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    Altered — Axe


    * For ALTERED see OTHER , No. 2VED-NT Altered.2


    * For ALTHOUGH (preposition, conjunction, or participle not dealt with in this resource)VED-NT Although.2


    A — 1: ὅλος
    (Strong's #3650 — Adjective — holos — hol'-os )
    VED-NT Altogether.2

    "whole," is rendered "altogether" in John 9:34 . It is sometimes subjoined to an adjective or a verb, as in this case, to show that the idea coveyed by the adjective or verb belongs to the whole person or thing referred to. So here, lit., "thou wast altogether (i.e., completely) born in sins." Cp. Matthew 13:33 , RV; Luke 11:36 ; Luke 13:21 ; John 13:10 , RV (rendered "every whit"). See ALL , and EVERY WHIT.VED-NT Altogether.3

    B — 1: πάντως
    (Strong's #3843 — Adverb — pantos — pan'-toce )
    VED-NT Altogether.4

    from pas, "all," is translated in various ways. The rendering "altogether" is found only in 1 Corinthians 5:10 (where the RV margin gives the alternative meaning, "not at all" (meaning the fornicators of this world) and 1 Corinthians 9:10 (marg., "doubtless"). The other renderings are, in Luke 4:23 , "doubtless" (AV, "surely"); in Acts 18:21 , "by all means," (AV, "only"); so in 1 Corinthians 9:22 , both RV and AV; in Acts 21:22 , "certainly" (AV, "needs," which does not give an accurate meaning); in Acts 28:4 , "no doubt;" in Romans 3:9 , "in no wise" (lit., "not at all"), so in 1 Corinthians 16:12 . In Acts 26:29 the AV has given a misleading rendering in the phrase "both almost and altogether;" there is no Greek word here which means "altogether;" the RV corrects to "whether with little or with much." See ALL.VED-NT Altogether.5

    B — 2: ὅλως
    (Strong's #3654 — Adverb — holos — hol'-oce )
    VED-NT Altogether.6

    denotes "altogether or actually, or assuredly." See ACTUALLY , and ALL, B, No. 1.VED-NT Altogether.7

    Alway, Always

    1: ἀεί
    (Strong's #104 — Adverb — aei — ah-eye' )
    VED-NT Alway, Always.2

    has two meanings: (a) "perpetually, incessantly," Acts 7:51 ; 2 Corinthians 4:11 ; 2 Corinthians 6:10 ; Titus 1:12 ; Hebrews 3:10 ; (b) "invariably, at any and every time," of successive occurrences, when some thing is to be repeated, according to the circumstances, 1 Peter 3:15 ; 2 Peter 1:12 . See EVER.VED-NT Alway, Always.3

    VED-NT Alway, Always.4

    2: ἑκάστοτε
    (Strong's #1539 — Adverb — hekastote — hek-as'-tot-eh )
    VED-NT Alway, Always.5

    from hekastos, "each," is used in 2 Peter 1:15 , RV, "at every time" (AV, "always"). See TIME.VED-NT Alway, Always.6

    VED-NT Alway, Always.7

    3: διαπαντός
    (Strong's #1275 — Adverb — diapantos — dee-ap-an-tos' )
    VED-NT Alway, Always.8

    is, lit., "through," pas, i.e., through all time, (dia, "through," pas, "all"). In the best texts the words are separated. The phrase, which is used of the time throughout which a thing is done, is sometimes rendered "continually," sometimes "always;" "always" or "alway" in Mark 5:5 ; Acts 10:2 ; Acts 24:16 ; Romans 11:10 ; "continually" in Luke 24:53 ; Hebrews 9:6 ; Hebrews 13:15 , the idea being that of a continuous practice carried on without being abandoned. See CONTINUALLY.VED-NT Alway, Always.9

    VED-NT Alway, Always.10

    4: πάντῃ VED-NT Alway, Always.11

    are derived from pas, "all." The former is found in Acts 24:3 . The latter is the usual word for "always." See EVER , EVERMORE.VED-NT Alway, Always.12

    Note: Two phrases, rendered "always" or "alway" in the AV, are en panti kairo (lit., "in every season"), Luke 21:36 , RV, "at every season," Ephesians 6:18 , RV, "at all seasons," and pasas tas hemeras, (lit., "all the days"), Matthew 28:20 , AV and RV, "alway."VED-NT Alway, Always.13

    Amaze, Amazement

    A — 1: ἔκστασις
    (Strong's #1611 — Noun Feminine — ekstasis — ek'-stas-is )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.2

    is, lit., "a standing out" (ek, "out of," stasis, "a standing"). Eng. "ecstasy" is a transliteration. It is translated "amazement" in Acts 3:10 . It was said of any displacement, and especially, with reference to the mind, of that alteration of the normal condition by which the person is thrown into a state of surprise or fear, or both; or again, in which a person is so transported out of his natural state that he falls into a trance, Acts 10:10 ; Acts 11:5 ; Acts 22:17 . As to the other meaning, the RV has "amazement" in Mark 5:42 ; Luke 5:26 , but "astonishment" in Mark 16:8 . See TRANCE.VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.3

    A — 2: θάμβος
    (Strong's #2285 — Noun — thambos — tham'-bos )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.4

    "amazement, wonder," is probably connected with a root signifying "to render immovable;" it is frequently associated with terror as well as astonishment, as with the verb (No. 3, below) in Acts 9:6 . It occurs in Luke 4:36 ; Luke 5:9 ; Acts 3:10 . See WONDER.VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.5

    Note: Ptoesis signifies "terror," not "amazement," 1 Peter 3:6 , RV.VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.6

    B — 1: ἐξίστημι
    (Strong's #1839 — Verb — existemi — ex-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.7

    akin to A, No. 1, lit. means "to stand out from." Like the noun, this is used with two distinct meanings: (a) in the sense of amazement, the word should be invariably rendered "amazed," as in the RV, e.g., in the case of Simon Magus (for AV, "bewitched"), Acts 8:9, 11 . It is used, in the Passive Voice, of Simon himself in Acts 8:13 , RV, "he was amazed," for AV, "wondered." "Amaze" is preferable to "astonish" throughout; (b) in Mark 3:21 ; 2 Corinthians 5:13 it is used with its other meaning of being beside oneself. See BESIDE ONESELF (to be), BEWITCH , WONDER.VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.8

    B — 2: ἐκπλήσσω
    (Strong's #1605 — Verb — ekplesso — ek-place'-so )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.9

    from ek, "out of," plesso, "to strike," lit., "to strike out," signifies "to be exceedingly struck in mind, to be astonished" (ek, intensive). The English "astonish" should be used for this verb, and "amaze" for existemi, as in the RV; see Matthew 19:25 ; Luke 2:48 ; Luke 9:43 .VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.10

    B — 3: θαμβέω
    (Strong's #2284 — Verb — thambeo — tham-beh'-o )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.11

    akin to A, No. 2, is used in Mark 1:27 ; Mark 10:24, 32 (and Acts 9:6 , AV). The RV has "amazed" in each place; AV, "astonished," in Mark 10:24 .VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.12

    B — 4: ἐκθαμβέω
    (Strong's #1568 — Verb — ekthambeo — ek-tham-beh'-o )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.13

    an intensive form of No. 3, is found in Mark's Gospel only; in Mark 9:15 , "were greatly amazed;" in Mark 14:33 , AV, "were sore amazed;" in Mark 16:5 , RV, "were amazed," AV, "were affrighted;" in Mark 16:6 , RV, "be not amazed," AV, "be not affrighted." See AFFRIGHTED.VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.14

    C — 1: ἔκθαμβος
    (Strong's #1569 — Adjective — ekthambos — ek'-tham-bos )
    VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.15

    a strengthened form of A, No. 2, is found in Acts 3:11 . The intensive force of the word is brought out by the rendering "greatly wondering". See WONDER.VED-NT Amaze, Amazement.16

    Ambassador, Ambassage

    A — 1: πρεσβεύω
    (Strong's #4243 — Verb — presbeuo — pres-byoo'-o )
    VED-NT Ambassador, Ambassage.2

    denotes (a) "to be elder or eldest, prior in birth or age;" (b) "to be an ambassador," 2 Corinthians 5:20 ; Ephesians 6:20 ; for Philemon 1:9 see under AGED. There is a suggestion that to be an "ambassador" for Christ involves the experience suggested by the word "elder." Elder men were chosen as "ambassadors."VED-NT Ambassador, Ambassage.3

    B — 1: πρεσβεία
    (Strong's #4242 — Noun Feminine — presbeia — pres-bi'-ah )
    VED-NT Ambassador, Ambassage.4

    primarily, "age, eldership, rank," hence, "an embassy or ambassage," is used in Luke 14:32 ; in 19:14, RV, "ambassage," for AV, "message."VED-NT Ambassador, Ambassage.5


    1: ἀμήν
    (Strong's #281 — N/A — amen — am-ane' )
    VED-NT Amen.2

    is transliterated from Hebrew into both Greek and English. "Its meanings may be seen in such passages as Deuteronomy 7:9 , 'the faithful (the Amen) God,' Isaiah 49:7 , 'Jehovah that is faithful.' Isaiah 65:16 , 'the God of truth,' marg., 'the God of Amen.' And if God is faithful His testimonies and precepts are 'sure (amen),' Psalms 19:7 ; Psalms 111:7 , as are also His warnings, Hosea 5:9 , and promises, Isaiah 33:16 ; Isaiah 55:3 . 'Amen' is used of men also, e.g., Proverbs 25:13 .VED-NT Amen.3

    "There are cases where the people used it to express their assent to a law and their willingness to submit to the penalty attached to the breach of it, Deuteronomy 27:15 , cp. Nehemiah 5:13 . It is also used to express acquiescence in another's prayer, 1 Kings 1:36 , where it is defined as "(let) God say so too," or in another's thanksgiving, 1 Chronicles 16:36 , whether by an individual, Jeremiah 11:5 , or by the congregation, Psalms 106:48 .VED-NT Amen.4

    "Thus 'Amen' said by God 'it is and shall be so,' and by men, 'so let it be.'"VED-NT Amen.5

    "Once in the NT 'Amen' is a title of Christ, Revelation 3:14 , because through Him the purposes of God are established, 2 Corinthians 1:20 VED-NT Amen.6

    "The early Christian churches followed the example of Isreal in associating themselves audibly with the prayers and thanksgivings offered on their behalf, 1 Corinthians 14:16 , where the article 'the' points to a common practice. Moreover this custom conforms to the pattern of things in the Heavens, see Revelation 5:14 , etc.VED-NT Amen.7

    "The individual also said 'Amen' to express his 'let it be so' in response to the Divine 'thus it shall be,' Revelation 22:20 . Frequently the speaker adds 'Amen' to his own prayers and doxologies, as is the case at Ephesians 3:21 , e.g.VED-NT Amen.8

    "The Lord Jesus often used 'Amen,' translated 'verily,' to introduce new revelations of the mind of God. In John's Gospel it is always repeated, 'Amen, Amen,' but not elsewhere. Luke does not use it at all, but where Matthew, Matthew 16:28 , and Mark, Mark 9:1 , have 'Amen,' Luke has 'of a truth;' thus by varying the translation of what the Lord said, Luke throws light on His meaning."* [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 26,27.] See VERILY.VED-NT Amen.9


    1: ἔχω κομψότερον
    (Strong's #2192, #2866 — Verb — echo kompsoteron — ekh'-o komp-sot'-er-on )
    VED-NT Amend.2

    lit., "to have more finely," i.e., "to be better," is used in John 4:52 , "to ammend." The latter word in the phrase is the comparative of kompsos, "elegant, nice, fine." Cp. Eng., "he's doing nicely."VED-NT Amend.3

    VED-NT Amend.4


    1: ἀμέθυστος
    (Strong's #271 — Noun Feminine — amethustos — am-eth'-oos_tos )
    VED-NT Amethyst.2

    primarily meaning "not drunken" (a, negative, and methu, "wine"), became used as a noun, being regarded as possessing a remedial virtue against drunkenness. Pliny, however, says that the reason for its name lay in the fact that in color it nearly approached that of wine, but did not actually do so, Revelation 21:20 .VED-NT Amethyst.3


    * For AMIDST see MIDSTVED-NT Amidst.2


    A — 1: ἄτοπος
    (Strong's #824 — Adjective — atopos — at'-op-os )
    VED-NT Amiss.2

    lit., "out of place" (a, negative, topos, "a place"), denotes unbecoming, not befitting. It is used four times in the NT, and is rendered "amiss" three times in the RV; in the malefactor's testimony of Christ, Luke 23:41 ; in Festus' words concerning Paul, Acts 25:5 , "if there is anything amiss in the man" (AV, "wickedness"); in Acts 28:6 , of the expected effect of the viper's attack upon Paul (AV, "harm"); in 2 Thessalonians 3:2 , of men capable of outrageous conduct, "unreasonable." See HARM , UNREASONABLE.VED-NT Amiss.3

    B — 1: κακῶς
    (Strong's #2560 — Adverb — kakos — kak-oce' )
    VED-NT Amiss.4

    akin to kakos, "evil," is translated "amiss" in James 4:3 ; elsewhere in various ways. See EVIL , GRIEVOUS , MISERABLE , SORE.VED-NT Amiss.5


    * For AMONG (preposition, conjunction, or participle not dealt with in this resource)VED-NT Among.2


    * For ANATHEMA see under CURSEVED-NT Anathema.2


    1: ἄγκυρα
    (Strong's #45 — Noun Feminine — ankura — ang'-koo-rah )
    VED-NT Anchor.2

    Eng., "anchor," was so called because of its curved form (ankos, "a curve"), Acts 27:29, 30, 40 ; Hebrews 6:19 . In Acts 27:13 the verb airo, "to lift," signifies "to lift anchor" (the noun being understood), RV, "they weighed anchor" (AV, "loosing thence").VED-NT Anchor.3


    1: ἄνωθεν
    (Strong's #509 — Adverb — anothen — an'-o-then )
    VED-NT Anew.2

    lit., "from above," in the phrase rendered "anew" in the RV (AV, "again") of John 3:3, 7 . See AGAIN.VED-NT Anew.3

    Note: In Philippians 3:21 "fashion anew" translates the verb metaschematizo, which signifies "to change the form of".VED-NT Anew.4


    1: ἄγγελος
    (Strong's #32 — Noun Masculine — angelos — ang'-el-os )
    VED-NT Angel.2

    "a messenger" (from angello, "to deliver a message"), sent whether by God or by man or by Satan, "is also used of a guardian or representative in Revelation 1:20 , cp. Matthew 18:10 ; Acts 12:15 (where it is better understood as = 'ghost'), superior to man, Hebrews 2:7 ; Psalms 8:5 , belonging to Heaven, Matthew 24:36 ; Mark 12:25 , and to God, Luke 12:8 , and engaged in His service, Psalms 103:20 . "Angels" are spirits, Hebrews 1:14 , i.e., they have not material bodies as men have; they are either human in form, or can assume the human form when necessary, cp. Luke 24:4 , with Luke 24:23 , Acts 10:3 with Acts 10:30 .VED-NT Angel.3

    "They are called 'holy' in Mark 8:38 , and 'elect,' 1 Timothy 5:21 , in contrast with some of their original number, Matthew 25:41 , who 'sinned,' 2 Peter 2:4 , 'left their proper habitation,' Jude 1:6 , oiketerion, a word which occurs again, in the NT, only in 2 Corinthians 5:2 . Angels are always spoken of in the masculine gender, the feminine form of the word does not occur."* [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 229.]VED-NT Angel.4

    Note: Isangelos, "equal to the angels," occurs in Luke 20:36 .VED-NT Angel.5

    Anger, Angry

    A — 1: ὀργή
    (Strong's #3709 — Noun Feminine — orge — or-gay' )
    VED-NT Anger, Angry.2

    originally any "natural impulse, or desire, or disposition," came to signify "anger," as the strongest of all passions. It is used of the wrath of man, Ephesians 4:31 ; Colossians 3:8 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ; James 1:19, 20 ; the displeasure of human governments, Romans 13:4, 5 ; the sufferings of the Jews at the hands of the Gentiles, Luke 21:23 ; the terrors of the Law, Romans 4:15 ; "the anger" of the Lord Jesus, Mark 3:5 ; God's "anger" with Israel in the wilderness, in a quotation from the OT, Hebrews 3:11 ; Hebrews 4:3 ; God's present "anger" with the Jews nationally, Romans 9:22 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:16 ; His present "anger" with those who disobey the Lord Jesus in His Gospel, John 3:36 ; God's purposes in judgment, Matthew 3:7 ; Luke 3:7 ; Romans 1:18 ; Romans 2:5, 8 ; Romans 3:5 ; Romans 5:9 ; Romans 12:19 ; Ephesians 2:3 ; Ephesians 5:6 ; Colossians 3:6 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:9 . See INDIGNATION , VENGEANCE , WRATH.VED-NT Anger, Angry.3

    Notes: (1) Thumos, "wrath" (not translated "anger"), is to be distinguished from orge, in this respect, that thumos indicates a more agitated condition of the feelings, an outburst of wrath from inward indignation, while orge suggests a more settled or abiding condition of mind, frequently with a view to taking revenge. Orge is less sudden in its rise than thumos, but more lasting in its nature. Thumos expresses more the inward feeling, orge the more active emotion. Thumos may issue in revenge, though it does not necessarily include it. It is characteristic that it quickly blazes up and quickly subsides, though that is not necessarily implied in each case.VED-NT Anger, Angry.4

    (2) Parorgismos, a strengthened form of orge, and used in Ephesians 4:26 , RV margin, "provocation," points especially to that which provokes the wrath, and suggests a less continued state than No. (1). "The first keenness of the sense of provocation must not be cherished, though righteous resentment may remain" (Westcott). The preceding verb, orgizo, in this verse implies a just occasion for the feeling. This is confirmed by the fact that it is a quotation from Psalms 4:4 (Sept.), where the Hebrew word signifies to quiver with strong emotion.VED-NT Anger, Angry.5

    Thumos is found eighteen times in the NT, ten of which are in the Apocalypse, in seven of which the reference is to the wrath of God; so in Romans 2:8 , RV, "wrath (thumos) and indignation" (orge); the order in the AV is inaccurate. Everywhere else the word thumos is used in a bad sense. In Galatians 5:20 , it follows the word "jealousies," which when smoldering in the heart break out in wrath. Thumos and orge are coupled in two places in the Apocalypse, Revelation 16:19 , "the fierceness (thumos) of His wrath" (orge); and Revelation 19:15 , "the fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God." See WROTH (be).VED-NT Anger, Angry.6

    (3) Aganaktesis originally signified "physical pain or irritation" (probably from agan, "very much," and achomai, "to grieve"), hence. "annoyance, vexation," and is used in 2 Corinthians 7:11 , "indignation."VED-NT Anger, Angry.7

    B — 1: ὀργίζω
    (Strong's #3710 — Verb — orgizo — or-gid'-zo )
    VED-NT Anger, Angry.8

    "to provoke, to arouse to anger," is used in the Middle Voice in the eight places where it is found, and signifies "to be angry, wroth." It is said of individuals, in Matthew 5:22 ; Matthew 18:34 ; Matthew 22:7 ; Luke 14:21 ; Luke 15:28 , and Ephesians 4:26 (where a possible meaning is "be ye angry with yourselves"); of nations, Revelation 11:18 ; of Satan as the Dragon, Revelation 12:17 . See WRATH.VED-NT Anger, Angry.9

    B — 2: παροργίζω
    (Strong's #3949 — Verb — parorgizo — par-org-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Anger, Angry.10

    is "to arouse to wrath, provoke" (para, used intensively, and No. 1); Romans 10:19 , "will I anger;" Ephesians 6:4 , "provoke to wrath." See PROVOKE.VED-NT Anger, Angry.11

    B — 3: χολάω
    (Strong's #5520 — Verb — cholao — khol-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Anger, Angry.12

    connected with chole, "gall, bile," which became used metaphorically to signify bitter anger, means "to be enraged," John 7:23 , "wroth," RV, in the Lord's remonstrance with the Jews on account of their indignation at His having made a man whole on the Sabbath Day.VED-NT Anger, Angry.13

    Notes: (1) Thumomacheo (from thumos, "wrath," machomai, "to fight") originally denoted to fight with great animosity, and hence came to mean "to be very angry, to be exasperated," Acts 12:20 , of the anger of Herod, "was highly displeased."VED-NT Anger, Angry.14

    (2) Thumoo, the corresponding verb, signifies "to provoke to anger," but in the Passive Voice "to be wroth," as in Matthew 2:16 , of the wrath of Herod, "was exceeding wroth."VED-NT Anger, Angry.15

    (3) Aganakteo, see A, Note (3), is rendered in various ways in the seven places where it is used; "moved with indignation," Matthew 20:24 ; Matthew 21:15 , RV (AV, "sore displeased"); "had indignation," Matthew 26:8 ; Mark 14:4 . In Mark 10:14 the RV has "was moved with indignation" (AV, "was much displeased"), said of the Lord Jesus. The same renderings are given in Mark 10:41 . In Luke 13:14 (AV, "with indignation"), the RV rightly puts "being moved with indignation." These words more particularly point to the cause of the vexation. See DISPLEASE, INDIGNATION.VED-NT Anger, Angry.16

    (4) In Colossians 3:21 , erethizo signifies "to provoke." The RV correctly omits "to anger."VED-NT Anger, Angry.17

    C — 1: ὀργίλος
    (Strong's #3711 — Adjective — orgilos — org-ee'-los )
    VED-NT Anger, Angry.18

    "angry, prone to anger, irascible" (see B, Nos. 1,2), is rendered "soon angry" in Titus 1:7 .VED-NT Anger, Angry.19


    A — 1: θλῖψις
    (Strong's #2347 — Noun Feminine — thlipsis — thlip'-sis )
    VED-NT Anguish.2

    see AFFLICTION (No. 4).VED-NT Anguish.3

    A — 2: στενοχωρία
    (Strong's #4730 — Noun Feminine — stenochoria — sten-okh-o-ree'-ah )
    VED-NT Anguish.4

    lit., "narrowness of place" (stenos, "narrow," chora, "a place"), metaphorically came to mean the "distress arising from that condition, anguish." It is used in the plural, of various forms of distress, 2 Corinthians 6:4 ; 2 Corinthians 12:10 , and of "anguish" or distress in general, Romans 2:9 ; Romans 8:35 , RV, "anguish" for AV, "distress." The opposite state, of being in a large place, and so metaphorically in a state of joy, is represented by the word platusmos in certian Psalms as, e.g., Psalms 118:5 ; see also 2 Samuel 22:20 . See DISTRESS.VED-NT Anguish.5

    A — 3: συνοχή
    (Strong's #4928 — Noun Feminine — sunoche — soon-okh'-ay )
    VED-NT Anguish.6

    lit., "a holding together, or compressing" (sun, "together," echo, "to hold"), was used of the narrowing of a way. It is found only in its metaphorical sense, of "straits, distress, anguish," Luke 21:25 , "distress of nations," and 2 Corinthians 2:4 , "anguish of heart." See DISTRESS.VED-NT Anguish.7

    Note: Ananke is associated with thlipsis, and signifies a condition of necessity arising from some form of compulsion. It is therefore used not only of necessity but of distress, Luke 21:23 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:7 , and in the plural in 2 Corinthians 6:4 ; 2 Corinthians 12:10 .VED-NT Anguish.8

    B — 1: στενοχωρέω
    (Strong's #4729 — Verb — stenochoreo — sten-okh-o-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Anguish.9

    akin to A, No. 2, lit., "to crowd into a narrow space," or, in the Passive Voice "to be pressed for room," hence, metaphorically, "to be straitened," 2 Corinthians 4:8 ; 2 Corinthians 6:12 (twice), is found in its literal sense in two places in the Sept., in Joshua 17:15 ; Isaiah 49:19 , and in two places in its metaphorical sense, in Judges 16:16 , where Delilah is said to have pressed Samson sore with her words continually, and to have "straitened him," and in Isaiah 28:20 . See DISTRESS , STRAITENED.VED-NT Anguish.10

    B — 2: συνέχω
    (Strong's #4912 — Verb — sunecho — soon-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Anguish.11

    akin to A, No. 3, lit., "to hold together," is used physically of being held, or thronged, Luke 8:45 ; Luke 19:43 ; Luke 22:63 ; of being taken with a malady, Matthew 4:24 ; Luke 4:38 ; Acts 28:8 ; with fear, Luke 8:37 ; of being straitened or pressed in spirit, with desire, Luke 12:50 ; Acts 18:5 ; Philippians 1:23 ; with the love of Christ, 2 Corinthians 5:14 . In one place it is used of the stopping of their ears by those who killed Stephen. See CONSTRAIN , HOLD , KEEP , PRESS , SICK (lie), STOP , STRAIT (be in a), STRAITENED , TAKE , THRONG.VED-NT Anguish.12

    B — 3: ὀδυνάω
    (Strong's #3600 — Verb — odunao — od-oo-nah'-o )
    VED-NT Anguish.13

    in the Middle and Passive Voices, signifies "to suffer pain, be in anguish, be greatly distressed" (akin to odune, "pain, distress"); it is rendered "sorrowing" in Luke 2:48 ; in Luke 16:24, 25 , RV, "in anguish," for AV, "tormented;" in Acts 20:38 , "sorrowing." See SORROW , TORMENT.VED-NT Anguish.14


    * For ANIMALS (2 Peter 2:12 , RV), see NATURAL.VED-NT Animals.2


    1: ἄνηθον
    (Strong's #432 — Noun Neuter — anethon — an'-ay-thon )
    VED-NT Anise.2

    "dill, anise," was used for food and for pickling, Matthew 23:23 .VED-NT Anise.3


    1: σφυρόν
    (Strong's #4974 — Noun Neuter — sphuron — sfoo-ron' )
    VED-NT Ankle-Bones.2

    or sphudron, denotes the "ankle, or ankle-bone" (from sphura, "a hammer," owing to a resemblance in the shape), Acts 3:7 .VED-NT Ankle-Bones.3


    1: ἀναγγέλλω
    (Strong's #312 — Verb — anagello — an-ang-el'-lo )
    VED-NT Announce.2

    "to declare, announce" (ana, "up," angello, "to report"), is used especially of heavenly messages, and is translated "announced" in the RV of 1 Peter 1:12 , for AV, "reported," and in 1 John 1:5 , RV, "announce," for AV, "declare." See DECLARE , REHEARSE , REPORT , SHOW , SPEAK , TELL.VED-NT Announce.3

    Anoint, Anointing

    A — 1: ἀλείφω
    (Strong's #218 — Verb — aleipho — al-i'-fo )
    VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.2

    is a general term used for "an anointing" of any kind, whether of physical refreshment after washing, e.g., in the Sept. of Ruth 3:3 ; 2 Samuel 12:20 ; Daniel 10:3 ; Micah 6:15 ; in the NT, Matthew 6:17 ; Luke 7:38, 46 ; John 11:2 ; John 12:3 ; or of the sick, Mark 6:13 ; James 5:14 ; or a dead body, Mark 16:1 . The material used was either oil, or ointment, as in Luke 7:38, 46 . In the Sept. it is also used of "anointing" a pillar, Genesis 31:13 , or captives, 2 Chronicles 28:15 , or of daubing a wall with mortar, Ezekiel 13:10-12, 14, 15 ; and, in the sacred sense, of "anointing" priests, in Exodus 40:15 (twice), and Numbers 3:3 .VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.3

    A — 2: χρίω
    (Strong's #5548 — Verb — chrio — khree'-o )
    VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.4

    is more limited in its use than No. 1; it is confined to "sacred and symbolical anointings;" of Christ as the "Anointed" of God, Luke 4:18 ; Acts 4:27 ; Acts 10:38 , and Hebrews 1:9 , where it is used metaphorically in connection with "the oil of gladness." The title Christ signifies "The Anointed One," The word (Christos) is rendered "(His) Anointed" in Acts 4:26 , RV. Once it is said of believers, 2 Corinthians 1:21 . Chrio is very frequent in the Sept., and is used of kings, 1 Samuel 10:1 , and priests, Exodus 28:41 , and prophets, 1 Kings 19:16 . Among the Greeks it was used in other senses than the ceremonial, but in the Scriptures it is not found in connection with secular matters.VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.5

    Note: The distinction referred to by Trench (Syn. xxxviii), that aleipho is the mundane and profane, chrio, the sacred and religious word, is not borne out by evidence. In a papyrus document chrisis is used of "a lotion for a sick horse" (Moulton and Milligan, Vocab. of Greek Test).VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.6

    A — 3: ἐγχρίω
    (Strong's #1472 — Verb — enchrio — eng-khree'-o )
    VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.7

    primarily, "to rub in," hence, "to besmear, to anoint," is used metaphorically in the command to the church in Laodicea to "anoint" their eyes with eyesalve, Revelation 3:18 . In the Sept., Jeremiah 4:30 , it is used of the "anointing" of the eyes with a view to beautifying them.VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.8

    A — 4: ἐπιχρίω
    (Strong's #2025 — Verb — epichrio — ep-ee-khree'-o )
    VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.9

    primarily, "to rub on" (epi, "upon"), is used of the blind man whose eyes Christ "anointed," and indicates the manner in which the "anointing" was done, John 9:6, 11 .VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.10

    A — 5: μυρίζω
    (Strong's #3462 — Verb — murizo — moo-rid'-zo )
    VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.11

    is used of "anointing" the body for burial, in Mark 14:8 .VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.12

    B — 1: χρῖσμα
    (Strong's #5545 — Noun Neuter — chrisma — khris'-mah )
    VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.13

    the corresponding noun to No. 2, above, signifies "an unguent, or an anointing." It was prepared from oil and aromatic herbs. It is used only metaphorically in the NT; by metonymy, of the Holy Spirit, 1 John 2:20, 27 , twice. The RV translates it "anointing" in all three places, instead of the AV "unction" and "anointing."VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.14

    That believers have "an anointing from the Holy One" indicates that this anointing renders them holy, separating them to God. The passage teaches that the gift of the Holy Spirit is the all-efficient means of enabling believers to possess a knowledge of the truth. In the Sept., it is used of the oil for "anointing" the high priest, e.g., Exodus 29:7 , lit., "Thou shalt take of the oil of the anointing." In Exodus 30:25 , etc., it is spoken of as "a holy anointing oil." In Daniel 9:26 chrisma stands for the "anointed" one, "Christ," the noun standing by metonymy for the person Himself, as for the Holy Spirit in 1 John 2 . See UNCTION.VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.15

    Notes: (1) Aleimma, akin to A, No. 1 (not in the NT), occurs three times in the Sept., Exodus 30:31 , of the "anointing" of the priests; Isaiah 61:3 , metaphorically, of the oil of joy; Daniel 10:3 , of physical refreshment.VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.16

    (2) Muron, a word akin to A, No. 5, denotes "ointment." The distinction between this and elaion, "oil," is observable in Christ's reproof of the Pharisee who, while desiring Him to eat with him, failed in the ordinary marks of courtesy; "My head with oil (elaion) thou didst not anoint, but she hath anointed My feet with ointment" (muron), Luke 7:46 .VED-NT Anoint, Anointing.17


    * Note: This is the AV rendering of euthus, in Matthew 13:20 ; Mark 1:30 , RV, "straightway."VED-NT Anon.2


    1: ἄλλος ἕτερος
    (Strong's #243, #2087 — Adjective — allos heteros — al'-los het'-er-os )
    VED-NT Another.2

    have a difference in meaning, which despite a tendency to be lost, is to be observed in numerous passages. Allos expresses a numerical difference and denotes "another of the same sort;" heteros expresses a qualitative difference and denotes "another of a different sort." Christ promised to send "another Comforter" (allos, "another like Himself," not heteros), John 14:16 . Paul says "I see a different (AV, "another") law," heteros, a law different from that of the spirit of life (not allos, "a law of the same sort"), Romans 7:23 . After Joseph's death "another king arose," heteros, one of quite a different character, Acts 7:18 . Paul speaks of "a different gospel (heteros), which is not another" (allos, another like the one he preached), Galatians 1:6, 7 . See heteros (not allos) in Matthew 11:3 ; Acts 27:1 ; in Luke 23:32 heteroi is used of the two malefactors crucified with Christ. The two words are only apparently interchanged in 1 Corinthians 1:16 ; 1 Corinthians 6:1 ; 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 ; 1 Corinthians 14:17, 19 , e.g., the difference being present, though not so readily discernible.VED-NT Another.3

    They are not interchangeable in 1 Corinthians 15:39-41 ; here heteros is used to distinguish the heavenly glory from the earthly, for these differ in genus, and allos to distinguish the flesh of men, birds, and fishes, which in each case is flesh differing not in genus but in species. Allos is used again to distinguish between the glories of the heavenly bodies, for these also differ not in kind but in degree only. For allos, see MORE , OTHER , etc. For heteros, see OTHER , STRANGE.VED-NT Another.4

    Note: The distinction comes out in the compounds of heteros, viz., heteroglossos, "strange tongues," 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; heterodidaskaleo, "to teach a different doctrine," 1 Timothy 1:3 ; 1 Timothy 6:3 ; heterozugo, "to be unequally yoked" (i.e., with those of a different character), 2 Corinthians 6:14 .VED-NT Another.5


    A — 1: ἀπόκρισις
    (Strong's #612 — Noun Feminine — apokrisis — ap-ok'-ree-sis )
    VED-NT Answer.2

    lit., "a separation or distinction," is the regular word for "answer," Luke 2:47 ; Luke 20:26 ; John 1:22 ; John 19:9 .VED-NT Answer.3

    A — 2: ἀπόκριμα
    (Strong's #610 — Noun Neuter — apokrima — ap-ok'-ree-mah )
    VED-NT Answer.4

    akin to No. 1, denotes a judicial "sentence," 2 Corinthians 1:9 , AV, and RV, margin, or an "answer" (RV, text), an answer of God to the Apostle's appeal, giving him strong confidence. In an ancient inscription it is used of an official decision. In a papyrus document it is used of a reply to a deputation. See SENTENCE.VED-NT Answer.5

    A — 3: χρηματισμός
    (Strong's #5538 — Noun Masculine — chrematismos — khray-mat-is-mos' )
    VED-NT Answer.6

    "a Divine response, an oracle," is used in Romans 11:4 , of the answer given by God to Elijah's complaint against Israel. See the verb under CALL.VED-NT Answer.7

    A — 4: ἀπολογία
    (Strong's #627 — Noun Feminine — apologia — ap-ol-og-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Answer.8

    a "verbal defense, a speech in defense," is sometimes translated "answer," in the AV, Acts 25:16 ; 1 Corinthians 9:3 ; 2 Timothy 4:16 , all which the RV corrects to "defense." See Acts 22:1 ; Philippians 1:7, 16 ; 2 Corinthians 7:11 , "clearing." Once it signifies an "answer," 1 Peter 3:15 . Cp. B, No. 4. See CLEARING , DEFENSE.VED-NT Answer.9

    Note: Eperotema, 1 Peter 3:21 , is not, as in the AV, an "answer." It was used by the Greeks in a legal sense, as a "demand or appeal." Baptism is therefore the ground of an "appeal" by a good conscience against wrong doing.VED-NT Answer.10

    B — 1: ἀποκρίνομαι
    (Strong's #611 — Verb — apokrinomai — ap-ok-ree'-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Answer.11

    akin to A, No. 1, above, signifies either "to give an answer to a question" (its more frequent use) or "to begin to speak," but always where something has preceded, either statement or act to which the remarks refer, e.g., Matthew 11:25 ; Luke 14:3 ; John 2:18 . The RV translates by "answered," e.g., Matthew 28:5 ; Mark 12:35 ; Luke 3:16 , where some have suggested "began to say" or "uttered solemnly," whereas the speaker is replying to the unuttered thought or feeling of those addressed by him.VED-NT Answer.12

    B — 2: ἀνταποκρίνομαι
    (Strong's #470 — Verb — antapokrinomai — an-tap-ok-ree'-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Answer.13

    anti, "against," and No. 1, a strengthened form, "to answer by contradiction, to reply against," is found in Luke 14:6 ; Romans 9:20 .VED-NT Answer.14

    B — 3: ὑπολαμβάνω
    (Strong's #5274 — Verb — hupolambano — hoop-ol-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Answer.15

    signifies (a) "to take or bear up from beneath," Acts 1:9 ; (b) "to receive," 3 John 1:8 ; (c) "to suppose," Luke 7:43 ; Acts 2:15 ; (d) "to catch up (in speech), to answer," Luke 10:30 ; in sense (d) it indicates that a person follows what another has said, either by controverting or supplementing it. See RECEIVE , SUPPOSE.VED-NT Answer.16

    B — 4: ἀπολογέομαι
    (Strong's #626 — Verb — apologeomai — ap-ol-og-eh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Answer.17

    cp. A, No. 4, lit., "to talk oneself off from" (apo, "from," lego, "to speak"), "to answer by way of making a defense for oneself" (besides its meaning "to excuse," Romans 2:15 ; 2 Corinthians 12:19 ), is translated "answer" in Luke 12:11 ; Luke 21:14 ; in Acts 19:33 , AV and RV both have "made defense;" in Acts 24:10 ; Acts 25:8 ; Acts 26:1, 2 , the RV has the verb to make a defense, for the AV, "to answer," and in 26:24 for the AV, "spake for himself." See DEFENSE, EXCUSE , SPEAK.VED-NT Answer.18

    B — 5: ἀντιλέγω
    (Strong's #483 — Verb — antilego — an-til'-eg-o )
    VED-NT Answer.19

    "to speak against," is rendered "answering again" in the AV of Titus 2:9 (RV, "gainsaying"). See CONTRADICT , DENY , GAINSAY , SPEAK.VED-NT Answer.20

    B — 6: συστοιχέω
    (Strong's #4960 — Verb — sustoicheo — soos-toy-kheh'-o )
    VED-NT Answer.21

    lit., "to be in the same line or row with" (sun, "with," stoichos, "a row"), is translated "answereth to" in Galatians 4:25 .VED-NT Answer.22

    Note: Cp. stoicheo, "to walk" (in line), Galatians 5:25 ; Galatians 6:16 . For hupakouo, rendered to answer in Acts 12:13 , RV, see HEARKEN , No. 1, Note.VED-NT Answer.23


    1: ἀντίχριστος
    (Strong's #500 — Noun Masculine — antichristos — an-tee'-khris-tos )
    VED-NT Antichrist.2

    can mean either "against Christ" or "instead of Christ," or perhaps, combining the two, "one who, assuming the guise of Christ, opposes Christ" (Westcott). The word is found only in John's epistles, (a) of the many "antichrists" who are forerunners of the "Antichrists" himself, 1 John 2:18, 22 ; 2 John 1:7 ; (b) of the evil power which already operates anticipatively of the "Antichrist," 1 John 4:3 .VED-NT Antichrist.3

    What the Apostle says of him so closely resembles what he says of the first beast in Revelation 13 , and what the Apostle Paul says of the Man of Sin in 2 Thessalonians 2 , that the same person seems to be in view in all these passages, rather than the second beast in Revelation 13 , the false prophet; for the latter supports the former in all his Antichristian assumptions.VED-NT Antichrist.4

    Note: The term pseudochristos, "a false Christ," is to be distinguished from the above; it is found in Matthew 24:24 ; Mark 13:22 . The false Christ does not deny the existence of Christ, he trades upon the expectation of His appearance, affirming that he is the Christ. The Antichrist denies the existence of the true God (Trench, Syn. XXX).VED-NT Antichrist.5

    Anxiety and Anxious

    * For ANXIETY and ANXIOUS see CARE , A, No. 1, B, No. 1VED-NT Anxiety and Anxious.2


    * For ANY (preposition, conjunction, or participle not dealt with in this resource)VED-NT Any.2


    *Note: See the RV of Mark 15:5 ; John 16:23 ; 1 Timothy 6:7 ; in Luke 24:41 , the RV suitably has "anything to eat," for AV, "any meat."VED-NT Anything.2


    1: χωρίς
    (Strong's #5565 — Adverb — choris — kho-rece' )
    VED-NT Apart.2

    is used both as an adverb and as a preposition. As an adverb it signifies "separately, by itself," John 20:7 , of the napkin which had been around the Lord's head in the tomb; as a preposition (its more frequent use), "apart from, without, separate from." It is rendered "apart from" in the RV of John 15:5 ; Romans 3:21, 28 ; Romans 4:6 ; 2 Corinthians 12:3 ; Hebrews 9:22, 28 ; Hebrews 11:40 ; James 2:18, 20, 26 . See BESIDE , WITHOUT.VED-NT Apart.3

    Note: The opposite of choris is sun, "with." A synonymous preposition, aneu, denotes "without," Matthew 10:29 ; 1 Peter 3:1 ; 1 Peter 4:9 .VED-NT Apart.4

    VED-NT Apart.5

    2: κατά ἴδιος
    (Strong's #2596, #2398 — Preposition — kat' idios — kat-ah' id'-ee-os )
    VED-NT Apart.6

    lit., "according to one's own," i.e., privately, alone, is translated "apart" in Matthew 14:13, 23 ; Matthew 17:1, 19 ; Matthew 20:17 ; Mark 6:31, 32 (AV, "privately"); Mark 9:2 .VED-NT Apart.7

    VED-NT Apart.8

    3: καταμόνας
    (Strong's #2651 — Adjective — kata monas — kat-am-on'-as )
    VED-NT Apart.9

    see ALONE.VED-NT Apart.10


    1: ἀνά
    (Strong's #303 — Preposition — ana — an-ah' )
    VED-NT Apiece.2

    used with numerals or measures of quantity with a distributive force, is translated "apiece" in Luke 9:3 , "two coats apiece," AV; in John 2:6 , "two or three firkins apiece." In Matthew 20:9, 10 , "every man a penny," is a free rendering for "a penny apiece;" in Luke 9:14 , the RV adds "each" to translate the ana; in Luke 10:1 , ana duo is "two by two." See Revelation 4:8 , "each." See EACH , EVERY.VED-NT Apiece.3

    Apostle, Apostleship

    1: ἀπόστολος
    (Strong's #652 — Noun Masculine — apostolos — ap-os'-tol-os )
    VED-NT Apostle, Apostleship.2

    is, lit., "one sent forth" (apo, "from," stello, "to send"). "The word is used of the Lord Jesus to describe His relation to God, Hebrews 3:1 ; see John 17:3 . The twelve disciples chosen by the Lord for special training were so called, Luke 6:13 ; Luke 9:10 . Paul, though he had seen the Lord Jesus, 1 Corinthians 9:1 ; 1 Corinthians 15:8 , had not 'companied with' the Twelve 'all the time' of His earthly ministry, and hence was not eligible for a place among them, according to Peter's description of the necessary qualifications, Acts 1:22 . Paul was commissioned directly, by the Lord Himself, after His Ascension, to carry the Gospel to the Gentiles.VED-NT Apostle, Apostleship.3

    "The word has also a wider reference. In Acts 14:4, 14 , it is used of Barnabas as well as of Paul; in Romans 16:7 of Andronicus and Junias. In 2 Corinthians 8:23 (RV, margin) two unnamed brethren are called 'apostles of the churches;' in Philippians 2:25 (RV, margin) Epaphroditus is referred to as 'your apostle.' It is used in 1 Thessalonians 2:6 of Paul, Silas and Timothy, to define their relation to Christ." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 59-60.]VED-NT Apostle, Apostleship.4

    2: ἀποστολή
    (Strong's #651 — Noun Feminine — apostole — ap-os-tol-ay' )
    VED-NT Apostle, Apostleship.5

    "a sending, a mission," signifies an apostleship, Acts 1:25 ; Romans 1:5 ; 1 Corinthians 9:2 ; Galatians 2:8 .VED-NT Apostle, Apostleship.6

    Note: Pseudapostoloi, "false apostles," occurs in 2 Corinthians 11:13 .VED-NT Apostle, Apostleship.7

    Apparel, Apparelled

    1: ἐσθής ἔσθησις
    (Strong's #2066, #2067 — Noun Feminine — esthes esthesis — es-thace' es'-thay-sis )
    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.2

    connected with hennumi, "to clothe" means "clothing, raiment," usually suggesting the ornate, the goodly. The former is found in Luke 23:11 , RV, "apparel" (AV, "robe"); 24:4 (AV, "garments"); Acts 10:30 (AV, "clothing"); 12:21; James 2:2 (RV, "clothing," twice; AV, "apparel" and "raiment"); James 2:3 ("clothing"). Esthesis is used in Acts 1:10 , "apparel." See CLOTHING.VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.3

    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.4

    2: ἱμάτιον
    (Strong's #2440 — Noun Neuter — himation — him-at'-ee-on )
    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.5

    a diminutive of heima, "a robe," was used especially of an outer cloak or mantle, and in general of raiment, "apparel" in 1 Peter 3:3 . The word is not in the original in the next verse, but is supplied in English to complete the sentence. See CLOTHING No. 2, GARMENT, RAIMENT, ROBE.VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.6

    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.7

    3: ἱματισμός
    (Strong's #2441 — Noun Masculine — himatismos — him-at-is-mos' )
    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.8

    a collective word, is translated "apparelled" in Luke 7:25 , and preceded by en, "in," lit., "in apparel." See CLOTHING , No. 4, RAIMENT, VESTURE.VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.9

    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.10

    4: καταστολή
    (Strong's #2689 — Noun Feminine — katastole — kat-as-tol-ay' )
    VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.11

    connected with katastello, "to send or let down, to lower" (kata, "down," stello, "to send"), was primarily a garment let down; hence, "dress, attire," in general (cp. stole, a loose outer garment worn by kings and persons of rank, Eng., "stole"); 1 Timothy 2:9 , "apparel." See CLOTHING.VED-NT Apparel, Apparelled.12


    1: φάντασμα
    (Strong's #5326 — Noun Neuter — phantasma — fan'-tas-mah )
    VED-NT Apparition.2

    "a phantasm or phantom" (from phaino, "to appear"), is translated "apparition" in the RV of Matthew 14:26 ; Mark 6:49 (AV, "spirit"). In the Sept., Job 20:8 ; Isaiah 28:7 .VED-NT Apparition.3


    1: ἐπικαλέω
    (Strong's #1941 — Verb — epikaleo — ep-ee-kal-eh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Appeal.2

    "to call upon," has the meaning "appeal" in the Middle Voice, which carries with it the suggestion of a special interest on the part of the doer of an action in that in which he is engaged. Stephen died "calling upon the Lord," Acts 7:59 . In the more strictly legal sense the word is used only of Paul's "appeal" to Caesar, Acts 25:11, 12, 21, 25 ; Acts 26:32 ; Acts 28:19 . See CALL (upon), SURNAME. See also eperotema, under ANSWER.VED-NT Appeal.3

    Appear, Appearing

    A — 1: φαίνω
    (Strong's #5316 — Verb — phaino — fah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.2

    signifies, in the Active Voice, "to shine;" in the Passive, "to be brought forth into light, to become evident, to appear." In Romans 7:13 , concerning sin, the RV has "might be shewn to be," for AV, "appear."VED-NT Appear, Appearing.3

    It is used of the "appearance" of Christ to the disciples, Mark 16:9 ; of His future "appearing" in glory as the Son of Man, spoken of as a sign to the world, Matthew 24:30 ; there the genitive is subjective, the sign being the "appearing" of Christ Himself; of Christ as the light, John 1:5 ; of John the Baptist, 5:35; of the "appearing" of an angel of the Lord, either visibly, Matthew 1:20 , or in a dream, Matthew 2:13 ; of a star, Matthew 2:7 ; of men who make an outward show, Matthew 6:5 ; Matthew 6:18 (see the RV); Matthew 23:27-28 ; 2 Corinthians 13:7 ; of tares, Matthew 13:26 ; of a vapor, James 4:14 ; of things physical in general, Hebrews 11:3 ; used impersonally in Matthew 9:33 , "it was never so seen;" also of what appears to the mind, and so in the sense of to think, Mark 14:64 , or to seem, Luke 24:11 (RV, "appeared"). See SEE , SEEM , SHINE , THINK.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.4

    A — 2: ἐπιφαίνω
    (Strong's #2014 — Verb — epiphaino — ep-ee-fah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.5

    a strengthened form of No. 1 but differing in meaning, epi signifying "upon," is used in the Active Voice with the meaning "to give light," Luke 1:79 ; in the Passive Voice, "to appear, become visible." It is said of heavenly bodies, e.g., the stars, Acts 27:20 (RV, "shone"); metaphorically, of things spiritual, the grace of God, Titus 2:11 ; the kindness and the love of God, Titus 3:4 . See LIGHT. Cp. epiphaneia, B, No. 2.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.6

    A — 3: ἀναφαίνω
    (Strong's #398 — Verb — anaphaino — an-af-ah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.7

    ana, "forth, or up," perhaps originally a nautical term, "to come up into view," hence, in general, "to appear suddenly," is used in the Passive Voice, in Luke 19:11 , of the Kingdom of God; Active Voice, in Acts 21:3 , "to come in sight of," RV; "having sighted" would be a suitable rendering (AV, "having discovered").VED-NT Appear, Appearing.8

    A — 4: φανερόω
    (Strong's #5319 — Verb — phaneroo — fan-er-o'-o )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.9

    akin to No. 1, signifies, in the Active Voice, "to manifest;" in the Passive Voice, "to be manifested;" so, regularly, in the RV, instead of "to appear." See 2 Corinthians 7:12 ; Colossians 3:4 ; Hebrews 9:26 ; 1 Peter 5:4 ; 1 John 2:28 ; 1 John 3:2 ; Revelation 3:18 . To be manifested, in the Scriptural sense of the word, is more than to "appear." A person may "appear" in a false guise or without a disclosure of what he truly is; to be manifested is to be revealed in one's true character; this is especially the meaning of phaneroo, see, e.g., John 3:21 ; 1 Corinthians 4:5 ; 2 Corinthians 5:10, 11 ; Ephesians 5:13 .VED-NT Appear, Appearing.10

    A — 5: ἐμφανίζω
    (Strong's #1718 — Verb — emphanizo — em-fan-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.11

    from en, "in," intensive, and phaino, "to shine," is used, either of "physical manifestation," Matthew 27:53 ; Hebrews 9:24 ; cp. John 14:22 , or, metaphorically, of "the manifestation of Christ" by the Holy Spirit in the spiritual experience of believers who abide in His love, John 14:21 . It has another, secondary meaning, "to make known, signify, inform." This is confined to the Acts, where it is used five times, Acts 23:15, 22 ; Acts 24:1 ; Acts 25:2, 15 . There is perhaps a combination of the two meanings in Hebrews 11:14 , i.e., to declare by oral testimony and to "manifest" by the witness of the life. See INFORM , MANIFEST , SHEW , SIGNIFY.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.12

    A — 6: ὀπτάνομαι
    (Strong's #3700 — Verb — optomai — op-tan'-om-ahee, op'-tom-ahee )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.13

    "to see" (from ops, "the eye;" cp. Eng. "optical," etc.), in the Passive sense, "to be seen, to appear," is used (a) objectively, with reference to the person or thing seen, e.g., 1 Corinthians 15:5-8 , RV "appeared," for AV, "was seen;" (b) subjectively, with reference to an inward impression or a spiritual experience, John 3:36 , or a mental occupation, Acts 18:15 , "look to it;" cp. Matthew 27:4, 24 , "see (thou) to it," "see (ye) to it," throwing responsibility on others. Optomai is to be found in dictionaries under the word horao, "to see;" it supplies some forms that are lacking in that verb.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.14

    These last three words, emphanizo, phaneroo and optomai are used with reference to the "appearances" of Christ in the closing verses of Hebrews 9 ; emphanizo in Hebrews 9:24 , of His presence before the face of God for us; phaneroo in Hebrews 9:26 , of His past manifestation for "the sacrifice of Himself;" optomai in Hebrews 9:28 , of His future "appearance" for His saints.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.15

    A — 7: ὀπτάνομαι
    (Strong's #3700 — Verb — optano — op-tan'-om-ahee, op'-tom-ahee )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.16

    in the Middle Voice signifies "to allow oneself to be seen." It is rendered "appearing" in Acts 1:3 , RV, for AV, "being seen," of the Lord's "appearances" after His resurrection; the Middle Voice expresses the personal interest the Lord took in this.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.17

    Note: In Acts 22:30 sunerchomai (in its aorist form), "to come together," is translated "appear," AV; RV, "come together."VED-NT Appear, Appearing.18

    B — 1: ἀποκάλυψις
    (Strong's #602 — Noun Feminine — apokalupsis — ap-ok-al'-oop-sis )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.19

    lit., "an uncovering, unveiling" (apo, "from," kalupto, "to hide, cover"), denotes "a revelation, or appearing" (Eng., apocalypse). It is translated "the appearing" in 1 Peter 1:7 , AV (RV, "revelation"). See COMING , MANIFESTATION , REVELATION.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.20

    B — 2: ἐπιφάνεια
    (Strong's #2015 — Noun Feminine — epiphaneia — ep-if-an'-i-ah )
    VED-NT Appear, Appearing.21

    "epiphany," lit., "a shining forth," was used of the "appearance" of a god to men, and of an enemy to an army in the field, etc. In the NT it occurs of (a) the advent of the Savior when the Word became flesh, 2 Timothy 1:10 ; (b) the coming of the Lord Jesus into the air to the meeting with His saints, 1 Timothy 6:14 ; 2 Timothy 4:1, 8 ; (c) the shining forth of the glory of the Lord Jesus "as the lightning cometh forth from the east, and is seen even unto the west," Matthew 24:27 , immediately consequent on the unveiling, apokalupsis, of His Parousia in the air with His saints, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ; Titus 2:13 .* [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 263.]VED-NT Appear, Appearing.22

    Notes: (1) Phanerosis, akin to A, No. 4, "a manifestation," is used in 1 Corinthians 12:7 and 2 Corinthians 4:2 .VED-NT Appear, Appearing.23

    (2) For phaneros, wrongly translated "may appear," in 1 Timothy 4:15 , AV (RV, "may be manifest," not mere appearance), see MANIFEST.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.24

    (3) Emphanes, akin to A, No. 5, "manifest," is used in Acts 10:40 and Romans 10:20 . See MANIFEST , OPENLY.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.25

    (4) For adelos, "which appear not," Luke 11:44 , see UNCERTAIN.VED-NT Appear, Appearing.26


    A — 1: εἶδος
    (Strong's #1491 — Noun Neuter — eidos — i'-dos )
    VED-NT Appearance.2

    properly "that which strikes the eye, that which is exposed to view," signifies the "external appearance, form, or shape," and in this sense is used of the Holy Spirit in taking bodily form, as a dove, Luke 3:22 ; of Christ, 9:29, "the fashion of His countenance." Christ used it, negatively, of God the Father, when He said "Ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His form," John 5:37 . Thus it is used with reference to each person of the Trinity. Probably the same meaning attaches to the word in the Apostle's statement, "We walk by faith, not by sight (eidos)," 2 Corinthians 5:7 , where eidos can scarcely mean the act of beholding, but the visible "appearance" of things which are set in contrast to that which directs faith. The believer is guided, then, not only by what he beholds but by what he knows to be true though it is invisible.VED-NT Appearance.3

    It has a somewhat different significance in 1 Thessalonians 5:22 , in the exhortation, "Abstain from every form of evil," i.e., every sort or kind of evil (not "appearance," AV). This meaning was common in the papyri, the Greek writings of the closing centuries, B.C., and the New Testament era. See FASHION , SHAPE , SIGHT. Cp. No. 4.VED-NT Appearance.4

    A — 2: πρόσωπον
    (Strong's #4383 — Noun Neuter — prosopon — pros'-o-pon )
    VED-NT Appearance.5

    pros, "towards," ops, "an eye," lit., "the part round the eye, the face," in a secondary sense "the look, the countenance," as being the index of the inward thoughts and feelings (cp. 1 Peter 3:12 , there used of the face of the Lord), came to signify the presentation of the whole person (translated "person," e.g., in Matthew 22:16 ). Cp. the expression in OT passages, as Genesis 19:21 (AV marg., "thy face"), where it is said by God of Lot, and Genesis 33:10 , where it is said by Jacob of Esau; see also Deuteronomy 10:17 ("persons"), Leviticus 19:15 ("person"). It also signifies the presence of a person, Acts 3:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:17 ; or the presence of a company, Acts 5:41 . In this sense it is sometimes rendered "appearance," 2 Corinthians 5:12 . In 2 Corinthians 10:7 , AV, "appearance," the RV corrects to "face." See COUNTENANCE , FACE , FASHION , PERSON , PRESENCE.VED-NT Appearance.6

    A — 3: ὄψις
    (Strong's #3799 — Noun Feminine — opsis — op'-sis )
    VED-NT Appearance.7

    from ops, "the eye," connected with horao, "to see" (cp. No. 2), primarily denotes "seeing, sight;" hence, "the face, the countenance," John 11:44 ("face"); Revelation 1:16 ("countenance"); the outward "appearance," the look, John 7:24 , only here, of the outward aspect of a person. See COUNTENANCE , FACE.VED-NT Appearance.8

    A — 4: φαντάζω
    (Strong's #5324 — Verb — eidea — fan-tad'-zo )
    VED-NT Appearance.9

    "an aspect, appearance," is used in Matthew 28:3 , RV, "appearance;" AV, "countenance."VED-NT Appearance.10

    B — 1: φαντάζω
    (Strong's #5324 — Verb — phantazo — fan-tad'-zo )
    VED-NT Appearance.11

    "to make visible," is used in its participial form (Middle Voice), with the neuter article, as equivalent to a noun, and is translated "appearance," RV, for AV, "sight," Hebrews 12:21 .VED-NT Appearance.12


    1: καταστέλλω
    (Strong's #2687 — Verb — katastello — kat-as-tel'-lo )
    VED-NT Appease.2

    "to quiet" (lit., "to send down," kata, "down," stello, "to send"), in the Passive Voice, "to be quiet, or to be quieted," is used in Acts 19:35, 36 , in the former verse in the Active Voice, AV, "appeased;" RV, "quieted;" in the latter, the Passive, "to be quiet" (lit., 'to be quieted'). See QUIET.VED-NT Appease.3

    Appoint, Appointed

    1: ἵστημι
    (Strong's #2476 — Verb — histemi — his'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.2

    "to make to stand," means "to appoint," in Acts 17:31 , of the day in which God will judge the world by Christ. In Acts 1:23 , with reference to Joseph and Barnabas, the RV has "put forward;" for these were not both "appointed" in the accepted sense of the term, but simply singled out, in order that it might be made known which of them the Lord had chosen. See ABIDE , No. 10.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.3

    2: καθίστημι
    (Strong's #2525 — Verb — kathistemi — kath-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.4

    a strengthened form of No. 1, usually signifies "to appoint a person to a position." In this sense the verb is often translated "to make" or "to set," in appointing a person to a place of authority, e.g., a servant over a household, Matthew 24:45, 47 ; Matthew 25:21, 23 ; Luke 12:42, 44 ; a judge, Luke 12:14 ; Acts 7:27, 35 ; a governor, Acts 7:10 ; man by God over the work of His hands, Hebrews 2:7 . It is rendered "appoint," with reference to the so-called seven deacons in Acts 6:3 . The RV translates it by "appoint" in Titus 1:5 , instead of "ordain," of the elders whom Titus was to "appoint" in every city in Crete. Not a formal eccelesiastical ordination is in view, but the "appointment," for the recognition of the churches, of those who had already been raised up and qualified by the Holy Spirit, and had given evidence of this in their life and service (see No. 11). It is used of the priests of old, Hebrews 5:1 ; Hebrews 7:28 ; Hebrews 8:3 (RV, "appointed"). See CONDUCT , MAKE , ORDAIN , SET.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.5

    3: τίθημι
    (Strong's #5087 — Verb — tithemi — tith'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.6

    "to put," is used of "appointment" to any form of service. Christ used it of His followers, John 15:16 (RV, "appointed" for AV, "ordained"). "I set you" would be more in keeping with the metaphor of grafting. The verb is used by Paul of his service in the ministry of the Gospel, 1 Timothy 1:12 (RV, "appointing" for "putting"); 1 Timothy 2:7 (RV, "appointed" for "ordained"); and 2 Timothy 1:11 (RV, "appointing" for "putting"); of the overseers, or bishops, in the local church at Ephesus, as those "appointed" by the Holy Ghost, to tend the church of God, Acts 20:28 ("hath made"); of the Son of God, as appointed Heir of all things, Hebrews 1:2 . It is also used of "appointment" to punishment, as of the unfaithful servant, Matthew 24:51 ; Luke 12:46 ; of unbelieving Israel, 1 Peter 2:8 . Cp. 2 Peter 2:6 . See BOW , COMMIT , CONCEIVE , LAY , MAKE , ORDAIN , PURPOSE , PUT , SET , SINK.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.7

    Note: Akin to tithemi is the latter part of the noun prothesmia, Galatians 4:2 , of a term or period "appointed."VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.8

    4: διατίθημι
    (Strong's #1303 — Verb — diatithemi — dee-at-ith'-em-ahee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.9

    a strengthened form of No. 3 (dia, "through," intensive), is used in the Middle Voice only. The Lord used it of His disciples with reference to the kingdom which is to be theirs hereafter, and of Himself in the same respect, as that which has been "appointed" for Him by His Father, Luke 22:29 . For its use in connection with a covenant, see MAKE and TESTATOR.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.10

    5: τάσσω
    (Strong's #5021 — Verb — tasso — tas'-so )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.11

    "to place in order, arrange," signifies "to appoint," e.g., of the place where Christ had "appointed" a meeting with His disciples after His resurrection, Matthew 28:16 ; of positions of military and civil authority over others, whether "appointed" by men, Luke 7:8 , or by God, Romans 13:1 , "ordained." It is said of those who, having believed the Gospel, "were ordained to eternal life," Acts 13:48 . The house of Stephanas at Corinth had "set themselves" to the ministry of the saints (AV, "addicted"), 1 Corinthians 16:15 . Other instances of the arranging of special details occur in Acts 15:2 ; Acts 22:10 ; Acts 28:23 . See DETERMINE , ORDAIN , SET.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.12

    6: διατάσσω
    (Strong's #1299 — Verb — diatasso — dee-at-as'-so )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.13

    a strengthened form of No. 5 (dia, "through," intensive), frequently denotes "to arrange, appoint, prescribe," e.g., of what was "appointed" for tax collectors to collect, Luke 3:13 ; of the tabernacle, as "appointed" by God for Moses to make, Acts 7:44 ; of the arrangements "appointed" by Paul with regard to himself and his travelling companions, Acts 20:13 ; of what the Apostle "ordained" in all the churches in regard to marital conditions, 1 Corinthians 7:17 ; of what the Lord "ordained" in regard to the support of those who proclaimed the Gospel, 1 Corinthians 9:14 ; of the Law as Divinely "ordained," or administered, through angels, by Moses, Galatians 3:19 . In Titus 1:5 , AV, "had appointed thee," the sense is rather that of commanding, RV, "gave thee charge." See COMMAND , No. 1, ORDAIN, ORDER.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.14

    7: συντάσσω
    (Strong's #4929 — Verb — suntasso — soon-tas'-so )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.15

    sun, "with," and No. 5, lit., "to arrange together with," hence "to appoint, prescribe," is used twice, in Matthew 26:19 of what the Lord "appointed" for His disciples, and in Matthew 27:10 , in a quotation concerning the price of the potter's field.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.16

    8: προτάσσω
    (Strong's #4384 — Verb — protasso — prot-as'-so )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.17

    pro, "before," and No. 5, "to appoint before," is used in Acts 17:26 (RV, "appointed"), of the seasons arranged by God for nations, and the bounds of their habitation.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.18

    9: κεῖμαι
    (Strong's #2749 — Verb — keimai — ki'-mahee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.19

    "to lie," is used in 1 Thessalonians 3:3 of the "appointment" of affliction for faithful believers. It is rendered "set" in Luke 2:34 and Philippians 1:16 , RV, where the sense is the same. The verb is a perfect tense, used for the perfect Passive of tithemi, "to place," "I have been placed," i.e., "I lie." See LAY , LIE , MADE (be), SET.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.20

    10: ἀπόκειμαι
    (Strong's #606 — Verb — apokeimai — ap-ok'-i-mahee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.21

    apo, "from," and No. 9, signifies "to be laid, reserved," Luke 19:20 ; Colossians 1:5 ; 2 Timothy 4:8 ; "appointed," in Hebrews 9:27 , where it is said of death and the judgement following (RV, marg., "laid up"). See LAY.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.22

    11: χειροτονέω
    (Strong's #5500 — Verb — cheirotoneo — khi-rot-on-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.23

    primarily used of voting in the Athenian legislative assembly and meaning "to stretch forth the hands" (cheir, "the hand," teino, "to stretch"), is not to be taken in its literal sense; it could not be so taken in its compound procheirotoneo, "to choose before," since it is said of God, Acts 10:41 . Cheirotoneo is said of "the appointment" of elders by apostolic missionaries in the various churches which they revisited, Acts 14:23 , RV, "had appointed," i.e., by the recognition of those who had been manifesting themselves as gifted of God to discharge the functions of elders (see No. 2). It is also said of those who were "appointed" (not by voting, but with general approbation) by the churches in Greece to accompany the Apostle in conveying their gifts to the poor saints in Judea, 2 Corinthians 8:19 . See CHOOSE , ORDAIN.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.24

    12: προχειρίζω
    (Strong's #4400 — Verb — procheirizo — prokh-i-rid'-zom-ahee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.25

    from procheiros, "at hand," signifies (a) "to deliver up, appoint," Acts 3:20 (RV, "appointed"); (b) in the Middle Voice, "to take into one's hand, to determine, appoint beforehand," translated "appointed" in Acts 22:14 , RV (for AV, "hath chosen"), and "to appoint" in 26:16 (for AV, "to make").VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.26

    13: ὁρίζω
    (Strong's #3724 — Verb — horizo — hor-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.27

    (Eng., "horizon"), lit., "to mark by a limit," hence, "to determine, ordain," is used of Christ as ordained of God to be a judge of the living and the dead, Acts 17:31 ; of His being "marked out" as the Son of God, Romans 1:4 ; of Divinely appointed seasons, Acts 17:26 , "having determined." See DEFINE.VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.28

    14: ἀναδείκνυμι
    (Strong's #322 — Verb — anadeiknumi — an-ad-ike'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.29

    lit., "to show up, to show clearly," also signifies "to appoint to a position or a service;" it is used in this sense of the 70 disciples, Luke 10:1 ; for the meaning "show," see Acts 1:24 .VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.30

    15: ποιέω
    (Strong's #4160 — Verb — poieo — poy-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.31

    "to do, to make," is rendered "appointed" in Hebrews 3:2 , of Christ. For Mark 3:14 , RV, see ORDAIN , Note (2).VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.32

    Note: Epithanatios, "appointed to death," doomed to it by condemnation, 1 Corinthians 4:9 , AV, is corrected to "doomed to death" in the RV (epi, "for," thanatos, "death").VED-NT Appoint, Appointed.33


    * For APPORTIONED (RV in 2 Corinthians 10:13 ) see DISTRIBUTEVED-NT Apportioned.2


    1: καταλαμβάνω
    (Strong's #2638 — Verb — katalambano — kat-al-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Apprehend.2

    properly signifies "to lay hold of;" then, "to lay hold of so as to possess as one's own, to appropriate." Hence it has the same twofold meaning as the Eng. "to apprehend;" (a), "to seize upon, take possession of," (1) with a beneficial effect, as of "laying hold" of the righteousness which is of faith, Romans 9:30 (not there a matter of attainment, as in the Eng. versions, but of appropriation); of the obtaining of a prize, 1 Corinthians 9:24 (RV, "attain"); of the Apostle's desire "to apprehend," or "lay hold of," that for which he was apprehended by Christ, Philippians 3:12, 13 ; (2) with a detrimental effect, e.g., of demon power, Mark 9:18 ; of human action in seizing upon a person, John 8:3, 4 ; metaphorically, with the added idea of overtaking, of spiritual darkness in coming upon people, John 12:35 ; of the Day of the Lord, in suddenly coming upon unbelievers as a thief, 1 Thessalonians 5:4 ; (b), "to lay hold of" with the mind, to understand, perceive, e.g., metaphorically, of darkness with regard to light, John 1:5 , though possibly here the sense is that of (a) as in John 12:35 ; of mental perception, Acts 4:13 ; Acts 10:34 ; Acts 25:25 ; Ephesians 3:18 . See ATTAIN , No. 2, COME, Note (8), FIND, OBTAIN, OVERTAKE, PERCEIVE, TAKE.VED-NT Apprehend.3

    Note: Cp. epilambano, "to take hold of," always in the Middle Voice in the NT. See HOLD.VED-NT Apprehend.4

    2: πιάζω
    (Strong's #4084 — Verb — piazo — pee-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Apprehend.5

    "to lay hold of," with the suggestion of firm pressure or force, is used in the Gospels only in John, six times of efforts to seize Christ, and is always rendered "take" in the RV, John 7:30, 32, 44 ; John 8:20 ; John 10:39 ; John 11:57 . The AV has "laid hands on" in John 8:20 . In Acts 12:4 ; 2 Corinthians 11:32 (AV), it is translated respectively "apprehended" and "apprehend" (RV, "had taken," and "take"). In Revelation 19:20 it is used of the seizure of the Beast and the False Prophet. In John 21:3, 10 it is used of catching fish. Elsewhere in Acts 3:7 . See CATCH , LAY HANDS ON, TAKE. In the Sept., S. of Song of Solomon 2:15 .VED-NT Apprehend.6


    A — 1: ἐγγίζω
    (Strong's #1448 — Verb — engizo — eng-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Approach.2

    "to draw near, to approach," from engus, "near," is used (a) of place and position, literally and physically, Matthew 21:1 ; Mark 11:1 ; Luke 12:33 ; Luke 15:25 ; figuratively, of drawing near to God, Matthew 15:8 ; Hebrews 7:19 ; James 4:8 ; (b) of time, with reference to things that are imminent, as the kingdom of heaven, Matthew 3:2 ; Matthew 4:17 ; Matthew 10:7 ; the kingdom of God, Mark 1:15 ; Luke 10:9, 11 ; the time of fruit, Matthew 21:34 ; the desolation of Jerusalem, Luke 21:8 ; redemption, Luke 21:28 ; the fulfillment of a promise, Acts 7:17 ; the Day of Christ in contrast to the present night of the world's spiritual darkness, Romans 13:12 ; Hebrews 10:25 ; the coming of the Lord, James 5:8 ; the end of all things, 1 Peter 4:7 . It is also said of one who was drawing near to death, Philippians 2:30 . See COME , Note (16), DRAW , B, No. 1, HAND (at), NIGH.VED-NT Approach.3

    B — 1: ἀπρόσιτος
    (Strong's #676 — Adjective — aprositos — ap-ros'-ee-tos )
    VED-NT Approach.4

    "unapproachable, inaccessible" (a), negative, and an adjective formed from proseimi, "to go to"), is used, in 1 Timothy 6:16 , of the light in which God dwells (AV, "which no man can approach unto;" RV, "unapproachable").VED-NT Approach.5

    Approve, Approved

    A — 1: δοκιμάζω
    (Strong's #1381 — Verb — dokimazo — dok-im-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Approve, Approved.2

    primarily, of metals (e.g., the Sept. of Proverbs 8:10 ; Proverbs 17:3 ), signifies "to prove," e.g., 1 John 4:1 , more frequently to prove with a view to approval, e.g., Romans 1:28 , AV, "they did not like to retain God in their knowledge;" RV, "they refused;" marg., "did not approve," the true meaning. Their refusal was not the outcome of ignorance; they had the power to make a deliberate choice; they willfully disapproved of having God in their knowledge.VED-NT Approve, Approved.3

    In the next chapter, the Apostle speaks of the Jew as "approving things that are excellent," Romans 2:18 . The Jew knew God's will, and mentally "approved" of the things in which God had instructed him out of the Law. In Romans 14:22 , he is said to be happy who "judgeth not himself in that which he approveth;" that is to say, in that which he "approves" of after having put the matter to the test. The AV "alloweth" has not now this meaning.VED-NT Approve, Approved.4

    As to the gifts from the church at Corinth for poor saints in Judea, those who were "approved" by the church to travel with the offering would be men whose trustworthiness and stability had been proved, 1 Corinthians 16:3 (the RV margin seems right, "whomsoever ye shall approve, them will I send with letters"); cp. 2 Corinthians 8:22 .VED-NT Approve, Approved.5

    In Philippians 1:10 the Apostle prays that the saints may "approve the things that are excellent" or "things that differ," i.e., "approve" after distinguishing and discerning.VED-NT Approve, Approved.6

    In 1 Thessalonians 2:4 , the Apostle and his fellow-missionaries were "approved of God to be entrusted with the Gospel" (not "allowed," AV). Not permission to preach, but Divine "approval" after Divine testing is intended. See ALLOW , DISCERN , EXAMINE , LIKE , PROVE , REFUSE , TRY.VED-NT Approve, Approved.7

    Note: Cp. dokime, "proof, experience;" see also B.VED-NT Approve, Approved.8

    A — 2: συνίστημι
    (Strong's #4921 — Verb — sunistemi — soon-is-tah'-o, soon-is-tah'-an'-o, soon-is-tah'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Approve, Approved.9

    lit., "to set together" (sun, "with," histemi, "to stand"), hence signifies "to set one person or thing with another by way of presenting and commending." This meaning is confined to Romans and 2Corinthians. The saints at Corinth had "approved themselves in everything to be pure," in the matter referred to, 2 Corinthians 7:11 . The word often denotes "to commend," so as to meet with approval, Romans 3:5 ; Romans 5:8 ; Romans 16:1 ; 2 Corinthians 4:2 ; 2 Corinthians 6:4 (RV); 10:18; 12:11, etc. See COMMEND , COMPACTED , CONSIST (No. 2), STAND.VED-NT Approve, Approved.10

    A — 3: ἀποδείκνυμι
    (Strong's #584 — Verb — apodeiknumi — ap-od-ike'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Approve, Approved.11

    lit., "to point out, to exhibit" (apo, "forth," deiknumi, "to show"), is used once in the sense of proving by demonstration, and so bringing about an "approval." The Lord Jesus was "a Man approved of God by mighty works and wonders and signs," Acts 2:22 . See PROVE , SET , No. 17, SHEW.VED-NT Approve, Approved.12

    B — 1: δόκιμος
    (Strong's #1384 — Adjective — dokimos — dok'-ee-mos )
    VED-NT Approve, Approved.13

    akin to dechomai, "to receive," always signifies "approved;" so the RV everywhere, e.g., in James 1:12 for AV, "when he is tried." The word is used of coins and metals in the Sept.; in Genesis 23:16 , "four hundred didrachms of silver approved with merchants;" in Zechariah 11:13 , in regard to the 30 pieces of silver, "Cast them into a furnace and I will see if it is good (approved) metal."VED-NT Approve, Approved.14


    1: σιμικίνθιον
    (Strong's #4612 — Noun Neuter — simikinthion — sim-ee-kin'-thee-on )
    VED-NT Apron.2

    "a thing girded round half the body" (Latin, semicinctium), was a narrow apron, or linen covering, worn by workmen and servants, Acts 19:12 .VED-NT Apron.3


    * For APT see TEACH, BVED-NT Apt.2


    1: ἀρχάγγελος
    (Strong's #743 — Noun Masculine — archangelos — ar-khang'-el-os )
    VED-NT Archangel.2

    "is not found in the OT, and in the NT only in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9 , where it is used of Michael, who in Daniel is called 'one of the chief princes,' and 'the great prince' (Sept., 'the great angel'), 10:13,21; 12:1. Cp. also Revelation 12:7 .... Whether there are other beings of this exalted rank in the heavenly hosts, Scripture does not say, though the description 'one of the chief princes' suggests that this may be the case; cp. also Romans 8:38 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; Colossians 1:16 , where the word translated 'principalities' is arche, the prefix in archangel." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 142.] In 1 Thessalonians 4:16 the meaning seems to be that the voice of the Lord Jesus will be of the character of an "archangelic" shout.VED-NT Archangel.3


    * For ARIGHT (RV of 2 Timothy 2:15 ) see HANDLE , No. 5VED-NT Aright.2

    Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse

    1: ἀνίστημι
    (Strong's #450 — Verb — anistemi — an-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.2

    "to stand up or to make to stand up," according as its use is intransitive or transitive (ana, "up," histemi, "to stand"), is used (a) of a physical change of position, e.g., of "rising" from sleep, Mark 1:35 ; from a meeting in a synagogue, Luke 4:29 ; of the illegal "rising" of the high priest in the tribunal in Matthew 26:62 ; of an invalid "rising" from his couch, Luke 5:25 ; the "rising" up of a disciple from his vocation to follow Christ, Luke 5:28 ; cp. John 11:31 ; "rising" up from prayer, Luke 22:45 ; of a whole company, Acts 26:30 ; 1 Corinthians 10:7 ; (b) metaphorically, of "rising" up antagonistically against persons, e.g. of officials against people, Acts 5:17 ; of a seditious leader, 5:36; of the "rising" up of Satan, Mark 3:26 ; of false teachers, Acts 20:30 ; (c) of "rising" to a position of preeminence or power e.g., of Christ as a prophet, Acts 3:22 ; Acts 7:37 ; as God's servant in the midst of the nation of Israel, Acts 3:26 ; as the Son of God in the midst of the nation, 13:33 (not here of resurrection, but with reference to the Incarnation: the AV "again" has nothing corresponding to it in the original, it was added as a misinterpretation: the mention of His resurrection is in the next verse, in which it is stressed by way of contrast and by the addition, "from the dead"); as a priest, Hebrews 7:11, 15 ; as king over the nations, Romans 15:12 ; (d) of a spiritual awakening from lethargy, Ephesians 5:14 ; (e) of resurrection from the dead: (1) of the resurrection of Christ, Matthew 17:9 ; Matthew 20:19 ; Mark 8:31 ; Mark 9:9, 10, 31 ; Mark 10:34 ; Luke 18:33 ; Luke 24:7, 46 ; John 20:9 ; Acts 2:24, 32 ; Acts 10:41 ; Acts 13:34 ; Acts 17:3, 31 : 1 Thessalonians 4:14 ; (2) of believers, John 6:39, 40, 44, 54 ; John 11:24 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; of unbelievers, Matthew 12:41 . See LIFT , RAISE (up), STAND.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.3

    2: ἐξανίστημι
    (Strong's #1817 — Verb — exanistemi — ex-an-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.4

    a strengthened form of No. 1 (ex, i.e., ek, intensive), signifies "to raise up," Mark 12:19 ; Luke 20:28 ; intransitively, "to rise up," Acts 15:5 .VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.5

    3: ἐγείρω
    (Strong's #1453 — Verb — egeiro — eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.6

    is frequently used in the NT in the sense of "raising" (Active Voice), or "rising" (Middle and Passive Voices): (a) from sitting, lying, sickness, e.g., Matthew 2:14 ; Matthew 9:5, 7, 19 ; James 5:15 ; Revelation 11:1 ; (b) of causing to appear, or, in the Passive, appearing, or raising up so as to occupy a place in the midst of people, Matthew 3:9 ; Matthew 11:11 ; Mark 13:22 ; Acts 13:22 . It is thus said of Christ in Acts 13:23 ; cp. No. 1, (c); (c) of rousing, stirring up, or "rising" against, Matthew 24:7 ; Mark 13:8 ; (d) of "raising buildings," John 2:19, 20 ; (e) of "raising or rising" from the dead; (1) of Christ, Matthew 16:21 ; and frequently elsewhere (but not in Phil., 2Thess., 1Tim., Titus, Jas., 2Pet., 1,2, 3John, and Jude); (2) of Christ's "raising" the dead, Matthew 11:5 ; Mark 5:41 ; Luke 7:14 ; John 12:1, 9, 17 ; (3) of the act of the disciples, Matthew 10:8 ; (4) of the resurrection of believers, Matthew 27:52 ; John 5:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:15, 16, 29, 32, 35, 42-44, 52 ; 2 Corinthians 1:9 ; 2 Corinthians 4:14 ; of unbelievers, Matthew 12:42 (cp. Matthew 12:41 , No. 1).VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.7

    Egeiro stands in contrast to anistemi (when used with reference to resurrection) in this respect, that egeiro is frequently used both in the transitive sense of "raising up" and the intransitive of "rising," whereas anistemi is comparatively infrequent in the transitive use. See AWAKE.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.8

    4: διεγείρω
    (Strong's #1326 — Verb — diegeiro — dee-eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.9

    a strengthened form of No. 3 (dia, "through," intensive), signifies "to rouse, to awaken from sleep." The Active Voice is not used intransitively. In Matthew 1:24 , RV, "Joseph arose from his sleep," the Passive participle is, lit., "being aroused." In Mark 4:39 (AV, "he arose," RV, "he awoke"), the lit. rendering is "he being awakened." In John 6:18 the imperfect tense of the Passive Voice is used, and the rendering should be, "the sea was being aroused." See AWAKE , No. 2.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.10

    5: γίνομαι
    (Strong's #1096 — Verb — ginomai — ghin'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.11

    "to become, to take place," is sometimes suitably translated "arise;" e.g., Matthew 8:24 ; Mark 4:37 , "there arose a great tempest." So of the arising of persection, Matthew 13:21 ; Mark 4:17 ; this might be translated "taketh place;" of a tumult, Matthew 27:24 , RV, "arising," for AV, "made;" of a flood, Luke 6:48 ; a famine, Luke 15:14 ; a questioning, John 3:25 ; a murmuring, Acts 6:1 ; a tribulation, Acts 11:19 (RV); a stir in the city, Acts 19:23 ; a dissension, Acts 23:7 ; a great clamor, Acts 23:9 . See BECOME.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.12

    6: ἀναβαίνω
    (Strong's #305 — Verb — anabaino — an-ab-ah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.13

    "to go up, to ascend," is once rendered "arise" in the RV, Luke 24:38 , of reasonings in the heart; in Revelation 13:1 , RV, "coming up," for AV, "rise up," with reference to the beast; in Revelation 17:8 , AV, "ascend," for RV, "to come up;" in Revelation 19:3 , RV, "goeth up," for AV, "rose up." See CLIMB UP , COME , ENTER , GO , GROW , RISE , SPRING.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.14

    7: συνεφίστημι
    (Strong's #4911 — Verb — sunephistemi — soon-ef-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.15

    "to rise up together" (sun, "together," epi, "up," histemi, "to stand"), is used in Acts 16:22 , of the "rising up" of a multitude against Paul and Silas.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.16

    8: εἰσέρχομαι
    (Strong's #1525 — Verb — eiserchomai — ice-er'-khom-ahee )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.17

    lit., "to go in" (eis, "in," erchomai, "to go"), "to enter," is once rendered "arose," metaphorically, with reference to a reasoning among the disciples which of them should be the greatest, Luke 9:46 . See COME , ENTER , GO.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.18

    9: ἀνατέλλω
    (Strong's #393 — Verb — anatello — an-at-el'-lo )
    VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.19

    "to arise," is used especially of things in the natural creation, e.g., "the rising" of the sun, moon and stars; metaphorically, of light, in Matthew 4:16 , "did spring up;" of the sun, Matthew 5:45 ; Matthew 13:6 (RV); Mark 4:6 ; James 1:11 ; in Mark 16:2 the RV has "when the sun was risen," keeping to the verb form, for the AV, "at the rising of;" of a cloud, Luke 12:54 ; of the day-star, 2 Peter 1:19 ; in Hebrews 7:14 metaphorically, of the Incarnation of Christ: "Our Lord hath sprung out of Judah," more lit., "Our Lord hath arisen out of Judah," as of the rising of the light of the sun. See RISE , SPRING , UP.VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.20

    Notes: (1) A corresponding noun, anatole, signifies "the east," i.e., the place of the "sunrising."VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.21

    (2) In Acts 27:14 , the verb ballo, "to beat" (intransitive), is translated "arose" in the AV; RV, "beat."VED-NT Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse.22


    1: κιβωτός
    (Strong's #2787 — Noun Feminine — kibotos — kib-o-tos' )
    VED-NT Ark.2

    "a wooden box, a chest," is used of (a) Noah's vessel, Matthew 24:38 ; Luke 17:27 ; Hebrews 11:7 ; Hebrews 1 pet. 3:20; (b) the "ark" of the Covenant in the Tabernacle, Hebrews 9:4 ; (c) the "ark" seen in vision in the Heavenly Temple, Revelation 11:19 .VED-NT Ark.3


    1: ἀγκάλη
    (Strong's #43 — Noun Feminine — ankale — ang-kal'-ay )
    VED-NT Arm.2

    used in the plural, in Luke 2:28 , originally denoted "the curve, or the inner angle, of the arm." The word is derived from a term signifying "to bend, to curve;" the Eng. "angle" is connected.VED-NT Arm.3

    Note: Enankalizomai (en, "in," and a verb akin to No. 1), "to take into the arms, to embrace," is used in Mark 9:36 ; Mark 10:16 , of the tenderness of Christ towards little children.VED-NT Arm.4

    2: βραχίων
    (Strong's #1023 — Noun Masculine — brachion — brakh-ee'-own )
    VED-NT Arm.5

    "the shorter part of the arm, from the shoulder to the elbow," is used metaphorically to denote strength, power, and always in the NT of the power of God, Luke 1:51 ; John 12:38 ; Acts 13:17 ; frequently so in the OT, especially in Deuteronomy, the Psalms and Isaiah; see, e.g., Deuteronomy 4:34 ; Deuteronomy 5:15 ; Psalms 44:3 ; Psalms 71:18 , where "strength" is, lit., "arm;" Psalms 77:15 ; Isaiah 26:11 , where "hand" is, lit., "arm;" Isaiah 30:30 ; Isaiah 40:10, 11 , etc.VED-NT Arm.6

    Arms, Armor, to Arm

    A — 1: ὅπλον
    (Strong's #3696 — Noun Neuter — hoplon — hop'-lon )
    VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.2

    originally any tool or implement for preparing a thing, became used in the plural for "weapons of warfare." Once in the NT it is used of actual weapons, John 18:3 ; elsewhere, metaphorically, of (a) the members of the body as instruments of unrighteousness and as instruments of righteousness, Romans 6:13 ; (b) the "armor" of light, Romans 13:12 ; the "armor" of righteousness, 2 Corinthians 6:7 ; the weapons of the Christian's warfare, 2 Corinthians 10:4 .VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.3

    A — 2: πανοπλία
    (Strong's #3833 — Noun Feminine — panoplia — pan-op-lee'-ah )
    VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.4

    (Eng., "panoply"), lit., "all armor, full armor," (pas, "all," hoplon, "a weapon"), is used (a) of literal "armor," Luke 11:22 ; (b) of the spiritual helps supplied by God for overcoming the temptations of the Devil, Ephesians 6:11, 13 . Among the Greeks the panoplia was the complete equipment used by heavily armed infantry.VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.5

    B — 1: ὁπλίζω
    (Strong's #3695 — Verb — hoplizo — hop-lid'-zo )
    VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.6

    "to arm oneself," is used in 1 Peter 4:1 , in an exhortation "to arm" ourselves with the same mind as that of Christ in regard to His sufferings.VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.7

    B — 2: καθοπλίζω
    (Strong's #2528 — Verb — kathoplizo — kath-op-lid'-zo )
    VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.8

    is an intensive form, "to furnish fully with arms," kata, "down," intensive, hoplon, "a weapon," Luke 11:21 , lit., "a strong man fully armed." In the Sept., Jeremiah 46:9 .VED-NT Arms, Armor, to Arm.9


    1: στράτευμα
    (Strong's #4753 — Noun Neuter — strateuma — strat'-yoo-mah )
    VED-NT Army.2

    denotes (a) "an army" of any size, large or small, Matthew 22:7 ; Revelation 9:16 ; Revelation 19:14, 19 (twice); (b) "a company of soldiers," such as Herod's bodyguard, Luke 23:11 (RV, "soldiers") or the soldiers of a garrison, Acts 23:10, 27 (RV, "the soldiers," for AV, "an army"). See SOLDIER , WAR.VED-NT Army.3

    2: στρατόπεδον
    (Strong's #4760 — Noun Neuter — stratopedon — strat-op'-ed-on )
    VED-NT Army.4

    from stratos, "a military host," pedon, "a plain," strictly denotes "an army encamped, a camp;" in Luke 21:20 , of the soldiers which were to be encamped about Jerusalem in fulfillment of the Lord's prophecy concerning the destruction of the city; the phrase might be translated "by camps" (or encampments).VED-NT Army.5

    3: παρεμβολή
    (Strong's #3925 — Noun Feminine — parembole — par-em-bol-ay' )
    VED-NT Army.6

    lit., "a casting in among, an insertion" (para, "among," ballo, "to throw"), in the Macedonian dialect, was a military term. In the NT it denotes the distribution of troops in army formation, "armies," Hebrews 11:34 ; a camp, as of the Israelites, Exodus 19:17 ; Exodus 29:14 ; Exodus 32:17 ; hence, in Hebrews 13:11, 13 , of Jerusalem, since the city was to the Jews what the camp in the wilderness had been to the Israelites; in Revelation 20:9 , the "armies" or camp of the saints, at the close of the Millennium. It also denoted a castle or barracks, Acts 21:34, 37 ; Acts 22:24 ; Acts 23:10, 16, 32 .VED-NT Army.7


    * For AROUND (preposition, conjunction, or participle not dealt with in this resource)VED-NT Around.2


    * For ARRAY see CLOTHE , NO. 6, PUTVED-NT Array.2


    1: καταντάω
    (Strong's #2658 — Verb — katantao — kat-an-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Arrive.2

    "to come to, arrive at," is used (a) literally, of locality, Acts 16:1 , "came to;" so Acts 18:19, 24 ; Acts 20:15 ("came"); Acts 21:7 ; Acts 25:13 ; Acts 27:12 (AV, "attain to," RV, "reach"); Acts 28:13 ; (b) metaphorically, of attainment, Acts 26:7 , "attain;" so Ephesians 4:13 ; Philippians 3:11 . In 1 Corinthians 10:11 ("upon whom the ends of the ages are come," RV), the metaphor is apparently that of an inheritance as coming down or descending to an heir, the "ends" (tele) being the spiritual revenues (cp. Matthew 17:25 , revenues derived from taxes, and Romans 13:7 , where the singular, telos, "custom," is used); the inheritance metaphor is again seen in 1 Corinthians 14:36 , of the coming (or descending) of the Word of God to the Corinthians. See ATTAIN.VED-NT Arrive.3

    2: καταπλέω
    (Strong's #2668 — Verb — katapleo — kat-ap-leh'-o )
    VED-NT Arrive.4

    denotes "to sail down" (kata, "down," pleo, "to sail"), i.e., from the high sea to the shore, Luke 8:26 .VED-NT Arrive.5

    3: παραγίνομαι
    (Strong's #3854 — Verb — paraginomai — par-ag-in'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Arrive.6

    lit., "to become near," hence, "to come on the scene," Matthew 3:1 , of John the Baptist, is translated, "arrive" in the RV of 1 Corinthians 16:3 , for AV, "come." See COME , GO , PRESENT.VED-NT Arrive.7

    4: παραβάλλω
    (Strong's #3846 — Verb — paraballo — par-ab-al'-lo )
    VED-NT Arrive.8

    para, "alongside," ballo, "to throw," signifies, nautically, "touched at;" so the RV of Acts 20:15 (AV, "arrived"); or, perhaps, to strike across, from one place to another. In Mark 4:30 , some mss. have this verb (AV, "compare"); the most authentic have tithemi, to set forth (with the word "parable"). See COMPARE.VED-NT Arrive.9

    5: φθάνω
    (Strong's #5348 — Verb — phthano — fthan'-o )
    VED-NT Arrive.10

    "to anticipate, reach to," is translated "did arrive at," Romans 9:31 , RV, of Israel's failure to attain to the Law (AV, "hath attained to"). See ATTAIN , COME , PRECEDE.VED-NT Arrive.11

    Art, Arts

    1: τέχνη
    (Strong's #5078 — Noun Feminine — techne — tekh'-nay )
    VED-NT Art, Arts.2

    "an art, handicraft, trade," is used in Acts 17:29 , of the plastic art; in Acts 18:3 , of a trade or craft (AV, "occupation," RV, "trade"); in Revelation 18:22 , "craft" (cp. technites, "a craftsman," Eng., "technical"). See CRAFT , OCCUPATION , TRADE.VED-NT Art, Arts.3

    2: περίεργος
    (Strong's #4021 — Adjective — periergos — per-ee'-er-gos )
    VED-NT Art, Arts.4

    lit., "a work about" (peri, "about," ergon, "a work"), hence, "busy about trifles," is used, in the plural, of things superfluous, "curious (or magical) arts," Acts 19:19 ; in 1 Timothy 5:13 , "busybodies." See BUSYBODY.VED-NT Art, Arts.5


    * For AS (and connected phrases) (preposition, conjunction, or participle not dealt with in this resource)VED-NT As.2


    * For ASCEND see ARISE , No. 6VED-NT Ascend.2

    Ashamed, Shame

    A — 1: αἰσχύνομαι
    (Strong's #153 — Verb — aischuno — ahee-skhoo'-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.2

    from aischos, "shame," always used in the Passive Voice, signifies (a) "to have a feeling of fear or shame which prevents a person from doing a thing," e.g., Luke 16:3 ; (b) "the feeling of shame arising from something that has been done," e.g., 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; Philippians 1:20 ; 1 John 2:28 , of the possibility of being "ashamed" before the Lord Jesus at His Judgment seat in His Parousia with His saints; in 1 Peter 4:16 , of being ashamed of suffering as a Christian.VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.3

    A — 2: ἐπαισχύνομαι
    (Strong's #1870 — Verb — epaischunomai — ep-ahee-skhoo'-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.4

    a strengthened form of No. 1 (epi, "upon," intensive), is used only in the sense (b) in the preceding paragraph. It is said of being "ashamed" of persons, Mark 8:38 ; Luke 9:26 ; the Gospel, Romans 1:16 ; former evil doing, Romans 6:21 ; "the testimony of our Lord," 2 Timothy 1:8 ; suffering for the Gospel, 2 Timothy 1:12 ; rendering assistance and comfort to one who is suffering for the Gospel's sake, 2 Timothy 1:16 . It is used in Heb., of Christ in calling those who are sanctified His brethren, Hebrews 2:11 , and of God in His not being "ashamed" to be called the God of believers, Hebrews 11:16 . In the Sept., in Job 34:19 ; Psalms 119:6 ; Isaiah 1:29 .VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.5

    A — 3: καταισχύνω
    (Strong's #2617 — Verb — kataischuno — kat-ahee-skhoo'-no )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.6

    another strengthened form (kata, "down," intensive), is used (a) in the Active Voice, "to put to shame," e.g., Romans 5:5 ; 1 Corinthians 1:27 (AV, "confound"); 1 Corinthians 11:4, 5 ("dishonoreth"), and 1 Corinthians 11:22 ; (b) in the Passive Voice, Romans 9:33 ; Romans 10:11 ; 2 Corinthians 7:14 ; 1 Peter 2:6 ; 1 Peter 3:16 . See CONFOUND , DISHONOR , SHAME.VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.7

    A — 4: ἐντρέπω
    (Strong's #1788 — Verb — entrepo — en-trep'-o )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.8

    "to put to shame," in the Passive Voice, to be ashamed, lit. means "to turn in" (en, "in," trepo, "to turn"), that is, to turn one upon himself and so produce a feeling of "shame," a wholesome "shame" which involves a change of conduct, 1 Corinthians 4:14 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:14 ; Titus 2:8 , the only places where it has this meaning. See also REGARD , REVERENCE.VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.9

    B — 1: αἰσχύνη
    (Strong's #152 — Noun Feminine — aischune — ahee-skhoo'-nay )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.10

    "shame," akin to A, No. 1, signifies (a) subjectively, the confusion of one who is "ashamed" of anything, a sense of "shame," Luke 14:9 ; those things which "shame" conceals, 2 Corinthians 4:2 ; (b) objectively, ignominy, that which is visited on a person by the wicked, Hebrews 12:2 ; that which should arise from guilt, Philippians 3:19 ; (c) concretely, a thing to be "ashamed" of, Revelation 3:18 ; Jude 1:13 , where the word is in the plural, lit., "basenesses," "disgraces." See DISHONESTY.VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.11

    B — 2: ἐντροπή
    (Strong's #1791 — Noun Feminine — entrope — en-trop-ay' )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.12

    akin to A, No. 4, lit., "a turning in upon oneself," producing a recoil from what is unseemly or vile, is used in 1 Corinthians 6:5 ; 1 Corinthians 15:34 . It is associated with aischune in the Psalms, in the Sept., e.g., Psalms 35:26 , where it follows aischune, "let them be clothed with shame (aischune) and confusion (entrope);" Psalms 44:15 , "all the day my shame is before me and the confusion of my face has covered me;" Psalms 69:19 , "Thou knowest my reproach and my shame and my confusion;" so in Psalms 71:13 . In Psalms 109:29 the words are in the opposite order.VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.13

    Note: Aidos, used in 1 Timothy 2:9 , denotes "modesty, shamefastness" (the right spelling for the AV, "shamefacedness"). In comparison with aischune, aidos is "the nobler word, and implies the nobler motive: in it is involved an innate moral repugnance to the doing of the dishonorable act, which moral repugnance scarcely or not at all exists in aischune" (Trench, Syn, xix). See SHAMEFASTNESS.VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.14

    C — 1: αἰσχρός
    (Strong's #150 — Adjective — aischros — ahee-skhros' )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.15

    "base" (akin to No. 1), is used in 1 Corinthians 11:6 ; 1 Corinthians 14:35 ; Ephesians 5:12 . See FILTHY B, No. 1. Cp. aischrotes, "filthiness," Ephesians 5:4 .VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.16

    C — 2: ἀνεπαίσχυντος
    (Strong's #422 — Adjective — anepaischuntos — an-ep-ah'ee-skhoon-tos )
    VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.17

    an intensive adjective (a, negative, n euphonic, epi, "upon," intensive, aischune, "shame"), "not ashamed, having no cause for shame," is used in 2 Timothy 2:15 .VED-NT Ashamed, Shame.18


    A — 1: σποδός
    (Strong's #4700 — Noun Masculine — spodos — spod-os' )
    VED-NT Ashes.2

    "ashes," is found three times, twice in association with sackcloth, Matthew 11:21 ; Luke 10:13 , as tokens of grief (cp. Esther 4:1, 3 ; Isaiah 58:5 ; Isaiah 61:3 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Jonah 3:6 ); of the ashes resulting from animal sacrifices, Hebrews 9:13 ; in the OT, metaphorically, of one who describes himself as dust and "ashes," Genesis 18:27 , etc.VED-NT Ashes.3

    B — 1: τεφρόω
    (Strong's #5077 — Verb — tephroo — tef-ro'-o )
    VED-NT Ashes.4

    "to turn to ashes," is found in 2 Peter 2:6 , with reference to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.VED-NT Ashes.5

    Notes: (1) Tephra, frequently used of the "ashes" of a funeral pile, is not found in the NT.VED-NT Ashes.6

    (2) The Hebrew verb, rendered "accept" in Psalms 20:3 , "accept thy burnt sacrifice," signifies "to turn to ashes" (i.e., by sending fire from heaven). See also Exodus 27:3 ; Numbers 4:13 , "shall take away the ashes."VED-NT Ashes.7


    * For ASHORE (Acts 27:29 ) see CAST , A, No. 3VED-NT Ashore.2


    * For ASIDE see LAY , No. 8, TAKE, No. 3, TURN, Nos. 3,17, Note (1)VED-NT Aside.2


    A — 1: αἰτέω
    (Strong's #154 — Verb — aiteo — ahee-teh'-o )
    VED-NT Ask.2

    "to ask," is to be distinguished from No. 2. Aiteo more frequently suggests the attitude of a suppliant, the petition of one who is lesser in position than he to whom the petition is made; e.g., in the case of men in asking something from God, Matthew 7:7 ; a child from a parent, Matthew 7:9, 10 ; a subject from a king, Acts 12:20 ; priests and people from Pilate, Luke 23:23 (RV, "asking" for AV, "requiring"); a beggar from a passer by, Acts 3:2 . With reference to petitioning God, this verb is found in Paul's epistles in Ephesians 3:20 ; Colossians 1:9 ; in James four times, James 1:5, 6 ; James 4:2, 3 ; in 1John, five times, 1 John 3:22 ; 1 John 5:14, 15 (twice) ,16. See BEG , CALL FOR, CRAVE , DESIRE , REQUIRE.VED-NT Ask.3

    A — 2: ἐρωτάω
    (Strong's #2065 — Verb — erotao — er-o-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Ask.4

    more frequently suggests that the petitioner is on a footing of equality or familiarity with the person whom he requests. It is used of a king in making request from another king, Luke 14:32 ; of the Pharisee who "desired" Christ that He would eat with him, an indication of the inferior conception he had of Christ, Luke 7:36 ; cp. Luke 11:37 ; John 9:15 ; John 18:19 .VED-NT Ask.5

    In this respect it is significant that the Lord Jesus never used aiteo in the matter of making request to the Father. "The consciousness of His equal dignity, of His potent and prevailing intercession, speaks out in this, that as often as He asks, or declares that He will ask anything of the Father, it is always erotao, an asking, that is, upon equal terms, John 14:16 ; John 16:26 ; John 17:9, 15, 20 , never aiteo, that He uses. Martha, on the contrary, plainly reveals her poor unworthy conception of His person, that ... she ascribes that aiteo to Him which He never ascribes to Himself, John 11:22 " (Trench, Syn. xl).VED-NT Ask.6

    In passages where both words are used, the distinction should be noticed, even if it cannot be adequately represented in English. In John 16:23 , "in that day ye shall ask Me nothing," the verb is erotao, whereas in the latter part of the verse, in the sentence, "If ye shall ask anything of the Father," the verb is aiteo. The distinction is brought out in the RV margin, which renders the former clause "Ye shall ask Me no question," and this meaning is confirmed by the fact that the disciples had been desirous of "asking" Him a question (arotao, John 16:19 ). If the Holy Spirit had been given, the time for "asking" questions from the Lord would have ceased. In John 14:14 , where, not a question, but a request is made by the disciples, aiteo, is used.VED-NT Ask.7

    Both verbs are found in 1 John 5:16 : in the sentence "he shall ask, and God will give him life for them that sin not unto death," the verb is aiteo, but with regard to the sin unto death, in the sentence "not concerning this do I say that he shall make request," the verb is erotao.VED-NT Ask.8

    Later, the tendency was for erotao to approximate to aiteo. See BESEECH , DESIRE , INTREAT , PRAY , REQUEST.VED-NT Ask.9

    Note: In Matthew 19:17 , the RV, following the most authentic mss., has "Why askest (erotao) thou Me concerning that which is good?"VED-NT Ask.10

    A — 3: ἐπερωτάω
    (Strong's #1905 — Verb — eperotao — ep-er-o-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Ask.11

    a strengthened form of No. 2 (epi, "in addition"), is frequently used in the synoptic Gospels, but only twice in the Gospel of John, 18:7,21. In Romans 10:20 it is rendered "asked of" (AV, "asked after"). The more intensive character of the "asking" may be observed in Luke 2:46 ; Luke 3:14 ; Luke 6:9 ; Luke 17:20 ; Luke 20:21, 27, 40 ; Luke 22:64 ; Luke 23:3, 6, 9 . In Matthew 16:1 , it virtually signifies to demand (its meaning in later Greek). See DEMAND , DESIRE , QUESTION.VED-NT Ask.12

    Note: For the corresponding noun eperotema, see ANSWER.VED-NT Ask.13

    A — 4: πυνθάνομαι
    (Strong's #4441 — Verb — punthanomai — poon-than'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Ask.14

    to ask by way of enquiry, not by way of making a request for something, is found in the Gospels and the Acts, five times in the former, seven in the latter; in Matthew 2:4 , AV, "demanded," RV, "enquired," so Acts 21:33 . See DEMAND , INQUIRE , UNDERSTAND.VED-NT Ask.15

    A — 5: ἐξετάζω
    (Strong's #1833 — Verb — exetazo — ex-et-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Ask.16

    "to search out" (ek, "out," intensive, etazo, "to examine"), is translated "ask," in John 21:12 , AV (RV, "inquire"); in Matthew 2:8 , AV, "search;" RV, "search out," expressing the intensive force of the verb, so Matthew 10:11 (AV, "inquire"). See INQUIRE , SEARCH.VED-NT Ask.17

    A — 6: λέγω
    (Strong's #3004 — Verb — lego — leg'-o )
    VED-NT Ask.18

    "to say," occasionally signifies "to ask," as of an inquiry, the reason being that lego is used for every variety of speaking, e.g., Acts 25:20 , "I asked whether he would come to Jerusalem." See BID , BOAST , CALL , DESCRIBE , GIVE , NAME , PUT , Note (2), SAY , SPEAK , TELL , UTTER.VED-NT Ask.19

    A — 7: ἀνακρίνω
    (Strong's #350 — Verb — anakrino — an-ak-ree'-no )
    VED-NT Ask.20

    "to judge," sometimes has the meaning to ask a question; e.g., 1 Corinthians 10:25, 27 . See DISCERN , EXAMINE , JUDGE , SEARCH.VED-NT Ask.21

    Notes: (1) For apaiteo, Luke 6:30 , see REQUIRE , No. 3 (2) In Luke 22:31 , RV, exaiteomai is rendered "hath asked to have."VED-NT Ask.22

    B — 1: αἴτημα
    (Strong's #155 — Noun Neuter — aitema — ah'ee-tay-mah )
    VED-NT Ask.23

    akin to No. 1, lit., "that which has been asked for," is used in Luke 23:24 , RV, "what they asked for" (AV, "required"); Philippians 4:6 , "requests;" 1 John 5:15 , "petitions." See PETITION , REQUEST , REQUIRE.VED-NT Ask.24

    Asleep, Sleep

    A — 1: καθεύδω
    (Strong's #2518 — Verb — katheudo — kath-yoo'-do )
    VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.2

    "to go to sleep," is chiefly used of natural "sleep," and is found most frequently in the Gospels, especially Matthew and Luke. With reference to death it is found in the Lord's remark concerning Jairus' daughter, Matthew 9:24 ; Mark 5:39 ; Luke 8:52 . In the epistles of Paul it is used as follows: (a) of natural "sleep," e.g., 1 Thessalonians 5:7 ; (b) of carnal indifference to spiritual things on the part of believers, Ephesians 5:14 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 10 (as in Mark 13:36 ), a condition of insensibility to Divine things involving conformity to the world (cp. hupnos below).VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.3

    A — 2: κοιμάω
    (Strong's #2837 — Verb — koimaomai — koy-mah'-o )
    VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.4

    is used of natural "sleep," Matthew 28:13 ; Luke 22:45 ; John 11:12 ; Acts 12:6 ; of the death of the body, but only of such as are Christ's; yet never of Christ Himself, though He is "the firstfruits of them that have fallen asleep," 1 Corinthians 15:20 ; of saints who departed before Christ came, Matthew 27:52 ; Acts 13:36 ; of Lazarus, while Christ was yet upon the earth, John 11:11 ; of believers since the Ascension, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-15 ; Acts 7:60 ; 1 Corinthians 7:39 ; 1 Corinthians 11:30 ; 1 Corinthians 15:6, 18, 51 ; 2 Peter 3:4 .VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.5

    Note: "This metaphorical use of the word sleep is appropriate, because of the similarity in appearance between a sleeping body and a dead body; restfulness and peace normally characterize both. The object of the metaphor is to suggest that, as the sleeper does not cease to exist while his body sleeps, so the dead person continues to exist despite his absence from the region in which those who remain can communicate with him, and that, as sleep is known to be temporary, so the death of the body will be found to be. ...VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.6

    "That the body alone is in view in this metaphor is evident, (a) from the derivation of the word koimaomai, from keimai, to lie down (cp. anastasis, resurrection, from ana, 'up,' and histemi, to cause to stand); cp. Isaiah 14:8 , where for 'laid down,' the Sept. has 'fallen asleep;' (b) from the fact that in the NT the word resurrection is used of the body alone; (c) from Daniel 12:2 , where the physically dead are described as 'them that sleep (Sept. katheudo, as at 1 Thessalonians 5:6 ) in the dust of the earth,' language inapplicable to the spiritual part of man; moreover, when the body returns whence it came, Genesis 3:19 , the spirit returns to God who gave it, Ecclesiastes 12:7 .VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.7

    "When the physical frame of the Christian (the earthly house of our tabernacle, 2 Corinthians 5:1 ) is dissolved and returns to the dust, the spiritual part of his highly complex being, the seat of personality, departs to be with Christ, Philippians 1:23 . And since that state in which the believer, absent from the body, is at home with the Lord, 2 Corinthians 5:6-9 , is described as 'very far better' than the present state of joy in communion with God and of happy activity in His service, everywhere reflected in Paul's writings, it is evident the word 'sleep,' where applied to the departed Christians, is not intended to convey the idea that the spirit is unconscious. ...VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.8

    "The early Christians adopted the word koimeterion (which was used by the Greeks of a rest-house for strangers) for the place of interment of the bodies of their departed; thence the English word 'cemetery,' 'the sleeping place,' is derived." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine. p. 172.]VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.9

    A — 3: ἐξυπνίζω
    (Strong's #1852 — Verb — exupnizo — ex-oop-nid'-zo )
    VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.10

    "to awake" (ek, "out," hupnos, "sleep"), "to awake out of sleep," is used in John 11:11 . In the Sept., Judges 16:14, 20 ; 1 Kings 3:15 ; Job 14:12 .VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.11

    A — 4: ἀφυπνόω
    (Strong's #879 — Verb — aphupnoo — af-oop-no'-o )
    VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.12

    "to fall asleep" (apo, "away"), is used of natural "sleep," Luke 8:23 , of the Lord's falling "asleep" in the boat on the lake of Galilee.VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.13

    ( — — — )
    VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.14

    Acts 16:27 , signifies "out of sleep."VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.15

    C — 1: ὑπομένω
    (Strong's #5278 — Verb — hupnos — hoop-om-en'-o )
    VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.16

    is never used of death. In five places in the NT it is used of physical "sleep;" in Romans 13:11 , metaphorically, of a slumbering state of soul, i.e., of spiritual conformity to the world, out of which believers are warned to awake.VED-NT Asleep, Sleep.17


    1: ἀσπίς
    (Strong's #785 — Noun Masculine — aspis — as-pece' )
    VED-NT Asp.2

    "a small and very venomous serpent," the bite of which is fatal, unless the part affected is at once cut away, in Romans 3:13 is said, metaphorically, of the conversation of the ungodly.VED-NT Asp.3


    1: ὄνος
    (Strong's #3688 — Noun — onos — on'-os )
    VED-NT Ass.2

    is the usual word. Onarion, the diminutive of onos, "a young ass, or ass's colt," is used in John 12:14 , together with onos.VED-NT Ass.3

    2: ὑποζύγιον
    (Strong's #5268 — Adjective — hupozugion — hoop-od-zoog'-ee-on )
    VED-NT Ass.4

    lit., "under a yoke" (hupo, "under," zugos, "a yoke"), is used as an alternative description of the same animal, in Matthew 21:5 , where both words are found together, "Behold, thy king cometh unto thee, meek and riding upon an ass (onos), and upon a colt the foal of an ass (hupozugion)." It was upon the colt that the Lord sat, John 12:14 . In 2 Peter 2:16 , it is used of Balaam's "ass."VED-NT Ass.5


    1: σικάριος
    (Strong's #4607 — Noun Masculine — sikarios — sik-ar'-ee-os )
    VED-NT Assassin.2

    is a Latin word (sicarius, "from" sica, "a dagger") denoting "one who carries a dagger or short sword under his clothing, an assassin," Acts 21:38 , RV. Here it is used as a proper name (see the RV) of the Sicarii, "assassins," the fanatical Jewish faction which arose in Judea after Felix had rid the country of the robbers referred to by Josephus (Ant., XX). They mingled with the crowds at festivals and stabbed their political opponents unobserved (AV, "murderers").VED-NT Assassin.3


    A — 1: ἐφίστημι
    (Strong's #2186 — Verb — ephistemi — ef-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Assault.2

    lit., "to stand over" (epi, "over," histemi, "to stand"), signifies "to assault;" said in Acts 17:5 , of those who attacked the house of Jason. For its usual meanings see COME (in, to, upon), HAND (at), INSTANT , PRESENT , STAND.VED-NT Assault.3

    B — 1: ὁρμή
    (Strong's #3730 — Noun Feminine — horme — hor-may' )
    VED-NT Assault.4

    rendered "assault" in Acts 14:5 , AV; RV, "onset," corresponds to hormao, "to rush." See IMPULSE , ONSET.VED-NT Assault.5


    * For ASSAY see TRY , No. 2VED-NT Assay.2


    1: συνάγω
    (Strong's #4863 — Verb — sunago — soon-ag'-o )
    VED-NT Assemble.2

    "to assemble" (sun, "together," ago, "to bring"), is used of the "gathering together" of people or things; in Luke 12:17, 18 , "bestow," with reference to the act of "gathering" one's goods; so in Luke 15:13 , suggesting that the Prodigal, having "gathered" all his goods together, sold them off; in John 6:12 , of "gathering up" fragments; in John 18:2 , "resorted," with reference to the "assembling" of Christ with His disciples in the garden of Gethsemane, there in the Passive Voice (unsuitable, however, in an English translation). In Acts 11:26 , the RV has "were gathered together (with the church)," for AV, "assembled themselves" (possibly "they were hospitably entertained by"). The verb is not found in the most authentic mss. in Revelation 13:10 . See BESTOW , GATHER , LEAD , TAKE , No. 29.VED-NT Assemble.3

    Note: Episunago, "to gather together," is found only in the synoptic Gospels; twice of the "gathering" together of people, Mark 1:33 ; Luke 12:1 ; twice of the desire of the Lord to "gather" together the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Matthew 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 ; twice of His future act in "gathering" together His elect through the instrumentality of the angels, Matthew 24:31 ; Mark 13:27 . See GATHER.VED-NT Assemble.4

    2: συναλίζω
    (Strong's #4871 — Verb — sunalizo — soon-al-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Assemble.5

    "to gather together, to assemble," with the suggestion of a crowded meeting (sun, "with," halizo, "to crowd, or mass:" the corresponding adjective is hales, "thronged"), is used in Acts 1:4 . The meaning "to eat with," suggested by some, as if the word were derived from hals, "salt," is not to be accepted.VED-NT Assemble.6

    3: συνέρχομαι
    (Strong's #4905 — Verb — sunerchomai — soon-er'-khom-ahee )
    VED-NT Assemble.7

    "to come together" (sun, "together," erchomai, "to come"), is once rendered "assemble," Mark 14:53 , AV. It is frequently used of "coming together," especially of the "gathering" of a local church, 1 Corinthians 11:17, 18, 20, 33, 34 ; 1 Corinthians 14:23, 26 ; it is rendered "resorted" in Acts 16:13 , AV, where the RV adheres to the lit. rendering, "came together." See ACCOMPANY.VED-NT Assemble.8

    Notes: (1) In Acts 15:25 , ginomai, "to become," is translated "having come to (one accord)," correcting the AV, "being assembled with (one accord)."VED-NT Assemble.9

    (2) Sunagoge, akin to A, No. 1, is lit., "a place where people assemble." In Acts 13:43 the RV suitably has "synagogue," for the AV "congregation," the building standing by metonymy for the people therein (cp. Matthew 10:17 , etc.). In James 2:2 (AV, "assembly") the word is "synagogue" (RV). See SYNAGOGUE.VED-NT Assemble.10

    (3) Episunagoge, akin to No. 1, Note, "an assembling together," is used in 2 Thessalonians 2:1 , of the rapture of the saints into the air to meet the Lord, "our gathering together;" in Hebrews 10:25 , of the "gatherings" of believers on earth during the present period. See GATHERING.VED-NT Assemble.11


    1: ἐκκλησία
    (Strong's #1577 — Noun Feminine — ekklesia — ek-klay-see'-ah )
    VED-NT Assembly.2

    from ek, "out of," and klesis, "a calling" (kaleo, "to call"), was used among the Greeks of a body of citizens "gathered" to discuss the affairs of state, Acts 19:39 . In the Sept. it is used to designate the "gathering" of Israel, summoned for any definite purpose, or a "gathering" regarded as representative of the whole nation. In Acts 7:38 it is used of Israel; in 19:32,41, of a riotous mob. It has two applications to companies of Christians, (a) to the whole company of the redeemed throughout the present era, the company of which Christ said, "I will build My Church," Matthew 16:18 , and which is further described as "the Church which is His Body," Ephesians 1:22 ; Ephesians 5:23 , (b) in the singular number (e.g., Matthew 18:17 , RV marg., "congregation"), to a company consisting of professed believers, e.g., Acts 20:28 ; 1 Corinthians 1:2 ; Galatians 1:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:1 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:5 , and in the plural, with reference to churches in a district.VED-NT Assembly.3

    There is an apparent exception in the RV of Acts 9:31 , where, while the AV has "churches," the singular seems to point to a district; but the reference is clearly to the church as it was in Jerusalem, from which it had just been scattered, Acts 8:1 . Again, in Romans 16:23 , that Gaius was the host of "the whole church," simply suggests that the "assembly" in Corinth had been accustomed to meet in his house, where also Paul was entertained. See CHURCH.VED-NT Assembly.4

    2: πανήγυρις
    (Strong's #3831 — Noun Feminine — paneguris — pan-ay'-goo-ris )
    VED-NT Assembly.5

    from pan, "all," and agora, "any kind of assembly," denoted, among the Greeks, an assembly of the people in contrast to the council of national leaders, or a "gathering" of the people in honor of a god, or for some public festival, such as the Olympic games. The word is used in Hebrews 12:23 , coupled with the word "church," as applied to all believers who form the body of Christ.VED-NT Assembly.6

    3: πλῆθος
    (Strong's #4128 — Noun Neuter — plethos — play'-thos )
    VED-NT Assembly.7

    "a multitude, the whole number," is translated "assembly" in Acts 23:7 , RV. See BUNDLE , COMPANY , MULTITUDE.VED-NT Assembly.8

    Note: For sunagoge, see ASSEMBLE , Note (2).VED-NT Assembly.9


    * For ASSENT see AGREE , No. 2VED-NT Assent.2


    * For ASSIST see HELP B, NoteVED-NT Assist.2

    Assurance, Assure, Assuredly

    A — 1: πίστις
    (Strong's #4102 — Noun Feminine — pistis — pis'-tis )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.2

    "faith," has the secondary meaning of "an assurance or guarantee," e.g., Acts 17:31 ; by raising Christ from the dead, God has given "assurance" that the world will be judged by Him (the AV margin, "offered faith" does not express the meaning). Cp. 1 Timothy 5:12 , where "faith" means "pledge." See BELIEF , FAITH , FIDELITY.VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.3

    A — 2: πληροφορία
    (Strong's #4136 — Noun Feminine — plerophoria — play-rof-or-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.4

    "a fullness, abundance," also means "full assurance, entire confidence;" lit., a "full-carrying" (pleros, "full," phero, "to carry"). Some explain it as full fruitfulness (cp. RV, "fullness" in Hebrews 6:11 ). In 1 Thessalonians 1:5 it describes the willingness and freedom of spirit enjoyed by those who brought the Gospel to Thessalonica; in Colossians 2:2 , the freedom of mind and confidence resulting from an understanding in Christ; in Hebrews 6:11 (AV, "full assurance," RV, "fullness"), the engrossing effect of the expectation of the fulfillment of God's promises; in Hebrews 10:22 , the character of the faith by which we are to draw near to God. See FULLNESS.VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.5

    A — 3: ὑπόστασις
    (Strong's #5287 — Noun Feminine — hupostasis — hoop-os'-tas-is )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.6

    lit., "a standing under, support" (hupo, "under," histemi, "to stand"), hence, an "assurance," is so rendered in Hebrews 11:1 , RV, for AV, "substance." It here may signify a title-deed, as giving a guarantee, or reality. See CONFIDENCE , PERSON , SUBSTANCE.VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.7

    Note: In Acts 16:10 , for the AV (of sumbibazomai), "assuredly gathering," see CONCLUDE.VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.8

    B — 1: πιστόω
    (Strong's #4104 — Verb — pistoo — pis-to'-o )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.9

    "to trust or give assurance to" (cp. A, No. 1), has a secondary meaning, in the Passive Voice, "to be assured of," 2 Timothy 3:14 .VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.10

    B — 2: πληροφορέω
    (Strong's #4135 — Verb — plerophoreo — play-rof-or-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.11

    akin to A, No. 2, "to bring in full measure, to fulfill," also signifies "to be fully assured," Romans 4:21 , RV, of Abraham's faith. In Romans 14:5 it is said of the apprehension of the will of God. So in Colossians 4:12 in the best mss. In these three places it is used subjectively, with reference to an effect upon the mind. For its other and objective use, referring to things external, see FULFILL; see also BELIEVE , KNOW , PERSUADE , PROOF. In the Sept., Ecclesiastes 8:11 .VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.12

    B — 3: ὀφειλή
    (Strong's #3782 — Noun Feminine — peitho — of-i-lay' )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.13

    "to persuade," is rendered "assure" in 1 John 3:19 (marg., "persuade"), where the meaning is that of confidence toward God consequent upon loving in deed and in truth. See BELIEVE , CONFIDENCE , FRIEND , OBEY , PERSUADE , TRUST , YIELD.VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.14

    C — 1: ἀσφαλῶς
    (Strong's #806 — Adverb — asphalos — as-fal-oce' )
    VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.15

    means (a) "safely," Mark 14:44 ; Acts 16:23 ; (b) "assuredly," Acts 2:36 ; the knowledge there enjoined involves freedom from fear of contradiction, with an intimation of the impossibility of escape from the effects. See SAFELY.VED-NT Assurance, Assure, Assuredly.16

    Astonish, Astonishment

    * For ASTONISH and ASTONISHMENT see AMAZE and AMAZEMENTVED-NT Astonish, Astonishment.2


    * For ASTRAY see ERRVED-NT Astray.2


    * For ASUNDER see BREAK , BURST , CUT , PART , PUT , REND, and SAWVED-NT Asunder.2


    * For AT (preposition, conjunction, or participle not dealt with in this resource)VED-NT At.2


    * For ATHIRST see THIRSTVED-NT Athirst.2


    1: καταλλαγή
    (Strong's #2643 — Noun Feminine — katallage — kat-al-lag-ay' )
    VED-NT Atonement.2

    translated "atonement" in the AV of Romans 5:11 , signifies, not "atonement," but "reconciliation," as in the RV. See also Romans 11:15 ; 2 Corinthians 5:18, 19 . So with the corresponding verb katallasso, see under RECONCILE. "Atonement" (the explanation of this English word as being "at-one-ment" is entirely fanciful) is frequently found in the OT. See, for instance, Leviticus, chapters 16 and 17. The corresponding NT words are hilasmos, "propitiation," 1 John 2:2 ; 1 John 4:10 , and hilasterion, Romans 3:25 ; Hebrews 9:5 , "mercy-seat," the covering of the ark of the covenant. These describe the means (in and through the person and work of the Lord Jesus Christ, in His death on the cross by the shedding of His blood in His vicarious sacrifice for sin) by which God shows mercy to sinners. See PROPITIATION.VED-NT Atonement.3


    1: καταντάω
    (Strong's #2658 — Verb — katantao — kat-an-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Attain.2

    a strengthened form of antao, "to come opposite to," signifies "to reach, to arrive at." It is used in its local significance several times in the Acts, e.g., 27:12, RV, "could reach." In its metaphorical sense of "attaining" to something it is used in three places: Acts 26:7 , of the fulfillment of the promise of God made to the ancestors of Israel, to which promise the twelve tribes "hope to attain" (RV); in Ephesians 4:13 , of "attaining" to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God; in Philippians 3:11 , of the paramount aims of the Apostle's life, "if by any means," he says, "I might attain unto the resurrection from the dead," not the physical resurrection, which is assured to all believers hereafter, but to the present life of identification with Christ in His resurrection. For the metaphorical sense in 1 Corinthians 10:11 ; 1 Corinthians 14:36 , see ARRIVE , A, No. 1. See also COME , No. 28.VED-NT Attain.3

    2: καταλαμβάνω
    (Strong's #2638 — Verb — katalambano — kat-al-am-ban'-o )
    VED-NT Attain.4

    "to seize, to apprehend," whether physically or mentally, is rendered "attain" in the sense of making something one's own, appropriating a thing, Romans 9:30 , said of the Gentiles, who through the Gospel have "attained" to, or laid hold of, the righteousness which is of faith, in contrast to the present condition of Israel; in 1 Corinthians 9:24 , of securing a prize, RV, "attain," for AV, "obtain." See APPREHEND.VED-NT Attain.5

    3: φθάνω
    (Strong's #5348 — Verb — phthano — fthan'-o )
    VED-NT Attain.6

    "to anticipate," also means "to reach, attain to a thing;" negatively of Israel (see ARRIVE , No. 5). The only other passage where it has this significance is Philippians 3:16 , "we have attained." See COME , PREVENT.VED-NT Attain.7

    4: τυγχάνω
    (Strong's #5177 — Verb — tunchano — toong-khan'-o )
    VED-NT Attain.8

    "to reach, meet with," signifies "to attain to," in Luke 20:35 , RV (for AV, "obtain"). See CHANCE , ENJOY , OBTAIN.VED-NT Attain.9

    Notes: (1) Parakoloutheo, rendered "attained" in 1 Timothy 4:6 , AV (RV, "hast followed"), does not signify attainment, but "following fully." It is an intensive form of akoloutheo, "to follow." So in 2 Timothy 3:10 , RV, "didst follow" (AV, "fully known"); "follow fully" would be suitable. In Mark 16:17 it is translated "follow;" in Luke 1:3 , "having traced" (RV). See FOLLOW , KNOW , Notes (1), UNDERSTAND.VED-NT Attain.10

    (2) Lambano, incorrectly translated "attained" in the AV of Philippians 3:12 , means "obtained" (RV).VED-NT Attain.11

    Attend, Attendance, Attendant

    A — 1: προσέχω
    (Strong's #4337 — Verb — prosecho — pros-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.2

    "to take heed, give heed," is said of the priests who "gave attendance at the altar," Hebrews 7:13 . It suggests devotion of thought and effort to a thing. In 1 Timothy 4:13 (in the exhortation regarding the public reading of the Scriptures), the RV translates it "give heed," for the AV, "give attendance." In Acts 16:14 , "to give heed" (for AV, "attended"). See BEWARE , GIVE , No. 17, REGARD.VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.3

    A — 2: προσκαρτερέω
    (Strong's #4342 — Verb — proskartereo — pros-kar-ter-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.4

    "to be steadfast," a strengthened form of kartereo (pros, "towards," intensive, karteros, "strong"), denotes to continue steadfastly in a thing and give unremitting care to it, e.g., Romans 13:6 , of rulers in the discharge of their functions. See CONTINUE , WAIT. In the Sept., Numbers 13:21 .VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.5

    B — 1: εὐπρόσεδρος
    (Strong's #2145 — Adjective — euparedros — yoo-pros'-ed-ros )
    VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.6

    lit., "sitting well beside" (eu, "well," para, "beside," hedra, "a seat"), i.e., sitting constantly by, and so applying oneself diligently to, anything, is used in 1 Corinthians 7:35 , with pros, "upon," "that ye may attend upon." Some mss. have euprosedron.VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.7

    C — 1: ὑπηρέτης
    (Strong's #5257 — Noun Masculine — huperetes — hoop-ay-ret'-ace )
    VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.8

    lit.,"an under-rower;" hence, "a servant," is rendered "attendant" in Luke 4:20 and Acts 13:5 , RV. See MINISTER , OFFICER , SERVANT.VED-NT Attend, Attendance, Attendant.9


    * For ATTENTIVE, in the AV of Luke 19:48 , see HANG , No. 2VED-NT Attentive.2


    * For AUDIENCE see HEARING , A, No. 1, B, No. 1VED-NT Audience.2


    * Aught: See +, page 9 (footnote). It is wrongly spelled "ought" in the AV in some places, e.g., in John 4:33 , "ought to eat" (there is no word in the original there for "ought").VED-NT Aught.2


    1: αὐστηρός
    (Strong's #840 — Adjective — austeros — ow-stay-ros' )
    VED-NT Austere.2

    akin to auo, "to dry up" (Eng., "austere"), primarily denotes "stringent to the taste," like new wine not matured by age, unripe fruit, etc; hence, "harsh, severe," Luke 19:21, 22 .VED-NT Austere.3

    Note: Synonymous with austeros, but to be distinguished from it, is skleros (from skello, "to be dry"). It was applied to that which lacks moisture, and so is rough and disageeable to the touch, and hence came to denote "harsh, stern, hard." It is used by Matthew to describe the unprofitable servant's remark concerning his master, in the parable corresponding to that in Luke 19 (see austeros, above). Austeros is derived from a word having to do with the taste, skleros, "with the touch." Austeros is not necessarily a term of reproach, whereas skleros is always so, and indicates a harsh, even inhuman, character. Austeros is "rather the exaggeration of a virtue pushed too far, than an absolute vice" (Trench, Syn. xiv). Skleros is used of the character of a man, Matthew 25:24 ; of a saying, John 6:60 ; of the difficulty and pain of kicking against the ox-goads, Acts 9:5 ; Acts 26:14 ; of rough winds, James 3:4 and of harsh speeches, Jude 1:15 . See FIERCE , HARD. Cp. sklerotes, "hardness," skleruno, "to harden," sklerokardia, "hardness of heart," and sklerotrachelos, "stiff-necked."VED-NT Austere.4


    1: αἴτιος
    (Strong's #159 — Adjective — aitios — ah'ee-tee-os )
    VED-NT Author.2

    an adjective (cp. aitia, a cause), denotes "that which causes something." This and No. 2 are both translated "author" in Hebrews. Aitios, in Hebrews 5:9 , describes Christ as the "Author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey Him," signifying that Christ, exalted and glorified as our High Priest, on the ground of His finished work on earth, has become the personal mediating cause (RV, margin) of eternal salvation. It is difficult to find an adequate English equivalent to express the meaning here. Christ is not the merely formal cause of our salvation. He is the concrete and active cause of it. He has not merely caused or effected it, He is, as His name, "Jesus," implies, our salvation itself, Luke 2:30 ; Luke 3:6 .VED-NT Author.3

    2: ἀρχηγός
    (Strong's #747 — Adjective — archegos — ar-khay-gos' )
    VED-NT Author.4

    translated "Prince" in Acts 3:15 (marg., "Author") and Acts 5:31 , but "Author" in Hebrews 2:10 , RV, "Captain," RV marg., and AV, and "Author" in Hebrews 12:2 , primarily signifies "one who takes a lead in, or provides the first occasion of, anything." In the Sept. it is used of the chief of a tribe or family, Numbers 13:2 (RV, prince); of the "heads" of the children of Israel, Numbers 13:3 ; a captain of the whole people, Numbers 14:4 ; in Micah 1:13 , of Lachish as the leader of the sin of the daughter of Sion: there, as in Hebrews 2:10 , the word suggest a combination of the meaning of leader with that of the source from whence a thing proceeds. That Christ is the Prince of life signifies, as Chrysostom says, that "the life He had was not from another; the Prince or Author of life must be He who has life from Himself." But the word does not necessarily combine the idea of the source or originating cause with that of leader. In Hebrews 12:2 where Christ is called the "Author and Perfecter of faith," He is represented as the one who takes precedence in faith and is thus the perfect exemplar of it. The pronoun "our" does not correspond to anything in the original, and may well be omitted. Christ in the days of His flesh trod undeviatingly the path of faith, and as the Perfecter has brought it to a perfect end in His own person. Thus He is the leader of all others who tread that path. See PRINCE.VED-NT Author.5

    Note: In 1 Corinthians 14:33 , the AV, "the author," represents no word in the original; RV "a God of."VED-NT Author.6


    A — 1: ἐξουσία
    (Strong's #1849 — Noun Feminine — exousia — ex-oo-see'-ah )
    VED-NT Authority.2

    denotes "authority" (from the impersonal verb exesti, "it is lawful"). From the meaning of "leave or permission," or liberty of doing as one pleases, it passed to that of "the ability or strength with which one is endued," then to that of the "power of authority," the right to exercise power, e.g., Matthew 9:6 ; Matthew 21:23 ; 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; or "the power of rule or government," the power of one whose will and commands must be obeyed by others, e.g., Matthew 28:18 ; John 17:2 ; Jude 1:25 ; Revelation 12:10 ; Revelation 17:13 ; more specifically of apostolic "authority," 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; 2 Corinthians 13:10 ; the "power" of judicial decision, John 19:10 ; of "managing domestic affairs," Mark 13:34 . By metonymy, or name-change (the substitution of a suggestive word for the name of the thing meant), it stands for "that which is subject to authority or rule," Luke 4:6 (RV, "authority," for the AV "power"); or, as with the English "authority," "one who possesses authority, a ruler, magistrate," Romans 13:1-3 ; Luke 12:11 ; Titus 3:1 ; or "a spiritual potentate," e.g., Ephesians 3:10 ; Ephesians 6:12 ; Colossians 1:16 ; Colossians 2:10, 15 ; 1 Peter 3:22 . The RV usually translates it "authority."VED-NT Authority.3

    In 1 Corinthians 11:10 it is used of the veil with which a woman is required to cover herself in an assembly or church, as a sign of the Lord's "authority" over the church. See JURISDICTION, LIBERTY , POWER , RIGHT , STRENGTH.VED-NT Authority.4

    A — 2: ἐπιταγή
    (Strong's #2003 — Noun Feminine — epitage — ep-ee-tag-ay' )
    VED-NT Authority.5

    an injunction (from epi, "upon," tasso, "to order"), is once rendered "authority," Titus 2:15 (RV, marg., "commandment"). See COMMANDMENT.VED-NT Authority.6

    Note: The corresponding verb is epitasso, "to command." See COMMAND.VED-NT Authority.7

    A — 3: ὑπεροχή
    (Strong's #5247 — Noun Feminine — huperoche — hoop-er-okh-ay' )
    VED-NT Authority.8

    primarily, "a projection, eminence," as a mountain peak, hence, metaphorically, "pre-eminence, superiority, excellency," is once rendered "authority," 1 Timothy 2:2 , AV (marg., "eminent place"), RV, "high place," of the position of magistrates; in 1 Corinthians 2:1 , "excellency" (of speech). Cp. huperecho, "to surpass." See EXCELLENCY.VED-NT Authority.9

    A — 4: δυνάστης
    (Strong's #1413 — Noun Masculine — dunastes — doo-nas'-tace )
    VED-NT Authority.10

    akin to dunamis, "power," (Eng., "dynasty,") signifies "a potentate, a high officer;" in Acts 8:27 , of a high officer, it is rendered "of great authority;" in Luke 1:52 , RV, "princes, (AV, "the mighty"); in 1 Timothy 6:15 it is said of God ("Potentate"). See MIGHTY , POTENTATE.VED-NT Authority.11

    B — 1: ἐξουσιάζω
    (Strong's #1850 — Verb — exousiazo — ex-oo-see-ad'-zo )
    VED-NT Authority.12

    akin to A, No. 1, signifies "to exercise power," Luke 22:25 ; 1 Corinthians 6:12 ; 1 Corinthians 7:4 (twice). See POWER.VED-NT Authority.13

    B — 2: εὐωδία
    (Strong's #2175 — Noun Feminine — katexousiazo — yoo-o-dee'-ah )
    VED-NT Authority.14

    kata, "down," intensive, and No. 1, "to exercise authority upon," is used in Matthew 20:25 ; Mark 10:42 .VED-NT Authority.15

    B — 3: αὐθεντέω
    (Strong's #831 — Verb — authenteo — ow-then-teh'-o )
    VED-NT Authority.16

    from autos, "self," and a lost noun hentes, probably signifying working (Eng., "authentic"), "to execise authority on one's own account, to domineer over," is used in 1 Timothy 2:12 , AV, "to usurp authority," RV, "to have dominion." In the earlier usage of the word it signified one who with his own hand killed either others or himself. Later it came to denote one who acts on his own "authority;" hence, "to exercise authority, dominion." See DOMINION , Note.VED-NT Authority.17


    1: φθινοπωρινός
    (Strong's #5352 — adjective — phthinoporinos — fthin-op-o-ree-nos' )
    VED-NT Autumn.2

    an adjective signifying autumnal (from phthinoporon, "late autumn," from phthino, "to waste away," or "wane," and opora, "autumn"), is used in Jude 1:12 , where unfruitful and worthless men are figuratively described as trees such as they are at the close of "autumn," fruitless and leafless (AV, "trees whose fruit withereth").VED-NT Autumn.3


    1: ἰσχύω
    (Strong's #2480 — Verb — ischuo — is-khoo'-o )
    VED-NT Avail.2

    signifies (a) "to be strong in body, to be robust, in sound health," Matthew 9:12 ; Mark 2:17 ; (b) "to have power," as of the Gospel, Acts 19:20 ; to prevail against, said of spiritual enemies, Revelation 12:8 ; of an evil spirit against exorcists, Acts 19:16 ; (c) "to be of force, to be effective, capable of producing results," Matthew 5:13 ("it is good for nothing;" lit., "it availeth nothing"); Galatians 5:6 ; in Hebrews 9:17 it apparently has the meaning "to be valid" (RV, "for doth it ever avail...?," for AV, "it is of no strength"). It is translated "avail" with reference to prayer, in James 5:16 ; cp. the strengthened form exischuo in Ephesians 3:18 . See ABLE , CAN , GOOD , MAY , PREVAIL , STRENGTH , WHOLE , WORK.VED-NT Avail.3

    Avenge, Avenger

    A — 1: ἐκδικέω
    (Strong's #1556 — Verb — ekdikeo — ek-dik-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.2

    ek, "from," dike, "justice," i.e., that which proceeds from justice, means (a) "to vindicate a person's right," (b) "to avenge a thing." With the meaning (a), it is used in the parable of the unjust judge, Luke 18:3, 5 , of the "vindication" of the rights of the widow; with the meaning (b) it is used in Revelation 6:10 ; Revelation 19:2 , of the act of God in "avenging" the blood of the saints; in 2 Corinthians 10:6 , of the Apostle's readiness to use his apostolic authority in punishing disobedience on the part of his readers; here the RV substitutes "avenge" for the AV, "revenge;" in Romans 12:19 of "avenging" oneself, against which the believer is warned.VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.3

    Note: In Revelation 18:20 , the AV mistranslates krino and krima "hath avenged you;" RV, "hath judged your judgment."VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.4

    B — 1: ἔκδικος
    (Strong's #1558 — Adjective — ekdikos — ek'-dik-os )
    VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.5

    primarily, "without law," then, "one who exacts a penalty from a person, an avenger, a punisher," is used in Romans 13:4 of a civil authority in the discharge of his function of executing wrath on the evildoer (AV, wrongly, "revenger"); in 1 Thessalonians 4:6 , of God as the avenger of the one who wrongs his brother, here particularly in the matter of adultery.VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.6

    B — 2: ἐκδίκησις
    (Strong's #1557 — Noun Feminine — ekdikesis — ek-dik'-ay-sis )
    VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.7

    "vengeance," is used with the verb poieo, "to make," i.e., to avenge, in Luke 18:7, 8 ; Acts 7:24 ; twice it is used in statements that "vengeance" belongs to God, Romans 12:19 ; Hebrews 10:30 . In 2 Thessalonians 1:8 it is said of the act of Divine justice which will be meted out to those who know not God and obey not the Gospel, when the Lord comes in flaming fire at His second advent. In the Divine exercise of judgment there is no element of vindictiveness, nothing by way of taking revenge. In Luke 21:22 , it is used of the "days of vengeance" upon the Jewish people; in 1 Peter 2:14 , of civil governors as those who are sent of God "for vengeance on evildoers" (AV, "punishment"); in 2 Corinthians 7:11 , of the "self-avenging" of believers, in their godly sorrow for wrong doing, RV, "avenging," for AV, "revenge." See PUNISHMENT , VENGEANCE.VED-NT Avenge, Avenger.8


    1: ἐκκλίνω
    (Strong's #1578 — Verb — ekklino — ek-klee'-no )
    VED-NT Avoid.2

    "to turn away from, to turn aside," lit., "to bend out of" (ek, "out," klino, "to bend"), is used in Romans 3:12 , of the sinful condition of mankind, AV, gone out of the way," RV, "turned aside;" in Romans 16:17 , of turning away from those who cause offenses and occasions of stumbling (AV, "avoid"); in 1 Peter 3:11 of turning away from evil (AV, "eschew"). See ESCHEW , WAY.VED-NT Avoid.3

    2: ἐκτρέπω
    (Strong's #1624 — Verb — ektrepo — ek-trep'-o )
    VED-NT Avoid.4

    lit., "to turn or twist out," is used in the Passive Voice in Hebrews 12:13 , "that which is lame be not turned out of the way" (or rather, "put out of joint"); in the sense of the Middle Voice (though Passive in form) of turning aside, or turning away from, 2 Timothy 4:4 (AV, "shall be turned unto fables," RV, "shall turn aside"); in 1 Timothy 1:6 , of those who having swerved from the faith, have turned aside unto vain talking; in 2 Timothy 5:15 , of those who have turned aside after Satan; in 2 Timothy 6:20 , RV, of "turning away from (AV, 'avoiding') profane babblings and oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called." See TURN. In the Sept., Amos 5:8 .VED-NT Avoid.5

    3: παραιτέομαι
    (Strong's #3868 — Verb — paraiteomai — par-ahee-teh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Avoid.6

    lit., "to ask aside" (para, "aside," aiteo, "to ask"), signifies (a) "to beg of (or from) another," Mark 15:6 , in the most authentic mss.; (b) "to deprecate," (1) "to entreat (that) not," Hebrews 12:19 ; (2) "to refuse, decline, avoid," 1 Timothy 4:7 ; 1 Timothy 5:11 ; 2 Timothy 2:23 ; Titus 3:10 (see No. 4 for Titus 3:9 ); Hebrews 12:25 ; (c) "to beg off, ask to be excused," Luke 14:18, 19 (some would put Hebrews 12:25 here). See EXCUSE , INTREAT , REFUSE , REJECT.VED-NT Avoid.7

    4: περιΐστημι
    (Strong's #4026 — Verb — periistemi — per-ee-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Avoid.8

    in the Active Voice, means "to stand around" (peri, "around," histemi, "to stand"), John 11:42 ; Acts 25:7 ; in the Middle Voice, "to turn oneself about," for the purpose of avoiding something, "to avoid, shun," said of profane babblings, 2 Timothy 2:16 ; of foolish questions, genealogies, strife, etc., Titus 3:9 (AV, "avoid"). See SHUN , STAND.VED-NT Avoid.9

    5: στέλλω
    (Strong's #4724 — Verb — stello — stel'-lo )
    VED-NT Avoid.10

    "to place," sometimes signifies, in the Middle Voice, "to take care against a thing, to avoid," 2 Corinthians 8:20 ; in 2 Thessalonians 3:6 , "of withdrawing from a person." See WITHDRAW.VED-NT Avoid.11


    * For AWAIT (AV of Acts 9:24 ; Acts 20:3, 19 ; Acts 23:30 ) see PLOTVED-NT Await.2


    1: ἐγείρω
    (Strong's #1453 — Verb — egeiro — eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Awake.2

    is used, (a) in the Active Voice, of "arousing a person from sleep;" in Matthew 8:25 of the act of the disciples in awaking the Lord; in Acts 12:7 , of the awaking of Peter, RV, "awake him;" (b) in the Passive Voice, with a Middle significance, of the virgins, in "arousing themselves" from their slumber, Matthew 25:7 ; in Romans 13:11 ; Ephesians 5:14 , metaphorically, "of awaking from a state of moral sloth." See ARISE , LIFT , RAISE , REAR, RISE , STAND , TAKE.VED-NT Awake.3

    2: διεγείρω
    (Strong's #1326 — Verb — diegeiro — dee-eg-i'-ro )
    VED-NT Awake.4

    is used of "awaking from natural sleep," Matthew 1:24 ; Mark 4:38 ; of the act of the disciples in "awaking" the Lord, Luke 8:24 (cp. egeiro, in Matthew 8:25 ); metaphorically, "of arousing the mind," 2 Peter 1:13 ; 2 Peter 3:1 . See ARISE , RAISE , STIR UP.VED-NT Awake.5

    3: ἐκνήφω
    (Strong's #1594 — Verb — eknepho — ek-nay'-fo )
    VED-NT Awake.6

    primarily, "to return to one's sense from drunkenness to become sober," is so used in the Sept., e.g., Genesis 9:24 ; metaphorically, in Joel 1:5 ; Habakkuk 2:7 ; lit., in Habakkuk 2:19 , of the words of an idolater to an image; in the NT in 1 Corinthians 15:34 , "Awake up righteously and sin not" (RV), suggesting a return to soberness of mind from the stupor consequent upon the influence of evil doctrine.VED-NT Awake.7

    4: ἐξυπνίζω
    (Strong's #1852 — Verb — exupnizo — ex-oop-nid'-zo )
    VED-NT Awake.8

    from ek, "out of," and hupnos, "sleep," "to rouse a person out of sleep," is used metaphorically, in John 11:11 .VED-NT Awake.9

    5: διαγρηγορέω
    (Strong's #1235 — Verb — diagregoreo — dee-ag-ray-gor-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Awake.10

    dia, intensive, gregoreo, "to watch," is used in Luke 9:32 , RV, "were fully awake." AV "were awake".VED-NT Awake.11


    * For AWARE see KNOW , A, No. 1, end of 1st par.VED-NT Aware.2


    * Note: This word is to be taken in connection with various verbs. The verb airo, "to seize, to lift up, take away," is translated "away with," in Luke 23:18 ; John 19:15 ; Acts 21:36 ; Acts 22:22 , implying a forcible removal for the purpose of putting to death. See BEAR , No. 9.VED-NT Away.2


    1: φοβέω
    (Strong's #5399 — Verb — deos — fob-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Awe.2

    "awe," is so rendered in Hebrews 12:28 , RV; the previous word "reverence" represents the inferior reading aidos (see SHAMEFASTNESS).VED-NT Awe.3


    1: ἀξίνη
    (Strong's #513 — Noun Feminine — axine — ax-ee'-nay )
    VED-NT Axe.2

    "an axe," akin to agnumi, "to break," is found in Matthew 3:10 , and Luke 3:9 .VED-NT Axe.3

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