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    Court — Cymbal


    1: ἀγοραῖος
    (Strong's #60 — Adjective — agoraios — ag-or-ah'-yos )
    VED-NT Court.2

    is an adjective, "signifying pertaining to the agora, any place of public meeting, and especially where trials were held," Acts 19:38 ; the RV translates the sentence "the courts are open;" a more literal rendering is "court days are kept." In Acts 17:5 it is translated in the RV, "rabble;" AV, "baser sort," lit., "frequenters of the markets." See BASER.VED-NT Court.3

    2: αὐλή
    (Strong's #833 — Noun Feminine — aule — ow-lay' )
    VED-NT Court.4

    primarily, "an uncovered space around a house, enclosed by a wall, where the stables were," hence was used to describe (a) "the courtyard of a house;" in the OT it is used of the "courts" of the tabernacle and Temple; in this sense it is found in the NT in Revelation 11:2 ; (b) "the courts in the dwellings of well-to-do folk," which usually had two, one exterior, between the door and the street (called the proaulion, or "porch," Mark 14:68 ), the other, interior, surrounded by the buildings of the dwellings, as in Matthew 26:69 (in contrast to the room where the judges were sitting); Mark 14:66 ; Luke 22:55 ; AV, "hall;" RV "court" gives the proper significance, Matthew 26:3, 58 ; Mark 14:54 ; Mark 15:16 (RV, "Praetorium"); Luke 11:21 ; John 18:15 . It is here to be distinguished from the Praetorium, translated "palace." See HALL , PALACE. For the other meaning "sheepfold," John 10:1, 16 , see FOLD.VED-NT Court.5

    3: βασίλειον
    (Strong's #933 — Noun Neuter — basileion — bas-il'-i-on )
    VED-NT Court.6

    an adjective meaning "royal," signifies, in the neuter plural, "a royal palace," translated "kings' courts" in Luke 7:25 ; in the singular, 1 Peter 2:9 , "royal." See ROYAL.VED-NT Court.7

    Courteous, Courteously

    A — 1: φιλόφρων
    (Strong's #5391 — Adjective — tapeinophron — fil-of'-rone )
    VED-NT Courteous, Courteously.2

    "lowly-minded," is used in 1 Peter 3:8 , "be courteous," AV (RV, "humble-minded").VED-NT Courteous, Courteously.3

    B — 1: φιλοφρόνως
    (Strong's #5390 — Adverb — philophronos — fil-of-ron'-oce )
    VED-NT Courteous, Courteously.4

    lit., "friendly," or, more fully, "with friendly thoughtfulness" (philos, "friend," phren, "the mind"), is found in Acts 28:7 , of the hospitality showed by Publius to Paul and his fellow-shipwrecked travelers. Note: Some mss. have the corresponding adjective philophron, "courteous," in 1 Peter 3:8 ; the most authentic mss. have tapeinophron, "humble-minded."VED-NT Courteous, Courteously.5

    B — 2: φιλανθρώπως
    (Strong's #5364 — Adverb — philanthropos — fil-an-thro'-poce )
    VED-NT Courteous, Courteously.6

    is translated "courteously" in Acts 27:3 , AV; RV, "kindly" (Eng., "philanthropically"). See KINDLY.VED-NT Courteous, Courteously.7


    1: ἀνεψιός
    (Strong's #431 — Noun Masculine — anepsios — an-eps'-ee-os )
    VED-NT Cousin.2

    in Colossians 4:10 denotes a "cousin" rather than a nephew (AV, "sister's son"). "Cousin" is its meaning in various periods of Greek writers. In this sense it is used in the Sept., in Numbers 36:11 . In later writings it denotes a nephew; hence the AV rendering. As Lightfoot says, there is no reason to suppose that the Apostle would have used it in any other than its proper sense. We are to understand, therefore, that Mark was the cousin of Barnabas. See SISTER.VED-NT Cousin.3

    2: συγγενής
    (Strong's #4773 — Adjective — sungenis — soong-ghen-ace' )
    VED-NT Cousin.4

    in Luke 1:36 (so in the most authentic mss.) and sungenes in Luke 1:58 (plural), AV, "cousin" and "cousins," respectively signify "kinswoman" and "kinsfolk," (RV); so the RV and AV in Luke 2:44 ; Luke 21:16 . The word lit. signifies "born with," i.e., of the same stock, or descent; hence "kinsman, kindred." See KIN , KINSFOLK , KINSWOMAN.VED-NT Cousin.5


    A — 1: διαθήκη
    (Strong's #1242 — Noun Feminine — diatheke — dee-ath-ay'-kay )
    VED-NT Covenant.2

    primarily signifies "a disposition of property by will or otherwise." In its use in the Sept., it is the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning a "covenant" or agreement (from a verb signifying "to cut or divide," in allusion to a sacrificial custom in connection with "covenant-making," e.g., Genesis 15:10 , "divided" Jeremiah 34:18, 19 ). In contradistinction to the English word "covenant" (lit., "a coming together"), which signifies a mutual undertaking between two parties or more, each binding himself to fulfill obligations, it does not in itself contain the idea of joint obligation, it mostly signifies an obligation undertaken by a single person. For instance, in Galatians 3:17 it is used as an alternative to a "promise" (vv. 16-18). God enjoined upon Abraham the rite of circumcision, but His promise to Abraham, here called a "covenant," was not conditional upon the observance of circumcision, though a penalty attached to its nonobservance.VED-NT Covenant.3

    "The NT uses of the word may be analyzed as follows: (a) a promise or undertaking, human or Divine, Galatians 3:15 ; (b) a promise or undertaking on the part of God, Luke 1:72 ; Acts 3:25 ; Romans 9:4 ; Romans 11:27 ; Galatians 3:17 ; Ephesians 2:12 ; Hebrews 7:22 ; Hebrews 8:6, 8, 10 ; Hebrews 10:16 ; (c) an agreement, a mutual undertaking, between God and Israel, see Deuteronomy 29 ; Deuteronomy 30 (described as a 'commandment,' Hebrews 7:18 , cp. Hebrews 7:22 ); Hebrews 8:9 ; Hebrews 9:20 ; (d) by metonymy, the token of the covenant, or promise, made to Abraham, Acts 7:8 ; (e) by metonymy, the record of the covenant, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; Hebrews 9:4 ; cp. Revelation 11:19 ; (f) the basis, established by the death of Christ, on which the salvation of men is secured, Matthew 26:28 ; Mark 14:24 ; Luke 22:20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Hebrews 10:29 ; Hebrews 12:24 ; Hebrews 13:20 .VED-NT Covenant.4

    "This covenant is called the 'new,' Hebrews 9:15 , the 'second,' Hebrews 8:7 , the 'better,' Hebrews 7:22 . In Hebrews 9:16, 17 , the translation is much disputed. There does not seem to be any sufficient reason for departing in these verses from the word used everywhere else. The English word 'Testament' is taken from the titles prefixed to the Latin Versions." * [* From Notes on Galations by Hogg and Vine, p 144] See TESTAMENT.VED-NT Covenant.5

    B — 1: συντίθημι
    (Strong's #4934 — Verb — suntithemi — soon-tith'-em-ahee )
    VED-NT Covenant.6

    lit., "to put together," is used only in the Middle Voice in the NT, and, means "to determine, agree," John 9:22 ; Acts 23:20 ; "to assent," Acts 24:9 ; "to covenant," Luke 22:5 . See AGREE , ASSENT.VED-NT Covenant.7

    Note: In Matthew 26:15 the AV translates histemi, "to place (in the balances)," i.e., to weigh, "they covenanted with;" RV, "they weighed unto."VED-NT Covenant.8


    1: ἀσύνθετος
    (Strong's #802 — Adjective — asunthetos — as-oon'-thet-os )
    VED-NT Covenant-Breakers.2

    from suntithemi (see above), with the negative prefix a, hence signifies "not covenant-keeping," i.e., refusing to abide by "covenants" made, "covenant-breaking," faithless, Romans 1:31 . In the Sept. it is found in Jeremiah 3:8-11 . Cp. the corresponding verb, asuntithemi, in the Sept. of Psalms 73:15 , "to deal treacherously" (RV), and the noun asunthesia, "transgression, or covenant-breaking," e.g., Ezra 9:2, 4 ; Ezra 10:6 .VED-NT Covenant-Breakers.3

    Note: Trench, Syn. lii, notes the distinction between asunthetos and aspondos, "implacable," the latter, in 2 Timothy 3:3 only, being derived from sponde, "a sacrificial libation," which accompanied treaty-making; hence, with the negative prefix a, "without a treaty or covenant," thus denoting a person who cannot be persuaded to enter into a "covenant." He points out that asunthetos presumes a state of peace interrupted by the unrighteous, aspondos a state of war, which the implacable refuse to terminate equitably. The words are clearly not synonymous.VED-NT Covenant-Breakers.4

    Cover, Covering

    A — 1: καλύπτω
    (Strong's #2572 — Verb — kalupto — kal-oop'-to )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.2

    signifies "to cover," Matthew 8:24 ; Matthew 10:26 ; Luke 8:16 ; Luke 23:30 ; James 5:20 (RV); 1 Peter 4:8 ; to veil, in 2 Corinthians 4:3 (RV; AV, "hid"). See HIDE.VED-NT Cover, Covering.3

    Note: Cp. the corresponding noun kalumma, "a veil," 2 Corinthians 3:13-16 . See VEIL.VED-NT Cover, Covering.4

    A — 2: ἐπικαλύπτω
    (Strong's #1943 — Verb — epikalupto — ep-ee-kal-oop'-to )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.5

    "to cover up or over" (epi, "over"), is used in Romans 4:7 , lit., "whose sins are covered over." Cp. epikalumma, "a cloke," 1 Peter 2:16 .VED-NT Cover, Covering.6

    A — 3: περικαλύπτω
    (Strong's #4028 — Verb — perikalupto — per-ee-kal-oop'-to )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.7

    "to cover around" (peri, "around"), e.g., the face, and so, to blindfold, is translated "cover" in Mark 14:65 , "blindfold" in Luke 22:64 . In Hebrews 9:4 , it signifies "to overlay." See BLINDFOLD , OVERLAY.VED-NT Cover, Covering.8

    A — 4: συγκαλύπτω
    (Strong's #4780 — Verb — sunkalupto — soong-kal-oop'-to )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.9

    lit., "to cover together;" the sun--, however, is intensive, and the verb signifies "to cover wholly, to cover up," Luke 12:2 .VED-NT Cover, Covering.10

    A — 5: κατακαλύπτω
    (Strong's #2619 — Verb — katakalupto — kat-ak-al-oop'-to )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.11

    "to cover up" (kata, intensive), in the Middle Voice, "to cover oneself," is used in 1 Corinthians 11:6, 7 (RV, "veiled").VED-NT Cover, Covering.12

    Note: In 1 Corinthians 11:4 , "having his head covered" is, lit., "having (something) down the head."VED-NT Cover, Covering.13

    B — 1: περιβόλαιον
    (Strong's #4018 — Noun Neuter — peribolaion — per-ib-ol'-ah-yon )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.14

    lit. denotes "something thrown around" (peri, "around," ballo, "to throw"); hence, "a veil, covering," 1 Corinthians 11:15 (marg.), or "a mantle around the body, a vesture," Hebrews 1:12 . See CLOTHING , Note (1), VESTURE.VED-NT Cover, Covering.15

    B — 2: σκέπασμα
    (Strong's #4629 — Neuter — skepasma — skep'-as-mah )
    VED-NT Cover, Covering.16

    "a covering" (skepazo, "to cover"), strictly, "a roofing," then, "any kind of shelter or covering," is used in the plural in 1 Timothy 6:8 (AV, "rainment;" RV, "covering").VED-NT Cover, Covering.17

    Covet, Covetous, Covetousness

    A — 1: ἐπιθυμέω
    (Strong's #1937 — Verb — epithumeo — ep-ee-thoo-meh'-o )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.2

    "to fix the desire upon" (epi, "upon," used intensively, thumos, "passion"), whether things good or bad; hence, "to long for, lust after, covet," is used with the meaning "to covet evilly" in Acts 20:33 , of "coveting money and apparel;" so in Romans 7:7 ; Romans 13:9 . See DESIRE , FAIN , LUST.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.3

    A — 2: ζηλόω
    (Strong's #2206 — Verb — zeloo — dzay-lo'-o )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.4

    is rendered "covet earnestly," in 1 Corinthians 12:31 , AV; RV, "desire earnestly," as in 1 Corinthians 14:39 (AV "covet"). See AFFECT , DESIRE , ENVY , JEALOUS , ZEALOUS.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.5

    A — 3: ὀρέγω
    (Strong's #3713 — Verb — orego — or-eg'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.6

    "to stretch after," is rendered "covet after" in 1 Timothy 6:10 , AV; RV, "reaching after." See DESIRE , REACH.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.7

    B — 1: ἐπιθυμητής
    (Strong's #1938 — Noun Masculine — epithumetes — ep-ee-thoo-may-tace' )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.8

    "a luster after" (akin to A, No. 1), is translated in 1 Corinthians 10:6 , in verbal form, "should not lust after." See LUST.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.9

    B — 2: ἐπιθυμία
    (Strong's #1939 — Noun Feminine — epithumia — ep-ee-thoo-mee'-ah )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.10

    denotes "coveting," Romans 7:7, 8 , RV; AV, "lust" and "concupiscence;" the commandment here referred to convicted him of sinfulness in his desires for unlawful objects besides that of gain. See DESIRE , LUST.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.11

    B — 3: πλεονεξία
    (Strong's #4124 — Noun Feminine — pleonexia — pleh-on-ex-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.12

    "covetousness," lit., "a desire to have more" (pleon, "more," echo, "to have"), always in a bad sense, is used in a general way in Mark 7:22 (plural, lit., "covetings," i.e., various ways in which "covetousness" shows itself); Romans 1:29 ; Ephesians 5:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:5 . Elsewhere it is used, (a) of material possessions, Luke 12:15 ; 2 Peter 2:3 ; 2 Corinthians 9:5 (RV, "extortion"), lit., "as (a matter of) extortion" i.e., a gift which betrays the giver's unwillingness to bestow what is due; (b) of sensuality, Ephesians 4:19 , "greediness;" Colossians 3:5 (where it is called "idolatry"); 2 Peter 2:14 (AV, "covetous practices"). See EXTORTION.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.13

    Note: Cp. the corresponding verb pleonekteo, "to gain, take advantage of wrong." See ADVANTAGE , DEFRAUD , GAIN , B, Note (2), WRONG.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.14

    C — 1: πλεονέκτης
    (Strong's #4123 — Noun Masculine — pleonektes — pleh-on-ek'-tace )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.15

    lit., "(eager) to have more" (see B, No. 3), i.e., to have what belongs to others; hence, "greedy of gain, covetous," 1 Corinthians 5:10, 11 ; 1 Corinthians 6:10 ; Ephesians 5:5 ("covetous man").VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.16

    C — 2: φιλάργυρος
    (Strong's #5366 — Adjective — philarguros — fil-ar'-goo-ros )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.17

    lit., "money-loving," is rendered "covetous" in the AV of Luke 16:14 ; 2 Timothy 3:2 ; RV, "lovers of money," the wider and due significance.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.18

    C — 3: ἀφιλάργυρος
    (Strong's #866 — Adjective — aphilarguros — af-il-ar'-goo-ros )
    VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.19

    No. 2, with negative prefix, is translated "without covetousness" in Hebrews 13:5 , AV; RV, "free from the love of money." In 1 Timothy 3:3 , the AV has "not covetous," the RV, "no lover of money."VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.20

    Note: Trench, Syn. 24, points out the main distinction between pleonexia and philarguria as being that between "covetousness" and avarice, the former having a much wider and deeper sense, being "the genus of which philarguria is the species." The "covetous" man is often cruel as well as grasping, while the avaricious man is simply miserly and stinting.VED-NT Covet, Covetous, Covetousness.21

    Craft, Craftsman

    1: τέχνη
    (Strong's #5078 — Noun Feminine — techne — tekh'-nay )
    VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.2

    "craft," Revelation 18:22 : see ART.VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.3

    2: τεχνίτης
    (Strong's #5079 — Noun Masculine — technites — tekh-nee'-tace )
    VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.4

    akin to No. 1, "an artificer, artisan, craftsman," is translated "craftsman" in Acts 19:24, 38 and Revelation 18:22 . It is found elsewhere in Hebrews 11:10 "builder;" but this is practically the same as "maker" (demiourgos, the next noun in the verse; see No. 5, Note). Trench, Syn. cv., suggests that technites brings out the artistic side of creation, viewing God as "moulding and fashioning ... the materials which He called into existence." This agrees with the usage of the word in the Sept. See BUILDER.VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.5

    3: ἐργασία
    (Strong's #2039 — Noun Feminine — ergasia — er-gas-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.6

    see DILIGENCEVED-NT Craft, Craftsman.7

    4: ὁμότεχνος
    (Strong's #3673 — Adjective — homotechnos — hom-ot'-ekh-nos )
    VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.8

    "one of the same trade" (from homos, "same," and techne, see No. 1), is used in Acts 18:3 (RV, "trade"). Cp. architekton, "master-builder," 1 Corinthians 3:10 .VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.9

    5: μέρος
    (Strong's #3313 — Noun Neuter — meros — mer'-os )
    VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.10

    "a part, portion," is translated "craft" in Acts 19:27 , AV; "trade," RV (cp. ergasia in v. 25). See BEHALF , COAST , PART , PIECE , PORTION , RESPECT , SORT.VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.11

    Note: Demiourgos, "a maker," properly signifies one who works for the people, or whose work stands forth to the public gaze (demos, "people," ergon, "work"), but this idea has been lost in the use of the word, which came to signify "a maker," Hebrews 11:10 . This has reference to the structure, No. 2 to the design. Cp. ktistes, "a creator."VED-NT Craft, Craftsman.12

    Craftiness, Crafty

    A — 1: πανουργία
    (Strong's #3834 — Noun Feminine — panourgia — pan-oorg-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Craftiness, Crafty.2

    lit., "all-working," i.e., doing everything (pan, "all," ergon, "work"), hence, "unscrupulous conduct, craftiness," is always used in a bad sense in the NT, Luke 20:23 ; 1 Corinthians 3:19 ; 2 Corinthians 4:2 ; 2 Corinthians 11:3 ; Ephesians 4:14 , AV, "cunning craftiness." See SUBTLETY. In the Sept. it is used in a good sense, Proverbs 1:4 ; Proverbs 8:5 ; indifferently in Numbers 24:22 ; Joshua 9:4 .VED-NT Craftiness, Crafty.3

    B — 1: πανοῦργος
    (Strong's #3835 — Adjective — panourgos — pan-oor'-gos )
    VED-NT Craftiness, Crafty.4

    "cunning, crafty," is found in 2 Corinthians 12:16 , where the Apostle is really quoting an accusation made against him by his detractors. In the Sept. it is used in a good sense in Proverbs 13:1 ; Proverbs 28:2 .VED-NT Craftiness, Crafty.5

    C — 1: δόλος
    (Strong's #1388 — Noun Masculine — dolos — dol'-os )
    VED-NT Craftiness, Crafty.6

    primarily, "a bait," hence, "fraud, guile, deceit," is rendered "craft" in the AV of Mark 14:1 (RV "subtilty"). See DECEIT , GUILE , SUBTLETY.VED-NT Craftiness, Crafty.7


    * Note: The word "crave," found in the AV of Mark 15:43 , translates the verb aiteo, "to ask" (RV, "asked for"). See ASK.VED-NT Crave.2

    Create, Creation, Creator, Creature

    A — 1: κτίζω
    (Strong's #2936 — Verb — ktizo — ktid'-zo )
    VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.2

    used among the Greeks to mean the founding of a place, a city or colony, signifies, in Scripture, "to create," always of the act of God, whether (a) in the natural creation, Mark 13:19 ; Romans 1:25 (where the title "The Creator" translates the article with the aorist participle of the verb); 1 Corinthians 11:9 ; Ephesians 3:9 ; Colossians 1:16 ; 1 Timothy 4:3 ; Revelation 4:11 ; Revelation 10:6 , or (b) in the spiritual creation, Ephesians 2:10, 15 ; Ephesians 4:24 ; Colossians 3:10 . See MAKE.VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.3

    B — 1: κτίσις
    (Strong's #2937 — Noun Feminine — ktisis — ktis'-is )
    VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.4

    primarily "the act of creating," or "the creative act in process," has this meaning in Romans 1:20 ; Galatians 6:15 . Like the English word "creation," it also signifies the product of the "creative" act, the "creature," as in Mark 16:15 , RV; Romans 1:25 ; Romans 8:19 ; Colossians 1:15 etc.; in Hebrews 9:11 , AV, "building." In Mark 16:15 ; Colossians 1:23 its significance has special reference to mankind in general. As to its use in Galatians 6:15 ; 2 Corinthians 5:17 , in the former, apparently, "the reference is to the creative act of God, whereby a man is introduced into the blessing of salvation, in contrast to circumcision done by human hands, which the Judaizers claimed was necessary to that end. In 2 Corinthians 5:17 the reference is to what the believer is in Christ; in consequence of the creative act he has become a new creature."* [*From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 339.]VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.5

    Ktisis is once used of human actions, 1 Peter 2:13 , "ordinance" (marg., "creation"). See BUILDING , ORDINANCE.VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.6

    B — 2: κτίσμα
    (Strong's #2938 — Noun Neuter — ktisma — ktis'-mah )
    VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.7

    has the concrete sense, "the created thing, the creature, the product of the creative act," 1 Timothy 4:4 ; James 1:18 ; Revelation 5:13 ; Revelation 8:9 .VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.8

    B — 3: κτίστης
    (Strong's #2939 — Noun Masculine — ktistes — ktis-tace' )
    VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.9

    among the Greeks, the founder of a city, etc., denotes in Scripture "the Creator," 1 Peter 4:19 (cp. Romans 1:20 , under B, No. 1, above).VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.10

    Note: It is a significant confirmation of Romans 1:20, 21 , that in all non-Christian Greek literature these words are never used by Greeks to convey the idea of a Creator or of a creative act by any of their gods. The words are confined by them to the acts of human beings.VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.11

    B — 4: ζῷον
    (Strong's #2226 — Noun Neuter — zoon — dzo'-on )
    VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.12

    "a living creature:" see BEAST.VED-NT Create, Creation, Creator, Creature.13


    * For CREDITOR see LEND, LENDERVED-NT Creditor.2


    * For CREEK see BAYVED-NT Creek.2

    Creep, Creeping, Crept

    A — 1: ἐνδύνω
    (Strong's #1744 — Verb — enduno — en-doo'-no )
    VED-NT Creep, Creeping, Crept.2

    properly, "to envelop in" (en, "in," duno, "to enter"), "to put on," as of a garment, has the secondary and intransitive significance of "creeping into, insinuating oneself into," and is found with this meaning in 2 Timothy 3:6 . Cp. enduo, "to clothe."VED-NT Creep, Creeping, Crept.3

    A — 2: ἀναστροφή
    (Strong's #391 — Noun Feminine — pareisduno — an-as-trof-ay' )
    VED-NT Creep, Creeping, Crept.4

    "to enter in by the side" (para, "beside," eis, "in"), to insinuate oneself into, by stealth, to creep in stealthily, is used in Jude 1:4 .VED-NT Creep, Creeping, Crept.5

    B — 1: ἑρπετόν
    (Strong's #2062 — Noun Neuter — herpeton — her-pet-on' )
    VED-NT Creep, Creeping, Crept.6

    signifies a "creeping thing" (herpo, "to creep;" Eng., "serpent" is from the same root), James 3:7 (RV, "creeping things," for AV, "serpents," which form only one of this genus); it is set in contrast to quadrupeds and birds, Acts 10:12 ; Acts 11:6 ; Romans 1:23 . See SERPENT.VED-NT Creep, Creeping, Crept.7


    * For CRIME see CHARGEVED-NT Crime.2


    * For CRIPPLE see HALTVED-NT Cripple.2


    1: σκολιός
    (Strong's #4646 — Adjective — skolios — skol-ee-os' )
    VED-NT Crooked.2

    "curved, crooked," was especially used (a) of a way, Luke 3:5 , with spiritual import (see Proverbs 28:18 , Sept.); it is set in contrast to orthos and euthus, "straight;" (b) metaphorically, of what is morally "crooked," perverse, froward, of people belonging to a particular generation, Acts 2:40 (AV, "untoward"); Philippians 2:15 ; of tyrannical or unjust masters, 1 Peter 2:18 , "froward;" in this sense it is set in contrast to agathos, "good."VED-NT Crooked.3


    1: διαπεράω
    (Strong's #1276 — Verb — diaperao — dee-ap-er-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Cross.2

    "to pass over, to cross over" (dia, "through," perao, "to pass:" akin to this are peran, "across," peras, "a boundary," Latin, porta, "a gate," Eng., "portal, port," etc.), is translated by the verb "to cross" in the RV, but differently in the AV; in Matthew 9:1 ; Mark 5:21 ; Mark 6:53 (AV, "passed"); Matthew 14:34 (AV, "were gone"); Luke 16:26 (AV, "neither can they pass"); Acts 21:2 (AV, "sailing"). See GO , PASS , SAIL. In the Sept., Deuteronomy 30:13 ; Isaiah 23:2 .VED-NT Cross.3

    Cross, Crucify

    A — 1: σταυρός
    (Strong's #4716 — Noun Masculine — stauros — stow-ros' )
    VED-NT Cross, Crucify.2

    denotes, primarily, "an upright pale or stake." On such malefactors were nailed for execution. Both the noun and the verb stauroo, "to fasten to a stake or pale," are originally to be distinguished from the ecclesiastical form of a two beamed "cross." The shape of the latter had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (being in the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent lands, including Egypt. By the middle of the 3rd cent. A.D. the churches had either departed from, or had travestied, certain doctrines of the Christian faith. In order to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system pagans were received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were permitted largely to retain their pagan signs and symbols. Hence the Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece lowered, was adopted to stand for the "cross" of Christ.VED-NT Cross, Crucify.3

    As for the Chi, or X, which Constantine declared he had seen in a vision leading him to champion the Christian faith, that letter was the initial of the word "Christ" and had nothing to do with "the Cross" (for xulon, "a timber beam, a tree," as used for the stauros, see under TREE).VED-NT Cross, Crucify.4

    The method of execution was borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians. The stauros denotes (a) "the cross, or stake itself," e.g., Matthew 27:32 ; (b) "the crucifixion suffered," e.g., 1 Corinthians 1:17, 18 , where "the word of the cross," RV, stands for the Gospel; Galatians 5:11 , where crucifixion is metaphorically used of the renunciation of the world, that characterizes the true Christian life; Galatians 6:12, 14 ; Ephesians 2:16 ; Philippians 3:18 .VED-NT Cross, Crucify.5

    The judicial custom by which the condemned person carried his stake to the place of execution, was applied by the Lord to those sufferings by which His faithful followers were to express their fellowship with Him, e.g., Matthew 10:38 .VED-NT Cross, Crucify.6

    B — 1: σταυρόω
    (Strong's #4717 — Verb — stauroo — stow-ro'-o )
    VED-NT Cross, Crucify.7

    signifies (a) "the act of crucifixion," e.g., Matthew 20:19 ; (b) metaphorically, "the putting off of the flesh with its passions and lusts," a condition fulfilled in the case of those who are "of Christ Jesus," Galatians 5:24 , RV; so of the relationship between the believer and the world, Galatians 6:14 .VED-NT Cross, Crucify.8

    B — 2: συσταυρόω
    (Strong's #4957 — Verb — sustauroo — soos-tow-ro'-o )
    VED-NT Cross, Crucify.9

    "to crucify with" (su, "for," sun, "with"), is used (a) of actual "crucifixion" in company with another, Matthew 27:44 ; Mark 15:32 ; John 19:32 (b) metaphorically, of spiritual identification with Christ in His death, Romans 6:6 ; Galatians 2:20 .VED-NT Cross, Crucify.10

    B — 3: ἀνασταυρόω
    (Strong's #388 — Verb — anastauroo — an-as-tow-ro'-o )
    VED-NT Cross, Crucify.11

    (ana, again) is used in Hebrews 6:6 of Hebrew apostates, who as merely nominal Christians, in turning back to Judaism, were thereby virtually guilty of "crucifying" Christ again.VED-NT Cross, Crucify.12

    B — 4: προσπήγνυμι
    (Strong's #4362 — Verb — prospegnumi — pros-payg'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Cross, Crucify.13

    "to fix or fasten to anything" (pros, "to," pegnumi, "to fix"), is used of the "crucifixion" of Christ, Acts 2:23 .VED-NT Cross, Crucify.14


    * For the verb CROW (CREW) see CALL , A, No. 8VED-NT Crow.2


    A — 1: ὄχλος
    (Strong's #3793 — Noun Masculine — ochlos — okh'-los )
    VED-NT Crowd.2

    "a confused throng," is usually translated "multitude." The RV translates it "crowd" (AV, "press" in some) in Matthew 9:23, 25 ; Mark 2:4 ; Mark 3:9 ; Mark 5:27, 30 ; Luke 8:19 ; Luke 19:3 ; Acts 21:34, 35 ; Acts 24:12, 18 . See COMPANY , MULTITUDE , NUMBER , PEOPLE.VED-NT Crowd.3

    B — 1: ὀχλοποιέω
    (Strong's #3792 — Verb — ochlopoieo — okh-lop-oy-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Crowd.4

    "to make a crowd" (A, with poieo, "to make"), is translated "gathered a crowd" in Acts 17:5 , RV (AV, "company").VED-NT Crowd.5


    A — 1: στέφανος
    (Strong's #4735 — Noun Masculine — stephanos — stef'-an-os )
    VED-NT Crown.2

    primarily, "that which surrounds, as a wall or crowd" (from stepho, "to encircle"), denotes (a) "the victor's crown," the symbol of triumph in the games or some such contest; hence, by metonymy, a reward or prize; (b) "a token of public honor" for distinguished service, military prowess, etc., or of nuptial joy, or festal gladness, especially at the parousia of kings. It was woven as a garland of oak, ivy, parsley, myrtle, or olive, or in imitation of these in gold. In some passages the reference to the games is clear, 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; 2 Timothy 4:8 ("crown of righteousness"); it may be so in 1 Peter 5:4 , where the fadeless character of "the crown of glory" is set in contrast to the garlands of earth. In other passages it stands as an emblem of life, joy, reward and glory, Philippians 4:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:19 ; James 1:12 ("crown of life"); Revelation 2:10 (ditto); 3:11; 4:4,10: of triumph, Revelation 6:2 ; Revelation 9:7 ; Revelation 12:1 ; Revelation 14:14 .VED-NT Crown.3

    It is used of "the crown of thorns" which the soldiers plaited and put on Christ's head, Matthew 27:29 ; Mark 15:17 ; John 19:2, 5 . At first sight this might be taken as an alternative for diadema, "a kingly crown" (see below), but considering the blasphemous character of that masquerade, and the materials used, obviously diadema would be quite unfitting and the only alternative was stephanos (see Trench xxxii).VED-NT Crown.4

    A — 2: διάδημα
    (Strong's #1238 — Noun Neuter — diadema — dee-ad'-ay-mah )
    VED-NT Crown.5

    is never used as stephanos is, it is always the symbol of kingly or imperial dignity, and is translated "diadem" instead of "crown" in the RV, of the claims of the Dragon, Revelation 12:3 ; Revelation 13:1 ; Revelation 19:12 . See DIADEM.VED-NT Crown.6

    B — 1: στεφανόω
    (Strong's #4737 — Verb — stephanoo — stef-an-o'-o )
    VED-NT Crown.7

    "to crown," conforms in meaning to stephanos; it is used of the reward of victory in the games, in 2 Timothy 2:5 ; of the glory and honor bestowed by God upon man in regard to his position in creation, Hebrews 2:7 ; of the glory and honor bestowed upon the Lord Jesus in His exaltation, Hebrews 2:9 .VED-NT Crown.8


    * For CRUCIFY see CROSSVED-NT Crucify.2


    1: ψιχίον
    (Strong's #5589 — Noun Neuter — psichion — psikh-ee'-on )
    VED-NT Crumb.2

    "a small morsel," a diminutive of psix, "a bit, or crumb;" of bread or meat, it is used in Matthew 15:27 ; Mark 7:28 ; some mss. have it in Luke 16:21 .VED-NT Crumb.3


    1: ἀλάβαστρον
    (Strong's #211 — Noun Neuter — alabastron — al-ab'-as-tron )
    VED-NT Cruse.2

    was a vessel for holding ointment or perfume; it derived its name from the alabaster stone, of which it was usually made. "Cruse," RV, is a more suitable rendering than "box;" Matthew 26:7 ; Mark 14:3 ; Luke 7:37 .VED-NT Cruse.3


    1: ἀποθλίβω
    (Strong's #598 — Verb — apothlibo — ap-oth-lee'-bo )
    VED-NT Crush.2

    a strengthened form of thlibo, "to throng" (apo, intensive), is used in Luke 8:45 , RV, "crush," for AV, "press," of the multitude who were pressing around Christ (cp. the preceding word sunecho, "to press"). In the Sept., Numbers 22:25 .VED-NT Crush.3

    Cry, Crying

    A — 1: κραυγή
    (Strong's #2906 — Noun Feminine — krauge — krow-gay' )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.2

    an onomatopoeic word, is used in Matthew 25:6 ; Luke 1:42 (some mss. have phone); Acts 23:9 , RV, "clamor;" Ephesians 4:31 , "clamor;" Hebrews 5:7 ; Revelation 21:4 , "crying." Some mss. have it in Revelation 14:18 (the most authentic have phone). See CLAMOR.VED-NT Cry, Crying.3

    A — 2: βοή
    (Strong's #995 — Noun Feminine — boe — bo-ay' )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.4

    especially "a cry for help," an onomatopoeic word (cp. Eng., "boo"), connected with boao (see B, No. 1), is found in James 5:4 .VED-NT Cry, Crying.5

    B — 1: βοάω
    (Strong's #994 — Verb — boao — bo-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.6

    akin to A, No. 2, signifies (a) "to raise a cry," whether of joy, Galatians 4:27 , or vexation, Acts 8:7 ; (b) "to speak with a strong voice," Matthew 3:3 ; Mark 1:3 ; Mark 15:34 ; Luke 3:4 ; Luke 9:38 (some mss. have anaboao here: see No. 2); John 1:23 ; Acts 17:6 ; Acts 25:24 (some mss. have epiboao, No. 3, here); (c) "to cry out for help," Luke 18:7, 38 . For Acts 21:34 , see No. 8.VED-NT Cry, Crying.7

    B — 2: ἀναβοάω
    (Strong's #310 — Verb — anaboao — an-ab-o-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.8

    ana, "up," intensive, and No. 1, "to lift up the voice, cry out," is said of Christ at the moment of His death, a testimony to His supernatural power in giving up His life, Matthew 27:46 ; in some mss. in Mark 15:8 , of the shouting of a multitude; in some mss. in Luke 9:38 , of the "crying" out of a man in a company (see No. 1).VED-NT Cry, Crying.9

    B — 3: ἐπιβοάω
    (Strong's #1916 — Verb — epiboao — ep-ee-bo-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.10

    epi, "upon," intensive, and No. 1, "to cry out, exclaim vehemently," is used in some mss. in Acts 25:24 (see No. 1.)VED-NT Cry, Crying.11

    B — 4: κράζω
    (Strong's #2896 — Verb — krazo — krad'-zo )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.12

    akin to A, No. 1, "to cry out," an onomatopoeic word, used especially of the "cry" of the raven; then, of any inarticulate cries, from fear, pain etc; of the "cry" of a Canaanitish woman, Matthew 15:22 (so the best mss., instead of kraugazo); of the shouts of the children in the Temple, Matthew 21:15 ; of the people who shouted for Christ to be crucified, Matthew 27:23 ; Mark 15:13, 14 ; of the "cry" of Christ on the Cross at the close of His sufferings, Matthew 27:50 ; Mark 15:39 (see No. 2, above).VED-NT Cry, Crying.13

    In John's Gospel it is used three times, out of the six, of Christ's utterances, 7:28,37; 12:44. In the Acts it is not used of "cries" of distress, but chiefly of the shouts of opponents; in the Apocalypse, chiefly of the utterances of heavenly beings concerning earthly matters; in Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 4:6 , of the appeal of believers to God the Father; in Romans 9:27 , of a prophecy concerning Israel; in James 5:4 , metaphorically, of hire kept back by fraud.VED-NT Cry, Crying.14

    Note: A recent translator renders this verb in Matthew 27:50 "uttered a scream," an utterly deplorable mistranslation and a misrepresentation of the nature of the Lord's "cry."VED-NT Cry, Crying.15

    B — 5: ἀνακράζω
    (Strong's #349 — Verb — anakrazo — an-ak-rad'-zo )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.16

    ana, "up," intensive, and No. 4, signifies "to cry out loudly," Mark 1:23 ; Mark 6:49 ; Luke 4:33 ; Luke 8:28 ; Luke 23:18 .VED-NT Cry, Crying.17

    B — 6: κραυγάζω
    (Strong's #2905 — Verb — kraugazo — krow-gad'-zo )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.18

    a stronger form of No. 4, "to make a clamor or outcry" (A, No. 1), is used in Matthew 12:19 , in a prophecy from Isaiah of Christ; in Luke 4:41 (in the best mss., instead of krazo); John 11:43 ; John 12:13 (in the best mss.); 18:40; 19:6,12,15; Acts 22:23 .VED-NT Cry, Crying.19

    B — 7: φωνέω
    (Strong's #5455 — Verb — phoneo — fo-neh'-o )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.20

    "to utter a loud sound or cry," whether of animals, e.g., Matthew 26:34 ; or persons, Luke 8:8 ; Luke 16:24 ; this is the word which Luke uses to describe the "cry" of the Lord at the close of His sufferings on the cross, Luke 23:46 (see under anaboao and krazo, above); also, e.g., Acts 16:28 ; Revelation 14:18 . See CALL , A, No. 8, CROW.VED-NT Cry, Crying.21

    B — 8: ἐπιφωνέω
    (Strong's #2019 — Verb — epiphoneo — ep-ee-fo-neh'-o )
    VED-NT Cry, Crying.22

    No. 7, with epi, "upon," or "against," signifies "to shout," either against, Luke 23:21 ; Acts 21:34 (in the best mss., No. 1); 22:24, or in acclamation, Acts 12:22 . See SHOUT.VED-NT Cry, Crying.23

    Note: For aphiemi, Mark 15:37 , See UTTER. Comparing the various verbs, kaleo, denotes "to call out for any purpose," boao, "to cry out as an expression of feeling," krazo, "to cry out loudly." kaleo suggests intelligence, boao, sensibilities, krazo, instincts.VED-NT Cry, Crying.24


    A — 1: κρύσταλλος
    (Strong's #2930 — Noun Masculine — krustallos — kroos'-tal-los )
    VED-NT Crystal.2

    from kruos, "ice," and hence properly anything congealed and transparent, denotes "crystal," a kind of precious stone, Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 22:1 . Rock crystal is pure quartz; it crystallizes in hexagonal prisms, each with a pyramidical apex.VED-NT Crystal.3

    B — 1: κρυσταλλίζω
    (Strong's #2929 — Verb — krustallizo — kroos-tal-lid'-zo )
    VED-NT Crystal.4

    "to be of crystalline brightness and transparency, to shine like crystal," is found in Revelation 21:11 , where it is said of Christ as the "Light-giver" (phoster) of the Heavenly City (not phos, "light," RV and AV). Possibly there the verb has a transitive force, "to transform into crystal splendor," as of the effect of Christ upon His saints.VED-NT Crystal.5


    1: πῆχυς
    (Strong's #4083 — Noun Masculine — pechus — pay'-khoos )
    VED-NT Cubit.2

    denotes the forearm, i.e., the part between the hand and the elbow-joint; hence, "a measure of length," not from the wrist to the elbow, but from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow joint, i.e., about a foot and a half, or a little less than two feet, Matthew 6:27 ; Luke 12:25 ; John 21:8 ; Revelation 21:17 .VED-NT Cubit.3


    1: καταργέω
    (Strong's #2673 — Verb — katargeo — kat-arg-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Cumber.2

    lit., "to reduce to idleness or inactivity" (kata, "down," and argos, "idle"), is once rendered "cumber," Luke 13:7 . See ABOLISH.VED-NT Cumber.3

    2: περισπάω
    (Strong's #4049 — Verb — perispao — per-ee-spah'-o )
    VED-NT Cumber.4

    lit., "to draw around" (peri), "draw away, distract," is used in the Passive Voice in the sense of being over-occupied about a thing, to be "cumbered," Luke 10:40 .VED-NT Cumber.5


    1: κύμινον
    (Strong's #2951 — Noun Neuter — kuminon — koo'-min-on )
    VED-NT Cummin.2

    is an umbelliferous plant with aromatic seeds, used as a condiment, Matthew 23:23 .VED-NT Cummin.3




    1: ποτήριον
    (Strong's #4221 — Noun Neuter — poterion — pot-ay'-ree-on )
    VED-NT Cup.2

    a diminutive of poter, denotes, primarily, a "drinking vessel;" hence, "a cup" (a) literal, as, e.g., in Matthew 10:42 . The "cup" of blessing, 1 Corinthians 10:16 , is so named from the third (the fourth according to Edersheim) "cup" in the Jewish Passover feast, over which thanks and praise were given to God. This connection is not to be rejected on the ground that the church at Corinth was unfamiliar with Jewish customs. That the contrary was the case, see 1 Corinthians 5:7 ; (b) figurative, of one's lot or experience, joyous or sorrowful (frequent in the Psalms; cp. Psalms 116:18 , "cup of salvation"); in the NT it is used most frequently of the sufferings of Christ, Matthew 20:22, 23 ; Matthew 26:39 ; Mark 10:38, 39 ; Mark 14:36 ; Luke 22:42 ; John 18:11 ; also of the evil deeds of Babylon, Revelation 17:4 ; Revelation 18:6 ; of Divine punishments to be inflicted, Revelation 14:10 ; Revelation 16:19 . Cp. Psalms 11:6 ; Psalms 75:8 ; Isaiah 51:17 ; Jeremiah 25:15 ; Ezekiel 23:32-34 ; Zechariah 12:2 .VED-NT Cup.3


    A — 1: ἴασις
    (Strong's #2392 — Noun Feminine — iasis — ee'-as-is )
    VED-NT Cure.2

    "a healing, a cure" (akin to iaomai, "to heal," and iatros, "a physician"), is used in the plural in Luke 13:32 ; in Acts 4:22 , "healing;" in Acts 4:30 with the preposition eis, "unto," lit., "unto healing," translated "heal." See HEALING.VED-NT Cure.3

    B — 1: θεραπεύω
    (Strong's #2323 — Verb — therapeuo — ther-ap-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Cure.4

    (Eng., "therapeutics," etc), denotes (a) primarily, "to serve" (cp. therapeia and therapon), Acts 17:25 (AV, "worshiped"); then, (b) "to heal, restore to health, to cure;" it is usually translated "to heal," but "cure" in Matthew 17:16, 18 ; Luke 7:21 ; Luke 9:1 ; John 5:10 , Acts 28:9 , RV. See HEAL , WORSHIP.VED-NT Cure.5


    * Note: For the adjective periergos, "busy about trifles," see BUSYBODY: it is used of magic arts in Acts 19:19 (lit., "things that are around work," and thus superfluous), i.e., the arts of those who pry into forbidden things, with the aid of evil spirits. See also 1 Timothy 5:13 , where the meaning is "inquistive," prying into other people's affairs.VED-NT Curious.2

    Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed

    A — 1: ἀρά
    (Strong's #685 — Noun Feminine — ara — ar-ah' )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.2

    in its most usual meaning, "a malediction, cursing" (its other meaning is "a prayer"), is used in Romans 3:14 (often in the Sept.).VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.3

    A — 2: κατάρα
    (Strong's #2671 — Noun Feminine — katara — kat-ar'-ah )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.4

    kata, "down," intensive, and No. 1, denotes an "execration, imprecation, curse," uttered out of malevolence, James 3:10 ; 2 Peter 2:14 ; or pronounced by God in His righteous judgment, as upon a land doomed to barrenness, Hebrews 6:8 ; upon those who seek for justification by obedience, in part or completely, to the Law, Galatians 3:10, 13 ; in this 13th verse it is used concretely of Christ, as having "become a curse" for us, i.e., by voluntarily undergoing on the Cross the appointed penalty of the "curse." He thus was identified, on our behalf, with the doom of sin. Here, not the verb in the Sept. of Deuteronomy 21:23 is used (see B, No. 3), but the concrete noun.VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.5

    A — 3: ἄγε
    (Strong's #33 — interrogative — anathema — ag'-eh )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.6

    transliterated from the Greek, is frequently used in the Sept., where it translates the Heb. cherem, "a thing devoted to God," whether (a) for His service, as the sacrifices, Leviticus 27:28 (cp. anathema, a votive offering, gift), or (b) for its destruction, as an idol, Deuteronomy 7:26 , or a city, Joshua 6:17 . Later it acquired the more general meaning of "the disfavor of Jehovah," e.g., Zechariah 14:11 . This is the meaning in the NT. It is used of (a) the sentence pronounced, Acts 23:14 (lit., "cursed themselves with a curse;" see anathematizo below); (b) of the object on which the "curse" is laid, "accursed;" in the following, the RV keeps to the word "anathema," Romans 9:3 ; 1 Corinthians 12:3 ; 1 Corinthians 16:22 ; Galatians 1:8, 9 , all of which the AV renders by "accursed" except 1 Corinthians 16:22 , where it has "Anathema." In Galatians 1:8-9 , the Apostle declares in the strongest manner that the Gospel he preached was the one and only way of salvation, and that to preach another was to nullify the Death of Christ.VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.7

    A — 4: κατανάθεμα
    (Strong's #2652 — Noun Neuter — katathema — kat-an-ath'-em-ah )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.8

    or, as in some mss., the longer form katanathema, is stronger than No. 3 (kata, intensive), and denotes, by metonymy, "an accursed thing" (the object cursed being put for the curse pronounced), Revelation 22:3 .VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.9

    B — 1: ἀναθεματίζω
    (Strong's #332 — Verb — anathematizo — an-ath-em-at-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.10

    akin to No. 3, signifies "to declare anathema," i.e., "devoted to destruction, accursed, to curse," Mark 14:71 , or "to bind by a curse," Acts 23:12, 14, 21 .VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.11

    B — 2: καταναθεματίζω
    (Strong's #2653 — Verb — katanathematizo — kat-an-ath-em-at-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.12

    a strengthened form of No. 1, denotes "to utter curses against," Matthew 26:74 ; cp. Mark's word concerning the same occasion (No. 1).VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.13

    B — 3: καταράομαι
    (Strong's #2672 — Verb — kataraomai — kat-ar-ah'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.14

    akin to A, No. 2, primarily signifies "to pray against, to wish evil against a person or thing," hence "to curse," Matthew 25:41 ; Mark 11:21 ; Luke 6:28 ; Romans 12:14 ; James 3:9 . Some mss. have it in Matthew 5:44 .VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.15

    B — 4: κακολογέω
    (Strong's #2551 — Verb — kakologeo — kak-ol-og-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.16

    "to speak evil" (kakos, "evil," lego, "to speak"), is translated by the verb "to curse" in Matthew 15:4 ; Mark 7:10 , "to speak evil of father and mother," not necessarily "to curse," is what the Lord intended (RV). AV and RV have the verb "to speak evil" in Mark 9:39 ; Acts 19:9 . See EVIL.VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.17

    C — 1: ἐπικατάρατος
    (Strong's #1944 — Adjective — epikataratos — ep-ee-kat-ar'-at-os )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.18

    cursed, accursed" (epi, "upon," and A, No. 2), is used in Galatians 3:10, 13 .VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.19

    C — 2: ἐπάνω
    (Strong's #1883 — Adverb — eparatos — ep-an'-o )
    VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.20

    "accursed," is found, in the best mss., in John 7:49 , RV, "accursed," instead of No. 1.VED-NT Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed.21


    * For CUSHION see PILLOWVED-NT Cushion.2


    1: τέλος
    (Strong's #5056 — Noun Neuter — telos — tel'-os )
    VED-NT Custom.2

    "an end, termination," whether of time or purpose, denotes, in its secondary significance, "what is paid for public ends, a toll, tax, custom," Matthew 17:25 (RV, "toll"); Romans 13:7 (RV and AV, "custom"). In Palestine the Herods of Galilee and Perea received the "custom;" in Judea it was paid to the procurator for the Roman government. See END , FINALLY , UTTERMOST.VED-NT Custom.3

    2: τελώνιον
    (Strong's #5058 — Noun Neuter — telonion — tel-o'-nee-on )
    VED-NT Custom.4

    denotes "a custom-house," for the collection of the taxes, Matthew 9:9 ; Mark 2:14 ; Luke 5:27 (RV, "place of toll").VED-NT Custom.5

    Custom, Accustom

    A — 1: ἔθος
    (Strong's #1485 — Noun Neuter — ethos — eth'-os )
    VED-NT Custom, Accustom.2

    denotes (a) "a custom, usage, prescribed by law," Acts 6:14 ; Acts 15:1 ; Acts 25:16 ; "a rite or ceremony," Luke 2:42 ; (b) a "custom, habit, manner," Luke 22:39 ; John 19:40 ; Hebrews 10:25 (AV, "manner"). See MANNER , WONT.VED-NT Custom, Accustom.3

    A — 2: συνήθεια
    (Strong's #4914 — Noun Feminine — sunetheia — soon-ay'-thi-ah )
    VED-NT Custom, Accustom.4

    sun, "with," ethos (see No. 1), denotes (a) "an intercourse, intimacy," a meaning not found in the NT; (b) "a custom, customary usage," John 18:39 ; 1 Corinthians 11:16 ; "or force of habit," 1 Corinthians 8:7 , RV, "being used to" (some mss. here have suneidesis, "conscience;" whence AV, "with conscience of").VED-NT Custom, Accustom.5

    B — 1: ἐθίζω
    (Strong's #1480 — Verb — ethizo — eth-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Custom, Accustom.6

    akin to A, No. 1, signifies "to accustom," or in the Passive Voice, "to be accustomed." In the participial form it is equivalent to a noun, "custom," Luke 2:27 .VED-NT Custom, Accustom.7

    B — 2: ἔθω
    (Strong's #1486 — Verb — etho — eth'-o )
    VED-NT Custom, Accustom.8

    "to be accustomed," as in the case of No. 1, is used in the Passive participle as a noun, signifying "a custom," Luke 4:16 ; Acts 17:2 (AV, "manner;" RV, "custom") in Matthew 17:15 ; Mark 10:1 , "was wont." See MANNER , WONT.VED-NT Custom, Accustom.9


    1: κόπτω
    (Strong's #2875 — Verb — kopto — kop'-to )
    VED-NT Cut.2

    denotes "to cut by a blow," e.g., branches, Matthew 21:8 ; Mark 11:8 . See BEWAIL , LAMENT , MOURN , WAIL.VED-NT Cut.3

    2: ἀποκόπτω
    (Strong's #609 — Verb — apokopto — ap-ok-op'-to )
    VED-NT Cut.4

    "to cut off, or cut away" (apo, "from," and No. 1), is used (a) literally, of members of the body, Mark 9:43, 45 ; John 18:10, 26 ; of ropes, Acts 27:32 ; (b) metaphorically, in the Middle Voice, of "cutting off oneself," to excommunicate, Galatians 5:12 , of the Judaizing teachers, with a reference, no doubt, to circumcision.VED-NT Cut.5

    3: ἐκκόπτω
    (Strong's #1581 — Verb — ekkopto — ek-kop'-to )
    VED-NT Cut.6

    lit., "to cut or strike out" (ek, "out or off," and No. 1), "to cut or down," is used (a) literally, Matthew 5:30 (in Matthew 3:10 ; Matthew 7:19 ; Luke 3:9 , "hewn down"); Matthew 18:8 ; Luke 13:7, 9 ; (b) metaphorically, of "cutting off" from spiritual blessing, Romans 11:22, 24 ; of depriving persons of an occasion for something, 2 Corinthians 11:12 . See HEW.VED-NT Cut.7

    Note: In 1 Peter 3:7 the best mss. have enkopto, "to hinder;" some have ekkopto.VED-NT Cut.8

    4: κατακόπτω
    (Strong's #2629 — Verb — katakopto — kat-ak-op'-to )
    VED-NT Cut.9

    lit., "to cut down, cut in pieces" (kata, "down," intensive), Mark 5:5 , of the demoniac.VED-NT Cut.10

    5: διαπρίω
    (Strong's #1282 — Verb — diaprio — dee-ap-ree'-o )
    VED-NT Cut.11

    signifies "to saw asunder" (dia, "asunder," prio, "to saw"), "to divide by a saw" (as in 1 Chronicles 20:3 , Sept.), hence, metaphorically, "to be sawn through mentally, to be rent with vexation, to be cut to the heart," is used in Acts 5:33 ; Acts 7:54 .VED-NT Cut.12

    6: διχοτομέω
    (Strong's #1371 — Verb — dichotomeo — dee-khot-om-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Cut.13

    lit., "to cut into two parts" (dicha, "apart," temno, "to cut," tome, "a cutting"), Matthew 24:51 , "to cut asunder," is used in Luke 12:46 . Some take the reference to be to the mode of punishment by which criminals and captives were "cut" in two; others, on account of the fact that in these passages the delinquent is still surviving after the treatment, take the verb to denote "to cut up" by scourging, to scourge severely, the word being used figuratively.VED-NT Cut.14

    As to Matthew 24:51 , it has been remarked that the "cutting asunder" was an appropriate punishment for one who had lived a double life. In both passages the latter part of the sentence applies to retribution beyond this life. In the Sept. the verb is used in Exodus 29:17 of the dividing of the ram as a whole burnt offering at the consecration of the priests. The corresponding noun is found in Genesis 15:11, 17 ; Exodus 29:17 ; Leviticus 1:8 , Ezekiel 24:4 .VED-NT Cut.15

    7: συντέμνω
    (Strong's #4932 — Verb — suntemno — soon-tem'-no )
    VED-NT Cut.16

    lit., "to cut together" (sun, "with," temno, "to cut;" the simple verb temno is not found in the NT), signifies "to contract by cutting, to cut short;" thus, to bring to an end or accomplish speedily; it is said of a prophecy or decree, Romans 9:28 (twice), from the Sept. of Isaiah 10:23 . See SHORT.VED-NT Cut.17

    8: ἀφαιρέω
    (Strong's #851 — Verb — aphaireo — af-ahee-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Cut.18

    "to take away, remove," is translated "cut off" in Mark 14:47 , AV, and Luke 22:50 , and "smote off" in Matthew 26:51 ; RV, "struck off" in each place. See SMITE , TAKE.VED-NT Cut.19


    1: κύμβαλον
    (Strong's #2950 — Noun Neuter — kumbalon — koom'-bal-on )
    VED-NT Cymbal.2

    "a cymbal," was so called from its shape (akin to kumbos, "a hollow basin," kumbe, "a cup"), and was made of bronze, two being struck together, 1 Corinthians 13:1 .VED-NT Cymbal.3

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