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    Jacinth — Justification, Justifier, Justify


    A — 1: ὑάκινθος
    (Strong's #5192 — Noun Masculine — huakinthos — hoo-ak'-in-thos )
    VED-NT Jacinth.2

    primarily denoted "a hyacinth," probably the dark blue iris; then, "a precious stone," most likely the sapphire, Revelation 21:20 .VED-NT Jacinth.3

    B — 1: ὑακίνθινος
    (Strong's #5191 — Adjective — huakinthinos — hoo-ak-in'-thee-nos )
    VED-NT Jacinth.4

    signifies "hyacinthine," perhaps primarily having the color of the hyacinth. Some regard its color as that of the martagon lily, a dusky red. According to Swete, the word in Revelation 9:17 is "doubtless meant to describe the blue smoke of a sulphurous flame."VED-NT Jacinth.5


    1: δεσμοφύλαξ
    (Strong's #1200 — Noun Masculine — desmophulax — des-mof-oo'-lax )
    VED-NT Jailer.2

    "a prison keeper, jailer" (desmos, "a band," phulax, "a guard, keeper"), occurs in Acts 16:23, 27, 36 .VED-NT Jailer.3


    * For JANGLING (1 Timothy 1:6 , AV) see TALKING (vain)VED-NT Jangling.2


    1: ἴασπις
    (Strong's #2393 — Noun Feminine — iaspis — ee'-as-pis )
    VED-NT Jasper.2

    a Phoenician word (cp. Heb. yash'pheh, e.g., Exodus 28:20 ; Exodus 39:16 ), seems to have denoted a translucent stone of various colors, especially that of fire, Revelation 4:3 ; Revelation 21:11, 18, 19 . The sardius and the jasper, of similar color, were the first and last stones on the breastplate of the high priest, Exodus 28:17, 20 .VED-NT Jasper.3

    Jealous, Jealousy

    A — 1: ζῆλος
    (Strong's #2205 — Noun — zelos — dzay'-los )
    VED-NT Jealous, Jealousy.2

    "zeal, jealousy," is rendered "jealousy" in the RV (AV, "envying") in Romans 13:13 ; 1 Corinthians 3:3 ; James 3:14, 16 ; in 2 Corinthians 12:20 (AV, "envyings"); in Galatians 5:20 , RV "jealousies" (AV, "emulations"); in Acts 5:17 (AV, "indignation"); in Acts 13:45 (AV, "envy"); in 2 Corinthians 11:2 it is used in the phrase "with a godly jealousy," lit., "with a jealousy of God" (RV, marg.). See ENVY.VED-NT Jealous, Jealousy.3

    B — 1: ζηλόω
    (Strong's #2206 — Verb — zeloo — dzay-lo'-o )
    VED-NT Jealous, Jealousy.4

    akin to A, "to be jealous, to burn with jealousy" (otherwise, to seek or desire eagerly), is rendered "moved with jealousy," in Acts 7:9 ; Acts 17:5 , RV (AV, "moved with envy"); in 1 Corinthians 13:4 , "envieth (not)," AV and RV; in James 4:2 , RV marg., "are jealous" (text "covet;" AV, "desire to have"). See AFFECT , Note, DESIRE.VED-NT Jealous, Jealousy.5

    B — 2: παραζηλόω
    (Strong's #3863 — Verb — parazeloo — par-ad-zay-lo'-o )
    VED-NT Jealous, Jealousy.6

    "to provoke to jealousy" (para, "beside," used intensively, and No. 1), is found in Romans 10:19 ; Romans 11:11 , of God's dealings with Israel through his merciful dealings with Gentiles; in Romans 11:14 , RV, "I may provoke to jealousy" (AV, "... emulation") of the Apostle's evangelical ministry to Gentiles with a view to stirring his fellow nationals to a sense of their need and responsibilities regarding the Gospel; in 1 Corinthians 10:22 , of the provocation of God on the part of believers who compromise their Divine relationship by partaking of the table of demons; in Galatians 5:20 , of the works of the flesh.VED-NT Jealous, Jealousy.7


    * For JEOPARDY see DANGERVED-NT Jeopardy.2


    1: εὐτραπελία
    (Strong's #2160 — Noun Feminine — eutrapelia — yoo-trap-el-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Jesting.2

    properly denotes "wit, facetiousness, versatility" (lit., "easily turning," from eu, "well," trepo, "to turn"). It was used in the literal sense to describe the quick movements of apes and persons. Pericles speaks of the Athenians of his day (430 B.C.) as distinguished by a happy and gracious "flexibility." In the next century Aristotle uses it of "versatility" in the give and take of social intercourse, quick repartee. In the sixth century, B.C., the poet Pindar speaks of one Jason as never using a word of "vain lightness," a meaning deteriorated, and it came to denote "coarse jesting, ribaldry," as in Ephesians 5:4 , where it follows morologia, "foolish talking."VED-NT Jesting.3


    1: Ἰησοῦς
    (Strong's #2424 — Noun Masculine — iesous — ee-ay-sooce' )
    VED-NT Jesus.2

    is a transliteration of the Heb. "Joshua," meaning "Jehovah is salvation," i.e., "is the Savior," "a common name among the Jews, e.g., Exodus 17:9 ; Luke 3:29 (RV); Colossians 4:11 . It was given to the Son of God in Incarnation as His personal name, in obedience to the command of an angel to Joseph, the husband of His Mother, Mary, shortly before He was born, Matthew 1:21 . By it He is spoken of throughout the Gospel narratives generally, but not without exception, as in Mark 16:19, 20 ; Luke 7:13 , and a dozen other places in that Gospel, and a few in John.VED-NT Jesus.3

    "'Jesus Christ' occurs only in Matthew 1:1, 18 ; Matthew 16:21 , marg.; Mark 1:1 ; John 1:17 ; John 17:3 . In Acts the name 'Jesus' is found frequently. 'Lord Jesus' is the normal usage, as in Acts 8:16 ; Acts 19:5, 17 ; see also the reports of the words of Stephen, Acts 7:59 , of Ananias, Acts 9:17 , and of Paul, Acts 16:31 ; though both Peter, Acts 10:36 , and Paul, Acts 16:18 , also used 'Jesus Christ.'VED-NT Jesus.4

    "In the Epistles of James, Peter, John and Jude, the personal name is not once found alone, but in Rev. eight times (RV), Revelation 1:9 ; Revelation 12:17 ; Revelation 14:12 ; Revelation 17:6 ; Revelation 19:10 (twice); 20:4; 22:16.VED-NT Jesus.5

    "In the Epistles of Paul 'Jesus' appears alone just thirteen times, and in the Hebrews eight times; in the latter the title 'Lord' is added once only, at Hebrews 13:20 . In the Epistles of James, Peter John, and Jude, men who had companied with the Lord in the days of His flesh, 'Jesus Christ' is the invariable order (in the RV) of the Name and Title, for this was the order of their experience; as 'Jesus' they knew Him first, that He was Messiah they learnt finally in His resurrection. But Paul came to know Him first in the glory of heaven, Acts 9:1-6 , and his experience being thus the reverse of theirs, the reverse order, 'Christ Jesus,' is of frequent occurrence in his letters, but, with the exception of Acts 24:24 , does not occur elsewhere in the RV.VED-NT Jesus.6

    "In Paul's letter the order is always in harmony with the context. Thus 'Christ Jesus' describes the Exalted One who emptied Himself, Philippians 2:5 , and testifies to His pre-existence; 'Jesus Christ' describes the despised and rejected One Who was afterwards glorified, Philippians 2:11 , and testifies to His resurrection. 'Christ Jesus' suggests His grace, 'Jesus Christ' suggests His glory." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 26,29.]VED-NT Jesus.7

    Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion

    A — 1: Ἰουδαῖος
    (Strong's #2453 — Adjective — ioudaios — ee-oo-dah'-yos )
    VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.2

    is used (a) adjectivally, with the lit. meaning, "Jewish," sometimes with the addition of aner, "a man," Acts 10:28 ; Acts 22:3 ; in Acts 21:39 with anthropos, in some mss. (a man in the generic sense); the best mss. omit the phrase here; in Acts 13:6 , lit., "a Jewish false-prophet;" in John 3:22 , with the word chora, "land" or "country," signifying "Judean," lit., "Judean country;" used by metonymy for the people of the country; (b) as a noun, "a Jew, Jews," e.g., Matthew 2:2 ; Mark 7:3 . The name "Jew" is primarily tribal (from Judah). It is first found in 2 Kings 16:6 , as distinct from Israel, of the northern kingdom. After the Captivity it was chiefly used to distinguish the race from Gentiles, e.g., John 2:6 ; Acts 14:1 ; Galatians 2:15 , where it denotes Christians of Jewish race; it distinguishes Jews from Samaritans, in John 4:9 ; from proselytes, in Acts 2:10 . The word is most frequent in John's Gospel and the Acts; in the former "it especially denotes the typical representatives of Jewish thought contrasted with believers in Christ ... or with other Jews of less pronounced opinions, e.g., John 3:25 ; John 5:10 ; John 7:13 ; John 9:22 " (Lukyn Williams, in Hastings' Bib. Dic.); such representatives were found, generally, in opposition to Christ; in the Acts they are chiefly those who opposed the Apostles and the Gospel. In Romans 2:28, 29 the word is used of ideal Jews, i.e., Jews in spiritual reality, believers, whether Jews or Gentiles by natural birth. The feminine, "Jewess," is found in Acts 16:1 ; Acts 24:24 .VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.3

    It also denotes Judea, e.g., Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 1:5 ; John 4:3 , the word "country" being understood [cp. (a) above]. In Luke 23:5 ; John 7:1 , where the AV has "Jewry," the RV translates it as usual, "Judea."VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.4

    A — 2: Ἰουδαϊκός
    (Strong's #2451 — Adjective — ioudaikos — ee-oo-dah-ee-kos' )
    VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.5

    denotes "Jewish," Titus 1:14 .VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.6

    B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός
    (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' )
    VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.7

    "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13, 14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews."VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.8

    C — 1: Ἰουδαΐζω
    (Strong's #2450 — Verb — ioudaizo — ee-oo-dah-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.9

    lit., "to Judaize," i.e., to conform to "Jewish" religious practices and manners, is translated "to live as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.10

    D — 1: φυτεύω
    (Strong's #5452 — Verb — ioudaikos — foot-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.11

    "in Jewish fashion," is translated "as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .VED-NT Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion.12


    1: χρυσίον
    (Strong's #5553 — Noun Neuter — chrusion — khroo-see'-on )
    VED-NT Jewels.2

    "gold," is used of ornaments in 1 Peter 3:3 , RV, "jewels." See GOLD , No. 2.VED-NT Jewels.3


    1: κολλάω
    (Strong's #2853 — Verb — kollao — kol-lah'-o )
    VED-NT Join.2

    primarily, "to glue or cement together," then, generally, "to unite, to join firmly," is used in the Passive Voice signifying "to join oneself to, to be joined to," Luke 15:15 ; Acts 5:13 ; Acts 8:29 ; Acts 9:26 ; Acts 10:28 , RV (AV, "to keep company with"); 1 Corinthians 6:16, 17 ; elsewhere, "to cleave to," Luke 10:11 ; Acts 17:34 ; Romans 12:9 . See CLEAVE.VED-NT Join.3

    2: προσκολλάω
    (Strong's #4347 — Verb — proskollao — pros-kol-lay'-o )
    VED-NT Join.4

    "to stick to," a strengthened form of No. 1, with pros, "to," intensive, is used in the Passive Voice, reflexively, in a metaphorical sense, with the meanings (a) "to join oneself to," in Acts 5:36 ; (b) "to cleave to," of the husband with regard to the wife, Matthew 19:5 ; Mark 10:7 ; in Ephesians 5:31 , RV, "shall cleave to" (AV, "shall be joined to"). See CLEAVE.VED-NT Join.5

    3: συζεύγνυμι
    (Strong's #4801 — Verb — su(n)zeugnumi — sood-zyoog'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Join.6

    "to yoke together" (sun, "with," zugos, "a yoke"), is used metaphorically of union in wedlock, in Matthew 19:6 ; Mark 10:9 .VED-NT Join.7

    4: συνομορέω
    (Strong's #4927 — Verb — sunomoreo — soon-om-or-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Join.8

    "to border on," is used of a house as being contiguous with a synagogue, in Acts 18:7 , "joined hard to."VED-NT Join.9

    Notes: (1) In 1 Corinthians 1:10 , katartizo, "to render complete, to perfect" (kata, "down," intensive, and artios, "complete, jointed"), "to restore," is translated "be perfectly joined together," AV (RV, "be perfected together"); see FIT. (2) In Ephesians 4:16 , sunarmologeo, "to fit" or "frame together," is translated "fitly joined together," AV (RV, "fitly framed ... together"); cp. Ephesians 2:21 .VED-NT Join.10


    1: ἁρμός
    (Strong's #719 — Noun Masculine — harmos — har-mos' )
    VED-NT Joint.2

    "a joining, joint" (akin to harmozo, "to fit, join"), is found in Hebrews 4:12 , figuratively (with the word "marrow") of the inward moral and spiritual being of man, as just previously expressed literally in the phrase "soul and spirit."VED-NT Joint.3

    2: ἁφή
    (Strong's #860 — Noun Feminine — haphe — haf-ay' )
    VED-NT Joint.4

    "a ligature, joint" (akin to hapto, "to fit, to fasten"), occurs in Ephesians 4:16 ; Colossians 2:19 .VED-NT Joint.5


    * For JOINT-HEIR see HEIRVED-NT Joint-Heir.2


    1: ἰῶτα
    (Strong's #2503 — Noun Neuter — iota — ee-o'-tah )
    VED-NT Jot.2

    from the Heb. yod, the smallest Hebrew letter, is mentioned by the Lord in Matthew 5:18 (together with keraia, "a little horn, a tittle, the point or extremity" which distinguishes certain Hebrew letters from others) to express the fact that not a single item of the Law will pass away or remain unfulfilled.VED-NT Jot.3

    Journey, Journeyings

    A — 1: ὁδός
    (Strong's #3598 — Noun Feminine — hodos — hod-os' )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.2

    "a way, path, road," used of a traveler's way, a "journey," is rendered "journey" in Matthew 10:13 ; Mark 6:8 ; Luke 2:44 , "a day's journey" (probably to Beeroth, six miles north of Jerusalem); Luke 9:3 ; Luke 11:6 ; Acts 1:12 , "a Sabbath day's journey," i.e., the journey which a Jew was allowed to take on the Sabbath, viz., about 2,000 yards or cubits (estimates vary). The regulation was not a Mosaic enactment, but a rabbinical tradition, based upon an exposition of Exodus 16:29 , and a comparison of the width of the suburb of a Levitical city as enjoined in Numbers 35:4, 5 , and the distance between the ark and the people at the crossing of the Jordan, Joshua 3:4 . In regard to Acts 1:12 , there is no discrepancy between this and Luke 24:50 , where the RV rightly translates by "over against Bethany," which does not fix the exact spot of the Ascension. See HIGHWAY , WAY.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.3

    A — 2: ὁδοιπορία
    (Strong's #3597 — Noun Feminine — hodoiporia — hod-oy-por-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.4

    "a wayfaring, journeying" (No. 1, and poros, "a way, a passage"), is used of the Lord's journey to Samaria, John 4:6 , and of Paul's "journeyings," 2 Corinthians 11:26 . Cp. B, No. 3.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.5

    Note: In Luke 13:22 the noun poreia, "a journey, a going" (cp. poros, No. 2, above), is used with the verb poieo, "to make," with the meaning "to journey," lit., "making (for Himself, Middle Voice) a way," "journeying." In James 1:11 , "ways." See WAY.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.6

    B — 1: πορεύομαι
    (Strong's #4198 — Verb — poreuomai — por-yoo'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.7

    is used in the Middle Voice in the NT, signifying "to go, proceed, go on one's way;" it is translated by the verb "to journey" in Acts 9:3 ; Acts 22:6 , "as I made (my) journey;" Acts 26:13 ; Romans 15:24 (1st part), AV, "I take my journey," RV, "I go" (for the 2nd part, "in my journey," see No. 2). See GO , No. 1.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.8

    B — 2: διαπορεύομαι
    (Strong's #1279 — Verb — diaporeuo — dee-ap-or-yoo'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.9

    "to carry over," used in the Passive Voice with the meaning "to pass by, to journey through," is translated "in my journey," in Romans 15:24 , lit., "journeying through;" in Luke 18:36 , RV, "going by" (AV "pass by"). See GO , No. 4.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.10

    B — 3: ὁδοιπορέω
    (Strong's #3596 — Verb — hodoiporeo — hod-oy-por-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.11

    "to travel, journey" (akin to A, No. 2), is found in Acts 10:9 .VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.12

    B — 4: ὁδεύω
    (Strong's #3593 — Verb — hodeuo — hod-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.13

    "to be on the way, journey" (from hodos, "a way"), the simplest form of the verbs denoting "to journey," is used in the parable of the good samaritan, Luke 10:33 .VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.14

    B — 5: συνοδεύω
    (Strong's #4922 — Verb — sunodeuo — soon-od-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.15

    sun, "with," and No. 4, "to journey with," occurs in Acts 9:7 . In the Sept., Zechariah 8:21 .VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.16

    B — 6: εὐοδόω
    (Strong's #2137 — Verb — euodoo — yoo-od-o'-o )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.17

    "to help on one's way" (eu, "well," and hodos), is used in the Passive Voice with the meaning "to have a prosperous journey;" so the AV of Romans 1:10 ; the RV, "I may be prospered" rightly expresses the metaphorical use which the verb acquired, without reference to a "journey;" see 1 Corinthians 16:2 ; 3 John 1:2 .VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.18

    B — 7: προπέμπω
    (Strong's #4311 — Verb — propempo — prop-em'-po )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.19

    "to send before or forth" (pro, "before," pempo, "to send"), also means "to set forward on a journey, to escort;" in 1 Corinthians 16:6 , "may set (me) forward on my journey," RV [AV, "may bring (me) etc."]; so Titus 3:13 ; 3 John 1:6 . See ACCOMPANY , CONDUCT , WAY.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.20

    B — 8: ἀποδημέω
    (Strong's #589 — Verb — apodemeo — ap-od-ay-meh'-o )
    VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.21

    denotes "to go on a journey to another country, go abroad," Matthew 21:33 ; Matthew 25:14, 15 ; Mark 12:1 ; Luke 15:13 ; Luke 20:9 . See COUNTRY.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.22

    Note: For the adjective apodemos, Mark 13:34 , AV, "taking a far journey," RV, "sojourning in another country," see COUNTRY.VED-NT Journey, Journeyings.23

    Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous

    A — 1: χαρά
    (Strong's #5479 — Noun Feminine — chara — khar-ah' )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.2

    "joy, delight" (akin to chairo, "to rejoice"), is found frequently in Matthew and Luke, and especially in John, once in Mark (Mark 4:16 , RV, "joy," AV, "gladness"); it is absent from 1Cor. (though the verb is used three times), but is frequent in 2Cor., where the noun is used five times (for 2 Corinthians 7:4 , RV, see Note below), and the verb eight times, suggestive of the Apostle's relief in comparison with the circumstances of the 1st Epistle; in Colossians 1:11 , AV, "joyfulness," RV, "joy." The word is sometimes used, by metonymy, of the occasion or cause of "joy," Luke 2:10 (lit., "I announce to you a great joy"); in 2 Corinthians 1:15 , in some mss., for charis, "benefit;" Philippians 4:1 , where the readers are called the Apostle's "joy;" so 1 Thessalonians 2:19, 20 ; Hebrews 12:2 , of the object of Christ's "joy;" James 1:2 , where it is connected with falling into trials; perhaps also in Matthew 25:21, 23 , where some regard it as signifying, concretely, the circumstances attending cooperation in the authority of the Lord. See also the Note following No. 3.VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.3

    Note: In Hebrews 12:11 , "joyous" represents the phrase meta, "with," followed by chara, lit., "with joy." So in Hebrews 10:34 , "joyfully;" in 2 Corinthians 7:4 the noun is used with the Middle Voice of huperperisseuo, "to abound more exceedingly," and translated "(I overflow) with joy," RV (AV, "I am exceeding joyful").VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.4

    A — 2: ἀγαλλίασις
    (Strong's #20 — Noun Feminine — agalliasis — ag-al-lee'-as-is )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.5

    "exultation, exuberant joy." Cp. B, No. 3, below. See GLADNESS.VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.6

    A — 3: εὐφροσύνη
    (Strong's #2167 — Noun Feminine — euphrosune — yoo-fros-oo'-nay )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.7

    is rendered "joy" in the AV of Acts 2:28 , RV, "gladness," as in 14:17. See GLADNESS.VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.8

    Note: "Joy" is associated with life, e.g., 1 Thessalonians 3:8, 9 . Experiences of sorrow prepare for, and enlarge, the capacity for "joy," e.g., John 16:20 ; Romans 5:3, 4 ; 2 Corinthians 7:4 ; 2 Corinthians 8:2 ; Hebrews 10:34 ; James 1:2 . Persecution for Christ's sake enhances "joy," e.g., Matthew 5:11, 12 ; Acts 5:41 . Other sources of "joy" are faith, Romans 15:13 ; Philippians 1:25 ; hope, Romans 5:2 (kauchaomai, see B, No. 2); 12:12 (chairo, see B, No. 1); the "joy" of others, Romans 12:15 , which is distinctive of Christian sympathy. Cp. 1 Thessalonians 3:9 . In the OT and the NT God Himself is the ground and object of the believer's "joy," e.g., Psalms 35:9 ; Psalms 43:4 ; Isaiah 61:10 ; Luke 1:47 ; Romans 5:11 ; Philippians 3:1 ; Philippians 4:4 .VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.9

    B — 1: χαίρω
    (Strong's #5463 — Verb — chairo — khah'ee-ro )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.10

    "to rejoice, be glad," is translated "joyfully" in Luke 19:6 , lit., "rejoicing;" "we joyed," 2 Corinthians 7:13 ; "I joy," Philippians 2:17 ; "do ye joy," Philippians 2:18 ; "joying," Colossians 2:5 ; "we joy," 1 Thessalonians 3:9 . It is contrasted with weeping and sorrow, e.g., in John 16:20, 22 ; Romans 12:15 ; 1 Corinthians 7:30 (cp. Psalms 30:5 ). See FAREWELL , GLAD , GREETING , HAIL , REJOICE.VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.11

    B — 2: καυχάομαι
    (Strong's #2744 — Verb — kauchaomai — kow-khah'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.12

    "to boast, glory, exult," is rendered "we joy," in Romans 5:11 , AV (RV, "we rejoice"). It would have been an advantage to translate this word distinctively by the verbs "to glory" or "to exult."VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.13

    B — 3: ἀγαλλιάω
    (Strong's #21 — Verb — agalliao — ag-al-lee-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.14

    "to exult, rejoice greatly," is translated "with exceeding joy" in 1 Peter 4:13 (Middle Voice), lit., "(ye rejoice, chairo) exulting." Cp. A, No. 2. See GLAD , REJOICE.VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.15

    B — 4: ὀνίνημι
    (Strong's #3685 — Verb — oninemi — on-in'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.16

    "to benefit, profit," in the Middle Voice, "to have profit, derive benefit," is translated "let me have joy" in Philemon 1:20 (RV marg., "help"); the Apostle is doubtless continuing his credit and debit metaphors and using the verb in the sense of "profit."VED-NT Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous.17


    A — 1: κριτής
    (Strong's #2923 — Noun Masculine — krites — kree-tace' )
    VED-NT Judge.2

    "a judge" (from krino, see B, No. 1), is used (a) of God, Hebrews 12:23 , where the order in the original is "to a Judge who is God of all;" this is really the significance; it suggests that He who is the Judge of His people is at the same time their God; that is the order in Hebrews 10:30 ; the word is also used of God in James 4:12 , RV; (b) of Christ, Acts 10:42 ; 2 Timothy 4:8 ; James 5:9 ; (c) of a ruler in Israel in the times of the Judges, Acts 13:20 ; (d) of a Roman procurator, Acts 24:10 ; (e) of those whose conduct provides a standard of "judging," Matthew 12:27 ; Luke 11:19 ; (f) in the forensic sense, of one who tries and decides a case, Matthew 5:25 (twice); Luke 12:14 (some mss. have No. 2 here); Luke 12:58 (twice); 18:2; 18:6 (lit., "the judge of unrighteousness," expressing subjectively his character); Acts 18:15 ; (g) of one who passes, or arrogates to himself, judgment on anything, James 2:4 (see the RV); 4:11.VED-NT Judge.3

    A — 2: δικαστής
    (Strong's #1348 — Noun Masculine — dikastes — dik-as-tace' )
    VED-NT Judge.4

    denotes "a judge" (from dike, "right, a judicial hearing, justice;" akin to dikazo, "to judge"), Acts 7:27, 35 ; some mss. have it in Luke 12:14 (see No. 1); while dikastes is a forensic term, krites "gives prominence to the mental process" (Thayer). At Athens the dikastes acted as a juryman, the krites being the presiding "judge."VED-NT Judge.5

    B — 1: κρίνω
    (Strong's #2919 — Verb — krino — kree'-no )
    VED-NT Judge.6

    primarily denotes "to separate, select, choose;" hence, "to determine," and so "to judge, pronounce judgment." "The uses of this verb in the NT may be analyzed as follows: (a) to assume the office of a judge, Matthew 7:1 ; John 3:17 ; (b) to undergo process of trial, John 3:18 ; John 16:11 ; John 18:31 ; James 2:12 ; (c) to give sentence, Acts 15:19 ; Acts 16:4 ; Acts 21:25 ; (d) to condemn, John 12:48 ; Acts 13:27 ; Romans 2:27 ; (e) to execute judgment upon, 2 Thessalonians 2:12 ; Acts 7:7 ; (f) to be involved in a lawsuit, whether as plaintiff, Matthew 5:40 ; 1 Corinthians 6:1 ; or as defendant, Acts 23:6 ; (g) to administer affairs, to govern, Matthew 19:28 ; cp. Judges 3:10 ; (h) to form an opinion, Luke 7:43 ; John 7:24 ; Acts 4:19 ; Romans 14:5 ; (i) to make a resolve, Acts 3:13 ; Acts 20:16 ; 1 Corinthians 2:2 " * [* From Notes on Thessalonians by Hogg and Vine, p. 267.] See CALL , No. 13, CONCLUDE, CONDEMN, DECREE, DETERMINE, ESTEEM, LAW (go to), ORDAIN, SENTENCE, THINK.VED-NT Judge.7

    Note: In Acts 21:25 , the RV has "giving judgment" (AV, "concluded"); see JUDGMENT , Note (5).VED-NT Judge.8

    B — 2: ἀνακρίνω
    (Strong's #350 — Verb — anakrino — an-ak-ree'-no )
    VED-NT Judge.9

    "to examine, investigate, question" (ana, "up," and No. 1), is rendered "judged" in 1 Corinthians 2:14 , RV (AV, "are ... discerned;" RV marg., "examined"), said of the things of the Spirit of God; in 1 Corinthians 2:15 , "judgeth" (RV marg., "examineth"), said of the exercise of a discerning "judgment" of all things as to their true value, by one who is spiritual; in the same verse, "is judged (of no man)," RV marg., "examined," i.e., the merely natural mind cannot estimate the motives of the spiritual; in 1 Corinthians 4:3 , "I should be judged," i.e., as to examining and passing sentence on the fulfillment or nonfulfillment of the Apostle's stewardship; so in the same verse, "I judge (not mine own self)," and in 1 Corinthians 4:4 "(he that) judgeth (me is the Lord);" in 1 Corinthians 14:24 , "he is judged (of all)," i.e., the light of the heart-searching testimony of the assembly probes the conscience of the unregenerate, sifting him judicailly. See ASK , No. 7, DISCERN, A, No. 1.VED-NT Judge.10

    B — 3: διακρίνω
    (Strong's #1252 — Verb — diakrino — dee-ak-ree'-no )
    VED-NT Judge.11

    denotes "to separate throughout" (dia, and No. 1), "discriminate, discern," and hence, "to decide, to judge" (also "to contend, to hesitate, to doubt"); it is rendered "to judge" in 1 Corinthians 6:5 , in the sense of arbitrating; in 1 Corinthians 11:31 (1st part), the RV has "(if we) discerned (ourselves)," AV "(if we would) judge" (krino, No. 1, is used in the 2nd part); so in 1 Corinthians 14:29 , RV, "discern" (AV, "judge"). See DECIDE , A, DISCERN , A. No. 2.VED-NT Judge.12

    Notes: (1) In 1 Corinthians 6:2 (last clause) "to judge" represents the noun kriterion, which denotes "a tribunal, a law court," and the meaning thus is "are ye unworthy of sitting upon tribunals of least importance?" (see RV marg.), i.e., to "judge" matters of smallest importance. Some would render it "cases," but there is no clear instance elsewhere of this meaning. See JUDGMENT SEAT. (2) In Hebrews 11:11 , the verb hegeomai, "to consider, think, account," is rendered "she judged (Him faithful)," AV (RV, "she counted"). See COUNT , No. 2.VED-NT Judge.13


    1: κρίσις
    (Strong's #2920 — Noun Feminine — krisis — kree'-sis )
    VED-NT Judgment.2

    primarily denotes "a separating," then, "a decision, judgment," most frequently in a forensic sense, and especially of Divine "judgment." For the variety of its meanings, with references, see CONDEMNATION , B, No. 3.VED-NT Judgment.3

    Notes: (1) The Holy Spirit, the Lord said, would convict the world of (peri, "in respect of"), i.e., of the actuality of, God's "judgment," John 16:8, 11 . Cp. 2 Thessalonians 1:5 . (2) In Romans 2:5 the word dikaiokrisia, "righteous judgment," combines the adjective dikaios, "righteous," with krisis, the two words which are used separately in 2 Thessalonians 1:5 .VED-NT Judgment.4

    2: κρίμα
    (Strong's #2917 — Noun Neuter — krima — kree'-mah )
    VED-NT Judgment.5

    denotes the result of the action signified by the verb krino, "to judge;" for its general significance see CONDEMNATION , B, No. 1: it is used (a) of a decision passed on the faults of others, Matthew 7:2 ; (b) of "judgment" by man upon Christ, Luke 24:20 ; (c) of God's "judgment" upon men, e.g., Romans 2:2, 3 ; Romans 3:8 ; Romans 5:16 ; Romans 11:33 ; Romans 13:2 ; 1 Corinthians 11:29 ; Galatians 5:10 ; Hebrews 6:2 ; James 3:1 ; through Christ, e.g., John 9:39 ; (d) of the right of "judgment," Revelation 20:4 ; (e) of a lawsuit, 1 Corinthians 6:7 .VED-NT Judgment.6

    3: ἡμέρα
    (Strong's #2250 — Noun Feminine — hemera — hay-mer'-ah )
    VED-NT Judgment.7

    "a day," is translated "judgment" in 1 Corinthians 4:3 , where "man's judgment" (lit., "man's day," marg.) is used of the present period in which man's mere "judgment" is exercised, a period of human rebellion against God. The adjective anthropinos, "human, belonging to man" (anthropos), is doubtless set in contrast here to kuriakos, "belonging to the Lord" (kurios, "a lord"), which is used in the phrase "the Day of the Lord," in Revelation 1:10 , "The Lord's Day," a period of Divine judgments. See DAY.VED-NT Judgment.8

    4: γνώμη
    (Strong's #1106 — — gnome — gno'-may )
    VED-NT Judgment.9

    primarily "a means of knowing" (akin to ginosko, "to know"), came to denote "a mind, understanding;" hence (a) "a purpose," Acts 20:3 , lit., "(it was his) purpose;" (b) "a royal purpose, a decree," Revelation 17:17 , RV, "mind" (AV, "will"); (c) "judgment, opinion," 1 Corinthians 1:10 , "(in the same) judgment;" Revelation 17:13 , "mind;" (d) "counsel, advice," 1 Corinthians 7:25 , "(I give my) judgment;" 1 Corinthians 7:40 , "(after my) judgment;" Philemon 1:14 , mind. See MIND , PURPOSE , WILL.VED-NT Judgment.10

    Notes: (1) In 1 Corinthians 6:4 , AV, kriterion, "a tribunal," is rendered "judgments" (RV, "to judge," marg., "tribunals"). See JUDGE , B, No. 3, Note (1). (2) In Romans 1:32 , AV, dikaioma, "an ordinance, righteous act," is translated "judgment" (RV "ordinance"); in Revelation 15:4 , "judgments" (RV, "righteous acts"). (3) In Acts 25:15 , AV, katadike, "a sentence, condemnation," is translated "judgment" (RV, "sentence"). Some mss. have dike. See SENTENCE. (4) In Philippians 1:9 , AV, aisthesis, "perception, discernment," is translated "judgment" (RV, "discernment"). (5) In Acts 21:25 , in the record of the decree from the Apostles and elders at Jerusalem to the churches of the Gentiles, the verb krino (see JUDGE , B, No. 1), is translated "giving judgment," RV (AV, "concluded").VED-NT Judgment.11

    5: ὑπόδικος
    (Strong's #5267 — Adjective — hupodikos — hoop-od'-ee-kos )
    VED-NT Judgment.12

    "brought to trial, answerable to" (hupo, "under," dike, "justice"), Romans 3:19 , is translated "under the judgment," RV (AV, "guilty").VED-NT Judgment.13

    Judgment Seat

    1: βῆμα
    (Strong's #968 — Noun Neuter — bema — bay'-ma )
    VED-NT Judgment Seat.2

    primarily, "a step, a pace" (akin to baino, "to go"), as in Acts 7:5 , translated "to set (his foot) on," lit., "foot-room," was used to denote a raised place or platform, reached by steps, originally that at Athens in the Pnyx Hill, where was the place of assembly; from the platform orations were made. The word became used for a tribune, two of which were provided in the law courts of Greece, one for the accuser and one for the defendant; it was applied to the tribunal of a Roman magistrate or ruler, Matthew 27:19 ; John 19:13 ; Acts 12:21 , translated "throne;" 18:12,16,17; 25:6,10,17.VED-NT Judgment Seat.3

    In two passages the word is used of the Divine tribunal before which all believers are hereafter to stand. In Romans 14:10 it is called "The judgment seat of God," RV (AV, "of Christ"), according to the most authentic mss. The same tribunal is called "the judgment seat of Christ," 2 Corinthians 5:10 , to whom the Father has given all judgment, John 5:22, 27 . At this bema believers are to be made manifest, that each may "receive the things done in (or through) the body," according to what he has done, "whether it be good or bad." There they will receive rewards for their faithfulness to the Lord. For all that has been contrary in their lives to His will they will suffer loss, 1 Corinthians 3:15 . This judgment seat is to be distinguished from the premillennial, earthly throne of Christ, Matthew 25:31 , and the postmillennial "Great White Throne," Revelation 20:11 , at which only "the dead" will appear. The judgment-seat of Christ will be a tribunal held "in His Parousia," i.e., His presence with His saints after His return to receive them to Himself.VED-NT Judgment Seat.4

    2: κριτήριον
    (Strong's #2922 — Noun Neuter — kriterion — kree-tay'-ree-on )
    VED-NT Judgment Seat.5

    primarily "a means of judging" (akin to krino, "to judge:" Eng., "criterion"), then, a tribunal, law court, or "lawsuit," 1 Corinthians 6:2 (last clause), for which see JUDGE , B, No. 3, Note (1); 6:4, for which see JUDGMENT , Note (1) at end; James 2:6 .VED-NT Judgment Seat.6

    Judgment, Judgment Hall

    * For HALL OF JUDGMENT, JUDGMENT HALL, see HALL.VED-NT Judgment, Judgment Hall.2


    1: ἐξουσία
    (Strong's #1849 — Noun Feminine — exousia — ex-oo-see'-ah )
    VED-NT Juridiction.2

    "power, authority," is used, by metonymy, to denote "jurisdiction," in Luke 23:7 . For the different meanings of the word and other instances of its use by metonymy, see AUTHORITY , A, No. 1.VED-NT Juridiction.3

    Just, Justly

    A — 1: δίκαιος
    (Strong's #1342 — Adjective — dikaios — dik'-ah-yos )
    VED-NT Just, Justly.2

    was first used of persons observant of dike, "custom, rule, right," especially in the fulfillment of duties towards gods and men, and of things that were in accordance with right. The Eng. word "righteous" was formerly spelt "rightwise," i.e., (in a) straight way. In the NT it denotes "righteous," a state of being right, or right conduct, judged whether by the Divine standard, or according to human standards, of what is right. Said of God, it designates the perfect agreement between His nature and His acts (in which He is the standard for all men). See RIGHTEOUSNESS. It is used (1) in the broad sense, of persons: (a) of God, e.g., John 17:25 ; Romans 3:26 ; 1 John 1:9 ; 1 John 2:29 ; 1 John 3:7 ; (b) of Christ, e.g., Acts 3:14 ; Acts 7:52 ; Acts 22:14 ; 2 Timothy 4:8 ; 1 Peter 3:18 ; 1 John 2:1 ; (c) of men, Matthew 1:19 ; Luke 1:6 ; Romans 1:17 ; Romans 2:13 ; Romans 5:7 . (2) of things; blood (metaphorical), Matthew 23:35 ; Christ's judgment, John 5:30 ; any circumstance, fact or deed, Matthew 20:4 (ver. 7, in some mss.); Luke 12:57 ; Acts 4:19 ; Ephesians 6:1 ; Philippians 1:7 ; Philippians 4:8 ; Colossians 4:1 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:6 ; "the commandment" (the Law), Romans 7:12 ; works, 1 John 3:12 ; the ways of God, Revelation 15:3 . See RIGHTEOUS.VED-NT Just, Justly.3

    A — 2: ἔνδικος
    (Strong's #1738 — Adjective — endikos — en'-dee-kos )
    VED-NT Just, Justly.4

    "just, righteous" (en, "in," dike, "right"), is said of the condemnation of those who say "Let us do evil, that good may come," Romans 3:8 ; of the recompense of reward of transgressions under the Law, Hebrews 2:2 .VED-NT Just, Justly.5

    Note: As to the distinction between No. 1 and No. 2, "dikaios characterizes the subject so far as he or it (so to speak) one with dike, right; endikos, so far as he occupies a due relation to dike; ... in Rom.3:8 endikos presuposes that which has been decided righteously, which leads to the just sentence" (Cremer).VED-NT Just, Justly.6

    B — 1: δικαίως
    (Strong's #1346 — Adverb — dikaios — dik-ah'-yoce )
    VED-NT Just, Justly.7

    "justly, righteously, in accordance with what is right," is said (a) of God's judgment, 1 Peter 2:23 ; (b) of men, Luke 23:41 , "justly;" 1 Corinthians 15:34 , RV, "rithteously" (AV, "to righteousness"); 1 Thessalonians 2:10 , RV, "righteously;" Titus 2:12 .VED-NT Just, Justly.8


    1: δίκη
    (Strong's #1349 — Noun Feminine — dike — dee'-kay )
    VED-NT Justice.2

    primarily "custom, usage," came to denote "what is right;" then, "a judicial hearing;" hence, "the execution of a sentence," "punishment," 2 Thessalonians 1:9 , RV; Jude 1:7 , "punishment," RV (AV, "vengeance"). In Acts 28:4 (AV, "vengeance") it is personified and denotes the goddess Justice or Nemesis (Lat., Justitia), who the Melita folk supposed was about to inflict the punishment of death upon Paul by means of the viper. See PUNISHMENT , VENGEANCE.VED-NT Justice.3

    Justification, Justifier, Justify

    A — 1: δικαίωσις
    (Strong's #1347 — Noun Feminine — dikaiosis — dik-ah'-yo-sis )
    VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.2

    denotes "the act of pronouncing righteous, justification, acquittal;" its precise meaning is determined by that of the verb dikaioo, "to justify" (see B); it is used twice in the Ep. to the Romans, and there alone in the NT, signifying the establisment of a person as just by acquittal from guilt. In Romans 4:25 the phrase "for our justification," is, lit., "because of our justification" (parallel to the preceding clause "for our trespasses," i.e., because of trespasses committed), and means, not with a view to our "justification," but because all that was necessary on God's part for our "justification" had been effected in the death of Christ. On this account He was raised from the dead. The propitiation being perfect and complete, His resurrection was the confirmatory counterpart. In Romans 5:18 , "justification of life" means "justification which results in life" (cp. ver. 21). That God "justifies" the believing sinner on the ground of Christ's death, involves His free gift of life. On the distinction between dikaiosis and dikaioma, see below. In the Sept., Leviticus 24:22 .VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.3

    A — 2: δικαίωμα
    (Strong's #1345 — Noun Neuter — dikaioma — dik-ah'-yo-mah )
    VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.4

    has three distinct meanings, and seems best described comprehensively as "a concrete expression of righteousness;" it is a declaration that a person or thing is righteous, and hence, broadly speaking, it represents the expression and effect of dikaiosis (No. 1). It signifies (a) "an ordinance," Luke 1:6 ; Romans 1:32 , RV, "ordinance," i.e., what God has declared to be right, referring to His decree of retribution (AV, "judgment"); Romans 2:26 , RV, "ordinances of the Law" (i.e., righteous requirements enjoined by the Law); so Romans 8:4 , "ordinance of the Law," i.e., collectively, the precepts of the Law, all that it demands as right; in Hebrews 9:1, 10 , ordinances connected with the tabernacle ritual; (b) "a sentence of acquittal," by which God acquits men of their guilt, on the conditions (1) of His grace in Christ, through His expiatory sacrifice, (2) the acceptance of Christ by faith, Romans 5:16 ; (c) "a righteous act," Romans 5:18 , "(through one) act of righteousness," RV, not the act of "justification," nor the righteous character of Christ (as suggested by the AV: dikaioma does not signify character, as does dikaiosune, righteousness), but the death of Christ, as an act accomplished consistently with God's character and counsels; this is clear as being in antithesis to the "one trespass" in the preceding statement. Some take the word here as meaning a decree of righteousness, as in ver. 16; the death of Christ could indeed be regarded as fulfilling such a decree, but as the Apostle's argument proceeds, the word, as is frequently the case, passes from one shade of meaning to another, and here stands not for a decree, but an act; so in Revelation 15:4 , RV, "righteous acts" (AV, "judgments"), and Revelation 19:8 , "righteous acts (of the saints)" (AV, "righteousness").VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.5

    Note: For dikaiosune, always translated "righteousness," See RIGHTEOUSNESS.VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.6

    B — 1: δικαιόω
    (Strong's #1344 — Verb — dikaioo — dik-ah-yo'-o )
    VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.7

    primarily, "to deem to be right," signifies, in the NT, (a) "to show to be right or righteous;" in the Passive Voice, to be justified, Matthew 11:19 ; Luke 7:35 ; Romans 3:4 ; 1 Timothy 3:16 ; (b) "to declare to be righteous, to pronounce righteous," (1) by man, concerning God, Luke 7:29 (see Romans 3:4 , above); concerning himself, Luke 10:29 ; Luke 16:15 ; (2) by God concerning men, who are declared to be righteous before Him on certain conditions laid down by Him.VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.8

    Ideally the complete fulfillment of the law of God would provide a basis of "justification" in His sight, Romans 2:13 . But no such case has occurred in mere human experience, and therefore no one can be "justified" on this ground, Romans 3:9-20 ; Galatians 2:16 ; Galatians 3:10, 11 ; Galatians 5:4 . From this negative presentation in Romans 3 , the Apostle proceeds to show that, consistently with God's own righteous character, and with a view to its manifestation, He is, through Christ, as "a propitiation ... by (en, 'instrumental') His blood," Romans 3:25 , RV, "the Justifier of him that hath faith in Jesus" (Romans 3:26 ), "justification" being the legal and formal acquittal from guilt by God as Judge, the pronouncement of the sinner as righteous, who believes on the Lord Jesus Christ. In Romans 3:24 , "being justified" is in the present continuous tense, indicating the constant process of "justification" in the succession of those who believe and are "justified." In Romans 5:1 , "being justified" is in the aorist, or point, tense, indicating the definite time at which each person, upon the exercise of faith, was justified. In Romans 8:1 , "justification" is presented as "no condemnation." That "justification" is in view here is confirmed by the preceding chapters and by verse Romans 3:34 . In Romans 3:26 , the word rendered "Justifier" is the present participle of the verb, lit., "justifying;" similarly in Romans 8:33 (where the article is used), "God that justifieth," is, more lit., "God is the (One) justifying," with stress upon the word "God."VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.9

    "Justification" is primarily and gratuitously by faith, subsequently and evidentially by works. In regard to "justification" by works, the so-called contradiction between James and the Apostle Paul is only apparent. There is harmony in the different views of the subject. Paul has in mind Abraham's attitude toward God, his aceptance of God's word. This was a matter known only to God. The Romans Epistle is occupied with the effect of this Godward attitude, not upon Abraham's character or actions, but upon the contrast between faith and the lack of it, namely, unbelief, cp. Romans 11:20 . James (James 2:21-26 ) is occupied with the contrast between faith that is real and faith that is false, a faith barren and dead, which is not faith at all.VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.10

    Again, the two writers have before them different epochs in Abraham's life, Paul, the event recorded in Genesis 15 , James, that in Genesis 22 . Contrast the words "believed" in Genesis 15:6 and "obeyed" in Genesis 22:18 .VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.11

    Further, the two writers use the words "faith" and "works" in somewhat different senses. With Paul, faith is acceptance of God's word; with James, it is acceptance of the truth of certain statements about God, (James 2:19 ), which may fail to affect one's conduct. Faith, as dealt with by Paul, results in acceptance with God., i.e., "justification," and is bound to manifest itself. If not, as James says "Can that faith save him?" (James 2:14 ). With Paul, works are dead works; with James they are life works. The works of which Paul speaks could be quite independent of faith: those referred to by James can be wrought only where faith is real, and they will attest its reality.VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.12

    So with righteousness, or "justification:" Paul is occupied with a right relationship with God, James, with right conduct. Paul testifies that the ungodly can be "justified" by faith, James that only the right-doer is "justified." See also under RIGHTEOUS , RIGHTEOUSNESS.VED-NT Justification, Justifier, Justify.13

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