pitch one's tent, lodge," is translated "shall rest," in Acts 2:26 , AV (RV, "shall dwell"). See LODGE.VED-NT Rest.20

    B — 5: ἡσυχάζω
    (Strong's #2270 — Verb — hesuchazo — hay-soo-khad'-zo )
    VED-NT Rest.21

    "to be still, to rest from labor," is translated "they rested" in Luke 23:56 . See PEACE (hold one's), No. 3.VED-NT Rest.22

    B — 6: ἐπαναπαύω
    (Strong's #1879 — Verb — epanapauo — ep-an-ah-pow'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Rest.23

    "to cause to rest," is used in the Middle Voice, metaphorically, signifying "to rest upon" (epi, "upon," and No. 1), in Luke 10:6 ; Romans 2:17 .VED-NT Rest.24

    Note: For "find rest" Romans 15:32 , RV, see REFRESH , No. 2.VED-NT Rest.25




    1: ἀκατάστατος
    (Strong's #182 — Adjective — akatastatos — ak-at-as'-tat-os )
    VED-NT Restless.2

    "unsettled, unstable, disorderly" (a, negative, kathistemi, "to set in order"), is translated "unstable" in James 1:8 ; "restless" in James 3:8 , RV [in the latter, the AV "unruly" represents the word akataschetos, signifying "that cannot be restrained" (a, negative, katecho, "to hold down, restrain"). In the Sept., Job 31:11 .]. See UNRULY , UNSTABLE. In the Sept., Isaiah 54:11 .VED-NT Restless.3


    1: ἀποκατάστασις
    (Strong's #605 — Noun Feminine — apokatastasis — ap-ok-at-as'-tas-is )
    VED-NT Restoration.2

    from apo, "back, again," kathistemi, "to set in order," is used in Acts 3:21 , RV, "restoration" (AV, "restitution"). See under REGENERATION , concerning Israel in its regenerated state hereafter. In the papyri it is used of a temple cell of a goodess, a "repair" of a public way, the "restoration" of estates to rightful owners, a "balancing" of accounts. Apart from papyri illustrations the word is found in an Egyptian reference to a consummating agreement of the word's cyclical periods, an idea somewhat similar to that in the Acts passage (Moulton and Milligan).VED-NT Restoration.3


    1: ἀποδίδωμι
    (Strong's #591 — Verb — apodidomi — ap-od-eed'-o-mee )
    VED-NT Restore.2

    "to give back," is translated "I restore" in Luke 19:8 . See DELIVER , A, No. 3.VED-NT Restore.3

    2: ἀποκαθίστημι
    (Strong's #600 — Verb — apokathistemi — ap-ok-ath-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Restore.4

    or the alternative form apokathistano is used (a) of "restoration" to a former condition of health, Matthew 12:13 ; Mark 3:5 ; Mark 8:25 ; Luke 6:10 ; (b) of the Divine "restoration" of Israel and conditions affected by it, including the renewal of the covenant broken by them, Matthew 17:11 ; Mark 9:12 ; Acts 1:6 ; (c) of "giving" or "bringing" a person back, Hebrews 13:19 . In the papyri it is used of financial restitution, of making good the breaking of a stone by a workman by his substituting another, of the reclamation of land, etc. (Moulton and Milligan).VED-NT Restore.5

    3: καταρτίζω
    (Strong's #2675 — Verb — katartizo — kat-ar-tid'-zo )
    VED-NT Restore.6

    "to mend, to furnish completely," is translated "restore" in Galatians 6:1 , metaphorically, of the "restoration," by those who are spiritual, of one overtaken in a trespass, such a one being as a dislocated member of the spiritual body. The tense is the continuous present, suggesting the necessity for patience and perseverance in the process. See FIT , MEND , PERFECT.VED-NT Restore.7


    1: καταπαύω
    (Strong's #2664 — Verb — katapauo — kat-ap-ow'-o )
    VED-NT Restrain.2

    See REST , B, No. 2.VED-NT Restrain.3

    2: κατέχω
    (Strong's #2722 — Verb — katecho — kat-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Restrain.4

    "to hold fast or down," is translated "restraineth" in 2 Thessalonians 2:6, 7 . In ver. 6 lawlessness is spoken of as being "restrained" in its development: in ver. 7 "one that restraineth" is, lit., "the restrainer" (the article with the present participle, "the restraining one"); this may refer to an individual, as in the similar construction in 1 Thessalonians 3:5 , "the tempter" (cp. 2 Thessalonians 1:10 , lit., "the Deliverer"); or to a number of persons presenting the same characteristics, just as "the believer" stands for all believers, e.g., Romans 9:33 ; 1 John 5:10 . Ver. 6 speaks of a principle, ver. 7 of the principle as embodied in a person or series of persons; cp. what is said of "the power" in Romans 13:3, 4 , a phrase representing all such rulers. Probably such powers, i.e., "constituted governments," are the "restraining" influence here intimated (specifications being designedly withheld). For an extended exposition see Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 254-261.VED-NT Restrain.5

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