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    Mad, Madness — Mire

    Mad, Madness

    A — 1: μαίνομαι
    (Strong's #3105 — Verb — mainomai — mah'ee-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Mad, Madness.2

    "to rage, be mad," is translated by the verb "to be mad" in John 10:20 ; Acts 12:15 ; Acts 26:24, 25 ; 1 Corinthians 14:23 ; see BESIDE ONESELF , No. 2.VED-NT Mad, Madness.3

    A — 2: ἐμμαίνομαι
    (Strong's #1693 — Verb — emmainomai — em-mah'ee-nom-ahee )
    VED-NT Mad, Madness.4

    an intensive form of No. 1, prefixed by en, "in," implying "fierce rage, to be furious against;" it is rendered "being exceedingly mad" in Acts 26:11 (cp. Acts 9:1 ).VED-NT Mad, Madness.5

    B — 1: μανία
    (Strong's #3130 — Noun Feminine — mania — man-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Mad, Madness.6

    akin to A, and transliterated into English, denotes "frenzy, madness," Acts 26:24 "(thy much learning doth turn thee to) madness," RV; AV, "(doth make thee) mad."VED-NT Mad, Madness.7

    B — 2: ἄνοια
    (Strong's #454 — Noun Feminine — anoia — an'-oy-ah )
    VED-NT Mad, Madness.8

    lit., "without understanding" (a, negative, nous, "mind, understanding"), denotes "folly," 2 Timothy 3:9 , and this finding its expression in violent rage, Luke 6:11 . See FOLLY.VED-NT Mad, Madness.9

    B — 3: παραφρονία
    (Strong's #3913 — Noun Feminine — paraphronia — par-af-ron-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Mad, Madness.10

    "madness" (from para, "contrary to," and phren, "the mind"), is used in 2 Peter 2:16 . Cp. paraphroneo, 2 Corinthians 11:23 , "I speak like one distraught."VED-NT Mad, Madness.11


    A — 1: γίνομαι
    (Strong's #1096 — Verb — ginomai — ghin'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Made.2

    "to become," is sometimes translated by the Passive Voice of the verb to make, e.g., Matthew 9:16 ; John 1:3 (three times),10; 8:33; Romans 11:9 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; 1 Corinthians 3:13 ; 1 Corinthians 4:9, 13 ; Ephesians 2:13 ; Ephesians 3:7 ; Philippians 2:7 (but RV marg., "becoming"); Colossians 1:23, 25 ; Hebrews 5:5 ; Hebrews 6:4 ; Hebrews 7:12, 16, 21, 26 ; Hebrews 11:3 ; James 3:9 ; 1 Peter 2:7 . In many places the RV translates otherwise, and chiefly by the verb to become, e.g., Matthew 25:6 , "there is;" Matthew 27:24 , "was arising;" John 1:14 , "became;" John 2:9 , "become;" Romans 1:3 , "born;" Romans 2:25 , "is become;" Romans 10:20 , "became;" Galatians 3:13 , "having become;" Galatians 4:4 , "born" (twice); Hebrews 3:14 , "are become;" Hebrews 7:22 . "hath ... become."VED-NT Made.3

    A — 2: κεῖμαι
    (Strong's #2749 — Verb — keimai — ki'-mahee )
    VED-NT Made.4

    "to lie," is sometimes used as the Passive Voice of tithemi, "to put;" it is translated "is (not) made" in 1 Timothy 1:9 , of the Law, where a suitable rendering would be "is (not) enacted."VED-NT Made.5

    Notes: (1) In 2 Peter 2:12 , AV, the verb genao, "to beget," in the Passive Voice, to be born, is translated "made" (RV, "born"). (2) In Luke 3:5 , AV (3rd statement), the future tense of eimi, "to be," is translated "shall be made" (RV, "shall become"); in the next sentence there is nothing in the original representing "shall be made." (3) In Acts 16:13 , AV, the infinitive mood of eimi, "to be," is translated "to be made" (of prayer), RV, "there was (a place of prayer)." (4) For the translation of words in which the Eng. "made" forms a part of another verb, see under those words, e.g., CONFESSION, KNOWN, LIKE, LOW, PAYMENT, RICH, SUBJECT.VED-NT Made.6

    B — 1: ποίημα
    (Strong's #4161 — Noun Neuter — poiema — poy'-ay-mah )
    VED-NT Made.7

    whence Eng., "poem," denotes "that which is made" (from poieo, "to do, make"), Romans 1:20 , "the things that are made;" Ephesians 2:10 , "(His) workmanship."VED-NT Made.8


    1: στρατηγός
    (Strong's #4755 — Noun Masculine — strategos — strat-ay-gos' )
    VED-NT Magistrate.2

    besides its application to "the captain of the Temple" (see CAPTAIN), denotes "a magistrate or governor," Acts 16:20, 22, 35, 36, 38 . These were, in Latin terminology, the duumviri or praetores, so called in towns which were Roman colonies. They were attended by lictors or "sergeants," who executed their orders. In the circumstances of Acts 16 they exceeded their powers, in giving orders for Roman citizens to be scourged; hence they became suppliants. See CAPTAIN.VED-NT Magistrate.3

    2: ἄρχων
    (Strong's #758 — Noun Masculine — archon — ar'-khone )
    VED-NT Magistrate.4

    "a ruler," denotes, in Luke 12:58 , "a local authority, a magistrate," acting in the capacity of one who received complaints, and possessing higher authority than the judge, to whom the "magistrate" remits the case. See CHIEF , PRINCE , RULER.VED-NT Magistrate.5

    Notes: (1) In Luke 12:11 , AV, arche, "a beginning, rule, principality," is translated "magistrates;" the word, however, denotes "rulers" in general: hence the RV, "rulers." (2) For the AV of Titus 3:1 , "to obey magistrates," see OBEY , B, No. 3.VED-NT Magistrate.6


    1: μεγαλειότης
    (Strong's #3168 — Noun Feminine — megaleiotes — meg-al-i-ot'-ace )
    VED-NT Magnificence.2

    denotes "splendor, magnificence" (from megaleios, "magnificent," might," Acts 2:11 , megas, "great"), translated "magnificence" in Acts 19:27 , of the splendor of the goddess Diana. In Luke 9:43 , RV (AV, "mighty power"); in 2 Peter 1:16 , "majesty." In the papyri writings it is frequent as a ceremonial title.VED-NT Magnificence.3


    1: μεγαλύνω
    (Strong's #3170 — Verb — megaluno — meg-al-oo'-no )
    VED-NT Magnify.2

    "to make great" (megas), is translated "to magnify" in Luke 1:46 ; in Luke 1:58 , RV, "had magnified (His mercy)," AV, "had shewed great (mercy);" Acts 5:13 ; Acts 10:46 ; Acts 19:17 ; 2 Corinthians 10:15 , RV (AV, "we shall be enlarged"), i.e., by their faith in its practical effect he will be so assisted as to enlarge the scope of his Gospel ministry and carry its message to regions beyond them; in Philippians 1:20 , of the "magnifying" of Christ by him in his body, i.e., in all his activities and ways. In Matthew 23:5 , it signifies "to enlarge." See ENLARGE.VED-NT Magnify.3

    Note: In Romans 11:13 , AV, the verb doxazo, "to glorify," is translated "I magnify (my office)," RV, "I glorify (my ministry)." See GLORIFY.VED-NT Magnify.4

    Maid, Maiden, Maidservant

    1: παῖς
    (Strong's #3816 — Noun — pais — paheece )
    VED-NT Maid, Maiden, Maidservant.2

    "a child," denotes "a maid" or "maiden" in Luke 8:51, 54 , RV, "maiden" in both places. See CHILD , MANSERVANT , SERVANT , SON , YOUNG MAN.VED-NT Maid, Maiden, Maidservant.3

    2: παιδίσκη
    (Strong's #3814 — Noun Feminine — paidiske — pahee-dis'-kay )
    VED-NT Maid, Maiden, Maidservant.4

    a diminutive of No. 1, is translated "maid," "maid," in the AV and RV in Mark 14:66, 69 ; Luke 22:56 ; in the RV (AV, "damsel"), in Matthew 26:69 ; John 18:17 ; Acts 12:13 ; Acts 16:16 ; in Luke 12:45 , "maidservants" (AV "maidens"); in Galatians 4:22, 23, 30, 31 , RV, "handmaid" (AV, "bondmaid" or "bondwoman"). See BONDMAID , DAMSEL.VED-NT Maid, Maiden, Maidservant.5

    3: κοράσιον
    (Strong's #2877 — Noun Neuter — korasion — kor-as'-ee-on )
    VED-NT Maid, Maiden, Maidservant.6

    a colloquial, familiar term, is translated "maid" in Matthew 9:24, 25 , AV (RV, "damsel"). See DAMSEL , No. 1.VED-NT Maid, Maiden, Maidservant.7


    1: ἀνάπειρος
    (Strong's #376 — Adjective — anapero, or anapeiros — an-ap'-ay-ros )
    VED-NT Maimed.2

    "crippled, maimed" (from ana, "up," and peros, "disabled in a limb"), is found in Luke 14:13, 21 .VED-NT Maimed.3

    2: κυλλός
    (Strong's #2948 — Adjective — kullos — kool-los' )
    VED-NT Maimed.4

    denotes "crooked, crippled" (akin to kulio, "to roll"); in Matthew 15:30, 31 , translated "maimed;" so in Matthew 18:8 , AV (RV, "halt"); Mark 9:43 (AV and RV). See HALT.VED-NT Maimed.5


    * For MAINSAIL see FORSAILVED-NT Mainsail.2


    1: προΐστημι
    (Strong's #4291 — Verb — proistemi — pro-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Maintain.2

    "to preside, rule," also means "to maintain," Titus 3:8, 14 , "to maintain (good works)," RV marg., "profess honest occupations" (AV, marg. ... "trades"). The usage of the phrase kala erga (good works) in the Pastoral Epistles is decisive for the rendering "good works," here. See OVER (to be), RULE.VED-NT Maintain.3


    1: μεγαλειότης
    (Strong's #3168 — Noun Feminine — megaleiotes — meg-al-i-ot'-ace )
    VED-NT Majesty.2

    see MAGNIFICENCE.VED-NT Majesty.3

    2: μεγαλωσύνη
    (Strong's #3172 — Noun Feminine — megalosune — meg-al-o-soo'-nay )
    VED-NT Majesty.4

    from megas, "great," denotes "greatness, majesty;" it is used of God the Father, signifying His greatness and dignity, in Hebrews 1:3 , "the Majesty (on high)," and Hebrews 8:1 , "the Majesty (in the Heavens);" and in an ascription of praise acknowledging the attributes of God in Jude 1:25 .VED-NT Majesty.5


    1: ποιέω
    (Strong's #4160 — Verb — poieo — poy-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Make.2

    "to do, to make," is used in the latter sense (a) of constructing or producing anything, of the creative acts of God, e.g., Matthew 19:4 (2nd part); Acts 17:24 ; of the acts of human beings, e.g., Matthew 17:4 ; Acts 9:39 ; (b) with nouns denoting a state or condition, to be the author of, to cause, e.g., peace, Ephesians 2:15 ; James 3:18 ; stumbling blocks, Romans 16:17 ; (c) with nouns involving the idea of action (or of something accomplished by action), so as to express the idea of the verb more forcibly (the Middle Voice is commonly used in this respect, suggesting the action as being of special interest to the doer); for the Active Voice see, e.g., Mark 2:23 , of "making" one's way, where the idea is not that the disciples "made" a path through the standing corn, but simply that they went, the phrase being equivalent to going, "(they began) as they went (to pluck the ears);" other instances of the Active are Revelation 13:13, 14 ; Revelation 16:14 ; Revelation 19:20 ; for the Middle Voice (the dynamic or subjective Middle), see, e.g., John 14:23 , "will make our abode;" in Acts 20:24 , "none of these things move me," lit., "I make account of none of these things;" Acts 25:17 , "I made no delay," RV; Romans 15:26 ; Ephesians 4:16 ; Hebrews 1:2 ; 2 Peter 1:10 ; (d) to "make" ready or prepare, e.g., a dinner, Luke 14:12 ; a supper, John 12:2 ; (e) to acquire, provide a thing for oneself, Matthew 25:16 ; Luke 19:18 ; (f) to render or "make" one or oneself anything, or cause a person or thing to become something, e.g., Matthew 4:19 ; Matthew 12:16 , "make (Him known);" John 5:11, 15 , to "make" whole; John 16:2 , lit., "they shall make (you put out of the synagogue);" Ephesians 2:14 ; Hebrews 1:7 ; to change one thing into another, Matthew 21:13 ; John 2:16 ; John 4:46 ; 1 Corinthians 6:15 ; (g) to constitute one anything, e.g., Acts 2:36 ; (h) to declare one or oneself anything, John 5:18 , "making (Himself equal with God);" John 8:53 ; John 10:33 ; John 19:7, 12 ; 1 John 1:10 ; 1 John 5:10 ; (i) to "make" one do a thing, e.g., Luke 5:34 ; John 6:10 ; Revelation 3:9 . See DO , No. 1, and other renderings there.VED-NT Make.3

    2: τίθημι
    (Strong's #5087 — Verb — tithemi — tith'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Make.4

    "to put," is used in the same way as No. 1 (f), Matthew 22:44 ; Mark 12:36 ; Luke 20:43 ; Acts 2:35 ; 1 Corinthians 9:18 (of making the Gospel without charge); Hebrews 1:13 ; Hebrews 10:13 ; 2 Peter 2:6 ; as No. 1 (g), Acts 20:28 ; Romans 4:17 . See APPOINT , No. 3.VED-NT Make.5

    3: διατίθημι
    (Strong's #1303 — Verb — diatithemi — dee-at-ith'-em-ahee )
    VED-NT Make.6

    "to covenant," is rendered "I will make" (the noun diatheke, "a covenant," being expressed additionally), in the Middle Voice, in Acts 3:25 ; Hebrews 8:10 ; Hebrews 10:16 , lit., "I will covenant" (see RV , marg.). See APPOINT , No. 4.VED-NT Make.7

    4: καθίστημι
    (Strong's #2525 — Verb — kathistemi — kath-is'-tay-mee )
    VED-NT Make.8

    "to set down, set in order, appoint," is used in the same way as No. 1 (g) in Acts 7:10, 27, 35 ; Hebrews 7:28 , AV (RV, "appointeth"); as No. 1 (f) in Romans 5:19 (twice). See APPOINT , No. 2.VED-NT Make.9

    5: συνίστημι
    (Strong's #4921 — Verb — sunistemi — soon-is-tah'-o, soon-is-tah'-an'-o, soon-is-tah'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Make.10

    "to commend, prove, establish," is used in Galatians 2:18 , much as in No. 1 (g), "I make myself (a transgressor)," i.e., "I constitute (or prove) myself, etc." See APPROVE , No. 2.VED-NT Make.11

    6: δίδωμι
    (Strong's #1325 — Verb — didomi — did'-o-mee )
    VED-NT Make.12

    "to give," is used in 2 Thessalonians 3:9 in much the same sense as No. 1 (g), "to make (ourselves an ensample)"; in Revelation 3:9 (1st part), RV, "I will give," the sense is virtually the same as poieo in the 2nd part of the verse, see No. 1 (i). See GIVE.VED-NT Make.13

    7: ἐπιτελέω
    (Strong's #2005 — Verb — epiteleo — ep-ee-tel-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Make.14

    "to complete," is translated "to make" in Hebrews 8:5 (1st part), RV marg., "complete" [in the 2nd part No. 1 is used in sense (a)]. See ACCOMPLISH.VED-NT Make.15

    8: συντελέω
    (Strong's #4931 — Verb — sunteleo — soon-tel-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Make.16

    "to end, fulfil," is translated "I will make" in Hebrews 8:8 , said of the New Covenant. See END.VED-NT Make.17

    9: εἰμί
    (Strong's #1510 — verb — eimi — i-mee' )
    VED-NT Make.18

    "to be," is translated "make" in Mark 12:42 , lit., "which is (a farthing)."VED-NT Make.19

    10: προσποιέω
    (Strong's #4364 — Verb — prospoieo — pros-poy-eh'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Make.20

    primarily, "to claim," is used in the Middle Voice with the meaning "to make as if," in Luke 24:28 , of the Lord's action regarding the two on the way to Emmaus. In the Sept., 1 Samuel 21:13 ; Job 19:14 .VED-NT Make.21

    11: κατέχω
    (Strong's #2722 — Verb — katecho — kat-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Make.22

    "to hold fast" (kata, "down," intensive, echo, "to hold"), is used of "making" for a place, in Acts 27:40 , RV, "they made for" (AV, "they made toward"). See HOLD.VED-NT Make.23

    12: προκαταρτίζω
    (Strong's #4294 — Verb — prokatartizo — prok-at-ar-tid'-zo )
    VED-NT Make.24

    "to render fit ('fitted'; artos, 'a joint') beforehand," is used in 2 Corinthians 9:5 , "to make up beforehand."VED-NT Make.25

    Notes: (1) In Hebrews 9:2 , AV, kataskeuazo, "to prepare," is translated "made" (RV, "prepared"). (2) In Ephesians 2:15 , AV, ktizo, "to create," is translated "make" (RV, "create"). (3) In Acts 26:16 , AV, procheirizo, "to determine, choose," is translated "make" (RV, "appoint"). (4) In Galatians 3:16 , AV, ero, "to speak," is translated "were ... made" (RV, "were ... spoken"). (5) In Luke 14:31 , AV, sumballo, "to meet with," in hostile sense, is rendered in combination with the phrase eis polemon, "in war," "to make war"; RV, "to encounter (in war)." (6) In Romans 14:19 "the things which make for peace" is, lit., "the things of peace." (7) In Acts 22:1 the verb "I make" represents no word in the original, lit., "hear now my defense unto you." (8) The Eng. verb "to make" forms with many other verbs a rendering of single Greek verbs which are given under the respective headings. (9) For "made," Luke 19:16 , RV, see GAIN , Note (1).VED-NT Make.26


    1: δημιουργός
    (Strong's #1217 — Noun Masculine — demiourgos — day-me-oor-gos' )
    VED-NT Maker.2

    lit., "one who works for the people" (from demos, "people," ergon, "work;" an ancient inscription speaks of the magistrates of Tarsus as demiourgoi: the word was formerly used thus regarding several towns in Greece; it is also found used of an artist), came to denote, in general usage, a builder or "maker," and is used of God as the "Maker" of the heavenly city, Hebrews 11:10 . In that passage the first word of the two, technites, denotes "an architect, designer," the second, demiourgos, is the actual Framer; the city is the archetype of the earthly one which God chose for His earthly people. Cp. ktistes, "creator."VED-NT Maker.3


    1: ἄρρην
    (Strong's #730 — Adjective — arsen | arren — ar'-hrane, ar'-sane )
    VED-NT Male.2

    is translated "men" in Romans 1:27 (three times); "man child" in Revelation 12:5 (ver. 13 in some mss.); "male" in Matthew 19:4 ; Mark 10:6 ; Luke 2:23 ; Galatians 3:28 , "(there can be no) male (and female)," RV, i.e., sex distinction does not obtain in Christ; sex is no barrier either to salvation or the development of Christian graces. See MAN.VED-NT Male.3


    1: κακοῦργος
    (Strong's #2557 — Adjective — kakourgos — kak-oor'-gos )
    VED-NT Malefactor.2

    an adjective, lit., "evil-working" (kakos, "evil," ergon, "work"), is used as a noun, translated "malefactor(-s)" in Luke 23:32, 33, 39 , and in the RV in 2 Timothy 2:9 (AV, "evil doer"). See EVIL , B, Note (1). In the Sept., Proverbs 21:15 .VED-NT Malefactor.3

    2: κακοποιός
    (Strong's #2555 — Adjective — kakopois — kak-op-oy-os' )
    VED-NT Malefactor.4

    an adjective, lit., "doing evil," is used in 1 Peter 2:12, 14 ; 1 Peter 3:16 (in some mss.); 4:15. See EVIL , B, No. 5.VED-NT Malefactor.5

    Malice, Maliciousness, Malicious

    1: κακία
    (Strong's #2549 — Noun Feminine — kakia — kak-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Malice, Maliciousness, Malicious.2

    "badness in quality" (the opposite of arete, "excellence"), "the vicious character generally" (Lightfoot), is translated "malice" in 1 Corinthians 5:8 ; 1 Corinthians 14:20 ; Ephesians 4:31 ; Colossians 3:8 ; Titus 3:3 ; 1 Peter 2:1 , AV (RV, "wickedness;" marg., "malice"); "maliciousness" in Romans 1:29 ; in 1 Peter 2:16 , AV (RV, "wickedness;" marg., "malice"). Elsewhere, Matthew 6:34 ; Acts 8:22 ; James 1:21 (RV marg., "malice"). See EVIL , B, No. 1.VED-NT Malice, Maliciousness, Malicious.3

    Note: In 2 John 1:10 , AV, poneros, "evil, wicked" (see EVIL , A. No. 2) is translated "malicious" (RV, "wicked").VED-NT Malice, Maliciousness, Malicious.4


    1: κακοήθεια
    (Strong's #2550 — Noun Feminine — kakoetheia — kak-o-ay'-thi-ah )
    VED-NT Malignity.2

    lit., "bad manner or character" (kakos, "bad," ethos, "manner"), hence, "an evil disposition" that tends to put the worst construction on everything, "malice, malevolence, craftiness," occurs in Romans 1:29 , as the accompaniment of dolos, "guile."VED-NT Malignity.3


    1: μαμωνᾶς
    (Strong's #3126 — Noun Masculine — mamonas — mam-mo-nas' )
    VED-NT Mammon.2

    a common Aramaic word for "riches," akin to a Hebrew word signifying "to be firm, steadfast" (whence "Amen"), hence, "that which is to be trusted;" Gesenius regards it as derived from a Heb. word signifying "treasure" (Genesis 43:23 ); it is personified in Matthew 6:24 ; Luke 16:9, 11, 13 .VED-NT Mammon.3


    1: ἄνθρωπος
    (Strong's #444 — Noun Masculine — anthropos — anth'-ro-pos )
    VED-NT Man.2

    is used (a) generally, of "a human being, male or female," without reference to sex or nationality, e.g., Matthew 4:4 ; Matthew 12:35 ; John 2:25 ; (b) in distinction from God, e.g., Matthew 19:6 ; John 10:33 ; Galatians 1:11 ; Colossians 3:23 ; (c) in distinction from animals, etc., e.g., Luke 5:10 ; (d) sometimes, in the plural, of "men and women," people, e.g., Matthew 5:13, 16 ; in Mark 11:2 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 , lit., "no one of men;" (e) in some instances with a suggestion of human frailty and imperfection, e.g., 1 Corinthians 2:5 ; Acts 14:15 (2nd part); (f) in the phrase translated "after man," "after the manner of men," "as a man" (AV), lit. "according to (kata) man," is used only by the Apostle Paul, of "(1) the practices of fallen humanity, 1 Corinthians 3:3 ; (2) anything of human origin, Galatians 1:11 ; (3) the laws that govern the administration of justice among men, Romans 3:5 ; (4) the standard generally accepted among men, Galatians 3:15 ; (5) an illustration not drawn from Scripture, 1 Corinthians 9:8 ; (6) probably = 'to use a figurative expression' (see AV, marg.), i.e., to speak evil of men with whom he had contended at Ephesus as 'beasts' (cp. 1 Corinthians 4:6 ), 1 Corinthians 15:32 ; Lightfoot prefers 'from worldly motives'; but the other interpretation, No. (4), seems to make better sense. See also Romans 6:19 , where, however, the Greek is slightly different, anthropinos, 'pertaining to mankind;'" the meaning is as Nos. (5) and (6). * [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 139.]VED-NT Man.3

    (g) in the phrase "the inward man," the regenerate person's spiritual nature personified, the inner self of the believer, Romans 7:22 , as approving of the law of God; in Ephesians 3:16 , as the sphere of the renewing power of the Holy Spirit; in 2 Corinthians 4:16 (where anthropos is not repeated), in contrast to "the outward man," the physical frame, the "man" as congnizable by the senses; the "inward" man is identical with "the hidden man of the heart," 1 Peter 3:4 .VED-NT Man.4

    (h) in the expressions "the old man," "the new man," which are confined to Paul's Epistles, the former standing for the unregenerate nature personified as the former self of a believer, which, haveing been crucified with Christ, Romans 6:6 , is to be apprehended practically as such, and to be "put off," Ephesians 4:22 ; Colossians 3:9 , being the source and seat of sin; the latter, "the new man," standing for the new nature personified as the believer's regenerate self, a nature "created in righteousness and holiness of truth," Ephesians 4:24 , and having been "put on" at regeneration, Colossians 3:10 ; being "renewed after the image of Him that created him," it is to be "put on" in pratical apprehension of these facts.VED-NT Man.5

    (i) often joined with another noun, e.g., Matthew 11:19 , lit., "a man, a glutton;" Matthew 13:52 , lit., "a man, a householder;" Matthew 18:23 , "a certain king," lit., "a man, a king."VED-NT Man.6

    (j) as equivalent simply to "a person," or "one," whether "man" or woman, e.g., Acts 19:16 ; Romans 3:28 ; Galatians 2:16 ; James 1:19 ; James 2:24 ; James 3:8 (like the pronoun tis, "someone;" tis is rendered "man" in Matthew 8:28 ); or, again (as tis sometimes signifies), "a man," e.g., Matthew 17:14 ; Luke 13:19 .VED-NT Man.7

    (k) definitely, with the article, of some particular person, Matthew 12:13 ; Mark 3:3, 5 ; or with the demonstrative pronoun and the article, e.g., Matthew 12:45 ; Luke 14:30 . For the phrase "the Son of man" see SON OF MAN. For "the man of sin," 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , see INIQUITY , No. 1.VED-NT Man.8

    (l) in the phrase "the man of God," 2 Timothy 3:17 , not used as an official designation, nor denoting a special class of believers, it specifies what every believer should be, namely, a person whose life and conduct represent the mind of God and fulfill His will; so in 1 Timothy 6:11 , "O man of God." Some regard this in the OT sense as of a prophet acting in a distinctive character, possessed of Divine authority; but the context is of such a general character as to confirm the more extended designation here.VED-NT Man.9

    Notes: (1) In Galatians 3:28 , the RV adds the italicized word "man" ("ye all are one man in Christ Jesus"), in accordance with Ephesians 2:15 , which speaks of Jew and Gentile as becoming "one new man" in Christ. The figure is closely analogous to that of "the body." In these two passages "one" is masculine, i.e., "one person;" in John 10:30 ; John 11:52 ; John 17:21, 22, 23 , "one" is neuter, "one thing," as in 1 Corinthians 3:8 ; 1 Corinthians 11:5 . The first two, in Galatians 3 and Ephesians 2 , express vital union, present and eternal; in John 17 the union is moral, a process in course of accomplishment. (2) For philanthropia, Titus 3:4 , "(His) love toward man," see KIND , C, No. 2. (3) In Revelation 9:20 , the RV translates the genitive plural of anthropos with the article, "mankind" (AV, "the men"); it might have been rendered "(the rest) of men."VED-NT Man.10

    2: ἀνήρ
    (Strong's #435 — Noun Masculine — aner — an'-ayr )
    VED-NT Man.11

    is never used of the female sex; it stands (a) in distinction from a woman, Acts 8:12 ; 1 Timothy 2:12 ; as a husband, Matthew 1:16 ; John 4:16 ; Romans 7:2 ; Titus 1:6 ; (b) as distinct from a boy or infant, 1 Corinthians 13:11 ; metaphorically in Ephesians 4:13 ; (c) in conjunction with an adjective or noun, e.g., Luke 5:8 , lit., "a man, a sinner;" Luke 24:19 , lit., "a man, a prophet;" often in terms of address, e.g., Acts 1:16 ; Acts 13:15, 26 ; Acts 15:7, 13 , lit., "men, brethren;" with gentilic or local names (virtually a title of honor), e.g., Acts 2:14 ; Acts 22:3 , lit., "Judean men," "a Judean man;" Acts 3:12 ; Acts 5:35 , lit., "Israelite men;" Acts 17:22 "Athenian men;" Acts 19:35 , lit., "Ephesian men;" in Acts 14:15 it is used in addressing a company of "men," without any descriptive term. In this verse, however, the distinction between aner and anthropos (2nd part) is noticeable; the use of the latter comes under No. 1 (e); (d) in general, "a man, a male person" (used like the pronoun tis, No. 3), "a man" (i.e., a certain "man"), e.g., Luke 8:41 ; in the plural, Acts 6:11 .VED-NT Man.12

    3: τις
    (Strong's #5100 — pronoun — tis — tis )
    VED-NT Man.13

    "some one, a certain one," is rendered "a man," "a certain man," e.g., in Matthew 22:24 ; Mark 8:4 , AV (RV, "one"); Mark 12:19 ; John 3:3, 5 ; John 6:50 ; John 14:23 ; John 15:6, 13 ; Acts 13:41 , AV (RV, "one"); 1 Corinthians 4:2 ; 1 Timothy 1:8 ; 2 Timothy 2:5, 21 ; James 2:14, 18 ; 1 Peter 2:19 ; 1 John 4:20 .VED-NT Man.14

    4: ἄρρην
    (Strong's #730 — Adjective — arren | arsen — ar'-hrane, ar'-sane )
    VED-NT Man.15

    see MALE.VED-NT Man.16

    5: τέλειος
    (Strong's #5046 — Adjective — teleios — tel'-i-os )
    VED-NT Man.17

    perfect, is translated "men" in 1 Corinthians 14:20 , RV marg., "of full age," AV marg., "perfect, or, of a ripe age." See PERFECT.VED-NT Man.18

    Note: In many cases the word "man" is combined with an adjective to translate one word in the original. These will be found under various other headings.VED-NT Man.19

    Man's, of Man, Mankind

    1: ἀνθρώπινος
    (Strong's #442 — Adjective — anthropinos — anth-ro'-pee-nos )
    VED-NT Man's, of Man, Mankind.2

    "human, belonging to man" (from anthropos, see MAN , No. 1), is used (a) of man's wisdom, in 1 Corinthians 2:13 (some mss. have it in ver. 4, where indeed it is implied; see, however, the RV); (b) of "man's judgement," 1 Corinthians 4:3 (marg., "day:" see DAY); (c) of "mankind," James 3:7 , lit., "the human nature," RV marg. (AV marg., "nature of man"); (d) of human ordinance, 1 Peter 2:13 ; Moulton and Milligan show from the papyri how strongly antithetic to the Divine the use of the word is in this respect; (e) of temptation, 1 Corinthians 10:13 , RV, "such as man can bear" (AV, "such as is common to man"), i.e., such as must and does come to "men;" (f) of "men's" hands, Acts 17:25 ; (g) in the phrase "after the manner of men," Romans 6:19 .VED-NT Man's, of Man, Mankind.3

    Notes: (1) In Luke 16:12 , AV, allotrios, "belonging to another" (allos, "another"), here used as a pronoun, is translated "another man's" (RV, "another's"); so, as an adjective, in Romans 14:4 ; Romans 15:20 ; 2 Corinthians 10:15, 16 (in this last the RV omits "man"). (2) In Acts 27:22 there is no word representing "man's;" the RV has "of life." (3) In Romans 5:17 , the RV rightly has "the trespass of the one," for AV, "one man's offense."VED-NT Man's, of Man, Mankind.4


    * For MAN-CHILD see MALEVED-NT Man-Child.2


    1: φάτνη
    (Strong's #5336 — Noun Feminine — phatne — fat'-nay )
    VED-NT Manger.2

    "a manger," Luke 2:7, 12, 16 , also denotes "a stall," 13:15. So in the Sept., the word denoted not only a "manger" but, by metonymy, the stall or crib (Proverbs 14:4 ) containing the "manger."VED-NT Manger.3


    A — 1: ἐμφανής
    (Strong's #1717 — Adjective — emphanes — em-fan-ace' )
    VED-NT Manifest.2

    manifest (akin to emphaino, "to show in, to exhibit;" en, "in," phaino, "to cause to shine"), is used (a) literally in Acts 10:40 , RV "(gave Him to be made) manifest;" (b) metaphorically in Romans 10:20 , "(I was made) manifest." See OPENLY. Cp. B, No. 2.VED-NT Manifest.3

    A — 2: φανερός
    (Strong's #5318 — Adjective — phaneros — fan-er-os' )
    VED-NT Manifest.4

    "open to sight, visible, manifest" (the root phan---, signifying "shining," exists also in No. 1), is translated "manifest" in Luke 8:17 ; Acts 4:16 ; Acts 7:13 , RV (AV, "known"); Romans 1:19 ; 1 Corinthians 3:13 ; 1 Corinthians 11:19 ; 1 Corinthians 14:25 ; Galatians 5:19 ; Philippians 1:13 ; 1 Timothy 4:15 (AV, "appear"); 1 John 3:10 . See APPEAR , B, Note (2), KNOW , B, No. 2, OPENLY, OUTWARDLY.VED-NT Manifest.5

    A — 3: ἀφανής
    (Strong's #852 — Adjective — aphanes — af-an-ace' )
    VED-NT Manifest.6

    denotes "unseen, hidden," Hebrews 4:13 , "not manifest" (a, negative, and phaino). In the Sept., Nehemiah 4:8 ; Job 24:20 .VED-NT Manifest.7

    Notes: (1) In 1 Corinthians 15:27 , AV delos, "evident," is translated "manifest" (RV, "evident"). (2) So with ekdelos, 2 Timothy 3:9 , an intensive form of delos, signifying "quite evident." (3) In 1 Timothy 5:25 , AV, prodelos, "evident beforehand, clearly evident," is translated "manifest beforehand" (RV, "evident"); see EVIDENT. (4) For "manifest token," see TOKEN.VED-NT Manifest.8

    B — 1: φανερόω
    (Strong's #5319 — Verb — phaneroo — fan-er-o'-o )
    VED-NT Manifest.9

    "to make visible, clear, manifest," known (akin to A, No. 2), is used especially in the writings of the Apostles John and Paul), occurring 9 times in the Gospel, 9 times in 1John, 2 in Rev.; in the Pauline Epistles (including Heb.) 24 times; in the other Gospels, only in Mark, 3 times; elsewhere in 1 Peter 1:20 ; 1 Peter 5:4 . The true meaning is "to uncover, lay bare, reveal." The following are variations in the rendering, which should be noted: Mark 16:12, 14 (RV, "was manifested," AV, "appeared"); John 21:1 (RV, "manifested," AV, "shewed;" cp. John 21:14 ); Romans 1:19 (RV, "manifested," AV, "hath shewed"); 2 Corinthians 3:3 (RV, "being made manifest," AV, "are manifestly declared"); 2 Corinthians 5:10 ; 2 Corinthians 7:12 ; Revelation 3:18 (RV, "be made manifest," AV, "appear"); 2 Corinthians 11:6 (RV, "we have made it manifest," AV, "we have been throughly made manifest"); Colossians 1:26 (RV, "hath it been manifested," AV, "is made manifest"); 3:4 (RV, "be manifested," AV, "appear;" so 1 Peter 5:4 ); 1 Timothy 3:16 (RV, "was manifested," AV, "was manifest"); 2 Timothy 1:10 (RV, "hath ... been manifested," AV, "is ... made manifest;" cp. Romans 16:26 ; 2 Corinthians 4:10, 11 ; 1 Peter 1:20 ); Hebrews 9:26 (RV, "hath He been manifested," AV, "hath He appeared"); 1 John 2:28 ; 1 John 3:2 (RV, "is ... made manifest," AV, "doth appear"). See APPEAR , A. No. 4.VED-NT Manifest.10

    B — 2: ἐμφανίζω
    (Strong's #1718 — Verb — emphanizo — em-fan-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Manifest.11

    akin to A, No. 1, is translated "to manifest, make manifest," in John 14:21, 22 ; Hebrews 11:14 , RV; see APPEAR , A, No. 5.VED-NT Manifest.12

    Note: For the adverb phaneros, "manifestly," see EVIDENTLY , OPENLY.VED-NT Manifest.13


    1: φανέρωσις
    (Strong's #5321 — Noun Feminine — phanerosis — fan-er'-o-sis )
    VED-NT Manifestation.2

    "a manifestation" (akin to phaneros and phaneroo; see MANIFEST), occurs in 1 Corinthians 12:7 ; 2 Corinthians 4:2 .VED-NT Manifestation.3

    Note: In Romans 8:19 , AV, apokalupsis, "an uncovering, laying bare, revealing, revelation," is translated "manifestation" (RV, "revealing"). See REVELATION.VED-NT Manifestation.4


    1: ποικίλος
    (Strong's #4164 — Adjective — poikilos — poy-kee'-los )
    VED-NT Manifold.2

    "varied," is translated "manifold" in 1 Peter 1:6 ; 1 Peter 4:10 ; James 1:2 , RV (AV, "divers"). See DIVERS , A, No. 2.VED-NT Manifold.3

    2: πολυποίκιλος
    (Strong's #4182 — Adjective — polupoikilos — pol-oo-poy'-kil-os )
    VED-NT Manifold.4

    "much varied" (polus, "much," and No. 1), is said of the wisdom of God, in Ephesians 3:10 .VED-NT Manifold.5

    3: πολλαπλασίων
    (Strong's #4179 — Adverb — pollaplasion — pol-lap-las-ee'-ohn )
    VED-NT Manifold.6

    "many times more" (from polus, "much"), occurs in Luke 18:30 , "manifold more," and in many ancient authorities in Matthew 19:29 (RV, marg.; some editions in text); AV and RV text, "a hundredfold," translating hekatontaplasiona.VED-NT Manifold.7


    * For MANKIND see MAN , No. 1, Note (3), MAN'S (c), ABUSERSVED-NT Mankind.2


    1: μάννα
    (Strong's #3131 — Noun Neuter — manna — man'-nah )
    VED-NT Manna.2

    the supernaturally provided food for Israel during their wilderness journey (for details see Exodus 16 and Numbers 11 ). The Hebrew equivalent is given in Exodus 16:15 , RV marg., "man hu." The translations are, RV, "what is it?;" AV and RV marg., "it is manna." It is described in Psalms 78:24, 25 as "the corn of heaven" and "the bread of the mighty," RV text and AV marg. ("angels' food," AV text), and in 1 Corinthians 10:3 , as "spiritual meat." The vessel appointed to contain it as a perpetual memorial, was of gold, Hebrews 9:4 , with Exodus 16:33 . The Lord speaks of it as being typical of Himself, the true Bread from Heaven, imparting eternal life and sustenance to those who by faith partake spiritually of Him, John 6:31-35 . The "hidden manna" is promised as one of the rewards of the overcomer, Revelation 2:17 ; it is thus suggestive of the moral excellence of Christ in His life on earth, hid from the eyes of men, by whom He was "despised and rejected;" the path of the overcomer is a reflex of His life.VED-NT Manna.3

    None of the natural substances called "manna" is to be identified with that which God provided for Israel.VED-NT Manna.4


    A — 1: ἔθος
    (Strong's #1485 — Noun Neuter — ethos — eth'-os )
    VED-NT Manner.2

    "a habit, custom" (akin to the verb etho, "to be accustomed"), is always translated "custom" in the RV ("manner" in the AV of John 19:40 ; Acts 15:1 ; Acts 25:16 ; Hebrews 10:25 ). See CUSTOM. No. 1.VED-NT Manner.3

    A — 2: ἦθος
    (Strong's #2239 — Noun Neuter — ethos — ay'-thos )
    VED-NT Manner.4

    primarily "a haunt, abode," then, "a custom, manner," occurs in the plural in 1 Corinthians 15:33 , i.e., ethical conduct morals.VED-NT Manner.5

    A — 3: τρόπος
    (Strong's #5158 — Noun Masculine — tropos — trop'-os )
    VED-NT Manner.6

    "a turning, fashion, manner, character, way of life," is translated "manner" in Acts 1:11 , with reference to the Lord's ascension and return; in Jude 1:7 , of the similarity of the evil of those mentioned in Jude 1:6, 7 . See CONVERSATION , MEANS , WAY.VED-NT Manner.7

    Note: In Acts 15:11 , the phrase kath' hon tropon, "according to what manner," is translated "in like manner as," RV (AV, "even as").VED-NT Manner.8

    A — 4: τύπος
    (Strong's #5179 — Noun Masculine — tupos — too'-pos )
    VED-NT Manner.9

    "a mark or impress," is translated "manner" in Acts 23:25 . See FORM , No. 3.VED-NT Manner.10

    A — 5: ἀκρίβεια
    (Strong's #195 — Noun Feminine — akribeia — ak-ree'-bi-ah )
    VED-NT Manner.11

    "exactness, precision" (akin to akribes, "exact, careful;" see akriboo, "to inquire carefully," and akribos, "carefully"), occurs in Acts 22:3 , RV , "strict manner" (AV, "perfect manner").VED-NT Manner.12

    Notes: (1) The verb etho, "to be accustomed," has a perfect tense eiotha, with a present meaning, the neuter of the participle of which, eiothos, used with the article, signifies "custom," Luke 4:16 . In Acts 17:2 the AV translates it "manner" (RV, "custom"). See CUSTOM , WONT. (2) For agoge, in 2 Timothy 3:10 , AV, "manner of life" (RV, "conduct") see CONDUCT. (3) For anastrophe, "manner of life," see LIFE , A, No. 6; cp. LIVE, No. 5. Agoge suggests conduct according to one's leading; anastrophe, conduct as one goes about and mingles with others.VED-NT Manner.13

    B — 1: ποταπός
    (Strong's #4217 — Adjective — potapos — pot-ap-os' )
    VED-NT Manner.14

    primarily, "from what country," then, "of what sort," is rendered "what manner of man." Matthew 8:27 : so 2 Peter 3:11 ; Mark 13:1 (twice); Luke 1:29 ; Luke 7:39 ; 1 John 3:1 .VED-NT Manner.15

    B — 2: ποῖος
    (Strong's #4169 — pronoun — poios — poy'-os )
    VED-NT Manner.16

    "of what sort," is translated "by what manner of (death)" in John 21:19 , RV, (AV, "by what"); in Acts 7:49 , "what manner of (house);" Romans 3:27 , "what manner of law;" 1 Corinthians 15:35 , "what manner of body."VED-NT Manner.17

    B — 3: οἷος
    (Strong's #3634 — pronoun — hoios — hoy'-os )
    VED-NT Manner.18

    a relative pronoun, signifying "what sort of or manner of," is translated by the latter phrase in 1 Thessalonians 1:5 ; some mss. have it in Luke 9:55 , as in AV; the RV follows those in which it is absent.VED-NT Manner.19

    B — 4: ὁποῖος
    (Strong's #3697 — pronoun — hopoios — hop-oy'-os )
    VED-NT Manner.20

    is rendered "what manner of" in 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ; James 1:24 . See SORT , A.VED-NT Manner.21

    C — 1: πολυτρόπως
    (Strong's #4187 — Adverb — polutropos — pol-oot-rop'-oce )
    VED-NT Manner.22

    lit., "much turning" (polus, "much," tropos, "a turning"), "in many ways (or manners)," is rendered "in divers manners" in Hebrews 1:1 .VED-NT Manner.23

    C — 2: οὕτως
    (Strong's #3779 — Adverb — houtos | houto — hoo'-to )
    VED-NT Manner.24

    "thus, in this way," is rendered "after this manner" in Matthew 6:9 ; 1 Peter 3:5 ; Revelation 11:5 . See SO , THUS.VED-NT Manner.25

    C — 3: ὡσαύτως
    (Strong's #5615 — Adverb — hosautos — ho-sow'-toce )
    VED-NT Manner.26

    a strengthened form of hos, "thus," signifies "just so, likewise, in like manner," e.g., 1 Timothy 2:9 ; in the following the RV has "in like manner," for AV, "likewise;" Mark 14:31 ; Luke 22:20 ; Romans 8:26 ; 1 Timothy 3:8 ; 1 Timothy 5:25 ; in Luke 20:31 the RV has "likewise," AV, "in like manner." See LIKEWISE.VED-NT Manner.27

    C — 4: ὁμοίως
    (Strong's #3668 — Adverb — homoios — hom-oy'-oce )
    VED-NT Manner.28

    akin to the adjective homoios, "like," signifies in "like manner, equally;" in the following the RV has "in like manner" for AV, "likewise;" Matthew 27:41 ; Mark 4:16 ; Mark 15:31 ; Luke 10:32 ; Luke 13:3 ; Luke 16:25 ; John 5:19 ; (Hebrews 9:21 ); James 2:25 ; 1 Peter 3:1, 7 ; Revelation 8:12 ; in Revelation 2:15 the AV "which thing I hate" translates a variant reading (ho miso). See LIKEWISE , SO.VED-NT Manner.29

    C — 5: πῶς
    (Strong's #4459 — particle — pos — poce )
    VED-NT Manner.30

    how, is translated "after what manner" in Acts 20:18 . See MEANS.VED-NT Manner.31

    Note: For paraplesios, Hebrews 2:14 , RV, see LIKEWISE , No. 4.VED-NT Manner.32

    D — 1: κατά
    (Strong's #2596 — Preposition — kata — kat-ah' )
    VED-NT Manner.33

    "according to," is translated "after the manner" in John 2:6 , i.e., "in accordance with;" in Romans 3:5 ; 1 Corinthians 3:3 ; 1 Corinthians 9:8 , RV, "after the manner of" (AV, "as").VED-NT Manner.34

    E — 1: τροποφορέω
    (Strong's #5159 — Verb — tropophoreo — trop-of-or-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Manner.35

    "to bear another's manners," is translated "suffered He (their) manners" in Acts 13:18 . For this and the alternative reading see BEAR , No. 8.VED-NT Manner.36

    Notes: (1) In the following the phrase kata tauta, or kata ta auta, lit., "according to the same things," is translated "in (the) like (RV, same) manner," Luke 6:23 ; Luke 6:26 , RV (AV, "so"); Luke 17:30 , RV, "after the same manner" (AV, "even thus"). (2) In Philippians 2:18 the phrase to ... auto, lit., "the same (thing)," used adverbially, is translated "in the same manner," RV (AV, "for the same cause"). (3) In Mark 13:29 , AV, kai, "also" (SO RV), is translated "in like manner." (4) In Acts 15:23 some mss. have the demonstrative pronoun tode used adverbially and rendered "after this manner" (AV). The RV, adhering to the mss. in which it is absent, inserts the word "thus" in italics. (5) In Acts 25:20 a phrase lit. rendered "(as to) the inquiry concerning these things" (or according to some mss. "this person," whether "Jesus" or "Paul," Acts 25:19 ), is translated "of such manner of questions," AV (RV, "how to inquire concerning these things"). (6) In Luke 1:66 , AV, ara, "then" (so RV), is rendered freely "(what) manner." (7) In Luke 24:17 , AV, the pronoun tis, "who, what," in the plural (RV, "what") is translated "what manner of;" similarly, in the singular in Mark 4:41 ; Luke 8:25 (RV, "who"); John 7:36 . (8) In Galatians 2:14 , AV, the adverb ethnikos, "in gentile fashion" (ethnos, "a nation:" in the plural, "Gentiles or nations"), is translated "after the manner of Gentiles" (RV, "as do"). (9) In Matthew 12:31 ; Luke 11:42 ; Revelation 18:12 , AV, pas, "every" (so RV), is translated "all manner."VED-NT Manner.37


    1: παῖς
    (Strong's #3816 — Noun — pais — paheece )
    VED-NT Manservant.2

    "a child, boy, youth," also means "a servant, attendant;" in Luke 12:45 it is used in the plural "menservants," in contrast to paidiske, "a maidservant." See CHILD , No. 4.VED-NT Manservant.3


    1: μονή
    (Strong's #3438 — Noun Feminine — mone — mon-ay' )
    VED-NT Mansions.2

    primarily "a staying, abiding" (akin to meno, "to abide"), denotes an "abode" (Eng., "manor," "manse," etc.), translated "mansions" in John 14:2 ; "abode" in John 14:23 . There is nothing in the word to indicate separate compartments in heaven; neither does it suggest temporary resting places on the road.VED-NT Mansions.3


    1: ἀνδροφόνος
    (Strong's #409 — Noun Masculine — androphonos — an-drof-on'-os )
    VED-NT Manslayers.2

    from aner, "a man," and phoneus, "a murderer," occurs in the plural in 1 Timothy 1:9 .VED-NT Manslayers.3


    1: περιβόλαιον
    (Strong's #4018 — Noun Neuter — peribolaion — per-ib-ol'-ah-yon )
    VED-NT Mantle.2

    lit., "that which is thrown around," is translated "mantle" in Hebrews 1:12 , RV (AV, "vesture.") See COVERING , VEIL.VED-NT Mantle.3


    1: πολύς
    (Strong's #4183 — Adjective — polus — pol-oos' )
    VED-NT Many.2

    "much, many, great," is used especially of number when its significance is "many," e.g., Matthew 8:30 ; Matthew 9:10 ; Matthew 13:17 ; so the RV of Matthew 12:15 , where some mss. follow the word by ochloi, "multitudes;" 1 Corinthians 12:12 ; Revelation 1:15 ; it is more frequently used as a noun, "many (persons)," e.g., Matthew 3:7 ; Matthew 7:22 ; Matthew 22:14 ; with the article, "the many," e.g., Matthew 24:12 , RV; Mark 9:26 , RV, "the more part" (AV "many"); Romans 5:15, 19 (twice), RV; Romans 12:5 ; 1 Corinthians 10:17 ; 1 Corinthians 10:33 , RV; so 2 Corinthians 2:17 ; in 1 Corinthians 11:30 , RV, "not a few." In Luke 12:47 it is translated "many stripes," the noun being understood. See GREAT , MUCH.VED-NT Many.3

    Notes: (1) In Luke 23:8 some mss. have polla, "many things," though it is absent from the most authentic; see the RV. (2) In Mark 6:20 the RV, following the mss. which have aporeo, "to be perplexed," translates polla by "much;" some mss. have poieo, "to do;" hence AV, "did many things." (3) In Galatians 4:27 the plural of polus, with mallon, "more," is translated "more" in the RV (AV, "many more"), lit., "many are the children of the desolate more than of her that, etc.," the phrase implying that both should have many children, but the desolate more than the other. (4) In John 7:40 there is no word in the original representing "some" or "many."VED-NT Many.4

    2: πλείων
    (Strong's #4119 — Adjective — pleion — pli'-own, pli'-on, pleh'-on )
    VED-NT Many.5

    "more, greater," the comparative of No. 1, is translated "many" in Acts 2:40 ; Acts 13:31 ; Acts 21:10 ; Acts 24:17 ; Acts 25:14 ; Acts 27:20 ; Acts 28:23 (AV; RV, "in great number"); with the article, "most," RV (or rather, "the more part"), Acts 19:32 ; 1 Corinthians 10:5 , and Philippians 1:14 (for AV, "many," an important change); in 2 Corinthians 2:6 , RV, "the many" (marg., "the more"); so 2 Corinthians 4:15 ; in 2 Corinthians 9:2 , "very many" (marg., "the more part"); in Hebrews 7:23 , RV, "many in number" (AV, "many"). See GREATER , MORE.VED-NT Many.6

    3: ἱκανός
    (Strong's #2425 — Adjective — hikanos — hik-an-os' )
    VED-NT Many.7

    "sufficient," when used of number sometimes signifies "many," suggesting a sufficient number, (a) with nouns, Luke 8:32 ; Luke 23:9 ; Acts 9:23, 43 ; Acts 20:8 ; Acts 27:7 ; (b) absolutely, some noun being understood, e.g., Acts 12:12 ; Acts 14:21 ; Acts 19:19 ; 1 Corinthians 11:30 . See ABLE , C, No. 2.VED-NT Many.8

    4: ὅσος
    (Strong's #3745 — pronoun — hosos — hos'-os )
    VED-NT Many.9

    "how much, how many, how great, as much as, as many as," is translated "as many as," e.g., in Matthew 14:36 ; Mark 3:10 ; Luke 9:5 , RV (AV, "whosoever"); Acts 2:39 ; in Acts 9:16 , RV, "how many things" (AV, "how great things"); in Romans 6:3 the RV renders it by "all we who" (AV, "so many of us as"), a necessary alteration, not singling out some believers from others, as if some were not baptized, but implying what was recognized as true of all (see Acts 18:8 ); in 2 Corinthians 1:20 , RV , "how many soever be" (AV, "all"). See ALL , C.VED-NT Many.10

    5: πόσος
    (Strong's #4214 — pronoun — posos — pos'-os )
    VED-NT Many.11

    "how much, how great, how many," has the last meaning in Matthew 15:34 ; Matthew 16:9, 10 ; Matthew 27:13 ("how many things"); Mark 6:38 ; Mark 8:5, 19, 20 ; Mark 15:4 ("how many things"); Luke 15:17 ; Acts 21:20 . See GREAT.VED-NT Many.12

    6: τοσοῦτος
    (Strong's #5118 — Adjective — tosoutos — tos-oo'-tos )
    VED-NT Many.13

    "so great, so much, so many," (a) qualifying a noun, is rendered "these many (years)" in Luke 15:29 ; "so many," John 12:37 ; 1 Corinthians 14:10 ; (b) without a noun, John 6:9 ; John 21:11 ; Galatians 3:4 , "so many things." See GREAT.VED-NT Many.14

    Note: In John 17:2 , AV, the neuter of pas, "all," followed by the neuter of the relative pronoun "what," and then by the plural of the personal pronoun, is translated "to as many as" (RV, "whatsoever ... to them").VED-NT Many.15


    1: μαράνα θά
    (Strong's #3134 — — maran-atha — mar'-an ath'-ah )
    VED-NT Maran-Atha.2

    an expression used in 1 Corinthians 16:22 , is the Greek spelling for two Aramaic words, formerly supposed by some to be an imprecatory utterance or "a curse reinforced by a prayer," an idea contrary to the intimations coveyed by its use in early Christian documents, e.g., "The Teaching of the Apostles," a document of the beginning of the 2nd cent., and in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (vii. 26), where it is used as follows: "Gather us all together into Thy Kingdom which Thou hast prepared. Maranatha, Hosanna to the Son of David; blessed is He that cometh, etc."VED-NT Maran-Atha.3

    The first part, ending in 'n,' signifies "Lord;" as to the second part, the Fathers regarded it as a past tense, "has come." Modern expositors take it as equivalent to a present, "cometh," or future, "will come." Certain Aramaic scholars regard the last part as consisting of 'tha,' and regard the phrase as an ejaculation, "Our Lord, come," or "O Lord, come." The character of the context, however, indicates that the Apostle is making a statement rather than expressing a desire or uttering a prayer.VED-NT Maran-Atha.4

    As to the reason why it was used, most probably it was a current ejaculation among early Christians, as embodying the consummation of their desires.VED-NT Maran-Atha.5

    "At first the title Marana or Maran, used in speaking to and of Christ was no more than the respectful designation of the Teacher on the part of the disciples." After His resurrection they used the title of or to Him as applied to God, "but it must here be remembered that the Aramaic-speaking Jews did not, save exceptionally, designate God as 'Lord'; so that in the 'Hebraist' section of the Jewish Christians the expression 'our Lord' (Marana) was used in reference to Christ only" (Dalman, The Words of Jesus).VED-NT Maran-Atha.6


    1: μάρμαρος
    (Strong's #3139 — Noun Masculine — marmaros — mar'-mar-os )
    VED-NT Marble.2

    primarily denoted any "glistering stone" (from maraino, "to glisten"); hence, "marble," Revelation 18:12 .VED-NT Marble.3


    1: ναύτης
    (Strong's #3492 — Noun Masculine — nautes — now'-tace )
    VED-NT Mariners.2

    "a seaman, mariner, sailor" (from naus, "a ship," Eng., "nautical"), is translated "sailors" in Acts 27:27, 30 , RV (AV, "shipmen"); in Revelation 18:17 , RV, "mariners" (AV, "sailors").VED-NT Mariners.3


    1: χάραγμα
    (Strong's #5480 — Noun Neuter — charagma — khar'-ag-mah )
    VED-NT Mark.2

    denotes "a stamp, impress," translated "mark" in Revelation 13:16, 17 , etc. See GRAVEN.VED-NT Mark.3

    2: στίγμα
    (Strong's #4742 — Noun Neuter — stigma — stig'-mah )
    VED-NT Mark.4

    denotes "a tattooed mark" or "a mark burnt in, a brand" (akin to stizo, "to prick"), translated "marks" in Galatians 6:17 . "It is probable that the Apostle refers to the physical sufferings he had endured since he began to proclaim Jesus as Messiah and Lord [e.g., at Lystra and Philippi]. It is probable, too, that this reference to his scars was intended to set off the insistence of the Judaizers upon a body-mark which cost them nothing. Over against the circumcision they demanded as a proof of obedience to the law he set the indelible tokens, sustained in his own body, of his loyalty to the Lord Jesus. As to the origin of the figure, it was indeed customary for a master to brand his slaves, but this language does not suggest that the Apostle had been branded by His Master. Soldiers and criminals also were branded on occasion; but to neither of these is the case of Paul as here described analogous. The religious devotee branded himself with the peculiar mark of the god whose cult he affected; so was Paul branded with the marks of his devotion to the Lord Jesus. It is true such markings were forbidden by the law, Leviticus 19:28 , but then Paul had not inflicted these on himself.VED-NT Mark.5

    "The marks of Jesus cannot be taken to be the marks which the Lord bears in His body in consequence of the Crucifixion; they were different in character." * [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 344.]VED-NT Mark.6

    3: σκοπός
    (Strong's #4649 — Noun Masculine — skopos — skop-os' )
    VED-NT Mark.7

    primarily "a watcher, watchman" (as in the Sept., e.g., Ezekiel 3:17 ), then, "a mark on which to fix the eye" (akin to skopeo, "to look at"), is used metaphorically in Philippians 3:14 , of "an aim or object," RV, "goal." See GOAL.VED-NT Mark.8

    Market, Market-Place

    1: ἀγορά
    (Strong's #58 — Noun Feminine — agora — ag-or-ah' )
    VED-NT Market, Market-Place.2

    primarily "an assembly," or, in general, "an open space in a town" (akin to ageiro, "to bring together"), became applied, according to papyri evidences, to a variety of things, e.g., "a judicial assembly," "a market," or even "supplies, provisions" (Moulton and Milligan, Vocab.). In the NT it denotes "a place of assembly, a public place or forum, a market-place." A variety of circumstances, connected with it as a public gathering place, is mentioned, e.g., business dealings such as the hiring of laborers, Matthew 20:3 ; the buying and selling of goods, Mark 7:4 (involving risk of pollution); the games of children, Matthew 11:16 ; Luke 7:32 ; exchange of greetings, Matthew 23:7 ; Mark 12:38 ; Luke 11:43 ; Luke 20:46 ; the holding of trials, Acts 16:19 ; public discussions, Acts 17:17 . Mark 6:56 records the bringing of the sick there. The word always carries with it the idea of publicity, in contrast to private circumstances.VED-NT Market, Market-Place.3

    The RV always translates it "market-place" or in the plural. The AV sometimes changes the rendering to "markets" and translates it "streets" in Mark 6:56 . See STREET.VED-NT Market, Market-Place.4


    * Note: In Mark 2:22 , apollumi, "to destroy, perish," is found in the most authentic mss. as applying both to the wine and the wine skins, RV, "perisheth;" the AV follows the mss. which tell of the wine being "spilled" (ekcheo, "to pour out"), and the skins (AV, "bottles") being "marred." See DESTROY , No. 1.VED-NT Marred.2

    Marriage, Marry

    A — 1: γάμος
    (Strong's #1062 — Noun Masculine — gamos — gam'-os )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.2

    "a marriage, wedding," or "wedding feast," is used to denote (a) the ceremony and its proceedings, including the "marriage feast," John 2:1, 2 ; of the "marriage ceremony" only, figuratively, Revelation 19:7 , as distinct from the "marriage feast" (v. 9); (b) "the marriage feast," RV in Matthew 22:2-4, 9 ; in Matthew 22:8, 10 , "wedding;" in Matthew 25:10 , RV "marriage feast;" so Luke 12:36 ; Luke 14:8 ; in Matthew 22:11, 12 , the "wedding garment" is, lit., "a garment of a wedding." In Revelation 19 , where, under the figure of a "marriage," the union of Christ, as the Lamb of God, with His heavenly bride is so described, the marriage itself takes place in heaven during the Parousia, Revelation 19:7 (the aorist or point tense indicating an accomplished fact; the bride is called "His wife"); the "marriage feast" or supper is to take place on earth, after the Second Advent, Revelation 19:9 . That Christ is spoken of as the Lamb points to His atoning sacrifice as the ground upon which the spiritual union takes place. The background of the phraseology lies in the OT description of the relation of God to Israel, e.g., Isaiah 54:4 ,ff.; Ezekiel 16:7 ,ff; Hosea 2:19 ; (c) "marriage" in general, including the "married" state, which is to be "had in honor," Hebrews 13:4 , RV.VED-NT Marriage, Marry.3

    Note: Among the Jews the "marriage supper" took place in the husband's house and was the great social event in the family life. Large hospitality, and resentment at the refusal of an invitation, are indicated in Matthew 22:1-14 . The "marriage" in Cana exhibits the way in which a "marriage feast" was conducted in humbler homes. Special honor attached to the male friends of the bridegroom, "the sons of the bridechamber," Matthew 9:15 , RV (see BRIDECHAMBER). At the close the parents conducted the bride to the nuptial chamber (cp. Judges 15:1 )VED-NT Marriage, Marry.4

    B — 1: γαμέω
    (Strong's #1060 — Verb — gameo — gam-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.5

    "to marry" (akin to A), is used (a) of "the man," Matthew 5:32 ; Matthew 19:9, 10 ; Matthew 22:25 (RV; AV, "married a wife"); Matthew 22:30 ; Matthew 24:38 ; Mark 6:17 ; Mark 10:11 ; Mark 12:25 ; Luke 14:20 ; Luke 16:18 ; Luke 17:27 , RV, "married" (AV, "married wives"); Luke 20:34, 35 ; 1 Corinthians 7:28 (1st part); 1 Corinthians 7:33 ; (b) of "the woman," in the Active Voice, Mark 10:12 ; 1 Corinthians 7:28 (last part); 1 Corinthians 7:34 ; 1 Timothy 5:11, 14 ; in the Passive Voice, 1 Corinthians 7:39 ; (c) of "both sexes," 1 Corinthians 7:9, 10, 36 ; 1 Timothy 4:3 .VED-NT Marriage, Marry.6

    B — 2: γαμίσκω
    (Strong's #1061 — Verb — gamizo — gam-is'-ko )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.7

    "to give in marriage," is used in the Passive Voice in Matthew 22:30 (2nd clause), some mss. have No. 5 here; Mark 12:25 (No. 3 in some mss.); Luke 17:27 (No. 5 in some mss.); 20:35 (last word), Passive (Nos. 3 and 4 in some mss.); in the Active Voice Matthew 24:38 (Nos. 3 and 5 in some mss.); further, of giving a daughter in "marriage," 1Cor. on the whole, may be taken as the meaning. In this part of the Epistle, the Apostle was answering a number of questions on matters about which the church at Corinth had written to him, and in this particular matter the formal transition from "marriage" in general to the subject of giving a daughter in "marriage," is simple. Eastern customs naturally would involve the inclusion of the latter in the inquiry and the reply.VED-NT Marriage, Marry.8

    B — 3: γαμίσκω
    (Strong's #1061 — Verb — gamisko — gam-is'-ko )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.9

    an alternative for No. 2, Luke 20:34 (some mss. have No. 4); in some mss. in Mark 12:25 ; Luke 20:35 .VED-NT Marriage, Marry.10

    B — 4: ἐκγαμίσκω
    (Strong's #1548 — Verb — ekgamisko — ek-gam-is'-ko )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.11

    "to give out in marriage" (ek, "out," and No. 3): see Nos. 2 and 3.VED-NT Marriage, Marry.12

    B — 5: ἐκγαμίζω
    (Strong's #1547 — Verb — ekgamizo — ek-gam-id'-zo )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.13

    an alternative for No. 4: see Nos. 2 and 3.VED-NT Marriage, Marry.14

    B — 6: ἐπιγαμβρεύω
    (Strong's #1918 — Verb — epigambreuo — ep-ee-gam-bryoo'-o )
    VED-NT Marriage, Marry.15

    "to take to wife after" (epi, "upon," gambros, "a connection by marriage"), signifies "to marry" (of a deceased husband's next of kin, Matthew 22:24 ). Cp. Genesis 38:8 .VED-NT Marriage, Marry.16

    Note: In Romans 7:3 (twice) and Romans 7:4 , AV, ginomai, "to become" (here, "to become another man's"), is translated "be married" (RV, "be joined").VED-NT Marriage, Marry.17


    1: μυελός
    (Strong's #3452 — Noun Masculine — muelos — moo-el-os' )
    VED-NT Marrow.2

    "marrow," occurs in Hebrews 4:12 , where, by a natural metaphor, the phraseology changes from the material to the spiritual.VED-NT Marrow.3


    * For MARTYR see WITNESSVED-NT Martyr.2

    Marvel, Marvellous

    A — 1: θαῦμα
    (Strong's #2295 — Noun Neuter — thauma — thou'-mah )
    VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.2

    "a wonder" (akin to theaomai, "to gaze in wonder"), is found in the most authentic mss. in 2 Corinthians 11:14 (some mss. have the adjective thaumastos: see C, below), "(no) marvel;" in Revelation 17:6 , RV , "wonder" (AV, "admiration"), said of John's astonishment at the vision of the woman described as Babylon the Great. In the Sept., Job 17:8 ; Job 18:20 ; in some mss., 20:8; 21:5. Cp. teras, "a wonder;" semeion, "a sign;" thambos, "wonder;" ekstasis, "amazement."VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.3

    B — 1: θαυμάζω
    (Strong's #2296 — Verb — thaumazo — thou-mad'-zo )
    VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.4

    signifies "to wonder at, marvel" (akin to A); the following are RV differences from the AV: Luke 2:33 , "were marveling" for "marveled;" Luke 8:25 ; Luke 11:14 , "marveled" for "wondered;" Luke 9:43 , "were marveling" for "wondered;" 2 Thessalonians 1:10 , "marveled at" for "admired" (of the person of Christ at the time of the shining forth of His Parousia, at the Second Advent). See WONDER.VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.5

    Note: In Matthew 9:8 , AV translates this verb; RV, phobeo, "were afraid."VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.6

    B — 2: ἐΞ
    (Strong's #1537 2296 — Preposition — ekthaumazo — ek, ex )
    VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.7

    a strengthened form of No. 1 (ek, intensive), is found in the best mss. in Mark 12:17 , RV, "wondered greatly" (some mss. have No. 1).VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.8

    C — 1: θαυμαστός
    (Strong's #2298 — Adjective — thaumastos — thow-mas-tos' )
    VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.9

    "marvellous" (akin to A and B), is said (a) of the Lord's doing in making the rejected Stone the Head of the corner, Matthew 21:42 ; Mark 12:11 ; (b) of the erstwhile blind man's astonishment that the Pharisees knew not from whence Christ had come, and yet He had given him sight, John 9:30 , RV, "the marvel," AV, "a marvellous thing;" (c) of the spiritual light into which believers are brought, 1 Peter 2:9 ; (d) of the vision of the seven angels having the seven last plagues, Revelation 15:1 ; (e) of the works of God, 15:3.VED-NT Marvel, Marvellous.10


    A — 1: διδάσκαλος
    (Strong's #1320 — Noun Masculine — didaskalos — did-as'-kal-os )
    VED-NT Master.2

    "a teacher" (from didasko, "to teach"), is frequently rendered "Master" in the four Gospels, as a title of address to Christ, e.g., Matthew 8:19 ; Mark 4:38 (there are more instances in Luke than in the other Gospels); John 1:38 , where it interprets "Rabbi;" John 20:16 , where it interprets "Rabboni." It is used by Christ of Himself in Matthew 23:8 (see No. 6) and John 13:13-14 ; by others concerning Him, Matthew 17:24 ; Matthew 26:18 ; Mark 5:35 ; Mark 14:14 ; Luke 8:49 ; Luke 22:11 ; John 11:28 . In John 3:10 , the Lord uses it in addressing Nicodemus, RV, "the teacher" (AV, "a master"), where the article does not specify a particular "teacher," but designates the member of a class; for the class see Luke 2:46 , "the doctors" (RV, marg., "teachers"). It is used of the relation of a disciple to his "master," in Matthew 10:24, 25 ; Luke 6:40 . It is not translated "masters" in the rest of the NT, save in the AV of James 3:1 "(be not many) masters," where obviously the RV "teachers" is the meaning. See TEACHER.VED-NT Master.3

    A — 2: κύριος
    (Strong's #2962 — Noun Masculine — kurios — koo'-ree-os )
    VED-NT Master.4

    "a lord, one who exercises power," is translated "masters" in Matthew 6:24 ; Matthew 15:27 ; Mark 13:35 ; Luke 16:13 ; Acts 16:16, 19 ; Romans 14:4 , AV (RV, "Lord"); Ephesians 6:5, 9 (twice), the 2nd time of Christ; so in Colossians 3:22 ; Colossians 4:1 . See LORD.VED-NT Master.5

    A — 3: δεσπότης
    (Strong's #1203 — Noun Masculine — despotes — des-pot'-ace )
    VED-NT Master.6

    one who has "absolute ownership and uncontrolled power," is translated "masters" in 1 Timothy 6:1, 2 ; Titus 2:9 ; 1 Peter 2:18 ; of Christ, 2 Timothy 2:21 ; 2 Peter 2:1 , RV (for AV, "Lord"); in Jude 1:4 , RV, it is applied to Christ "(our only) Master (and Lord, Jesus Christ)," AV "(the only) Lord (God);" in Revelation 6:10 , RV, in an address to God, "O Master" (AV, "O Lord"). It is rendered "Lord" in Luke 2:29 ; Acts 4:24 . See LORD.VED-NT Master.7

    Note: For "master of the house," see GOODMAN.VED-NT Master.8

    A — 4: ῥαββί
    (Strong's #4461 — Noun Masculine — rabbei — hrab-bee' )
    VED-NT Master.9

    was an Aramaic word signifying "my master," a title of respectful address to Jewish teachers.VED-NT Master.10

    "The Aramaic word rabbei, transliterated into Greek, is explicitly recognized as the common form of address to Christ, Matthew 26:25 (cp., however, Matthew 26:22 , kurios); 26:49; Mark 9:5 , but Matthew 17:4 , kurios" (Dalman, The Words of Jesus).VED-NT Master.11

    In the following the RV has "Rabbi" for AV "Master;" Matthew 26:25, 49 ; Mark 9:5 ; Mark 11:21 ; Mark 14:45 ; John 4:31 ; John 9:2 ; John 11:8 . In other passages the AV has "Rabbi," Matthew 23:7-8 ; John 1:38, 49 ; John 3:2, 26 ; John 6:25 .VED-NT Master.12

    Note: The form Rabbounei (Rabboni), in Mark 10:51 , is retained in the RV (for AV, "Lord"); in John 20:16 , in both AV and RV. This title is said to be Galilean; hence it would be natural in the lips of a woman of Magdala. It does not differ materially from "Rabbi."VED-NT Master.13

    A — 5: ἐπιστάτης
    (Strong's #1988 — Noun Masculine — epistates — ep-is-tat'-ace )
    VED-NT Master.14

    denotes "a chief, a commander, overseer master." It is used by the disciples in addressing the Lord, in recognition of His authority rather than His instruction (Nos. 1 and 6); it occurs only in Luke 5:5 ; Luke 8:24, 45 ; Luke 9:33, 49 ; Luke 17:13 . In the Sept., 2 Kings 25:19 ; 2 Chronicles 31:12 ; Jeremiah 36:26 ; Jeremiah 52:25 .VED-NT Master.15

    Note: "The form epistata ... alongside of the commoner didaskale is ... a Greek synonym for the latter, and both are to be traced back to the Aramaic rabbei." Christ forbade His disciples to allow themselves to be called rabbi, "on the ground that He alone was their Master, Matthew 23:8 . In reference to Himself the designation was expressive of the real relation between them. The form of address 'Good Master' He, however, refused to allow, Mark 10:17, 18 ... in the mouth of the speaker it was mere insolent flattery ... the Lord was unwilling that anyone should thoughtlessly deal with such an epithet; and here, as always, the honor due to the Father was the first consideration with Him. ... The primitive community never ventured to call Jesus 'Our Teacher' after He had been exalted to the Throne of God. The title rabbi, expressing the relation of the disciple to the teacher, vanished from use; and there remained only the designation maran, the servant's appropriate acknowledgement of his Lord" (Dalman).VED-NT Master.16

    A — 6: καθηγητής
    (Strong's #2519 — Noun Masculine — kathegetes — kath-ayg-ay-tace' )
    VED-NT Master.17

    properly "a guide" (akin to kathegeomai, "to go before, guide;" kata, "down," hegeomai, "to guide"), denotes "a master, a teacher," Matthew 23:10 (twice); some mss. have it in Matthew 23:8 , where the most authentic have No. 1.VED-NT Master.18

    A — 7: κυβερνήτης
    (Strong's #2942 — Noun Masculine — kubernetes — koo-ber-nay'-tace )
    VED-NT Master.19

    "the pilot or steersman of a ship," or, metaphorically, "a guide or governor" (akin to kubernao, "to guide:" Eng., "govern" is connected; cp. kubernesis, "a steering, pilotage," 1 Corinthians 12:28 , "governments"), is translated "master" in Acts 27:11 ; "shipmaster" in Revelation 18:17 . In the Sept., Proverbs 23:34 ; Ezekiel 27:8, 27-28 .VED-NT Master.20

    B — 1: κατακυριεύω
    (Strong's #2634 — Verb — katakurieuo — kat-ak-oo-ree-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Master.21

    "to exercise lordship" (kata, "down upon," kurios, "a lord"), is translated "mastered" in Acts 19:16 , RV, of the action of the evil spirit on the sons of Sceva (AV, "overcame"). In translating the word amphoteron by its primary meaning, "both," the RV describes the incident as referring to two only. It has been shown, however, that in the period of the Koine (see Foreword) amphoteroi, "both," was no longer restricted to two persons. Ramsay ascribes the abruptness of the word here to the vivid narrative of an eye witness. See DOMINION , LORD , LORDSHIP.VED-NT Master.22


    1: ἀρχιτέκτων
    (Strong's #753 — Noun Masculine — architekton — ar-khee-tek'-tone )
    VED-NT Masterbuilder.2

    from arche, "rule, beginning," and tekton, "an artificer" (whence Eng., "architect"), "a principal artificer," is used figuratively by the Apostle in 1 Corinthians 3:10 , of his work in laying the foundation of the local church in Corinth, inasmuch as the inception of the spiritual work there devolved upon him. The examples from the papyri and from inscriptions, as illustrated by Moulton and Milligan, show that the word had a wider application than our "architect," and confirm the rendering "masterbuilder" in this passage, which is of course borne out by the context.VED-NT Masterbuilder.3

    Matter, Matters

    1: λόγος
    (Strong's #3056 — Noun Masculine — logos — log'-os )
    VED-NT Matter, Matters.2

    "a word, speech, discourse, account," hence also "that which is spoken of, a matter, affair, thing," is translated "matter" in Mark 1:45 ; Acts 8:21 ; Acts 15:6 ; Acts 19:38 ; in the RV of Philippians 4:15 , "in the matter of" (AV, "concerning"). See ACCOUNT.VED-NT Matter, Matters.3

    2: πρᾶγμα
    (Strong's #4229 — Noun Neuter — pragma — prag'-mah )
    VED-NT Matter, Matters.4

    akin to prasso, "to do," denotes (a) "that which has been done, a deed," translated "matters" in Luke 1:1 , RV (AV, "things"); "matter" in 2 Corinthians 7:11 ; (b) "that which is being done, an affair," translated "matter" in Romans 16:2 , RV (AV, "business"); 1 Corinthians 6:1 , in a forensic sense, "a lawsuit" (frequently found with this meaning in the papyri); 1 Thessalonians 4:6 , "in the matter," i.e., the "matter" under consideration, which, as the preceding words show, is here the sin of adultery. See BUSINESS , B, Note (1), THING.VED-NT Matter, Matters.5

    3: ἔγκλημα
    (Strong's #1462 — Noun Neuter — enklema — eng'-klay-mah )
    VED-NT Matter, Matters.6

    "an accusation, charge," Acts 25:16 , RV, "matter laid against him;" elsewhere, Acts 23:29 , "charge;" see ACCUSATION , A, No. 3.VED-NT Matter, Matters.7

    Notes: (1) In Galatians 2:6 , the statement "it maketh no matter" translates the verb diaphero, "to bear asunder, make a difference," with ouden, "nothing," used adverbially, i.e., "it makes no difference (to me);" his commission from the Lord relieved him of responsibility to the authority of the Apostles. (2) In 1 Corinthians 9:11 , RV, the neuter of the adjective megas "great," is translated "a great matter" (AV, "a great thing"). (3) In James 3:5 , AV, hule, "a wood, forest," is translated "a matter" (RV, and AV marg., "wood"). In older English the word "matter" actually meant "wood" (like its Latin original, materia). (4) In Acts 17:32 , the AV adds "matter" to the pronoun "this," RV, "(concerning) this." (5) In 2 Corinthians 8:19 , RV, the phrase, lit., "in this grace." (6) In 2 Corinthians 8:20 , RV, the phrase, lit., "in this bounty" is translated "in the matter of this bounty" (AV, "in this abundance"). (7) In 2 Corinthians 9:5 , the phrase, lit., "as a bounty" is amplified to "as a matter of bounty." (8) For 1 Peter 4:15 see BUSYBODY. See also OTHER , THIS , THESE , WEIGHTIER , WRONG.VED-NT Matter, Matters.8

    May, Mayest, Might

    1: δύναμαι
    (Strong's #1410 — Verb — dunamai — doo'-nam-ahee )
    VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.2

    "to be able, have power," whether by personal ability, permission, or opportunity, is sometimes rendered "may" or "might," e.g., Matthew 26:9 ; Mark 14:5 ; Acts 17:19 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:6 . In the following the RV substitutes "can," "canst," "couldst," for the AV, e.g., Matthew 26:42 ; Mark 4:32 ; Mark 14:7 ; Luke 16:2 ; Acts 24:11 ; Acts 25:11 ; Acts 27:12 ; 1 Corinthians 7:21 ; 1 Corinthians 14:31 (here the alteration is especially important, as not permission for all to prophesy, but ability to do so, is the meaning); Ephesians 3:4 . In the following the RV substitutes the verb "to be able," Acts 19:40 ; Acts 24:8 ; Revelation 13:17 . See ABLE , B, No. 1.VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.3

    2: ἔξεστι
    (Strong's #1832 — Verb — exesti — ex'-es-tee )
    VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.4

    "it is premitted, lawful" (eimi, "to be," prefixed by ek, "from"), is rendered "(I) may" in Acts 2:29 , RV [AV, "let (me)"]; in Acts 21:37 , "may (I)," lit., "is it permitted (me to speak)?" Some mss. have it in Acts 8:37 , "thou mayest" (AV). See LAWFUL.VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.5

    3: ἴσως
    (Strong's #2481 — Adverb — isos — ee'-soce )
    VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.6

    "equally" (from the adjective isos, "equal"), is translated "it may be" in Luke 20:13 (i.e., "perhaps").VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.7

    4: τυγχάνω
    (Strong's #5177 — Verb — tunchano — toong-khan'-o )
    VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.8

    "to meet with, reach, obtain," denotes, intransitively, "to happen, chance, befall;" used impersonally with the conjunction ei, "if," it signifies "it may be," "perhaps," e.g., 1 Corinthians 14:10 ; 1 Corinthians 15:37 , "it may chance;" 1 Corinthians 16:6 .VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.9

    Notes: (1) In Matthew 8:28 , AV, ischuo, "to have strength, be strong, be well able," is translated "might" (RV, "could"). (2) "May," "might," sometimes translate the prepositional phrase eis, "unto," with the definite article, followed by the infinitive mood of some verb, expressing purpose, e.g., Acts 3:19 , "may be blotted out," lit., "unto the blotting out of;" Romans 3:26 , "that he might be," lit., "unto his being;" so Romans 8:29 ; 2 Corinthians 1:4 , "that we may be able," lit., "unto our being able;" Ephesians 1:18 , "that ye may know," lit., "unto your knowing;" Acts 7:19 ; Romans 1:11 ; Romans 4:16 ; Romans 12:2 ; Romans 15:13 ; Philippians 1:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:10, 13 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:6, 10 ; Hebrews 12:10 . In Luke 20:20 the best mss. have hoste, "so as to," RV, as, e.g., in 1 Peter 1:21 . Sometimes the article with the infinitive mood without a preceding preposition, expresses result, e.g., Luke 21:22 ; Acts 26:18 (twice), "that they may turn," RV; cp. Romans 6:6 ; Romans 11:10 ; 1 Corinthians 10:13 ; Philippians 3:10 , "that I may know;" James 5:17 .VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.10

    (3) The phrases "may be," "might be," are frequently the rendering of the verb "to be," in the subjunctive or optative moods, preceded by a conjunction introducing a condition, or expressing a wish or purpose, e.g., Matthew 6:4 ; John 14:3 ; John 17:11 . Sometimes the phrase translates simply the infinitive mood of the verb eimi, "to be," e.g., Luke 8:38 , lit., "to be (with Him);" so the RV in 2 Corinthians 5:9 ; in 2 Corinthians 9:5 , "that (the same) might be," lit., "(the same) to be."VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.11

    (4) In Hebrews 7:9 the phrase hos ("so") epos ("a word") eipen ("to say"), i.e., lit., "so to say a word" is an idiom, translated in the RV, "so to say" (AV, "if I may so say"); the Eng. equivalent is "one might almost say."VED-NT May, Mayest, Might.12


    * Notes: (1) The pronoun, whether alone or with some English preposition, e.g., "of, to, for, in," translates one or other of the oblique cases of ego, "I." (2) In Philemon 1:13 the reflexive pronoun emauton, "myself," is translated "me," governed by the preposition pros, with, lit., "with myself." (3) In Titus 1:3 , for the AV, "is committed unto me," the RV has "I was intrusted." (4) In Philippians 2:23 , "how it will go with me," is, lit., "the (things) concerning me." (5) The phrase en emoi, "in me," is used (a) instrumentally (en, instrumental, "by" or "through"), e.g., 2 Corinthians 13:3 ; (b) subjectively, "within me," e.g., Galatians 2:20 ; (c) objectively, "in my case," e.g., 1 Corinthians 9:15 ; 1 Corinthians 14:11 ; Galatians 1:16, 24 ; 1 Timothy 1:16 . (6) In Luke 22:19 the possessive pronoun emos, "my," is rendered "of Me," lit., "(into) My (remembrance)."VED-NT Me.2


    1: ἄλευρον
    (Strong's #224 — Noun Neuter — aleuron — al'-yoo-ron )
    VED-NT Meal.2

    "meal" (akin to aleuo, "to grind," and therefore, lit., "what is ground"), occurs in Matthew 13:33 ; Luke 13:21 .VED-NT Meal.3


    1: ἄσημος
    (Strong's #767 — Adjective — asemos — as'-ay-mos )
    VED-NT Mean.2

    lit., "without mark" (a, negative, sema, "a mark"), i.e., "undistinguished, obscure," was applied by the Apostle Paul negatively, to his native city, Tarsus, Acts 21:39 . Moulton and Milligan (Vocab.) have a note as follows: "This word occurs perpetually in the papyri to denote a man who is 'not distinguished' from his neighbors by the convenient scars on eyebrow or arm or right shin, which identify so many individuals in formal documents." Deissmann suggests that the word may have been the technical term for "uncircumcised," among the Greek Egyptians. In another papyrus document a pair of silver bracelets are described as of "unstamped" (asemos) silver.VED-NT Mean.3


    1: δύναμις
    (Strong's #1411 — Noun Feminine — dunamis — doo'-nam-is )
    VED-NT Meaning.2

    "power, force," is used of the significance or force of what is spoken, 1 Corinthians 14:11 . See MIGHT , POWER.VED-NT Meaning.3


    1: πάντως
    (Strong's #3843 — Adverb — pantos — pan'-toce )
    VED-NT Means.2

    an adverb from pas, "all," denoting "wholly, altogether, entirely," is used in 1 Corinthians 9:22 , "by all means." When the Apostle says, "I am become all things to all men, that I may by all means save some," he is simply speaking of his accommodating himself to various human conditions consistently with fidelity to the truth, with no unscriptural compliance with men, but in the exercise of self denial; "by all means" refers to the preceding context from 1 Corinthians 9:18 , and stresses his desire to be used in the salvation of some. It is found in Acts 21:22 , RV, "certainly." Some mss. have the word in this sense in Acts 18:21 (AV). See ALTOGETHER , B, No. 1.VED-NT Means.3

    2: πως
    (Strong's #4458 — particle — pos — poce )
    VED-NT Means.4

    "at all, somehow, in any way," is used after the conjunction (a) ei, "if," meaning "if by any means," e.g., Acts 27:12 ; Romans 1:10 ; Romans 11:14 ; Philippians 3:11 ; (b) me, "lest, lest by any means," e.g., 1 Corinthians 8:9 ; 1 Corinthians 9:27 ; 2 Corinthians 2:7 , RV (AV, "perhaps"); 2 Corinthians 9:4 , RV (AV, "haply"); 11:3; 12:20, RV; Galatians 2:2 ; Galatians 4:11 , RV (AV, "lest"); 1 Thessalonians 3:5 (AV, "lest by some means").VED-NT Means.5

    3: ἐΞ
    (Strong's #1537 — Preposition — ek — ek, ex )
    VED-NT Means.6

    "out of, from, by," suggesting "the source from which something is done," is sometimes rendered "by means of," e.g., Luke 16:9 , RV, "by means of (the mammon of unrighteousness);" AV, "of;" 2 Corinthians 1:11 , "by (the) means of (many)."VED-NT Means.7

    4: διά
    (Strong's #1223 — Preposition — dia — dee-ah' )
    VED-NT Means.8

    "by, by means of," when followed by the genitive case, is instrumental, e.g., 2 Peter 3:6 , RV, "by which means" (AV, "whereby").VED-NT Means.9

    5: πῶς
    (Strong's #4459 — particle — pos — poce )
    VED-NT Means.10

    an interrogative adverb (different from No. 2), "how, in what way," Luke 8:36 , AV, "by what means," RV, "how;" so John 9:21 ; cp. Note (4) below.VED-NT Means.11

    Notes: (1) In Luke 5:18 the AV adds the word "means" in italics. (2) The word tropos, "a manner, way," is sometimes used in a prepositional phrase, e.g., 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , AV, "by any means," RV, "in any wise, lit., "in any manner;" 3:16, AV, "by all means," RV, "in all ways," lit., "in every manner." (3) The double negative ou me, i.e., "no not," "not at all," is translated "by no means," Matthew 5:26 ; in Luke 10:19 , "by any means," AV (RV, "in any wise"); Luke 12:59 , RV, "by no means" (AV, "not). (4) In Acts 4:9 , the phrase en, "in" or "by," with tini (from tis, "who"), lit., "in whom" (RV, marg.), is translated "by what means." (5) In Hebrews 9:15 , RV, the verb ginomai, "to come to be, become, take place," used in its 2nd aorist participle, is rightly translated "(a death) having taken place;" AV, "by means of (death)." (6) In Revelation 13:14 , RV, dia, followed by the accusative case, is rightly translated "by reason of," i.e., "on account of" (AV, wrongly, "by the means of").VED-NT Means.12


    * For MEANWHILE see WHILEVED-NT Meanwhile.2


    A — 1: μέτρον
    (Strong's #3358 — Noun Neuter — metron — met'-ron )
    VED-NT Measure.2

    denotes (I) "that which is used for measuring, a measure," (a) of "a vessel," figuratively, Matthew 23:32 ; Luke 6:38 (twice); in John 3:34 , with the preposition ek, "(He giveth not the Spirit) by measure," RV (which is a necessary correction; the italicized words "unto him," AV, detract from the meaning). Not only had Christ the Holy Spirit without "measure," but God so gives the Spirit through Him to others. It is the ascended Christ who gives the Spirit to those who receive His testimony and set their seal to this, that God is true. The Holy Spirit is imparted neither by degrees, nor in portions, as if He were merely an influence, He is bestowed personally upon each believer, at the time of the New Birth; (b) of "a graduated rod or rule for measuring," figuratively, Matthew 7:2 ; Mark 4:24 ; literally, Revelation 21:15 (in the best mss.; see the RV); Revelation 21:17 ; (II) "that which is measured, a determined extent, a portion measured off," Romans 12:3 ; 2 Corinthians 10:13 (twice); Ephesians 4:7 , "(according to the) measure (of the gift of Christ);" the gift of grace is "measured" and given according to the will of Christ; whatever the endowment, His is the bestowment and the adjustment; Ephesians 4:13 , "the measure (of the stature of the fullness of Christ)," the standard of spiritual stature being the fullness which is essentially Christ's; Ephesians 4:16 , "(according to the working in due) measure (of each several part)," i.e., according to the effectual working of the ministration rendered in due "measure" by every part.VED-NT Measure.3

    A — 2: μέρος
    (Strong's #3313 — Noun Neuter — meros — mer'-os )
    VED-NT Measure.4

    "a part portion," is used with the preposition apo, "from," with the meaning "in some measure," Romans 15:15 , RV (AV, "... sort"). See COAST , PART.VED-NT Measure.5

    A — 3: σάτον
    (Strong's #4568 — Noun Neuter — saton — sat'-on )
    VED-NT Measure.6

    is a Hebrew dry measure (Heb., seah), about a peck and a half, Matthew 13:33 ; Luke 13:21 ; "three measures" would be the quantity for a baking (cp. Genesis 18:6 ; Judges 6:19 ; 1 Samuel 1:24 ; the "ephah" of the last two passages was equal to three sata).VED-NT Measure.7

    A — 4: κόρος
    (Strong's #2884 — Noun Masculine — koros — kor'-os )
    VED-NT Measure.8

    denotes a cor, the largest Hebrew dry measure (ten ephahs), containing about 11 bushels, Luke 16:7 ; the hundred "measures" amounted to a very considerable quantity.VED-NT Measure.9

    A — 5: βάτος
    (Strong's #943 — Noun — batos — bat'-os )
    VED-NT Measure.10

    denotes a bath, a Jewish liquid measure (the equivalent of an ephah), containing between 8 and 9 gallons, Luke 16:6 .VED-NT Measure.11

    A — 6: χοῖνιξ
    (Strong's #5518 — Noun Feminine — choinix — khoy'-nix )
    VED-NT Measure.12

    a dry "measure" of rather less than a quart, about "as much as would support a person of moderate appetite for a day," occurs in Revelation 6:6 (twice). Usually eight choenixes could be bought for a denarius (about 9 1/2d.); this passage predicts circumstances in which the denarius is the price of one choenix. In the Sept., Ezekiel 45:10, 11 , where it represents the Heb. ephah and bath.VED-NT Measure.13

    Notes: (1) In 2 Corinthians 10:14 , AV, huperekteino, "to stretch out overmuch," is translated "we stretch (not ourselves) beyond measure," (RV "... overmuch)." (2) In 2 Corinthians 11:9 , Rv, prosanapleroo, "to fill up by adding to, to supply fully," is translated "supplied the measure" (AV, "supplied"). See SUPPLY. (3) For the phrases in the AV, "beyond measure," Galatians 1:13 ; "out of measure," 2 Corinthians 1:8 , see ABUNDANCE , A, No. 4, EXCEL, B. (4) In Mark 6:51 , some mss. have the phrase ek perissou, "beyond measure" (AV). (5) For the phrase "be exalted above measure," 2 Corinthians 12:7 , AV, see EXALT , A, No. 4.VED-NT Measure.14

    B — 1: ὑπερβαλλόντως
    (Strong's #5234 — Adverb — huperballontos — hoop-er-bal-lon'-toce )
    VED-NT Measure.15

    "beyond measure" (huper, "over, beyond," ballo, "to throw;" for the verb huperballo, see EXCEEDING), is rendered "above measure" in 2 Corinthians 11:23 .VED-NT Measure.16

    ( — — — )
    VED-NT Measure.17

    Mark 10:26 ; see EXCEED , B, No. 4.VED-NT Measure.18

    ( — — — )
    VED-NT Measure.19

    Mark 7:37 : see ABUNDANCE D, No. 3.VED-NT Measure.20

    C — 1: ἄμετρος
    (Strong's #280 — Adjective — ametros — am'-et-ros )
    VED-NT Measure.21

    "without measure" (a, negative, and A, No. 1), is used in the neuter plural in an adverbial phrase in 2 Corinthians 10:13, 15 , eis ta ametra, lit., "unto the (things) without measure," RV, "(we will not glory) beyond our measure;" AV, "(we will not boast) of things without measure," referring to the sphere Divinely appointed for the Apostle as to his Gospel ministry; this had reached to Corinth, and by the increase of the faith of the church there, would extend to regions beyond. His opponents had no scruples about intruding into the spheres of other men's work.VED-NT Measure.22

    D — 1: μετρέω
    (Strong's #3354 — Verb — metreo — met-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Measure.23

    "to measure" (akin to A, No. 1), is used (a) of space, number, value, etc., Revelation 11:1, 2 ; Revelation 21:15, 16, 17 ; metaphorically, 2 Corinthians 10:12 ; (b) in the sense of "measuring" out, giving by "measure," Matthew 7:2 , "ye mete" (some mss. have No. 2); Mark 4:24 ; in some mss. in Luke 6:38 (see No. 2).VED-NT Measure.24

    D — 2: ἀντιμετρέω
    (Strong's #488 — Verb — antimetreo — an-tee-met-reh'-o )
    VED-NT Measure.25

    "to measure in return" (anti, "back, in return" and No. 1), is used in the Passive Voice, and found in some mss. in Matthew 7:2 (the most authentic have No. 1); in Luke 6:38 the most authentic have this verb. It is not found in the Sept.VED-NT Measure.26


    1: βρῶμα
    (Strong's #1033 — Noun Neuter — broma — bro'-mah )
    VED-NT Meat.2

    "food" (akin to bibrosko, "to eat," John 6:13 ), solid food in contrast to milk, is translated "food" in Matthew 14:15 , RV (AV, "victuals"); "meats," Mark 7:19 ; 1 Corinthians 6:13 (twice); 1 Timothy 4:3 ; Hebrews 9:10 ; Hebrews 13:9 ; "meat," John 4:34 ; Romans 14:15 (twice),20; 1 Corinthians 3:2 ; 1 Corinthians 8:8, 13 ; 1 Corinthians 10:3 ; "food," RV, for AV, "meat," Luke 3:11 ; Luke 9:13 .VED-NT Meat.3

    2: βρῶσις
    (Strong's #1035 — Noun Feminine — brosis — bro'-sis )
    VED-NT Meat.4

    akin to No. 1, denotes (a) "the act of eating," 1 Corinthians 8:4 (see EAT); (b) "food," translated "meat" in John 4:32 (for ver. 34, see No. 1); 6:27 (twice, the second time metaphorically, of spiritual food); 6:55, RV, marg., "(true) meat;" Romans 14:17 , AV, "meat," RV, "eating;" Colossians 2:16 ; in Hebrews 12:16 , RV, "mess of meat," AV, "morsel of meat;" in 2 Corinthians 9:10 , "food;" in Matthew 6:19, 20 , "rust." See EAT , EATING , B.VED-NT Meat.5

    3: βρώσιμος
    (Strong's #1034 — Adjective — brosimos — bro'-sim-os )
    VED-NT Meat.6

    "eatable," Luke 24:41 , AV, "any meat" (RV, "anything to eat"). See EAT , C.VED-NT Meat.7

    4: τροφή
    (Strong's #5160 — Noun Feminine — trophe — trof-ay' )
    VED-NT Meat.8

    "nourishment, food," is translated "meat" in the AV (RV "food") except in two instances. See FOOD , No. 1.VED-NT Meat.9

    5: φάγω
    (Strong's #5315 — Verb — phago — fag'-o )
    VED-NT Meat.10

    "to eat," is used as a noun, in the infinitive mood, and translated "meat" in Matthew 25:35, 42 (lit., "to eat"); in Luke 8:55 the RV translates it literally, "to eat" (AV, "meat"). See EAT , No. 2.VED-NT Meat.11

    6: τράπεζα
    (Strong's #5132 — Noun Feminine — trapeza — trap'-ed-zah )
    VED-NT Meat.12

    "a table" (Eng., "trapeze"), is used, by metonymy, of "the food on the table," in Acts 16:34 (RV, marg., "a table") and translated "meat;" cp. "table" in Romans 11:9 ; 1 Corinthians 10:21 . See TABLE.VED-NT Meat.13

    Notes: (1) For prosphagion, John 21:5 , AV, "any meat," see EAT , B, No. 2. (2) In Luke 12:42 , sitometrion denotes "a measured portion of food" (sitos, "food," metrios, "within measure"). (3) In Matthew 15:37 ; Mark 8:8 , the AV translates the plural of klasma, "a broken piece" (from klao, "to break"), "broken meat" (RV, "broken pieces"). (4) In John 12:2 , RV, anakeimai, "to recline at table," is translated "sat at meat" (AV, "sat at the table"); in Mark 6:26 , RV, according to the best mss., "sat at meat," some have sunanakeimai (AV, "sat with him"); in Mark 6:22 , RV, sunanakeimai, "to recline at table together," is translated "that sat at meat with him." (5) In Acts 15:29 , AV, the neuter plural of eidolothutos, "sacrificed to idols," is translated "meats offered to idols" (RV, "things ...," as elsewhere in the AV). See IDOLS (offered to). (6) For kataklino, "to sit down to (recline at) meat," see SIT , No. 7.VED-NT Meat.14


    * For MEDDLER see BUSYBODYVED-NT Meddler.2


    1: μεσίτης
    (Strong's #3316 — Noun Masculine — mesites — mes-ee'-tace )
    VED-NT Mediator.2

    lit., "a go-between" (from mesos, "middle," and eimi, "to go"), is used in two ways in the NT, (a) "one who mediates" between two parties with a view to producing peace, as in 1 Timothy 2:5 , though more than mere "mediatorship" is in view, for the salvation of men necessitated that the Mediator should Himself posses the nature and attributes of Him towards whom He acts, and should likewise participate in the nature of those for whom He acts (sin apart); only by being possessed both of deity and humanity could He comprehend the claims of the one and the needs of the other; further, the claims and the needs could be met only by One who, Himself being proved sinless, would offer Himself an expiatory sacrifice on behalf of men; (b) "one who acts as a gurantee" so as to secure something which otherwise would not be obtained. Thus in Hebrews 8:6 ; Hebrews 9:15 ; Hebrews 12:24 Christ is the Surety of "the better covenant," "the new covenant," guaranteeing its terms for His people.VED-NT Mediator.3

    In Galatians 3:19 Moses is spoken of as a "mediator," and the statement is made that "a mediator is not a mediator of one," Galatians 3:20 , that is, of one party. Here the contrast is between the promise given to Abraham and the giving of the Law. The Law was a covenant enacted between God and the Jewish people, requiring fulfillment by both parties. But with the promise to Abraham, all the obligations were assumed by God, which is implied in the statement, "but God is one." In the Sept., Job 9:33 , "daysman."VED-NT Mediator.4


    1: μελετάω
    (Strong's #3191 — Verb — meletao — mel-et-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Meditate.2

    primarily, "to care for" (akin to melete, "care;" cp. melei, "it is a care"), denotes (a) "to attend to, practice," 1 Timothy 4:15 , RV, "be diligent in" (AV, "meditate upon"); to practice is the prevalent sense of the word, and the context is not against this significance in the RV rendering; some mss. have it in Mark 13:11 ; (b) "to ponder, imagine," Acts 4:25 . See IMAGINE.VED-NT Meditate.3

    2: προμελετάω
    (Strong's #4304 — Verb — promeletao — prom-el-et-ah'-o )
    VED-NT Meditate.4

    "to premediate," is used in Luke 21:14 .VED-NT Meditate.5

    Note: In the corresponding passage in Mark 13:11 , the most authentic mss. have the verb promerimnao, "to be anxious beforehand" (RV); see No. 1.VED-NT Meditate.6

    Meek, Meekness

    A — 1: πραΰς
    (Strong's #4239 — Adjective — praus or praos — prah-ooce' )
    VED-NT Meek, Meekness.2

    denotes "gentle, mild, meek;" for its significance see the corresponding noun, below, B. Christ uses it of His own disposition, Matthew 11:29 ; He gives it in the third of His Beatitudes, Matthew 5:5 ; it is said of Him as the King Messiah, Matthew 21:5 , from Zechariah 9:9 ; it is an adornment of the Christian profession, 1 Peter 3:4 . Cp. epios, "gentle, of a soothing disposition," 1 Thessalonians 2:7 ; 2 Timothy 2:24 .VED-NT Meek, Meekness.3

    B — 1: πραΰτης
    (Strong's #4240 — Noun Feminine — prautes | praotes — prah-oo'-tace )
    VED-NT Meek, Meekness.4

    an eariler form, denotes "meekness." In its use in Scripture, in which it has a fuller, deeper significance than in nonscriptural Greek writings, it consists not in a person's "outward behaviour only; nor yet in his relations to his fellow-men; as little in his mere natural disposition. Rather it is an inwrought grace of the soul; and the exercises of it are first and chiefly towards God. It is that temper of spirit in which we accept His dealings with us as good, and therefore without disputing or resisting; it is closely linked with the word tapeinophrosune [humility], and follows directly upon it, Ephesians 4:2 ; Colossians 3:12 ; cp. the adjectives in the Sept. of Zephaniah 3:12 , "meek and lowly;" ... it is only the humble heart which is also the meek, and which, as such, does not fight against God and more or less struggle and contend with Him. This meekness, however, being first of all a meekness before God, is also such in the face of men, even of evil men, out of a sense that these, with the insults and injuries which they may inflict, are permitted and employed by Him for the chastening and purifying of His elect" (Trench, Syn. xlii). In Galatians 5:23 it is associated with enkrateia, "self-control."VED-NT Meek, Meekness.5

    The meaning of prautes "is not readily expressed in English, for the terms meekness, mildness, commonly used, suggest weakness and pusillanimity to a greater or less extent, whereas prautes does nothing of the kind. Nevertheless, it is difficult to find a rendering less open to objection than 'meekness'; 'gentleness' has been suggested, but as prautes describes a condition of mind and heart, and as 'gentleness' is appropriate rather to actions, this word is no better than that used in both English Versions. It must be clearly understood, therefore, that the meekness manifested by the Lord and commended to the believer is the fruit of power. The common assumption is that when a man is meek it is because he cannot help himself; but the Lord was 'meek' because he had the infinite resources of God at His command. Described negatively, meekness is the opposite to self-assertiveness and self-interest; it is equanimity of spirit that is neither elated nor cast down, simply because it is not occupied with self at all.VED-NT Meek, Meekness.6

    "In 2 Corinthians 10:1 the Apostle appeals to the 'meekness ... of Christ.' Christians are charged to show 'all meekness toward all men,' Titus 3:2 , for meekness becomes 'God's elect,' Colossians 3:12 . To this virtue the 'man of God' is urged; he is to 'follow after meekness' for his own sake, 1 Timothy 6:11 (the best texts have No. 2 here, however), and in his service, and more especially in his dealings with the 'ignorant and erring,' he is to exhibit 'a spirit of meekness,' 1 Corinthians 4:21 ; Galatians 6:1 ; even 'they that oppose themselves' are to be corrected in meekness, 2 Timothy 2:25 . James exhorts his 'beloved brethren' to 'receive with the meekness the implanted word,' 1:21. Peter enjoins 'meekness' in setting forth the grounds of the Christian hope, 3:15." * [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 294,295.]VED-NT Meek, Meekness.7

    B — 2: πραότης
    (Strong's #4236 — Noun Feminine — praupathia — prah-ot'-ace )
    VED-NT Meek, Meekness.8

    "a meek disposition, meekness" (praus, "meek," pascho, "to suffer"), is found in the best texts in 1 Timothy 6:11 .VED-NT Meek, Meekness.9


    A — 1: ἄξιος
    (Strong's #514 — Adjective — axios — ax'-ee-os )
    VED-NT Meet.2

    has the meaning of being of "weight, value, worth;" also "befitting, becoming, right on the ground of fitness," e.g., Matthew 3:8 , AV, "meet" (RV, "worthy"); so Acts 26:20 ; Luke 3:8 ("worthy"); 23:41 ("due reward"). See REWARD , WORTHY.VED-NT Meet.3

    A — 2: ἱκανός
    (Strong's #2425 — Adjective — hikanos — hik-an-os' )
    VED-NT Meet.4

    "sufficient, competent, fit," is translated "meet" in 1 Corinthians 15:9 . See ENOUGH , SUFFICIENT.VED-NT Meet.5

    A — 3: καλός
    (Strong's #2570 — Adjective — kalos — kal-os' )
    VED-NT Meet.6

    "good," is translated "meet" in Matthew 15:26 ; Mark 7:27 . See GOOD.VED-NT Meet.7

    A — 4: εὔθετος
    (Strong's #2111 — Adjective — euthetos — yoo'-thet-os )
    VED-NT Meet.8

    "well-placed," is translated "meet" in Hebrews 6:7 : see FIT.VED-NT Meet.9

    Note: In Philippians 1:7 ; 2 Peter 1:13 , AV, dikakos, "just," is translated "meet" (RV, "right"). For "meet ... for use," 2 Timothy 2:21 , see USE , Note.VED-NT Meet.10

    B — 1: δεῖ
    (Strong's #1163 — Verb — dei — die, deh-on' )
    VED-NT Meet.11

    an impersonal verb, "it is necessary, one must," is translated "it was meet," in Luke 15:32 ; in Romans 1:27 , AV, "was meet" (RV, "was due"). See DUE , B, No. 2.VED-NT Meet.12

    B — 2: ἱκανόω
    (Strong's #2427 — Verb — hikanoo — hik-an-o'-o )
    VED-NT Meet.13

    "to render fit, meet, to make sufficient," is translated "hath made ... meet" in Colossians 1:12 ; in 2 Corinthians 3:6 , RV, "made ... sufficient" (AV, "hath made ... able"). See ABLE.VED-NT Meet.14

    Meet, Meet with, Met

    A — 1: ἀπαντάω
    (Strong's #528 — Verb — apantao — ap-an-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.2

    "to go to meet, to meet," (apo, "from," antao, "to meet with, come face to face with"), is used in Mark 14:13 ; Luke 17:12 . Some mss. have this verb for No. 3 in Matthew 28:9 ; Mark 5:2 ; Luke 14:31 ; John 4:51 ; Acts 16:16 .VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.3

    A — 2: συναντάω
    (Strong's #4876 — Verb — sunantao — soon-an-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.4

    "to meet with," lit., "to meet together with" (sun, "with," and antao, see No. 1), is used in Luke 9:37 (in ver. 18, in some mss.); 22:10; Acts 10:25 ; Hebrews 7:1, 10 ; metaphorically in Acts 20:22 ("shall befall"). See BEFALL.VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.5

    A — 3: ὑπαντάω
    (Strong's #5221 — Verb — hupantao — hoop-an-tah'-o )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.6

    "to go to meet, to meet," has the same meaning as No 1, and is used in Matthew 8:28 ; Luke 8:27 ; John 11:20, 30 , and, in the most authentic mss., in Matthew 28:29 ; Mark 5:2 ; Luke 14:31 (of meeting in battle); John 4:51 ; John 12:18 and Acts 16:16 (see No. 1).VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.7

    A — 4: παρατυγχάνω
    (Strong's #3909 — Verb — paratunchano — par-at-oong-khan'-o )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.8

    "to happen to be near or present, to chance to be by" (para, "beside, near," tunchano, "to happen"), occurs in Acts 17:17 , "met with (him)."VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.9

    A — 5: συμβάλλω
    (Strong's #4820 — Verb — sumballo — soom-bal'-lo )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.10

    "to confer, to fall in with, meet with," is translated "met" in Acts 20:14 , RV (AV, "met with"), of the Apostle Paul's "meeting" his companions at Assos. See CONFER , No. 3.VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.11

    B — 1: ὑπάντησις
    (Strong's #5222 — Noun Feminine — hupantesis — hoop-an'-tay-sis )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.12

    "a going to meet" (akin to A, No. 3), preceded by the preposition eis, "unto a meeting," translated "to meet," is found in John 12:13 , and in the most authentic mss., in Matthew 8:34 (see No. 3); 25:1 (see No. 2).VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.13

    B — 2: ἀπάντησις
    (Strong's #529 — Noun Feminine — apantesis — ap-an'-tay-sis )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.14

    "a meeting" (akin to A, No. 1), occurs in Matthew 25:6 (in some mss. in ver. 1, and in 27:32, in some mss.); Acts 28:15 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 . It is used in the papyri of a newly arriving magistrate. "It seems that the special idea of the word was the official welcome of a newly arrived dignitary" (Moulton, Greek Test. Gram. Vol. I, p. 14).VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.15

    B — 3: συνάντησις
    (Strong's #4877 — Noun Feminine — sunantesis — soon-an'-tay-sis )
    VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.16

    "a coming to meet with" (akin to A, No. 2), is found in some mss. in Matthew 8:34 , of the coming out of all the people of a city to meet the Lord (see No. 1).VED-NT Meet, Meet with, Met.17


    1: ψάλλω
    (Strong's #5567 — Verb — psallo — psal'-lo )
    VED-NT Melody.2

    primarily "to twitch, twang," then, "to play a stringed instrument with the fingers," and hence, in the Sept., "to sing with a harp, sing psalms," denotes, in the NT, "to sing a hymn, sing praise;" in Ephesians 5:19 , "making melody" (for the preceding word ado, see SING). Elsewhere it is rendered "sing," Romans 15:9 ; 1 Corinthians 14:15 ; in James 5:13 , RV, "let him sing praise" (AV, "let him sing psalms"). See SING.VED-NT Melody.3


    1: τήκομαι
    (Strong's #5080 — Verb — teko — tay'-ko )
    VED-NT Melt.2

    "to melt, melt down," is used in the Passive Voice in 2 Peter 3:12 , "shall melt" (lit., "shall be melted"), of the elements (Eng., "thaw" is etymologically connected).VED-NT Melt.3

    Note: In verse 10, the AV "shall melt" represents the verb luo, "to loosen, dissolve" (RV, "shall be dissolved," Passive Voice); so in vv. 11,12.VED-NT Melt.4


    1: μέλος
    (Strong's #3196 — Noun Neuter — melos — mel'-os )
    VED-NT Member.2

    "a limb of the body," is used (a) literally, Matthew 5:29, 30 ; Romans 6:13 (twice),19 (twice); 7:5,23 (twice); 12:4 (twice); 1 Corinthians 12:12 (twice),14,18-20,22,25,26 (twice); James 3:5, 6 ; James 4:1 ; in Colossians 3:5 , "mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth;" since our bodies and their "members" belong to the earth, and are the instruments of sin, they are referred to as such (cp. Matthew 5:29, 30 ; Romans 7:5, 23 , mentioned above); the putting to death is not physical, but ethical; as the physical "members" have distinct individualities, so those evils, of which the physical "members" are agents, are by analogy regarded as examples of the way in which the "members" work if not put to death; this is not precisely the same as "the old man," ver. 9, i.e., the old nature, though there is a connection; (b) metaphorically, "of believers as members of Christ," 1 Corinthians 6:15 (1st part); of one another, Romans 12:5 (as with the natural illustration, so with the spiritual analogy, there is not only vital unity, and harmony in operation, but diversity, all being essential to effectivity; the unity is not due to external organization but to common and vital union in Christ); there is stress in ver. 5 upon "many" and "in Christ" and "members;" 1 Corinthians 12:27 (of the "members" of a local church as a body); Ephesians 4:25 (of the "members" of the whole Church as the mystical body of Christ); in 1 Corinthians 6:15 (2nd part), of one who practices fornication.VED-NT Member.3


    1: μνημόσυνον
    (Strong's #3422 — Noun Neuter — mnemosunon — mnay-mos'-oo-non )
    VED-NT Memorial.2

    denotes "a memorial," that which keeps alive the memory of someone or something (from mnemon, "mindful"), Matthew 26:13 ; Mark 14:9 ; Acts 10:4 .VED-NT Memorial.3


    * For MEMORY (keep in) see KEEP, Note (8)VED-NT Memory.2


    * Notes: (1) For this plural see the nouns under MAN. (2) For anthropinos, e.g. Romans 6:19 , "after the manner of men," see MAN'S , No. 1. (3) For the phrase kat' anthropon, "after the manner of men," see MAN , No. 1 (f). (4) The phrase "quit you like men," 1 Corinthians 16:13 , translates the verb andrizo, in the Middle Voice, "to play the man" (a verb illustrated in the papyri). (5) See also ALL , GOOD , GREAT , LOW (estate), THESE , (of) WAR.VED-NT Men.2


    1: ἀνθρωπάρεσκος
    (Strong's #441 — Adjective — anthropareskos — anth-ro-par'-es-kos )
    VED-NT Men-Pleasers.2

    an adjective signifying "studying to please men" (anthropos, "man," aresko, "to please"), designates, "not simply one who is pleasing to men ..., but one who endeavors to please men and not God" (Cremer). It is used in Ephesians 6:6 ; Colossians 3:22 . In the Sept., Psalms 53:5 .VED-NT Men-Pleasers.3


    1: ἀνδραποδιστής
    (Strong's #405 — Noun Masculine — andrapodistes — an-drap-od-is-tace' )
    VED-NT Men-Stealers.2

    "a slave dealer, kidnapper," from andrapodon, "a slave captured in war," a word found in the plural in the papyri, e.g., in a catalogue of property and in combination with tetrapoda, "four-footed things" (andrapodon, aner, "a man," pous, "a foot"); andrapodon "was never an ordinary word for slave; it was too brutally obvious a reminder of the principle which made quadruped and human chattels differ only in the number of their legs" (Moulton and Milligan, Vocab.). The verb andrapodizo supplied the noun "with the like odious meaning," which appears in 1 Timothy 1:10 .VED-NT Men-Stealers.3


    1: καταρτίζω
    (Strong's #2675 — Verb — katartizo — kat-ar-tid'-zo )
    VED-NT Mend.2

    from kata, "down," intensive and artios, "fit," has three meanings, (a) "to mend, repair," Matthew 4:21 ; Mark 1:19 , of nets; (b) "to complete, furnish completely, equip, prepare," Luke 6:40 ; Romans 9:22 ; Hebrews 11:3 and in the Middle Voice, Matthew 21:16 ; Hebrews 10:5 ; (c) "ethically, to prepare, perfect," Galatians 6:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:10 ; 1 Peter 5:10 ; Hebrews 13:21 ; and in the Passive Voice, 1 Corinthians 1:10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:11 . See FIT , FRAME , JOIN , PERFECT , PREPARE , RESTORE.VED-NT Mend.3


    1: παῖς
    (Strong's #3816 — Noun — pais — paheece )
    VED-NT Menservants.2

    for the meanings of which see CHILD , No. 4, is translated "menservants" in Luke 12:45 .VED-NT Menservants.3


    A — 1: μνεία
    (Strong's #3417 — Noun Feminine — mneia — mni'-ah )
    VED-NT Mention.2

    "remembrance, mention" (akin to mimnesko, "to remind, remember"), is always used in connection with prayer, and translated "mention" in Romans 1:9 ; Ephesians 1:16 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:2 ; Philemon 1:4 , in each of which it is preceded by the verb to make; "rememberance" in Philippians 1:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:6 ; 2 Timothy 1:3 . Some mss. have it in Romans 12:13 , instead of chreiais, "necessities." See REMEMBRANCE. Cp. mneme, "memory, remembrance," 2 Peter 1:15 .VED-NT Mention.3

    B — 1: μνημονεύω
    (Strong's #3421 — Verb — mnemoneuo — mnay-mon-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Mention.4

    which most usually means "to call to mind, remember," signifies "to make mention of," in Hebrews 11:22 . See REMEMBER.VED-NT Mention.5


    A — 1: ἐμπορία
    (Strong's #1711 — Noun Feminine — emporia — em-por-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Merchandise.2

    denotes "commerce, business, trade" [akin to No. 2, and to emporos, "one on a journey" (en, "in," poros, "a journey"), "a merchant"], occurs in Matthew 22:5 .VED-NT Merchandise.3

    A — 2: ἐμπόριον
    (Strong's #1712 — Noun Neuter — emporion — em-por'-ee-on )
    VED-NT Merchandise.4

    denotes "a trading place, exchange" (Eng., "emporium"), John 2:16 , "(a house) of merchandise."VED-NT Merchandise.5

    A — 3: γόμος
    (Strong's #1117 — Noun Masculine — gomos — gom'-os )
    VED-NT Merchandise.6

    is translated "merchandise" in Revelation 18:11, 12 : see BURDEN , A, No. 3.VED-NT Merchandise.7

    B — 1: ἐμπορεύομαι
    (Strong's #1710 — Verb — emporeuomai — em-por-yoo'-om-ahee )
    VED-NT Merchandise.8

    primarily signifies "to travel," especially for business; then, "to traffic, trade," James 4:13 ; then, "to make a gain of, make merchandise of," 2 Peter 2:3 .VED-NT Merchandise.9


    1: ἔμπορος
    (Strong's #1713 — Noun Masculine — emporos — em'-por-os )
    VED-NT Merchant.2

    denotes "a person on a journey" (poros, "a journey"), "a passenger on shipboard;" then, "a merchant," Matthew 13:45 ; Revelation 18:3, 11, 15, 23 .VED-NT Merchant.3

    Merciful, Mercy

    A — 1: ἔλεος
    (Strong's #1656 — Noun Neuter — eleos — el'-eh-os )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.2

    "is the outward manifestation of pity; it assumes need on the part of him who receives it, and resources adequate to meet the need on the part of him who shows it. It is used (a) of God, who is rich in mercy, Ephesians 2:4 , and who has provided salvation for all men, Titus 3:5 , for Jews, Luke 1:72 , and Gentiles, Romans 15:9 . He is merciful to those who fear him, Luke 1:50 , for they also are compassed with infirmity, and He alone can succor them. Hence they are to pray boldly for mercy, Hebrews 4:16 , and if for themselves, it is seemly that they should ask for mercy for one another, Galatians 6:16 ; 1 Timothy 1:2 . When God brings His salvation to its issue at the Coming of Christ, His people will obtain His mercy, 2 Timothy 1:16 ; Jude 1:21 ; (b) of men; for since God is merciful to them, He would have them show mercy to one another, Matthew 9:13 ; Matthew 12:7 ; Matthew 23:23 ; Luke 10:37 ; James 2:13 .VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.3

    "Wherever the words mercy and peace are found together they occur in that order, except in Galatians 6:16 . Mercy is the act of God, peace is the resulting experience in the heart of man. Grace describes God's attitude toward the law-breaker and the rebel; mercy is His attitude toward those who are in distress."* [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 340,341.]VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.4

    "In the order of the manifestation of God's purposes of salvation grace must go before mercy ... only the forgiven may be blessed ... From this it follows that in each of the Apostolic salutations where these words occur, grace precedes mercy, 1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 ; Titus 1:4 (in some mss.); 2 John 1:3 " (Trench, Syn, xlvii).VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.5

    A — 2: οἰκτιρμός
    (Strong's #3628 — Noun Masculine — oiktirmos — oyk-tir-mos' )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.6

    "pity, compassion for the ills of others," is used (a) of God, Who is "the Father of mercies," 2 Corinthians 1:3 ; His "mercies" are the ground upon which believers are to present their bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, as their reasonable service, Romans 12:1 ; under the Law he who set it at nought died without compassion, Hebrews 10:28 ; (b) of men; believers are to feel and exhibit compassions one toward another, Philippians 2:1 , RV "compassions," and Colossians 3:12 , RV "(a heart) of compassion;" in these two places the word is preceded by No. 3, rendered "tender mercies" in the former, and "a heart" in the latter, RV.VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.7

    A — 3: σπλάγχνον
    (Strong's #4698 — Noun Neuter — splanchnon — splangkh'-non )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.8

    "affections, the heart," always in the plural in the NT, has reference to "feelings of kindness, goodwill, pity," Philippians 2:1 , RV, "tender mercies;" see AFFECTION , No. 2, and BOWELS.VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.9

    Note: In Acts 13:34 the phrase, lit., "the holy things, the faithful things (of David)" is translated, "the holy and sure blessings," RV; the AV, following the mss. in which the words "holy and" are absent, has "the sure mercies," but notices the full phrase in the margin.VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.10

    B — 1: ἐλεέω
    (Strong's #1653 — Verb — eleeo — el-eh-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.11

    akin to A, No. 1, signifies, in general, "to feel sympathy with the misery of another," and especially sympathy manifested in act, (a) in the Active Voice, "to have pity or mercy on, to show mercy" to, e.g., Matthew 9:27 ; Matthew 15:22 ; Matthew 17:15 ; Matthew 18:33 ; Matthew 20:30, 31 (three times in Mark, four in Luke); Romans 9:15, 16, 18 ; Romans 11:32 ; Romans 12:8 ; Philippians 2:27 ; Jude 1:22, 23 ; (b) in the Passive Voice, "to have pity or mercy shown one, to obtain mercy," Matthew 5:7 ; Romans 11:30, 31 ; 1 Corinthians 7:25 ; 2 Corinthians 4:1 ; 1 Timothy 1:13, 16 ; 1 Peter 2:10 .VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.12

    B — 2: οἰκτείρω
    (Strong's #3627 — Verb — oikteiro — oyk-ti'-ro )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.13

    akin to A, No. 2, "to have pity on" (from oiktos, "pity:" oi, an exclamation, = oh!), occurs in Romans 9:15 (twice), where it follows No. 1 (twice); the point established there and in Exodus 33:19 , from the Sept. of which it is quoted, is that the "mercy" and compassion shown by God are determined by nothing external to His attributes. Speaking generally oikteiro is a stronger term than eleeo.VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.14

    B — 3: ἱλάσκομαι
    (Strong's #2433 — Verb — hilaskomai — hil-as'-kom-ahee )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.15

    in profane Greek meant "to conciliate, appease, propitiate, cause the gods to be reconciled;" their goodwill was not regarded as their natural condition, but as something to be earned. The heathen believed their gods to be naturally alienated in feeling from man. In the NT the word never means to conciliate God; it signifies (a) "to be propitious, merciful," Luke 18:13 , in the prayer of the publican; (b) "to expiate, make propitiation for," Hebrews 2:17 , "make propitiation." That God is not of Himself already alienated from man, see John 3:16 . His attitude toward the sinner does not need to be changed by his efforts. With regard to his sin, an expiation is necessary, consistently with God's holiness and for His righteousness' sake, and that expiation His grace and love have provided in the atoning sacrifice of His Son; man, himself a sinner, justly exposed to God's wrath (John 3:36 ), could never find an expiation. As Lightfoot says, "when the NT writers speak at length on the subject of Divine wrath, the hostility is represented, not as on the part of God, but of men." Through that which God has accomplished in Christ, by His death, man, on becoming regenerate, escapes the merited wrath of God. The making of this expiation [(b) above], with its effect in the mercy of God (a) is what is expressed in hilaskomai. The Sept. uses the compound verb exilaskomai, e.g., Genesis 32:20 ; Exodus 30:10, 15, 16 ; Exodus 32:30 , and frequently in Lev. and Num. See PROPITIATION.VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.16

    C — 1: ἐλεήμων
    (Strong's #1655 — Adjective — eleemon — el-eh-ay'-mone )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.17

    "merciful," akin to A, No. 1, not simply possessed of pity but actively compassionate, is used of Christ as a High Priest, Hebrews 2:17 , and of those who are like God, Matthew 5:7 (cp. Luke 6:35, 36 , where the RV, "sons" is to be read, as representing characteristics resembling those of their Father).VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.18

    C — 2: οἰκτίρμων
    (Strong's #3629 — Adjective — oiktirmon — oyk-tir'-mone )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.19

    "pitiful, compassionate for the ills of others," a stronger term than No. 1 (akin to A, No. 2), is used twice in Luke 6:36 , "merciful" (of the character of God, to be expressed in His people); James 5:11 , RV, "merciful," AV, "of tender mercy."VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.20

    C — 3: ἵλεως
    (Strong's #2436 — Adjective — hileos — hil'-eh-oce )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.21

    "propitious, merciful" (akin to B, No. 3), was used in profane Greek just as in the case of the verb (which see). There is nothing of this in the use of the word in Scripture. The quality expressed by it there essentially appertains to God, though man is underserving of it. It is used only of God, Hebrews 8:12 ; in Matthew 16:22 , "Be it far from Thee" (Peter's word to Christ) may have the meaning given in the RV marg., "(God) have mercy on Thee," lit., "propitious to Thee" (AV marg., "Pity Thyself"). Cp. the Sept., 2 Samuel 20:20 ; 2 Samuel 23:17 .VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.22

    C — 4: ἀνίλεως
    (Strong's #448 — Adjective — aneleos | anileos — an-ee'-leh-oce )
    VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.23

    "unmerciful, merciless" (a, negative, n, euphonic, and A, No. 2, or C, No. 3), occurs in James 2:13 , said of judgment on him who shows no "mercy."VED-NT Merciful, Mercy.24

    Mercy Seat

    1: ἱλαστήριον
    (Strong's #2435 — Noun Neuter — hilasterion — hil-as-tay'-ree-on )
    VED-NT Mercy Seat.2

    "the lid or cover of the ark of the covenant," signifies the Propitiatory, so called on account of the expiation made once a year on the great Day of Atonement, Hebrews 9:5 . For the formation see Exodus 25:17-21 . The Heb. word is kapporeth, "the cover," a meaning connected with the covering or removal of sin (Psalms 32:1 ) by means of expiatory sacrifice. This mercy seat, together with the ark, is spoken of as the footstool of God, 1 Chronicles 28:2 ; cp. Psalms 99:5 ; Psalms 132:7 . The Lord promised to be present upon it and to commune with Moses "from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim," Exodus 25:22 (see CHERUBIM). In the Sept. the word epithema, which itself means "a cover," is added to hilasterion; epithema was simply a translation of kapporeth; accordingly, hilasterion, not having this meaning, and being essentially connected with propitiation, was added. Eventually hilasterion stood for both. In 1 Chronicles 28:11 the Holy of Holies is called "the House of the Kapporeth" (see RV , marg.). Through His voluntary expiatory sacrifice in the shedding of His blood, under Divine judgment upon sin, and through His resurrection, Christ has become the Mercy Seat for His people. See Romans 3:25 , and see PROPITIATION , B, No. 1.VED-NT Mercy Seat.3


    1: εὐφραίνω
    (Strong's #2165 — Verb — euphraino — yoo-frah'ee-no )
    VED-NT Merry.2

    in the Active Voice, "to cheer, make glad," 2 Corinthians 2:2 , is used everywhere else in the Passive Voice, signifying, "to be happy, rejoice, make merry," and translated "to be merry" in Luke 12:19 ; Luke 15:23, 24, 29, 32 ; in Luke 16:19 , "fared (sumptuously);" in Revelation 11:10 , "make merry." See FARE , GLAD , REJOICE.VED-NT Merry.3

    2: εὐθυμέω
    (Strong's #2114 — Verb — euthumeo — yoo-thoo-meh'-o )
    VED-NT Merry.4

    from eu, "well," and thumos, "the soul," as the principle of feeling, especially strong feeling, signifies "to make cheerful;" it is used intransitively in the NT, "to be of good cheer," Acts 27:22, 25 ; in James 5:13 , RV, "is (any) cheerful?" (AV, "... merry?"). See CHEER.VED-NT Merry.5


    1: βρῶσις
    (Strong's #1035 — Noun Feminine — brosis — bro'-sis )
    VED-NT Mess.2

    "eating, food," is translated "mess of meat" in Hebrews 12:16 , RV (AV, "morsel of meat"). See FOOD , MEAT , No. 2.VED-NT Mess.3


    1: ἀγγελία
    (Strong's #31 — Noun Feminine — angelia — ang-el-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Message.2

    akin to angello, "to bring a message, proclaim," denotes a "message, proclamation, news," 1 John 1:5 [some mss. have epangelia: see Note (1)]; 1 John 3:11 , where the word is more precisely defined (by being followed by the conjunction "that," expressing the purpose that we should love one another) as being virtually equivalent to an order.VED-NT Message.3

    Notes: (1) Epangelia (epi, "upon," and No. 1), "a promise," is found in some mss. in 1 John 1:5 , "message" (see No. 1). See PROMISE. (2) In Luke 19:14 , AV, presbeia, is translated "a message;" RV, "an ambassage," as in 14:32. See AMBASSAGE.VED-NT Message.4

    2: ἀκοή
    (Strong's #189 — Noun Feminine — akoe — ak-o-ay' )
    VED-NT Message.5

    "hearing," also denotes "the thing heard, a message;" in 1 Thessalonians 2:13 , it is associated with logos, "a word," lit., "the word of hearing" (RV marg.), RV, "the word of the message," AV, "the word ... which ye heard;" so in Hebrews 4:2 , RV, "the word of hearing" (AV, "the word preached"). See HEARING.VED-NT Message.6

    3: κήρυγμα
    (Strong's #2782 — Noun Neuter — kerugma — kay'-roog-mah )
    VED-NT Message.7

    "that which is proclaimed by a herald, a proclamation, preaching," is translated "the message" in Titus 1:3 , RV (AV, "preaching"). See PREACHING.VED-NT Message.8


    1: ἄγγελος
    (Strong's #32 — Noun Masculine — angelos — ang'-el-os )
    VED-NT Messenger.2

    "a messenger, an angel, one sent," is translated "messenger," of John the Baptist, Matthew 11:10 ; Mark 1:2 ; Luke 7:27 ; in the plural, of John's "messengers," Luke 7:24 ; of those whom Christ sent before Him when on His journey to Jerusalem, Luke 9:52 ; of Paul's "thorn in the flesh," "a messenger of Satan," 2 Corinthians 12:7 ; of the spies as received by Rahab, James 2:25 . See ANGEL.VED-NT Messenger.3

    2: ἀπόστολος
    (Strong's #652 — Noun Masculine — apostolos — ap-os'-tol-os )
    VED-NT Messenger.4

    "an apostle," is translated "messengers" in 2 Corinthians 8:23 regarding Titus and "the other brethren," whom Paul describes to the church at Corinth as "messengers of the churches," in respect of offerings from those in Macedonia for the needy in Judea; in Philippians 2:25 , of Epaphroditus as the "messenger" of the church at Philippi to the Apostle in ministering to his need; RV marg. in each case, "apostle." See APOSTLE.VED-NT Messenger.5


    * For METE see ME ASUREVED-NT Mete.2


    * For MID see MIDSTVED-NT Mid.2


    * Note: In Acts 26:13 , "at midday" translates the adjective mesos, "middle," and the noun hemera, "a day," in a combined adverbial phrase. See MIDST.VED-NT Midday.2


    * For MIDDLE see WALLVED-NT Middle.2


    1: μεσονύκτιον
    (Strong's #3317 — Noun Neuter — mesonuktion — mes-on-ook'-tee-on )
    VED-NT Midnight.2

    an adjective denoting "at, or of, midnight," is used as a noun in Mark 13:35 ; Luke 11:5 ; Acts 16:25 ; Acts 20:7 .VED-NT Midnight.3

    Note: In Matthew 25:6 "at midnight" translates the adjective mesos, and noun nux, "night," in the combined adverbial phrase. In Acts 27:27 "about midnight" translates an adverbial phrase consisting of kata, "towards," followed by mesos, "middle" and nux, "night," with the article, lit., "towards (the) middle of the night." See MIDST.VED-NT Midnight.4


    A — 1: μέσος
    (Strong's #3319 — Adjective — mesos — mes'-os )
    VED-NT Midst.2

    an adjective denoting "middle, in the middle or midst," is used in the following, in which the English requires a phrase, and the adjectival rendering must be avoided: Luke 22:55 , "Peter sat in the midst of them," lit., "a middle one of (them):" Luke 23:45 , of the rending of the veil "in the midst;" here the adjective idiomatically belongs to the verb "was rent," and is not to be taken literally, as if it meant "the middle veil;" John 1:26 , "in the midst of you (standeth One)," RV (lit., "a middle One"); Acts 1:18 , where the necessity of avoiding the lit. rendering is obvious. Cp. the phrases "at midday," "at midnight" (see MIDDAY , MIDNIGHT , above). Notes: (1) Mesos is used adverbially, in prepositional phrases, (a) ana m., e.g., 1 Corinthians 6:5 , "between;" Matthew 13:25 , "among;" Revelation 7:17 , "in the midst;" (b) dia m., e.g., Luke 4:30 ; Luke 17:11 , "through the midst;" (c) en m., Luke 10:3 , RV, "in the midst," AV, "among;" so Luke 22:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:7 ; with the article after en, e.g., Matthew 14:6 , RV, "in the midst," AV, "before;" (d) eis m., Mark 14:60 , "in the midst;" with the article, e.g., Mark 3:3 , "forth" (lit., "into the midst"); (e) ek m., "out of the way," lit., "out of the midst," Colossians 2:14 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:7 , where, however, removal is not necessarily in view; there is no accompanying verb signifying removal, as in each of the other occurrences of the phrases; with the article, e.g., 1 Corinthians 5:2 ; 2 Corinthians 6:17 ; see WAY; (f) kata m., Acts 27:27 , "about mid(night)."VED-NT Midst.3

    (2) The neuter, meson, is used adverbially in Matthew 14:24 , in some mss., "in the midst (of the waves);" in Philippians 2:15 in the best mss. (where some mss. have en m. ...). (3) For Revelation 8:13 , see HEAVEN , A, No. 2.VED-NT Midst.4

    B — 1: μεσόω
    (Strong's #3322 — Verb — mesoo — mes-o'-o )
    VED-NT Midst.5

    "to be in the middle," is used of time in John 7:14 , translated "when it was ... the midst (of the feast)," lit., "(the feast) being in the middle."VED-NT Midst.6

    Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier

    A — 1: δύναμις
    (Strong's #1411 — Noun Feminine — dunamis — doo'-nam-is )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.2

    "power," (a) used relatively, denotes "inherent ability, capability, ability to perform anything," e.g., Matthew 25:15 , "ability;" Acts 3:12 , "power;" 2 Thessalonians 1:7 , RV, "(angels) of His power" (AV, "mighty"); Hebrews 11:11 , RV, "power" (AV, "strength"); see ABILITY; (b) used absolutely, denotes (1) "power to work, to carry something into effect," e.g., Luke 24:49 ; (2) "power in action," e.g., Romans 1:16 ; 1 Corinthians 1:18 ; it is translated "might" in the AV of Ephesians 1:21 (RV, "power"); so Ephesians 3:16 ; Colossians 1:11 (1st clause); 2 Peter 2:11 ; in Romans 15:19 , AV, this noun is rendered "mighty;" RV, "(in the) power of signs." The RV consistently avoids the rendering "might" for dunamis; the usual rendering is "power." Under this heading comes the rendering "mighty works," e.g., Matthew 7:22 , RV (AV, "wonderful works"); 11:20-23; singular number in Mark 6:5 ; in Matthew 14:2 ; Mark 6:14 the RV has "powers;" in 2 Corinthians 12:12 , RV, "mighty works" (AV, "mighty deeds"). See MIRACLE , especially POWER.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.3

    Note: Dunamis, "power," is to be distinguished from exousia, "the right to exercise power." See DOMINION , Note.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.4

    A — 2: ἰσχύς
    (Strong's #2479 — Noun Feminine — ischus — is-khoos' )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.5

    denotes "might, strength, power," (a) inherent and in action as used of God, Ephesians 1:19 , RV, "(the strength, kratos, of His) might" AV, "(His mighty) power," i.e., power (over external things) exercised by strength; Ephesians 6:10 , "of His might;" 2 Thessalonians 1:9 , RV, "(from the glory) of His might" (AV "power"); Revelation 5:12 , RV, "might" (AV, "strength"); Revelation 7:12 , "might;" (b) as an endowment, said (1) of angles, 2 Peter 2:11 ; here the order is No. 2 and No. 1, RV, "might and power," which better expresses the distinction than the AV, "power and might;" in some mss. in Revelation 18:2 it is said of the voice of an angle [see E, (c)]; the most authentic mss. have the adjective ischuros, "mighty;" (2) of men, Mark 12:30, 33 ; Luke 10:27 (RV and AV, "strength," in all three verses); 1 Peter 4:11 , RV, "strength" (AV, "ability:" this belongs rather to No. 1). Either "strength" or "might" expresses the true significance of ischus. See ABILITY , POWER , STRENGTH.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.6

    Notes: (1) In Luke 9:43 , AV, megaleiotes, "greatness, majesty," is translated "mighty power" (RV, "majesty"). (2) Cp. kratos (see POWER).VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.7

    B — 1: δυνατός
    (Strong's #1415 — Adjective — dunatos — doo-nat-os' )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.8

    "powerful, mighty" (akin to A, No. 1), is used, with that significance, (1) of God, Luke 1:49 , "mighty;" Romans 9:22 , "power" (here the neuter of the adjective is used with the article, as a noun, equivalent to dunamis); frequently with the meaning "able" (see ABLE , C, No. 1); (2) of Christ, regarded as a prophet, Luke 24:19 ("in deed and word"); (3) of men: Moses, Acts 7:22 ("in his words and works"); Apollos, Acts 18:24 , "in the Scriptures;" of those possessed of natural power, 1 Corinthians 1:26 ; of those possessed of spiritual power, 2 Corinthians 10:4 . For the shades of meaning in the translation "strong," see Romans 15:1 ; 2 Corinthians 12:10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:9 . For Revelation 6:15 , see No. 2, below; see STRONG. See also POSSIBLE.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.9

    B — 2: ἰσχυρός
    (Strong's #2478 — Adjective — ischuros — is-khoo-ros' )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.10

    "strong, mighty" (akin to A, No. 2, and with corresponding adjectival significance), is usually translated "strong;" "mighty" in Luke 15:14 (of a famine); Revelation 19:6 (of thunders); 19:18 (of men): in the following, where the AV has "mighty," the RV substitutes "strong," 1 Corinthians 1:27 ; Revelation 6:15 (AV, "might men"); 18:10,21; Hebrews 11:34 , RV, "(waxed) mighty" (AV, "valiant"). See BOISTEROUS , POWERFUL , STRONG (where the word is analyzed).VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.11

    B — 3: ἰσχυρός
    (Strong's #2478 — Adjective — ischuroteros — is-khoo-ros' )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.12

    "stronger, mightier," the comparative degree of No. 2, is translated "mightier" in Matthew 3:11 ; Mark 1:7 ; Luke 3:16 ; "stronger" in Luke 11:22 ; 1 Corinthians 1:25 ; 1 Corinthians 10:22 . See STRONG.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.13

    B — 4: βίαιος
    (Strong's #972 — Adjective — biaios — bee'-ah-yos )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.14

    "violent" (from bia, "force, violence, strength," found in Acts 5:26 ; Acts 21:35 ; Acts 24:7 ; Acts 27:41 ), occurs in Acts 2:2 , of wind.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.15

    B — 5: κραταιός
    (Strong's #2900 — Adjective — krataios — krat-ah-yos' )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.16

    "strong, mighty" (akin to kratos, "strength," relative and manifested power: see MIGHTILY , below), is found in 1 Peter 5:6 , of the "mighty" hand of God.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.17

    B — 6: μεγαλεῖος
    (Strong's #3167 — Adjective — megaleios — meg-al-i'-os )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.18

    is rendered "mighty" in Acts 2:11 , RV See WONDERFUL , Note (2).VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.19

    Notes: (1) In Luke 1:52 , AV, dunastes, "a potentate, prince," is translated "mighty" (RV, "princes"). (2) In Revelation 6:13 , AV, megas, "great," is translated "mighty" (RV, "great"), of a wind. (3) In Revelation 16:18 , AV, telikoutos, "so great" (when said of things), is translated "so mighty" (RV, "so great"), of an earthquake.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.20

    C — 1: δυνατέω
    (Strong's #1414 — Verb — dunateo — doo-nat-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.21

    "to be powerful" (akin to A, No. 1 and B, No. 1), is found in the most authentic mss. in Romans 14:4 (some have dunatos, B, No. 1), RV "(the Lord) hath power," AV, "(God) is able;" similarly, as regard mss., in 2 Corinthians 9:8 , where the RV and AV have "(God) is able;" in 2 Corinthians 13:3 , AV, "is mighty," RV, "is powerful" (according to the general significance of dunamis).VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.22

    Note: In Galatians 2:8 , AV, energeo, "to work, work in" (en, "in," ergon, "work"), is first translated "wrought effectually," then "was mighty in" (RV, "wrought for," in both places; the probable meaning is "in me"). See EFFECTUAL , WORK.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.23

    D — 1: εὐτόνως
    (Strong's #2159 — Adverb — eutonos — yoo-ton'-oce )
    VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.24

    "vigorously, vehemently" (eu, "well," teino, "to stetch"), is translated "mightily" in Acts 18:28 , AV, of the power of Apollos in "confuting" the Jews (RV, "powerfully"); in Luke 23:10 it is rendered "vehemently." See POWERFUL , VEHEMENTLY. In the Sept., Joshua 6:7 , "(let them sound) loudly."VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.25

    * The following phrases signify "mightily:" (a) en dunamei, Colossians 1:29 , of the inward power of God's working, lit., "in power," as RV marg. (en, "in," and A, No. 1); (b) kata kratos, Acts 19:20 , of the increase of the word of the Lord in a place, lit, "according to might;" (c) in Revelation 18:2 some mss. have en ischui, lit., "in strength" (en, "in," and A, No. 2), of the voice of an angel.VED-NT Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier.26


    1: μίλιον
    (Strong's #3400 — Noun Neuter — milion — mil'-ee-on )
    VED-NT Mile.2

    "a Roman mile," a word of Latin origin (1680 yards), is used in Matthew 5:41 .VED-NT Mile.3


    1: γάλα
    (Strong's #1051 — Noun Neuter — gala — gal'-ah )
    VED-NT Milk.2

    is used (a) literally, 1 Corinthians 9:7 ; (b) metaphorically, of rudimentary spiritual teaching, 1 Corinthians 3:2 ; Hebrews 5:12, 13 ; 1 Peter 2:2 ; here the meaning largely depends upon the significance of the word logikos, which the AV renders "of the word," RV "spiritual." While logos denotes "a word," the adjective logikos is never used with the meaning assigned to it in the AV, nor does the context in 1 Peter 1:23 compel this meaning. While it is true that the Word of God, like "milk," nourishes the soul, and this is involved in the exhoration, the only other occurrence in the NT is Romans 12:1 , where it is translated "reasonable," i.e., rational, intelligent (service), in contrast to the offering of an irrational animal; so here the nourishment may be understood as of that spiritually rational nature which, acting through the regenerate mind, develops spiritual growth. God's Word is not given so that it is impossible to understand it, or that it requires a special class of men to interpret it; its character is such that the Holy Spirit who gave it can unfold its truths even to the young convert. Cp. 1 John 2:27 .VED-NT Milk.3


    1: μύλων
    (Strong's #3459 — Noun Masculine — mulon — moo'-lone )
    VED-NT Mill.2

    denotes "a mill house," where the millstone is, Matthew 24:41 ; some mss. have mulos (see next word). In the Sept., Jeremiah 52:11 , "grinding house" (lit., "house of a mill").VED-NT Mill.3


    A — 1: μύλος
    (Strong's #3458 — Noun Masculine — mulos — moo'-los )
    VED-NT Millstone.2

    denotes "a handmill," consisting of two circular stones, one above the other, the lower being fixed. From the center of the lower a wooden pin passes through a hole in the upper, into which the grain is thrown, escaping as flour between the stones and falling on a prepared material below them. The handle is inserted into the upper stone near the circumference. Small stones could be turned by one woman (mill-grinding was a work deemed fit only for women and slaves; cp. Judges 16:21 ); larger ones were turned by two (cp. Matthew 24:41 , under MILL), or more.VED-NT Millstone.3

    Still larger ones were turned by an ass (onikos), Matthew 18:6 , RV, "a great millstone" (marg., "a millstone turned by an ass"), indicating the immediate and overwhelming drowning of one who causes one young believer to stumble; Mark 9:42 (where some mss. have lithos multikos, "a stone of a mill," as in Luke 17:2 ); Revelation 18:22 (some mss. have it in ver. 21, see below).VED-NT Millstone.4

    B — 1: μυλικός
    (Strong's #3457 — Adjective — mulikos — moo-lee-kos' )
    VED-NT Millstone.5

    "of a mill," occurs in Luke 17:2 (see above).VED-NT Millstone.6

    B — 2: μύλος
    (Strong's #3458 — Noun Masculine — mulinos — moo'-los )
    VED-NT Millstone.7

    "made of millstone," is used with lithos, "a stone;" and with the adjective megas, "great," in the best mss. in Revelation 18:21 (some have the word mulos; see A).VED-NT Millstone.8


    A — 1: νοῦς
    (Strong's #3563 — Noun Masculine — nous — nooce )
    VED-NT Mind.2

    "mind," denotes, speaking generally, the seat of reflective consciousness, comprising the faculties of perception and understanding, and those of feeling, judging and determing. Its use in the NT may be analyzed as follows: it denotes (a) the faculty of knowing, the seat of the understanding, Luke 24:45 ; Romans 1:28 ; Romans 14:5 ; 1 Corinthians 14:15, 19 ; Ephesians 4:17 ; Philippians 4:7 ; Colossians 2:18 ; 1 Timothy 6:5 ; 2 Timothy 3:8 ; Titus 1:15 ; Revelation 13:18 ; Revelation 17:9 ; (b) counsels, purpose, Romans 11:34 (of the "mind" of God); 12:2; 1 Corinthians 1:10 ; 1 Corinthians 2:16 , twice (1) of the thoughts and counsels of God, (2) of Christ, a testimony to His Godhood; Ephesians 4:23 ; (c) the new nature, which belongs to the believer by reason of the new birth, Romans 7:23, 25 , where it is contrasted with "the flesh," the principle of evil which dominates fallen man. Under (b) may come 2 Thessalonians 2:2 , where it stands for the determination to be steadfast amidst afflictions, through the confident expectation of the day of rest and recompense mentioned in the first chapter.VED-NT Mind.3

    A — 2: διάνοια
    (Strong's #1271 — Noun Feminine — dianoia — dee-an'-oy-ah )
    VED-NT Mind.4

    lit. "a thinking through, or over, a meditation, reflecting," signifies (a) like No. 1, "the faculty of knowing, understanding, or moral reflection," (1) with an evil significance, a consciousness characterized by a perverted moral impulse, Ephesians 2:3 (plural); 4:18; (2) with a good significance, the faculty renewed by the Holy Spirit, Matthew 22:37 ; Mark 12:30 ; Luke 10:27 ; Hebrews 8:10 ; Hebrews 10:16 ; 1 Peter 1:13 ; 1 John 5:20 ; (b) "sentiment, disposition" (not as a function but as a product); (1) in an evil sense, Luke 1:51 , "imagination;" Colossians 1:21 ; (2) in a good sense, 2 Peter 3:1 .VED-NT Mind.5

    A — 3: ἔννοια
    (Strong's #1771 — Noun Feminine — ennoia — en'-noy-ah )
    VED-NT Mind.6

    "an idea, notion, intent," is rendered "mind" in 1 Peter 4:1 ; see INTENT.VED-NT Mind.7

    A — 4: νόημα
    (Strong's #3540 — Noun Neuter — noema — no'-ay-mah )
    VED-NT Mind.8

    "thought, design," is rendered "minds" in 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; 2 Corinthians 4:4 ; 2 Corinthians 11:3 ; Philippians 4:7 ; see DEVICE , No. 2.VED-NT Mind.9

    A — 5: γνώμη
    (Strong's #1106 — — gnome — gno'-may )
    VED-NT Mind.10

    "a purpose, judgment, opinion," is translated "mind" in Philemon 1:14 ; Revelation 17:13 . See JUDGMENT , No. 4.VED-NT Mind.11

    A — 6: φρόνημα
    (Strong's #5427 — Noun Neuter — phronema — fron'-ay-mah )
    VED-NT Mind.12

    denotes "what one has in the mind, the thought" (the content of the process expressed in phroneo, "to have in mind, to think"); or "an object of thought;" in Romans 8:6 (AV, "to be carnally minded" and "to be spiritually minded"), the RV, adhering to the use of the noun, renders by "the mind of the flesh," in vv. 6,7, and "the mind of the spirit," in v. 6. In Romans 8:27 the word is used of the "mind" of the Holy Spirit.VED-NT Mind.13

    Notes: (1) This word is to be distinguished from phronesis, which denotes "an understanding, leading to right action, prudence," Luke 1:17 ; Ephesians 1:8 . (2) In three places, Acts 14:2 ; Philippians 1:27 ; Hebrews 12:3 , the AV translates psuche, "the soul," by "mind" (RV, "soul").VED-NT Mind.14

    B — 1: φρονέω
    (Strong's #5426 — Verb — phroneo — fron-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Mind.15

    signifies (a) "to think, to be minded in a certain way;" (b) "to think of, be mindful of." It implies moral interest or reflection, not mere unreasoning opinion. Under (a) it is rendered by the verb "to mind" in the following: Romans 8:5 , "(they that are after the flesh) do mind (the things of the flesh);" Romans 12:16 , "be of (the same) mind," lit., "minding the same," and "set (not) your mind on," RV, AV, "mind (not);" Romans 15:5 , "to be of (the same) mind," RV, (AV, "to be like-minded"); so the RV in 2 Corinthians 13:11 , AV, "to be of (one) mind;" Galatians 5:10 , "ye will be (none otherwise) minded;" Philippians 1:7 , RV, "to be (thus) minded," AV, "to think (this);" Philippians 2:2 , RV "be of (the same) mind," AV, "be likeminded," and "being ... of (one) mind," lit., "minding (the one thing);" Philippians 2:5 , RV, "have (this) mind," AV, "let (this) mind be," lit., "mind this;" Philippians 3:15 , "let us ... be (thus) minded," and "(if) ... ye are (otherwise) minded" (some mss. have the verb in ver. 16); Philippians 3:19 , "(who) mind (earthly things)," Philippians 4:2 , "be of (the same) mind;" Colossians 3:2 , RV and AV marg., "set your mind," lit., "mind (the things above)," AV, "set your affection." See CAREFUL , B, 6, REGARD , SAVOR , THINK , UNDERSTAND.VED-NT Mind.16

    B — 2: ἀναμιμνῄσκω
    (Strong's #363 — Verb — anamimnesko — an-am-im-nace'-ko )
    VED-NT Mind.17

    "to remind, call to remembrance" (ana, "up" mimnesko, "to remind"), is translated "called to mind Mark, 14:72 (Passive Voice). See REMEMBRANCE.VED-NT Mind.18

    Note: The lengthened form epanamimnesko is used in Romans 15:15 , AV, "putting (you) in mind;" RV, "putting (you) again (epi) in remembrance."VED-NT Mind.19

    B — 3: ὑπομιμνῄσκω
    (Strong's #5279 — Verb — hupomimnesko — hoop-om-im-nace'-ko )
    VED-NT Mind.20

    "to cause one to remember, put one in mind" (hupo, "under"), is translated "put (them) in mind" in Titus 3:1 . See REMEMBER , REMEMBRANCE.VED-NT Mind.21

    B — 4: ὑποτίθημι
    (Strong's #5294 — Verb — hupotithemi — hoop-ot-ith'-ay-mee )
    VED-NT Mind.22

    lit., "to place under" (hupo, "under," tithemi, "to place"), "to lay down" (of risking the life, Romans 16:4 ), also denotes "to suggest, put into one's mind," 1 Timothy 4:6 , RV, "put ... in mind" (AV, "put ... in remembrance"). See LAY.VED-NT Mind.23

    B — 5: σωφρονέω
    (Strong's #4993 — Verb — sophroneo — so-fron-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Mind.24

    signifies (a) "to be of sound mind," or "in one's right mind, sober-minded" (sozo, "to save," phren, "the mind"), Mark 5:15 ; Luke 8:35 , "in his right mind;" 2 Corinthians 5:13 , RV, "we are of sober mind" (AV, "we be sober"); (b) "to be temperate, self-controlled," Titus 2:6 , "to be sober-minded;" 1 Peter 4:7 , RV, "be ye ... of sound mind" (AV, "be ye sober"). See also Romans 12:3 . See SOBER.VED-NT Mind.25

    Note: In Acts 20:13 , AV, mello, "to be about to, to intend," is translated "minding" (RV, "intending"). See INTEND.VED-NT Mind.26

    C — 1: ὁμόφρων
    (Strong's #3675 — Adjective — homophron — hom-of'-rone )
    VED-NT Mind.27

    "agreeing, of one mind" (homos, "same," phren, "the mind"), is used in 1 Peter 3:8 .VED-NT Mind.28

    Notes: (1) For the noun sophronismos, in 2 Timothy 1:7 , see DISCIPLINE. (2) In Romans 15:6 , AV, the adverb homothumadon, "of one accord," is translated "with one mind" (RV, "of one accord"). See ACCORD. (3) See also CAST , CHANGE , DOUBTFUL , FERVENT , FORWARDNESS , HUMBLENESS, HUMILITY , LOWLINESS , READINESS , READY , WILLING.VED-NT Mind.29


    1: φρονέω
    (Strong's #5426 — Verb — phroneo — fron-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Minded.2

    see MIND , B, No. 1.VED-NT Minded.3

    2: βούλομαι
    (Strong's #1014 — Verb — boulomai — boo'-lom-ahee )
    VED-NT Minded.4

    "to wish, will, desire, purpose" (akin to boule, "counsel, purpose"), is translated "was minded" in Matthew 1:19 ; Acts 15:37 , RV (AV, "determined"); Acts 18:27 , RV (AV, "was disposed"); Acts 19:30 , RV (AV, "would have"); Acts 5:33 , RV, "were minded" (AV, "took counsel"); Acts 18:15 , RV, "I am (not) minded (to be); AV, "I will (be no);" Hebrews 6:17 , "being minded," RV (AV, "willing"), said of God. See COUNSEL.VED-NT Minded.5

    3: βουλεύω
    (Strong's #1011 — Verb — bouleuo — bool-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Minded.6

    "to take counsel," is translated "to be minded" in Acts 27:39 ; 2 Corinthians 1:17 , Middle Voice in each case. See COUNSEL , B, No. 1.VED-NT Minded.7

    Note: For the noun phronema in Romans 8:6 , see MIND , A, No. 6.VED-NT Minded.8

    Mindful of

    1: Φοινίκη
    (Strong's #5403 — Noun Location — mimnesko — foy-nee'-kay )
    VED-NT Mindful of.2

    the tenses of which are from the older verb mnaomai, signifies "to remind;" but in the Middle Voice, "to remember, to be mindful of," in the sense of caring for, e.g., Hebrews 2:6 , "Thou art mindful;" in Hebrews 13:3 , "remember;" in 2 Timothy 1:4 , RV, "remembering" (AV, "being mindful of"); so in 2 Peter 3:2 . See REMEMBER.VED-NT Mindful of.3

    2: μνημονεύω
    (Strong's #3421 — Verb — mnemoneuo — mnay-mon-yoo'-o )
    VED-NT Mindful of.4

    "to call to mind, remember," is rendered "they had been mindful" in Hebrews 11:15 . See MENTION , B, REMEMBER.VED-NT Mindful of.5

    Mine, Mine Own

    * For MINE, MINE OWN (self), see MYVED-NT Mine, Mine Own.2


    1: μίγνυμι
    (Strong's #3396 — Verb — mignumi — mig'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Mingle.2

    "to mix, mingle" (from a root mik---; Eng., "mix" is akin), is always in the NT translated "to mingle," Matthew 27:34 ; Luke 13:1 ; Revelation 8:7 ; Revelation 15:2 .VED-NT Mingle.3

    2: κεράννυμι
    (Strong's #2767 — Verb — kerannumi — ker-an'-noo-mee )
    VED-NT Mingle.4

    "to mix, to mingle," chiefly of the diluting of wine, implies "a mixing of two things, so that they are blended and form a compound, as in wine and water, whereas mignumi (No. 1) implies a mixing without such composition, as in two sorts of grain" (Liddell and Scott, Lex.). It is used in Revelation 18:6 (twice); in Revelation 14:10 , RV, "prepared" (marg., "mingled;" AV, "poured out"), lit., "mingled," followed by akratos, "unmixed, pure" (a, negative, and kratos, an adjective, from this verb kerannumi), the two together forming an oxymoron, the combination in one phrase of two terms that are ordinarily contradictory.VED-NT Mingle.5

    Note: For the verb smurnizo, "to mingle with myrrh," Mark 15:23 , see MYRRH.VED-NT Mingle.6


    A — 1: διάκονος
    (Strong's #1249 — Noun — diakonos — dee-ak'-on-os )
    VED-NT Minister.2

    "a servant, attendant, minister, deacon," is translated "minister" in Mark 10:43 ; Romans 13:4 (twice); 15;8; 1 Corinthians 3:5 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; 2 Corinthians 6:4 ; 2 Corinthians 11:15 (twice); 15:8; 2:17; Ephesians 6:21 ; Colossians 1:7, 23, 25 ; Colossians 4:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 1 Timothy 4:6 . See DEACON.VED-NT Minister.3

    A — 2: λειτουργός
    (Strong's #3011 — Noun Masculine — leitourgos — li-toorg-os' )
    VED-NT Minister.4

    denoted among the Greeks, firstly, "one who discharges a public office at his own expense," then, in general, "a public servant, minister." In the NT it is used (a) of Christ, as a "Minister of the sanctuary" (in the Heavens), Hebrews 8:2 ; (b) of angels, Hebrews 1:7 (Psalms 104:4 ); (c) of the Apostle Paul, in his evangelical ministry, fulfilling it as a serving-priest, Romans 15:16 ; that he used it figuratively and not in an ecclesiastical sense, is obvious from the context; (d) of Epaphroditus, as ministering to Paul's needs on behalf of the church at Philippi, Philippians 2:25 ; here, representative service is in view; (e) of earthly rulers, who though they do not all act consciously as servants of God, yet discharge functions which are the ordinance of God, Romans 13:6 .VED-NT Minister.5

    A — 3: ὑπηρέτης
    (Strong's #5257 — Noun Masculine — huperetes — hoop-ay-ret'-ace )
    VED-NT Minister.6

    properly "an under rower" (hupo, "under," eretes, "a rower"), as distinguished from nautes, "a seaman" (a meaning which lapsed from the word), hence came to denote "any subordinate acting under another's direction;" in Luke 4:20 , RV, "attendant," AV, "minister" it signifies the attendant at the synagogue service; in Acts 13:5 , it is said of John Mark, RV, "attendant," AV, "minister," in Acts 26:16 , "a minister," it is said of Paul as a servant of Christ in the Gospel; so in 1 Corinthians 4:1 , where the Apostle associates others with himself, as Apollos and Cephas, as "ministers of Christ." See ATTEND , C, OFFICER.VED-NT Minister.7

    Note: Other synonomous nouns are doulos, "a bondservant;" oiketes, "a household servent;" misthios, "a hired servant;" misthotos (ditto); pais, "a boy, a household servant." For all these see SERVANT. Speaking broadly, diakonos views a servant in relation to his work; doulos, in relation to his master; huperetes, in relation to his superior; leitourgos, in relation to public service.VED-NT Minister.8

    B — 1: διακονέω
    (Strong's #1247 — Verb — diakoneo — dee-ak-on-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Minister.9

    akin to A, No. 1, signifies "to be a servant, attendant, to serve, wait upon, minister." In the following it is translated "to minister," except where "to serve" is mentioned: it is used (a) with a general significance, e.g., Matthew 4:11 ; Matthew 20:28 ; Mark 1:13 ; Mark 10:45 ; John 12:26 ("serve," twice); Acts 19:22 ; Philemon 1:13 ; (b) of waiting at table, "ministering" to the guests, Matthew 8:15 ; Luke 4:39 ; Luke 8:3 ; Luke 12:37 ; Luke 17:8 , "serve;" Matthew 22:26 , "serve," Matthew 22:27 , "serveth," twice; the 2nd instance, concerning the Lord, may come under (a); so of women preparing food, etc., Mark 1:31 ; Luke 10:40 , "serve;" John 12:2 , "served;" (c) of relieving one's necessities, supplying the necessaries of life, Matthew 25:44 ; Matthew 27:55 ; Mark 15:41 ; Acts 6:2 , "serve;" Romans 15:25 ; Hebrews 6:10 ; more definitely in connection with such service in a local church, 1 Timothy 3:10, 13 , [there is nothing in the original representing the word "office;" RV, "let them serve as deacons," "they that have served (well) as deacons"]; (d) of attending, in a more general way, to anything that may serve another's interests, as of the work of an amanuensis, 2 Corinthians 3:3 (metaphorical): of the conveyance of materials gifts of assisting the needy, 2 Corinthians 8:19, 20 , RV, "is ministered" (AV, "is administered"); of a variety of forms of service, 2 Timothy 1:18 ; of the testimony of the OTs prophets, 1 Peter 1:12 ; of the ministry of believers one to another in various ways, 1 Peter 4:10, 11 (not here of discharging ecclesiastical functions).VED-NT Minister.10

    Note: In Hebrews 1:14 , AV (2nd part), the phrase eis diakonian is translated "to minister," RV, "to do service," lit., "for service;" for the noun "ministering" in the 1st part, see MINISTERING , B.VED-NT Minister.11

    B — 2: λειτουργέω
    (Strong's #3008 — Verb — leitourgeo — li-toorg-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Minister.12

    (akin to A, No. 2), in classical Greek, signified at Athens "to supply public offices at one's own cost, to render public service to the State;" hence, generally, "to do service," said, e.g., of service to the gods. In the NT (see Note below) it is used (a) of the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, who "ministered to the Lord," Acts 13:2 ; (b) of the duty of churches of the Gentiles to "minister" in "carnal things" to the poor Jewish saints at Jerusalem, in view of the fact that the former had "been made partakers" of the "spiritual things" of the latter, Romans 15:27 ; (c) of the official service of priests and Levites under the Law, Hebrews 10:11 (in the Sept., e.g., Exodus 29:30 ; Numbers 16:9 ).VED-NT Minister.13

    Note: The synonymous verb latreuo (properly, "to serve for hire"), which is used in the Sept. of the service of both priests and people (e.g., Exodus 4:3 ; Deuteronomy 10:12 , and in the NT, e.g., Hebrews 8:5 ), and, in the NT, of Christians in general, e.g., Revelation 22:3 , is to be distinguished from leitourgeo, which has to do with the fulfillment of an office, the discharge of a function, something of a representative character (Eng., "liturgy").VED-NT Minister.14

    B — 3: ὑπηρετέω
    (Strong's #5256 — Verb — hupereteo — hoop-ay-ret-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Minister.15

    "to do the service of a huperetes" (see A, No. 3), properly, "to serve as a rower on a ship," is used (a) of David, as serving the counsel of God in his own generation, Acts 13:36 , RV, expressive of the lowly character of his service for God; (b) of Paul's toil in working with his hands, and his readiness to avoid any pose of ecclesiastical superiority, Acts 20:34 ; (c) of the service permitted to Paul's friends to render to him, 24:23.VED-NT Minister.16

    B — 4: ἱερουργέω
    (Strong's #2418 — Verb — hierourgeo — hee-er-oorg-eh'-o )
    VED-NT Minister.17

    "to minister in priestly service" (akin to hierourgos, "a sacrificing priest," a word not found in the Sept. or NT: from hieros, "sacred," and ergon, "work"), is used by Paul metaphorically of his ministry of the Gospel, Romans 15:16 ; the offering connected with his priestly ministry is "the offering up of the Gentiles," i.e., the presentation by Gentile converts of themselves to God. The Apostle uses words proper to the priestly and Levitical ritual, to explain metaphorically his own priestly service. Cp. prosphora, "offering up," and leitourgos, in the same verse.VED-NT Minister.18

    B — 5: παρέχω
    (Strong's #3930 — Verb — parecho — par-ekh'-o )
    VED-NT Minister.19

    "to furnish, provide, supply," is translated "minister" in 1 Timothy 1:4 , of the effect of "fables and endless genealogies." See BRING , A, No. 21.VED-NT Minister.20

    B — 6: ἐργάζομαι
    (Strong's #2038 — Verb — ergazomai — er-gad'-zom-ahee )
    VED-NT Minister.21

    "to work, work out, perform," is translated "minister" in 1 Corinthians 9:13 ; the verb is frequently used of business, or employment, and here the phrase means "those employed in sacred things" or "those who are assiduous in priestly functions." See COMMIT , A, No. 1.VED-NT Minister.22

    Notes: (1) The verb choregeo, rendered "minister" in the AV of 2 Corinthians 9:10 , and the strengthened form epichoregeo, rendered by the same verb in the AV of 2 Corinthians 9:10 ; Galatians 3:5 ; Colossians 2:19 ; 2 Peter 1:11 , in 2 Peter 1:5 , "add," are always translated "to supply" in the RV. Both verbs suggest an abundant supply, and are used of material or of spiritual provision. See SUPPLY. (2) In Ephesians 4:29 , AV, didomi, "to give," is translated "minister" (RV, "give").VED-NT Minister.23

    Ministering, Ministration, Ministry

    A — 1: διακονία
    (Strong's #1248 — Noun Feminine — diakonia — dee-ak-on-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Ministering, Ministration, Ministry.2

    "the office and work of a diakonos" (see MINISTER , A, No. 1), "service, ministry," is used (a) of domestic duties, Luke 10:40 ; (b) of religious and spiritual "ministration," (1) of apostolic "ministry," e.g., Acts 1:17, 25 ; Acts 6:4 ; Acts 12:25 ; Acts 21:19 ; Romans 11:13 , RV (AV, "office"); (2) of the service of believers, e.g., Acts 6:1 ; Romans 12:7 ; 1 Corinthians 12:5 , RV, "ministrations" (AV, "administrations"); 1 Corinthians 16:15 ; 2 Corinthians 8:4 ; 2 Corinthians 9:1, 12 , RV, "ministration;" 2 Corinthians 9:13 ; Ephesians 4:12 , RV, "ministering" (AV, "the ministry," not in the sense of an ecclesiastical function); 2 Timothy 4:11 , RV, "(for) ministering;" collectively of a local church, Acts 11:29 , "relief" (RV marg. "for ministry"); Revelation 2:19 , RV, "ministry" (AV, "service"); of Paul's service on behalf of poor saints, Romans 15:31 ; (3) of the "ministry" of the Holy Spirit in the Gospel, 2 Corinthians 3:8 ; (4) of the "ministry" of angels, Hebrews 1:14 , RV, "to do service" (AV, "to minister"); (5) of the work of the Gospel, in general, e.g., 2 Corinthians 3:9 , "of righteousness;" 2 Corinthians 5:18 , "of reconciliation;" (6) of the general "ministry" of a servant of the Lord preaching and teaching, Acts 20:24 ; 2 Corinthians 4:1 ; 2 Corinthians 6:3 ; 2 Corinthians 11:8 ; 1 Timothy 1:12 , RV, "(to His) service;" 2 Timothy 4:5 ; undefined in Colossians 4:17 ; (7) of the Law, as a "ministration" of death, 2 Corinthians 3:7 ; of condemnation, 3:9.VED-NT Ministering, Ministration, Ministry.3

    A — 2: λειτουργία
    (Strong's #3009 — Noun Feminine — leitourgia — li-toorg-ee'-ah )
    VED-NT Ministering, Ministration, Ministry.4

    akin to leitourgos (see MINISTER , A, No. 2), to which the meanings of leitourgia correspond, is used in the NT of "sacred ministration," (a) priestly, Luke 1:23 ; Hebrews 8:6 ; Hebrews 9:21 ; (b) figuratively, of the practical faith of the members of the church at Philippi regarded as priestly sacrifice, upon which the Apostle's life-blood might be poured out as a libation, Philippians 2:17 ; (c) of the "ministration" of believers one to another, regarded as priestly service, 2 Corinthians 9:12 ; Philippians 2:30 . See SERVICE.VED-NT Ministering, Ministration, Ministry.5

    B — 1: λειτουργικός
    (Strong's #3010 — Adjective — leitourgikos — li-toorg-ik-os' )
    VED-NT Ministering, Ministration, Ministry.6

    "of or pertaining to service, ministering," is used in Hebrews 1:14 , of angels as "ministering spirits" (for the word "do service" in the next clause, see A, No. 1). In the Sept., Exodus 31:10 ; Exodus 39:13 ; Numbers 4:12, 26 ; Numbers 7:5 ; 2 Chronicles 24:14 .VED-NT Ministering, Ministration, Ministry.7


    1: μουσικός
    (Strong's #3451 — — mousikos — moo-sik-os' )
    VED-NT Ministrel.2

    is found in Revelation 18:22 , RV, "ministrels" (AV, "musicians"); inasmuch as other instrumentalists are mentioned, some word like "minstrels" is necessary to make the distinction, hence the RV; Bengel and others translate it "singers." Primarily the word denoted "devoted to the Muses" (the nine goddesses who presided over the principal departments of letters), and was used of anyone devoted to or skilled in arts and sciences, or "learned."VED-NT Ministrel.3


    1: ἡδύοσμον
    (Strong's #2238 — Noun Neuter — heduosmon — hay-doo'-os-mon )
    VED-NT Mint.2

    an adjective denoting sweet-smelling (hedus, "sweet," osme, "a smell"), is used as a neuter noun signifying "mint," Matthew 23:23 ; Luke 11:42 .VED-NT Mint.3


    1: δύναμις
    (Strong's #1411 — Noun Feminine — dunamis — doo'-nam-is )
    VED-NT Miracle.2

    "power, inherent ability," is used of works of a supernatural origin and character, such as could not be produced by natural agents and means. It is translated "miracles" in the RV and AV in Acts 8:13 (where variant readings give the words in different order); 19:11; 1 Corinthians 12:10, 28, 29 ; Galatians 3:5 ; AV only, in Acts 2:22 (RV, "mighty works"); Hebrews 2:4 (RV, "powers"). In Galatians 3:5 , the word may be taken in its widest sense, to include "miracles" both physical and moral. See MIGHT , A, No. 1, POWER, WORK.VED-NT Miracle.3

    2: σημεῖον
    (Strong's #4592 — Noun Neuter — semeion — say-mi'-on )
    VED-NT Miracle.4

    "a sign, mark, token" (akin to semaino, "to give a sign;" sema, "a sign"), is used of "miracles" and wonders as signs of Divine authority; it is translated "miracles" in the RV and AV of Luke 23:8 ; Acts 4:16, 22 ; most usually it is given its more appropriate meaning "sign," "signs," e.g., Matthew 12:38, 39 , and in every occurrence in the Synoptists, except Luke 23:8 ; in the following passages in John's Gospel the RV substitutes "sign" or "signs" for the AV, "miracle or miracles;" John 2:11, 23 ; John 3:2 ; John 4:54 ; John 6:2, 14, 26 ; John 7:31 ; John 9:16 ; John 10:41 ; John 11:47 ; John 12:18, 37 ; the AV also has "signs" elsewhere in this Gospel; in Acts, RV, "signs," AV, "miracles," in Acts 6:8 ; Acts 8:6 ; Acts 15:12 ; elsewhere only in Revelation 13:14 ; Revelation 16:14 ; Revelation 19:20 . See SIGN , TOKEN , WONDER.VED-NT Miracle.5


    1: βόρβορος
    (Strong's #1004 — Noun Masculine — borboros — bor'-bor-os )
    VED-NT Mire.2

    "mud, filth," occurs in 2 Peter 2:22 . In the Sept., Jeremiah 38:6 (twice), of the "mire" in the dungeon into which Jeremiah was cast.VED-NT Mire.3

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