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    (ה)גבול — הָיָה


    (ה)גבול Jos 15:47 Kt read הַגָּדוֹל Vrss Codd. cf. v 12.BDB (ה)גבול.2


    ה , fifth letter; = numeral 5 in postB. Heb.; no evidence of this usage in OT times.BDB ה.2


    הֲ, הַ, הַ, הֶ (on the different forms, see Ges§ 100. 4: on Dt 32:6, v. הַל, p. 210), interrog.part. (Biblical Aramaic and 𝔗 הֲ, Arabic أَ ), prefixed, as a rule, to the first word of a sentence (or clause).
    1. in direct questions: a. as a simple interrogative, where the answer expected is uncertain, Ex 2:7 הַאֵלֵךְ shall I go and call thee a nurse? 1 S 23:11 הֲיַסְגִּרֻנִי will the men of Keilah deliver me into his hand? הֲיֵרֵד שָׁאוּל will Saul come down? Jb 1:8; and frequently. b. often in questions, expressed in a tone of surprise, or put rhetorically, to which a negative answer is expected (= Lat. num?): Gn 4:9 הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי Am I my brother’s keeper? 18:17 shall I hide from Abraham that which I am about to do? 30:2; 50:19 Nu 11:23 a Dt 4:33 הֲשָׁמַע עַםDid a people ever hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the fire, … and live? 20:19 (read with 𝔊 𝔗 𝔖 𝔙 Ew Ke Di etc. הֶאָדָם for הָאָדָם), 2 S 7:5 הַֽאַתָּה תִּבְנֶה־לִּי בַיִת (altered in 1 Ch 17:4 to the neg. לֹא אַתָּה תִּבְנֶה וג׳), 2 K 6:22 הַאֲשֶׁר שָׁבִיתָ … those whom thou hast taken captive with thy sword and with thy bow, wilt thou smite? Is 28:24; 36:12 a; 57:6; 58:5 Je 15:12; 16:20 Am 5:25 ψ 50:13 Jb 8:11; 15:7, 8, 11; 38:12, 16, 17, 22 etc.; before an inf. absol. (Ew§ 328 a) Je 7:9 Jb 40:2 and prob. Mi 2:7 (read הֶאָמוֹר: see p. 55). After a protasis, הִנֵּההֲ Nu 22:38 2 K 7:2, 19 Je 32:27 Ez 17:10; after הֵן Je 3:1 Hg 2:12: cf. after אוּלַי Gn 24:5; after אִם Jb 14:14 אִם יָמוּת גֶּבֶר הֲיִחְיֶה if a man dieth, shall he live? Occasionally, one or more words precede הֲ (in the same clause) for special emphasis: 2 S 7:7 Jb 34:31 כִּי אֶל־אֵל הֶאָמַר for to God did one ever say …? Ne 13:27; Je 22:15 (הֲלֹא), cf. 23:26. c. it is used in questions which, by seeming to make doubtful what cannot be denied, have the force of an impassioned or indignant affirmation: Gn 27:36 (‘dubitantis speciem prae se fert Esavus, ut eo acerbius affirmet,’ Maurer, cited by Ges), 1 S 2:27 הֲנִגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי וג׳ Did I reveal myself to the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt? etc. (i.e. of course I did, although thy sons, by their actions, appear to belie it), 1 K 16:31 (expressing astonishment), 21:19 הֲרָצַחְתָּ וְגַם־יָרָ֑שְׁתָּ Hast thou slain, and also taken possession? Je 31:20 Jb 20:4; 41:1 (cf. Hi); also Gn 16:13, and the phrases הַרְּאִיתֶם do ye see? 1 S 10:24 2 K 6:32; הֲרָאִיתָ does thou see? 1 K 20:13 Ez 8:12, 15, 17; 9:8; 20:4; 22:2. d. in disjunctive question, the first being introduced usually by הֲ, the second by אִם or (more rarely) וְאִם: see exx. under אִם 2 (p. 50). The disjunctive question may express a real alternative (as Jos 5:13), or (as especially in poetry) the same thought may be repeated in a different form, in two parallel clauses (e.g. Is 10:15): in the latter case, the answer No is usually expected (v. p. 50). Only very rarely is the second question introduced by הֲ Ju 14:15 (where, however, הֲלֹם ought no doubt to be read, with MSS., 𝔗 Be al., for הֲלֹא), or אוֹ Ju 18:19 Jb 16:3; 38:28, 31.
    2. In indirect interrogation, whether (Germ. ob …?)— a. singly, after verbs of seeing Gn 8:8 לִרְאוֹת הֲ to see whether, 18:21; Ex 4:18; Ct 6:11, telling Gn 43:6, trying Dt 13:4, knowing Ju 3:4; Ec 3:21 (read הַעֹלָה and הֲיֹרֶדֶת: v. De or Wr ad loc.) b. disjunctively,—usually הֲאִם, Nu 13:18 end, 19 a (and see the land) הֲטוֹבָה הִיא אִם רָעָהwhether it be good or bad, v 19 b. 20(×2); הֲאִם לֹא Gn 24:21; 27:21; 37:32 Ex 16:4 that I may try it (the people) הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם לֹא whether it will walk in my law or not, Nu 11:23 Dt 8:2 Ju 2:22; הֲהֲ Nu 13:18 (by side of הֲאִם); הֲאוֹ Ec 2:19; 11:6. It is prefixed to other particles, as הַאִם, הַאַף, הֲגַם, הֲכִי, הֲלֹא: see אִם, אַף, etc.
    BDB הֲ.2


    הַ·, הַ, הָ, הֶ (on the use of these different forms, see the Grammars: e.g. Ges§ 35), definite article, the (so Moab. Ph. (Schröd § 62—4), Liḥyan (NW. Arabia) ha (DHMEpigr. Denkm. 4. 13. 58 ff.); not Assyrian Aramaic or Ethiopic: Arabic اَلْ, of which, before dentals, sibilants, and liquids, the l is written but not pronounced, thus اَلشَّمْسُ pron. ʾash-shamsu = Heb. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ)—in gen. the use of the art. in Heb. is analogous to its use in Greek or German: but naturally there are applications peculiar to Hebrew (comp. with what follows Ges§ 126 Ew§ 277):—
    1. joined with substantives: a. to mark a definite concrete object, as Gn 1:1 the heavens and the earth, הַמֶּלֶךְ the king, etc. Never, however (as in Greek e.g. ὁΠλάτων), before true proper names, though it is used with certain terms, chiefly geographical, of which the orig. appellative sense has not been lost, as הַבַּעַל ‘Baal,’ lit. ‘the lord,’ in pl. הַבְּעָלִים i.e. the various local Baals, הַשָּׂטָן the Adversary Jb 1:6 ff. (as a pr. n. שָׂטָן, ‘Satan,’ only 1 Ch 21:1); הַלְּבָנוֹן (but not הַחֶרְמוֹן), הַיַּרְדֵּן (but not הָאַרְנֹן), הַכַּרְמֶל, הַשָּׁרוֹן the Sharon, הַשְּׁפֵלָה the (Judaean) lowland, הַכִּכָּר, הַמִּישׁוֹר the (Moabite) table-land, הָעֲרָבָה, הָעַי ‘ʿAi,’ הַגִּבְעָה ‘Gibeah,’ Ju 20:5 ff., הַגָּלִיל ‘Galilee,’ הַגִּלְגָּל, הַגִּלְבֹּעַ, הַבָּשָׁן, הַגִּלְעָד (often), הַשִּׁטִּים, הַמִּצְפָּה, הָרָמָה, הַיְשִׁימוֹן, הָעֹפֶל, הַפִּסְגָּה. b. with an adjective to denote one who exhibits a quality κατʼ ἐξοχήν, i.e. to express the compar. or superl. degree: so often, as Gn 1:16 המאור הגדל the greater light, המאור הקטן the lesser light, 27:1 בנו הגדול = his elder son, 48:14 הצעיר the younger, 42:13 הַקָּטֹן the little one, i.e. the youngest (of Joseph’s brethren), Lv 21:10 הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו the chiefest of his brethren, Nu 35:25 + הכהן הגדול the chief priest, הצעיר ב׳ the least among Ju 6:15, הצעירה מן the least of 1 S 9:21, הַיָּפָה ב׳ the fairest among Ct 1:8, 2 K 10:3 Pr 30:30, cf. Jos 14:15. c. with nouns which are not definite in themselves, but acquire their definition from the context, or from the manner in which they are introduced: thus (α) in the standing phrases הַיּוֹם to-day, Gn 4:14; 21:26 + often; הַלַּיְלָה to-night, Gn 19:5; 30:15 +, once 1 S 15:16 last night; so הַשָּׁנָה this year, 2 K 19:29 Jer 28:16; הַפַּעַם this time, Gn 18:32 +, בַּמִּלְחָמָה in battle 1 S 26:10; 30:24 2 S 19:4. (β) הַנָּהָר the river = Euphrates; Ex 2:15 the (local) well, Jos 8:11 the valley, 1 S 17:3; 1 S 19:10 the wall, v 13 the bed, 20:21 הַנַּעַר the lad (whom Jonathan would naturally take with him), v 34 the table. Hence occas. where a suffix would define the noun more precisely, as הַחֲמוֹר 2 S 19:27 + = my ass, Ju 3:20 1 S 1:9 הַכִּסֵּא = his seat, Ju 4:15 1 K 22:35 2 K 10:15 + הַמֶּרְכָּבָה, 1 S 18:10; 20:33 הַחֲנִית. d. it is a peculiarity of Hebrew thought to conceive an object as defined by its being taken for a particular purpose, and thus by a kind of prolepsis to prefix the art. to the noun denoting it: 1 S 10:1 and Samuel took אֶת־פַּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן lit. the cruse of oil, not, however, a cruse which had been defined previously, but one rendered definite by being now taken; in English idiom ‘a cruse of oil,’ v 25 בַּסֵּפֶר lit. in the scroll or book, the one, viz. taken for the purpose, i.e. in a scroll (so Ex 17:14 Nu 5:23 Jb 19:23), 21:10 בַּשִּׂמְלָה, Ju 4:18 וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָה, v 19; 7:13 הָאֹהֶל a tent, 8:25; 9:48 אֶת־הַקַּרְדֻּמֹּת hatchests, 20:16 every one able to sling בָּאֶבֶן אֶל־הַשַּׂעֲרָה with a stone at a hair, 1 S 6:8 בָּאַרְגָּז (unless indeed the אַרְגָּז was an understood appendage in every cart), Nu 11:27 הַנַּעַר a young man, 13:23 בַּמּוֹט on a pole, Jos 2:15 בַּחֶבֶל with a cord, 2 S 17:17 השׁפחה a girl (cf. Dr 1 S 1:4; 19:13). Sometimes it is uncertain whether an art. is to be referred to c or d: e.g. 1 S 2:13 his prong or a prong, 2 S 18:9 his mule or a mule, etc. e. with nouns that denote objects or classes of objects that are known to all, as הַצֹּאן, הַזָּהָב, הַמַּיִם; Gn 13:2 Abram was very rich בַּמִּקְנֶה בַּכֶּסֶף וּבַזָּהָב, Ex 31:4 לַעֲשׂוֹת בַּזָּהָב וּבַכֶּסֶף, Dt 14:26 and thou shalt lay out the money בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר, 2 K 9:30 וַתָּשֶׂם בַּפּוּךְ עֵינֶיהָ, in French ‘elle mit du fard à ses yeux.’ It is, however, remarkable that this usage depends mostly on the punctuation, הַכֶּסֶף, הַיַּיִן, הַלֶּחֶם etc. (except as applied to denote definite quantities of gold, wine, etc., as Jos 6:24) being far less common than כֶּסֶף, יַיִן etc., but בַּכֶּסֶף, לַכֶּסֶף etc. being much more freq. than בְּכֶסֶף, לְכֶסֶף etc.: for instances in which the art. forms part of the consonantal text, see Gn 6:20; 7:8 + העוף and הבהמה, Dt 8:3 הַלֶּחֶם, 1 K 5:8, 13 Is 28:7 הַיַּיִן and הַשֵּׁכָר, 60:17 Ez 15:4, 7 הָאֵשׁ, Hb 2:5 Pr 20:1 ψ 65:14 הַצֹּאן, Ct 1:11 Ec 7:12. Cf. below, h. f. in comparisons, the object compared being, as a rule, not an individual as such, but one exhibiting the characteristics of a class: Is 1:18 כַּשָּׁנִים, כַּתּוֹלָע like scarlet, like crimson (both meant generally), 5:24 כַּמַּק יִהְיֶה v 28 כַּצַּר and כַּסּוּפָה, 10:14 כַּקֵּן, 13:8 כַּיּוֹלֵדָה (as always with this word, e.g. 42:14 ψ 48:7), 11:7 כַּבָּקָר; + often (The usage is not, however, quite uniform, at least according to the punctuation: there occurs e.g. כְּקַשׁ Jb 41:21 Is 47:14; כְּאַרְיֵה ψ 7:3 al.: and we find both כַּלָּבִיא Is 5:29 and כְּלָבִיא Ho 13:8; כָּאֲרִי Is 38:13 and כַּאֲרִי Nu 24:9; כַּגִּבּוֹר Is 42:13 and כְּגבור Jb 16:14; etc.) Similarly Gn 19:28 כְּקִיטֹר הַכִּבְשָׁן as the smoke of a furnace, Nu 11:8, 12 כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק, Dt 28:29 (הָעִוֵּר), Ju 8:18 b כְּתֹאַר בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, 14:6 כְּשַׁסַּע הַגְּדִי like (a lion’s) rending a kid, 16:9 1 K 14:15 Zc 12:10 כְמִסְפֵּד עַל הַיָּחִיד as mourning over an only child, 13:9 +. Where, however, the standard of comparison is not the class in general, but only a particular part of it, defined by a special epithet (whether adj. or verb), the art. is naturally omitted: thus כַּמֹּץ like chaff (in general) Is 41:15, but כְּמֹץ עֹבֵר like chaff passing away 29:5; כַּצֵּל Jb 14:2, but כְּצֵל נָטוּי ψ 102:12; כַּקַּשׁ Is 40:24. but כְּקַשׁ נִדָּף 41:2; כָּאַיָּל Is 35:6, but כְּאַיָּל תַּעֲרֹג על וג׳ like a hind (that) longeth for streams of water ψ 42:2; כָּאֵשׁ Is 9:17, but כְּאֵשׁ תבער יער like fire (that) kindleth a wood ψ 83:15; כֶעָשָׁן Is 51:6, but כְּעָשָׁן מֵאֲרֻבָּה like smoke from a chimney Ho 13:3: so Is 62:1 b Jb 9:26; 11:16 כְּמַיִם עָֽבְרוּ like waters (that) have passed by, etc.; Dt 32:2 a כַּמָּטָר, כַּטַּל, but v 2 b כִּשְׂעִירִים עֲלֵי־דֶשֶׁא, כִּרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי־עֵשֶׂב. Where the art. is found, although a rel. clause follows (as ψ 1:4; 49:13 Is 61:10), this is prob. to be regarded not as limiting the class of object compared, but as describing it. g. prefixed to generic nouns (in the singular) it designates the class, i.e. it imparts to the noun a collective force, as Ex 1:22 כָּל־הַבֵּן all (lit. the whole of) the sons, כָּל־הַבַּת all the daughters, Lv 17:8, 10 מִן־הַגֵּר of the strangers, who sojourn in their midst, Nu 21:7 הַנָּחָשׁ the serpents; Gn 14:13 Ez 24:26; 33:21 הַפָּלִיט those who escaped; Jos 6:7 + הֶחָלוּץ 6:9, 13 הַמְאַסֵּף; 8:19 הָאוֹרֵב; 1 S 13:17 הַמַּשְׁחִית; Mi 2:13; Is 6:4 הַקּוֹרֵא the choir of criers; 1 S 24:14 הַקַּדְמֹנִי the ancients; Ec 7:26 אֶת־הַאִשָּׁה woman, and often with gentile names, as הַיְבוּסִי the Jebusites, הַכְּרֵתִי וְהַפְּלֵתִי 2 S 8:18 al., הַדָּנִי Ju 18:1 etc., הַלֵּוִי the Levites, Nu 3:20; 18:23 Mal 2:8 ψ 135:20 +. h. with nouns denoting abstract ideas, especially the names of moral qualities (cf. Gk. ἡ δίκη, Fr. la justice), chiefly in two cases—(α) where the art. is recognizable in the consonantal text, exceptionally, when some emphasis or definiteness is intended, as Dt 7:9 שׁומר הברית והחסד; החסד הזה 2 S 2:5 1 K 3:6; את החסד והרחמים Je 16:5 (contr. Zc 7:9); הצדקIs 1:26; 61:3 Ec 3:16; הַצְּדָקָהIs 32:17(×2) (contrast v 16) Dn 9:7 (emph.); הַדַּעַת Ho 4:6; הָאֱמֶת Gn 32:11 (sq. אֲשֶׁר), Is 59:15 (contrast v 14) Zc 8:3, 19; הָאֱמוּנָהIs 11:5 b (contr. v a) Je 7:28; הַחָכְמָה Jb 28:12, 20; הַחַיִּים Gn 2:9 +; הָאַהֲבָהCt 2:7; 3:5; 8:4, 7; הַשֶּׁקֶרJe 7:4, 8; 23:26; הַמָּוֶת Is 25:8 Ru 1:17 +; הָרֶשַׁעψ 125:3 Ec 3:16; הָרִשְׁעָהZc 5:8; הַחֹשֶׁךְ Is 60:2 Ec 2:13; see also Dt 30:15, 19 (Je 21:8), 1 K 7:14 Je 32:19 Mal 2:5 החיים והשׁלום, ψ 123:4; 130:4 Dn 9:9 1 Ch 29:11 2 Ch 1:12 Pr 31:30 Ec 2:13, 17; 7:12, 19; 10:6; 11:10: but in all such cases חֶסֶד, צֶדֶק, אֱמֶת, etc. are far more common. (β) where the art. depends on the punctuation, after preps. especially בְּ, but with much irregularity, as בַּחֶסֶד Is 16:5 Pr 20:28 (but בְּח׳ Ho 2:21 Pr 16:6), בַּצֶּדֶק Pr 25:5 (elsewhere always בְּצ׳: בִּצְדָקָה also always); בֶּאֱמֶת and בֶּאֱמוּנָה always; בַּשֶּׁקֶרIs 28:15 (but ‖ כָּזָב, not הַכָּזָב) Je 5:31; 13:25; 20:6; 23:14 (בְּשֶׁקֶרJe 3:10; 29:9); בַּשָּׁלוֹםψ 29:11 Jb 15:21 (elsewhere בְּשָׁלוֹם); Zc 12:4 to smite בַּשִּׁגָּעוֹן וּבַעִוָּרוֹן (but Dt 28:28 בְּשׁגעון וּבְעורון), cf. Gn 19:11 Dt 28:22; to enter with one בַּמִּשְׁפָּט Jb 9:32; 22:4 (but בְּמשׁפט ψ 143:2), contrast also Pr 18:5 with 24:23; לַמִּשְׁפָּט Is 59:11 ψ 9:8 (but לְמ׳ Is 5:7 ψ 122:5); Pr 2:2; 7:4 לַחָכְמָה (but never הַחכמה in Pr 1—9, or indeed in the whole book); Pr 2:3; 7:4 לַבִּינָה, Jb 39:17 בַּבִּינָה (but never הַבִּינָה); Pr 2:2, 3 לַתְּבוּנָה (but הַתְּבוּנָה only 1 K 7:14 emph.); to perish בַּצָּמָא Ju 15:18 +; Is 29:21 בַּתֹּהוּ, 32:19 בַּשִּׁפְלָה תִּשְׁפַּל הָעִיר Germ. in die Niedrigkeit sinkt die Stadt, 45:16 together they go בַבְּלִמָּה (in die Schmach), 46:2 בַּשְּׁבִי into captivity, 47:5 בֹּאִי בַחֹשֶׁךְ (so always: never בְחֹשׁך). The living language may have used the art. more readily after a prep., where it did not lengthen the word by an entire syll.; still the disparity of usage between α and β makes it not improb. that the art. in β is in many cases not original but due to the punctuators. i. to mark the vocative: 1 S 17:55 חֵי־נפשׁך הַמֶּלֶךְ as thy soul liveth, O king, I do not know, v 58 בן מי אתה הַנַּעַר Whose son art thou, lad? 2 S 14:4 Help, O king! 1 K 18:26 הַבַּעַל עֲנֵנוּ, 2 K 9:5 אֵלֶיךָ הַשָּׂר, Is 42:18 הַחֵֽרְשִׁים שְׁמָ֑עוּ, Je 2:31 הַדּוֹר אַתֶּם רְאוּ וג׳, Ez 37:4 הָעֲצָמוֹת הַיְּבֵשׁוֹת O dry bones, Mal 3:9 הַגּוֹי כֻּלּוֹ (Dr§ 198 Obs. 2). N. B. In poetry, the article is frequently dispensed with before words which would naturally take it in prose: thus ψ 2:2, 8, 10 & often אֶרֶץ; 8:9; 18:10; 33:6 + שָׁמַיִם; (rarely in prose, Gn 1:8; 2:4 1 K 8:35); 21:2; 45:14, 16; 61:7 al. מֶלֶךְ; 66:6; 72:8 + יָם; 59:7, 15 עִיר; Ju 5:2 ψ 18:44 עָם etc.; ψ 9:6, 17 & often רָשָׁע; Is 1:2, 6, 21; 3:10, 11; 11:6, 7, 8.
    2. With adjectives, participles, and demonstrative pronouns (הוא, היא, המה, הם, זה, זאת, אלה): viz. a. (so regularly) when the subst. qualified by these words is defined by it likewise, as המלך הגדול = ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ μέγας, Gn 2:12 הארץ ההוא, 20:1 הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, Jos 2:3 האנשׁים הבאים אליך = οἱ ἄνδρες οἱ ἐλθόντες πρὸς σέ, Gn 13:5; 16:13; 24:65; 32:21; Ju 6:28; Is 65:3, 4, 5; 66:24 ψ 31:9. So also with adjj. & ptcpp., if the subst. be defined by a sf. (as Dt 4:37 בְּכֹחוֹ הַגָּדֹל, 1 S 8:14 זֵיתֵיכֶם הַטֹּבוֹת; and with a pron., if it be defined by a gen. (as Dt 29:20 1 S 14:29; 15:14 2 K 6:32 בֶן־הַמְּרַצֵּחַ הַזֶּה this son of a murderer), but not if it be defined by a sf., as Ex 10:1 אֹתֹתַי אֵלֶּה (not אתתי הָאֵלָּה), Jos 2:14 דְבָרֵנוּ זֶה this our word (not ד׳ הַזֶּה): v. Dr§ 209 Obs. Similarly when the art. with the ptcp. has a resumptive force, ψ 33:15 (v 14 he looketh forth from the place, &c.), הַיֹּצֵר יַחַד לִבָּם he that formeth, etc., 19:11 הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב which (v 10 b) are more desirable than gold, 49:7 (6 b the inquity of my aggressors surroundeth me), הַבֹּטְחִים who trust in their riches, etc., Gn 49:21 Is 46:6; 51:20 Jb 6:16 + (v. Dr§ 135, 7). b. (rare) when the subst. qualified by the adj. or ptcp. was felt to be sufficiently definite for its own art. to be dispensed with, as sometimes with the word day Gn 1:31 יום השׁשׁי, 2:3 יום השׁביעי, Ex 12:15, 18; 20:10 (= Dt 5:14) Lv 19:6; 22:27: so with מָבוֹא entrance Je 38:14, שַׁעַר Zc 14:10; חָצֵר court 1 K 7:8, 12 Ez 40:28 al.; also in certain phrases (peculiar to P) where the subst. is defined by כל, as Gn 1:21 כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה all living souls, v 28 כָּל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת all living things that creep, etc., 7:21; 9:10 Lv 11:10, 46; further in isolated cases, hardly reducible to rule, Lv 24:10 1 S 12:23 דֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה, 16:23 רוּחַ הָרָעָה, 2 S 12:4 לְאישׁ העשׁיר Je 6:20; 17:2 Zc 4:7 ψ 104:18 Ezr 10:9 חֹדֶשׁ הַתְּשִׁיעִי (quite exceptional in OT). (With prons. this use is so rare that, where it occurs, it is dub. if the text be sound: 1 S 17:12, 17 Je 40:3 Kt Mi 7:11). And with the ptcp.: 1 S 25:10 רַבִּים עֲבָדִים הַמִּתְפָּֽרְצִים many are the slaves who break away etc., Is 7:20 Je 27:3; 46:16 = 50:16 חֶרֶב הַיּוֹנָה the oppressing sword, Ez 2:3 (but 𝔊 Co om. הגוים), 14:22; 32:22, 24 ψ 62:4 Pr 26:18 Ju 21:19 (very anomal., read prob. לַמְּסִלָּה). This usage is somewhat more freq. in the later parts of OT; and in post B. Heb. it is very general (e.g. יֵצֶר הָרַע the evil inclination): v. further Dr§ 209. c. with the ptcp., where the ptcp. with the art. forms really the subject: Gn 2:11 הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב not ‘it was encompassing,’ but ‘it is that which encompassed,’ 45:12 פִּי הַמְדַבֵּר my mouth is that which speaketh, Dt 3:21 עֵינֶיךָ הָרֹאוֹת thine eyes were those which saw, 4:3; 8:18 ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ διδοὺς σοί, Is 14:27; 66:9 (v. Dr§ 135. 7).
    3. The article is prefixed exceptionally—mostly in the latest Hebrew—with the force of a relative to the verb:Jos 10:24 הֶהָֽלְכוּא אִתּוֹ that went with him, Ez 26:17, הָעִיר הַהֻ֫לָּלָה, 1 Ch 26:28 וְכֹל הַהִקְדִּישׁ שְׁמוּאֵל and all that Samuel had dedicated, 29:8, 17 2 Ch 1:4 בַּֽהֵכִין in (the place) that he had prepared, 29:36 Ezr 8:25 10:14, 17. According to the punctuation, it occurs similarly elsewhere, as Gn 18:21 הַבָּ֥אָה (so 46:27 Jb 2:11), 21:3 הַנּוֹלַד־לוֹ, 1 K 11:9 & Dn 8:1 הַנִּרְאָה, Is 51:10 הַשָּׂ֨מָה֨, 56:3 הַנִּלְוָה, Ru 1:22; 2:6; 4:3 (all הַשָּׁ֫בָה): but in all these passages, the change of a point, or even sometimes of an accent, would restore the normal participial construction (as הַבָּאָ֥ה, הַנּוֹלָד לוֹ cf. Gn 48:5, הַנִּרְאֶה), which is, no doubt, what was intended by the orig. writers, and is recognised elsewhere by the Massorah, e.g. Gn 12:7; 35:1 הַנִּרְאֶה 46:26 & Ru 4:11 הַבָּאָ֣ה (cf. Ew§ 331 b Ges 138, 3 b). Once, still more anomalously, before a prep. 1 S 9:24 וְהֶעָלֶיהָ (as though καὶ τὸ ἐπʼ αὐτῆς): but read prob. וְהָאַלְיָה and the fat tail, v. Dr (In Arabic اَلْ also occurs, though very rarely, as a relative: WAG i. § 345 b, CG 117).—On the anomalous use of the art. with a word in the st. c., v. Gramm., as Ew§ 290 d, Ges§ 127 R. 4, also Dr§ 190—1.
    BDB הַ·.2


    הֵא interj. (Aramaic הָא, Dn 2:43 הֵא (q.v.), ܗܳܐ; Arabic هَا ) lo, behold! Gn 47:23 Ez 16:43.BDB הֵא.2


    הֶאָח interj. (onomatop.) expressing joy, Aha! always introduced by אָמַר, Is 44:16 he says, Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire. Of satisfaction over the misfortune of an enemy or rival, ψ 35:21, 25 let them not say in their heart הֶאָח נַפְשֵׁנוּ Aha, so would we have it! (lit. our desire!) 40:16 (= 70:4), Ez 25:3; 26:2; 36:2. Metaph., of the neighing of a war horse in the battle, Jb 39:25.BDB הֶאָח.2


    הָארָרִי 2 S 23:33 b v. הֲרָרִי.BDB הָארָרִי.2


    הַב v. יהב; הֵבוּ Hos 4:18 v. אהב.BDB הַב.2


    [הַבְהָב] n.m. gift (? on form, then comp. צאצא Ges§ 84 b viii; but meaning (and √) dub.; poss. from NH הִבְהֵב roast, LevyNHWB i. 447 b)—only pl. sf.: זִבְחֵי הַבְהָבַי יִזְבְּחוּ Ho 8:13 as the sacrifices of my gifts (= my sacrificial gifts, so Che) they sacrifice flesh.BDB הַבְהָב.2


    הַבְהָבִים v. sub יהב.BDB הַבְהָבִים.2


    I. הֶ֫בֶל73 n.m. vapour, breath (NH id., Syriac ܗܰܒܳܠܴܐ id.) fig. vanity (so NH, Syriac ܗܶܒܠܴܐ )הָ֑בֶל Ec 1:2 +; cstr. הֲבֵלEc 1:2(×2); 12:8, sf. הֶבְלִי etc. Ec 6:12; 7:15; 9:9(×2); pl. הֲבָלִים Je 10:8 +; cstr. הַבְלֵי Je 8:19 +, sf. הַבְלֵיהֶם Dt 32:21 +;—
    1. lit. Is 57:13 all of them (the idols) יִשָּׂא־רוּחַ יִקַּח הָ֑בֶל a breath (𝔙 aura) will carry away, Pr 21:6, the getting of treasures by a lying tongue is הֶבֶל נִדָּף, a vapour driven away. Elsewhere always
    2. fig. of what is evanescent, unsubstantial, worthless, vanity, as of idols Je 10:15 = 51:18; 16:19 הֶבֶל וְאֵין בָּם מוֹעִיל (‖ שֶׁקֶר), heathen observances 10:3, and in phr. הָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל 2:5 2 K 17:15; Pr 13:11 הוֹן מֵהֶבֶל wealth (gotten) out of vanity (i.e. not by solid toil, opp. קֹבֵץ עַל יָד) is minished (but 𝔊 𝔙 Ew מְבֹהָל, v. 20:21 Qr), 31:30 שֶׁקֶר הַחֵן וְהֶבֶל הַיֹּ֑פִי, La 4:17 אֶל עֶזְרָתֵנוּ הֶבֶל to our vain (Dr§ 193 n.) help; of life Jb 7:16 כִּי הֶבֶל יָמָֽי׃, ψ 78:33 וַיְכַל בַּהֶבֶל יְמֵיהֶם consumed their days as (בְּ I7d) vanity, man ψ 39:6, 12; 62:10 הֶבֶל בְּנֵי אָדָםהֵמָּה מֵהֶבֶל יָחַֽד׃ they are altogether (made) of vanity, 94:11: 144:4, especially in Ec (31 times + הֲבֵל הֲבָלִים 1:2(×2); 12:8) of the fruitlessness of all human enterprise and endeavour, 1:2 הַכֹּל הֶבֶל, v 14 הַכֹּל הֶבֶל וּרְעוּת רוּחַ all was vanity and the pursuit of wind, 2:1, 14, 15 etc., 6:4 (of an abortion) בַּהֶבֶל בָּא i.e. into a lifeless existence, v 11 יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה מַרְבִּים הָ֑בֶל (of discussions leading to no result), note also the phrases יְמֵי (הֶבְלוֹ, הֶבְלְךָ) הֶבְלִי 7:15; 9:9, יְמֵי חַיֵּי ה׳ 6:12; 9:9; Jb 27:12 (v. הָבַל), Is 49:4 לְתֹהוּ וָהֶבֶל for nought and vanity have I spent my strength; as adv. accus. vainly, to no purpose Is 30:7 הֶבֶל וָרִיק יַעְזֹ֑רוּ, ψ 39:7 אַךְ הֶבֶל יֶהֱמָיוּן they disquiet themselves to no purpose, Jb 9:29 הֶבֶל אִיגָֽע 35:16, with נִחַם to comfort 21:34 Zc 10:2. Pl. †הֲבָלִים of false gods, Dt 32:21 כִּעֲסוּנִי בְהַבְלֵיהֶם (‖ בְּלֹא־אֵל) 1 K 16:13, 26 Je 8:19 הַבְלֵי נֵכָר (‖ בִּפְסִילֵיהֶם), 10:8; 14:22 הַבְלֵי הַגּוֹיִם, ψ 31:7 הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַבְלֵי־שָׁוְא empty vanities Jon 2:9; in more general sense Ec 1:2(×2); 12:8 הֲבֵל הֲבָלִים, 5:6.
    BDB הֶ֫בֶל.2


    [הָבַל] vb. denom. act emptily, become vain
    Qal Je 2:5 = 2 K 17:15 they went after vanity וַיֶּהְבָּ֑לוּ and became vain, ψ 62:11 וּבְגָזֵל אַל־תֶּהְבָּ֑לוּ do not become vain (i.e. be demoralized) by robbery; with acc. cogn. Jb 27:12 לָמָּה זֶה הֶבֶל תֶּהְבָּ֑לוּ why do ye become vain with vanity (i.e. shew yourselves utterly vain)?
    Hiph. cause to become vain Je 23:16 (of false prophets) מַהְבִּלִים הֵמָּה אֶתְכֶם i.e. fill you with vain hopes.
    BDB הָבַל.2


    † II. הֶ֫בֶל, הָ֑בֶל n.pr.m. (perhaps i.q. Assyrian ablu, son, COTGloss. cf. also WeSkizzen iii. 70: der. from I. הֶבֶל not prob.) second son of Adam Gn 4:2(×2), 4(×2), 8(×2), 9, 25.BDB הֶ֫בֶל².2


    [הָבְנִי] n.[m.] ebony (so Symm 𝔙 Ki & moderns; otherwise 𝔊 𝔖; Egyptian heben, LiebleinÄZ 1886, 13 cf. PinskerEinleitung 83; Gk. ἔβενος, Lat. hebenum)—only pl. הָבְנִים Ez 27:15 Qr (Kt הובנים) קַרְנוֹת שֵׁן והבנים; it was brought from India, & (finer) from Ethiopia, cf. Sm & reff.BDB הָבְנִי.2


    [הָבַר] vb.? divide (so most, but dub.; Arabic هَبَرَ cut into large pieces, cut up, is perhaps denom. from هَبْرَةٌ a ‘chunk’ of meat; comparison of Arabic خَبُرَ be acquainted with, skilled in (AW Kn Di) is also doubtful; if correct, then read חבר; but cf. infr.)
    Qal Pf. 3 pl. הברו Is 47:13 Kt, Pt. הֹבְרֵי Qr; הֹבְרֵ֯ו שָׁמַיִם הַחֹזִים בַּכּוֹכָבִים they that divide the heavens, that gaze at the stars (Kt would be rel. cl. without אֲשֶׁר); ה׳ then refers to the distinguishing of signs of zodiac, or other astrological division of sky, cf. Che; on zodiac in Babylon v. JenKosmologie 57 ff.; & on planets & constellations Id.ib. 95 ff. Epping & StrmAstronomisches aus Bab. 109 ff.;—but text prob. corrupt; GFM (June, 1892) suggests חֹקְרֵי (cf. חקר את־הארץ Ju 18:2).
    BDB הָבַר.2


    הֵגֵא n.pr.m. eunuch of Ahasuerus (prob. Pers.; cf. Ἡγιας, courtier of Xerxes, CtesiasPers. 24; also Herodot. ix. 33; Roed. in Thes Add) Est 2:3; = הֵגַי 2:8, 15, הֵגָ֑י 2:8.BDB הֵגֵא.2


    הגג (murmur, then muse; cf. Arabic هَجَّ burn, blaze (of fire), make a murmuring noise in burning; PS gives Syriac ܗܓܓ phantasma vidit, somniavit; Ethpe. & especially Ethpa. mente concepit, imaginatus est; cf. also הָגָה).BDB הגג.2


    הַגֻּדְגֹּ֫דָה v. sub גדד p. 151.BDB הַגֻּדְגֹּ֫דָה.2


    הַגְּדוֹלִים n.pr.m. father of Zabdiel Ne 11:14 (RV & so most; but 𝔊 RVm al. the great).BDB הַגְּדוֹלִים.2


    הֶ֫גֶה n.m. Jb 37:2 a rumbling, growling, moaning:—ה׳ abs. Ez 2:10 + 2 times;—
    1. a rumbling, growling sound וְה׳ מִפִּיו יֵצֵא Jb 37:2 of thunder, as sound going forth from God’s mouth.
    2. a moaning קִינִים וָה׳ וָהִי Ez 2:10 lamentations and moaning and woe.
    3. a sigh or moan, as transient, כִּלִּינוּ שָׁנֵינוּ כְמוֹ־הֶ֑גֶה ψ 90:9 we bring our years to an end as a sigh, i.e. a fleeting sound (cf. RVm VB).
    BDB הֶ֫גֶה.2


    † I. הָגָה vb. moan, growl, utter, speak, muse (only poet.) (onomatop.; NH הָגָה muse, speak, spell a word, so Aramaic הֲגָא; ܗܓܳܐ muse, especially Ethpa.; Arabic هَجَا satirize, insult, scold, also spell (borrowed meaning))
    Qal Perf. 2 ms. וְהָגִ֫יתָ consec. Jos 1:8; 1 s. הָגִ֫יתִי ψ 143:5, וְהָגִיתִי consec. ψ 77:13; Impf. יֶהְגֶּה Jb 27:4 + 8 times; 3 fs. תֶּהְגֶּה ψ 35:28 + 2 times, אֶהְגֶּה ψ 63:7 Is 38:14, יֶהְגּוּ ψ 2:1 + 2 times, תֶּהְגּוּ Is 16:7; נֶהְגֶּ֑ה Is 59:11; Inf. abs. הָגֹה Is 59:11;— 1. of inarticulate sounds: a. growl, of lion growling over prey, sq. על Is 31:4. b. groan, moan, in distress (like dove), abs., Is 38:14; 59:11 (הָגוֹ נֶהְגֶּה); sigh for (לְ) in sorrow, mourning, moan for Is 16:7 (‖ יְיֵלִיל לְ), so also Je 48:31. 2. utter, sq. acc. rei, ψ 38:13; subj. לָשׁוֹן Jb 27:4 (‖ דִּבֶּר) ψ 35:28; 71:24 Is 59:3; subj. פֶּה ψ 37:30 Pr 8:7—cf. also sub Po. infr.; speak (abs.) ψ 115:7 (בְּ instr.) 3. a. (soliloquize) meditate, muse, c. בְּ rei, Jos 1:8 ψ 1:2; 63:7; 77:13; 143:5; c. acc. Is 33:18, subj. לֵב. b. imagine, devise, c. acc. ψ 2:1 Pr 24:2 (subj. לֵב); c. Inf. Pr 15:28 (subj. id.)
    Po. Inf. abs. only הֹרוֹ וְהֹגוֹ מִלֵּב דִּבְרֵי־שֶׁקֶר Is 59:13 a conceiving and an uttering, out of the heart, lying words (‖ דַּבֵּר עשֶׁק וְסָרָה);—on form cf. Köi 555; but read rather הָרוֹ וְהָגוֹ Qal Inf. abs. cf. Di; BaNB 77 retains MT & expl. as Qal Inf. pass.
    Hiph. Pt. pl. הַמְּצַפְצְפִים וְהַמַּהְגִּים Is 8:19 those that make chirpings and mutterings, of necromancers and wizards.
    BDB הָגָה.2


    † II. הָגָה vb. remove (Thes comp. יגה)
    Qal Pf. הָגָה Is 27:8 (Di reads הָגָהּ); Inf. abs. הָגוֹ Pr 25:4, 5;—הָגוֹ סִיגִים מִכָּ֑סֶף Pr 25:4 remove (lit. a removing) dross from silver; as sim. of following הָגוֹ רָשָׁע לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ Pr 25:5 remove (the) wicked before a king; הָגָה בְּרוּחוֹ הַקָּשָׁה Is 27:8, according to Di (v. supr.) he (י׳) hath removed her (i.e. sent into exile; his people under fig. of faithless wife) by his harsh wind; so transl. also Ew Che (he scared her away) Brd RV VB; De follows MT, regards as ellipt. rel. cl., and renders by ptcp., ‘sichtend (i.e. sifting, winnowing) heftigen Hauches,’ but conjectures הָגֹה (Inf. abs.)
    BDB הָגָה².2


    הָגוּת n.f. meditation, musing, only cstr. (with firm—ָ cf. Sta§ 304 c) פִּי יְדַבֵּר חָכְמוֹת וְה׳ לִבִּי תְבוּנוֹת ψ 49:4 my mouth shall speak wisdom, and the musing of my heart shall be understanding.BDB הָגוּת.2


    הֵגַי, הֵגָ֑י n.pr.m. v. הֵגֵא.BDB הֵגַי.2


    [הָגִיג] n.m. murmuring (Che), whisper, musing (on form cf. BaNB 136)—only sf. הֲגִיגִי
    1. ψ 5:2 בִּינָה ה׳ understand my murmuring (whispering, faint utterance), addressed to י׳.
    2. ψ 39:4 בַּהֲגִיגִי in my musing i.e. while I was musing.
    BDB הָגִיג.2


    הִגָּיוֹן n.m. resounding music, meditation, musing;—ה׳ abs. ψ 9:17; 92:4; cstr. הֶגְיוֹן ψ 19:15; sf. הֶגְיוֹנָם La 3:62;—
    1. resounding music; עֲלֵי הִגָּיוֹן בְּכִנּוֹר ψ 92:4 with sounding music upon the lyre (Che); cf. ה׳ סֶ֑לָה ψ 9:17 (a musical direction, v. סלה).
    2. meditation, musing אִמְרֵי־פִי וְהֶגְיוֹן לִבִּי ψ 19:15 the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart; also in bad sense = plotting שִׂפְתֵי קָמַי וְהֶגְיוֹנָם עָלַי La 3:62 the lips of those rising against me, and their imagining against me (‖ מַחְשְׁבֹתָם v 61; cf. I. הָגָה 3 b).
    BDB הִגָּיוֹן.2


    [הָגִין] adj. appropriate, suitable? (cf. NH Aramaic supr.)הַגְּדֶרֶת הֲגִינָה Ez 42:12 the corresponding (?) wall, Ke; otherwise Vrss (𝔊 καλάμου, 𝔙 separatum, etc.); Thes connects הגין with preceding דֶּרֶךְ, ‘aptus, idoneus (de via),’ AV RV ‘the way directly before the wall;’ in neither connexion does it give good sense, and the text is doubtless wrong cf. Sm Da; Co conj. החצר החיצונה the outer court.BDB הָגִין.2


    הגן (NH הָגַן, Aramaic הֲגַן be suitable, fit, worthy: on orig. meaning cf. Fl in NHWB, s.v.)BDB הגן.2


    הגר (√ of foll.;? cf. Arabic هَجَرَ forsake, retire; هِجْرَةٌ emigration, Hegira).BDB הגר.2


    הָגָר n.pr.f. Hagar, Sarah’s Egyptian maid, mother of Ishmael, Gn 16:1, 4, 8 (all J), v 3, 15(×2), 16; 25:12 (all P), 21:9, 14, 17(×2) (all E).BDB הָגָר.2


    הַגְרִי 1. n.pr.gent. only pl. הַגְרִים ψ 83:7; הַהַגְרִאִים 1 Ch 5:10, הַהַגְרִיאִים 1 Ch 5:19, 20; a tribe (Aramaean? Arabian?) with which the E. Jordan Israelites waged successful war; v. dub. conj. as to identity in GlasSkizze ii, 407.
    2. adj.gent. of an officer of David יָזִיז הַהַגְרִי 1 Ch 27:31.
    3. n.pr.m. father of one of David’s warriors בֶּן־הַגְרִי 1 Ch 11:38 (but ‖ 2 S 23:36 בָּנִי הַגָּדִי, so here Öt, cf. Be Th Sm Dr Sm).
    BDB הַגְרִי.2


    הַגְרִיאִים, הַגְרִאִים v. foregoing.BDB הַגְרִיאִים.2


    הֵד v. sub הדד.BDB הֵד.2


    הֵד n.[m.] id., only Ez 7:7 הֵד הָרִים shout on mountains (opp. מְהוּמָה noise of battle).BDB הֵד².2


    הדד (perhaps make a loud noise; so Arabic هدَّ (of a falling building, rain, the sea, a braying camel); هَدَّةٌ crash (of a falling wall, etc.), هَادَّةٌ thunder.)BDB הדד.2


    הֲדַד n.pr.m. Hadad (𝔊 Ἀδερ but v. הדד Aramaic n.pr.div. DHMAltsem. Inschr. von Sendschirli 56, and n.pr. עבדהדד ScholzGötzendienst 245, הדדנדנאח EutSBAk 1887, 410 cf. BaeRel. 68 & sub. בן־הדד p. 122; also Adda, etc., in cpd. n.pr. BezTell el-Amarna BM 155; Hadad, Adad, Addu is known as an Aramaic deity, weather or storm-god, cf. BaeRel. 67.68; perhaps = thunderer DlZK 1885, 166 Bael.c., cf. רִמּוֹן; on Hadad in Arabia cf. WeSkizzen iii. 51; Sab. הדד Hal 27; as n.pr.div. Heb. only in cpd. n.pr.m., v. infr.)
    1. name of kings of Edom, a. Gn 36:35 = 1 Ch 1:46, Gn 36:36 = 1 Ch 1:47 (הֲדָ֑ד); b. 1 Ch 1:50 (‖ Gen 36:39 הֲדַר, v 51 (הֲדָ֑ד).
    2. an Edomite (הָאֲדֹמִ֑י) ה׳ 1 K 11:14, 17, 19, 21(×2), 25 (הֲדָ֑ד); = אֲדַד v 17.
    BDB הֲדַד.2


    הֲדַדְעֶ֫זֶר n.pr.m. Hadadezer (so Aramaic inscr. הדדעזר EutSBAk 1885, 679 cf. BaeRel. 67; 𝔊 throughout (erroneously) Ἁδρα(α)ζαρ;—Hadad is help(er), cf. COT 1 K 20:1 & Ph. אשמנעזר); king of צוֹבָה (q.v.), son of רְחֹב defeated by David 2 S 8:3, 5, 10, 12; הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר v 7, 8, 9, 10 (= הֲדַרְעֶזֶר q.v. 10:16(×2), 19 1 Ch 18:3, 5, 7, 8, 10(×2); 19:16, 19, all erron., v. inscr. supr., = cf. Bael.c. Dr on 2 S 8:3; 10:16); also 1 K 11:23.BDB הֲדַדְעֶ֫זֶר.2


    הֲדַדְרִמּוֹן n.pr.divin. (or n.pr.loc. der from n.pr.divin.), Hadadrimmon (= n.pr.divin. Hadad (cf. supr.) + n.pr.divin. Rimmon, Rammân, v. רִמּוֹן; cf. COT Zc 12:11 DlZK 1885, 175 & on question of nom. loc. or divin. Brd Zc BaudStud. i. 293 f. Hi-St Zc RiHWB RSSem i. 392)—in simile of mourning in Jerusalem כְּמִסְפַּד הֲדַדְרִמּוֹן בְּבִקְעַת מְגִדּוֹן Zc 12:11; on ה׳ for ההרמונה Am 4:3, v. הרמון; & cf. Hi-St Gunning.BDB הֲדַדְרִמּוֹן.2


    הָדָה vb. stretch out the hand (cf. Arabic هَدَى lead, guide, Aramaic Pa. ܗܰܕܺܝ )
    Qal Pf. Is 11:8 יָדוֹ הָדָה, sq. עַל, the weaned child shall stretch out his hand upon.
    BDB הָדָה.2


    הֹדֹה v. הוד.BDB הֹדֹה.2


    הֹ֫דּוּ n.pr.loc. India (Old Pers. Hiñdʾu SpiegAltpers. Kellinschr. 246 Skr. Sindhu, sea, great river, v. reff. in RöThes Add 83, YuleAnglo-Indian Glossary, 329 ff.; cf. in Arabic هِنْدٌ, Aramaic ܗܶܢܕܽܘ etc.) only (הַמֹּלֵךְ) מֵהֹ֫דּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ Est 1:1; 8:9 (𝔊 in both ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς).BDB הֹ֫דּוּ.2


    הֲדוֹרָם n.pr.m.
    1. Arabian tribe, called son of Joktan Gn 10:27 (cf. Di) = 1 Ch 1:21;; Glas ii. 435 comp. Dauram near Ṣanʾâ in Yemen (Sab. הדרום CIS iv. 1, p. 1; 𝔊 Ὁδορρα Gn 10:27, 𝔊L Οδορραμ; 1 Ch 1:21 𝔊B om., 𝔊L Αδωραμ).
    2. son of Tou (תֹּעוּ) king of Hamath 1 Ch 18:10 (𝔊 Ἱδουρααμ, 𝔊L Αθωραμ); so read prob. in ‖ 2 S 8:10, for יוֹרָם, cf. 𝔊 Ἰεδδουραν, v. We Dr).—הֲדֹרָם v. p. 214.
    BDB הֲדוֹרָם.2


    הִדַּי n.pr.m. one of David’s heroes 2 S 23:30 = חוּרַי 1 Ch 11:32.BDB הִדַּי.2


    [הָדַךְ] vb. cast or tread down (Arabic هَدَكَ tear down (a building), synon. of هَدَمَ )
    Qal Imv. הֲדֹךְ רְשָׁעִים Jb 40:12 cast or tread down wicked men.
    BDB הָדַךְ.2


    הדם (√ of foll., cf. Arabic هَدَمَ overthrow, overturn, cast down).BDB הדם.2


    הֲדֹם n.m. stool, footstool, always joined with רַגְלַיִם; only in poet. and late writings, (properly something cast down, low)ה׳ abs. ψ 110:1 (or cstr. bef. לְ, cf. Ges§ 130, 1); cstr. La 2:1 + 4 times:—footstool, never lit., usually of י׳ Is 66:1 הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ ה׳ רַגְלַי; elsewhere with ref. to sanctuary ה׳ רַגְלָיו (cf. מְקוֹם רַגְלַי Is 60:13) La 2:1, or perhaps of ark (as place on which God rests) ψ 99:5; 132:7, בֵּית מְנוּחָה לַאֲרוֹן בְּרִית־י׳ וְלַה׳ רַגְלֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ 1 Ch 28:2; of conquest of enemies of Messianic king by Yahweh’s agency אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ ψ 110:1.BDB הֲדֹם.2


    הֲדַס n.m. Is 55:13 myrtle (-tree), only late (NH, Aramaic id.; Arabic هَدَس (in the dialect of Yemen); also آسٌ, Aramaic אָסָה, ܐܳܣܳܐ; cf. LöwNo. 25)—abs. ה׳ Is 41:19 Ne 8:15; הֲדַ֑ס Is 55:13; pl. הַהֲדַסִּים Zc 1:8 + 2 times (on form cf. Ges§ 93, R. 4)—Is 41:19 (‖ תְּאַשּׁוּר, תִּדְהָר, בְּרוֹשׁ, עֵץ שָׁ֑מֶן, שִׁטָּה, אֶרֶז); Is 55:13 (‖ בְּרוֹשׁ; opp. הַסִּרְפַּד), עֲלֵי הֲדַס Ne 8:15 (‖ ע׳ עֵץ עָבוֹת, ע׳ תְּמָרִים, ע׳ עֵץ־שֶׁמֶן, עֲלֵי־זַיִת); pl. Zc 1:8, 10, 11.BDB הֲדַס.2


    הֲדַסָּה n.pr.f. Jewish name of Esther (= myrtle, on form cf. Sta§ 199a) Est 2:7 (cf. אֶסְתֵּר).BDB הֲדַסָּה.2


    [הָדַף] vb. thrust, push, drive (הֲדַף in 𝔗; Arabic هَدَفَ is ingressus ad aliquem fuit, propinquus fuit, also of time prope accessit)
    Qal Pf. 3 ms. sf. הֲדָפוֹ Nu 35:22 Je 46:15; 1 s. sf. וַהֲדַפְתִּיךָ consec. Is 22:19; Impf. 3 ms. יֶהְדֹּף Pr 10:3; sf. 3 ms. יֶהְדֳּפֶנּוּ Nu 35:20; sf. 3 mpl. יֶהְדֳּפֵם Jos 23:5; 3 mpl. sf. יֶהְדְּפֻהוּ Jb 18:18; 2 mpl. תֶּהְדֹּ֑פוּ Ez 34:21; Inf. הֲדֹף Dt 6:19; 9:4; sf. הָדְפָהּ 2 K 4:27;— 1. thrust, push, subj. man, sq. acc. Nu 35:20, 22 (here fatally); subj. cattle, fig. of men, Ez 34:21 (instr. בְּכָתֵף; ‖ נָגַח); push away 2 K 4:27 (Gehazi, the Shunammite); thrust away (from oneself) fig. = reject, הַוַּת רְשָׁעִים Pr 10:3 (subj. י׳). 2. thrust out, drive out, sq. מִן of place whence & acc. pers.; of י׳ driving out enemies of Isr. from Canaan Dt 6:19; 9:4 Jos 23:5; cf. also indef. subj. יֶהְדְּפֻהוּ מֵאוֹר אֶל־חֹשֶׁךְ Jb 18:18 (‖ וּמִתֵּבֵל יְנִדֻּהוּ); & Je 46:15 (where no pl. whence). Hence 3. = depose Is 22:19 of י׳ deposing Shebna (sq. מִן of station).
    BDB הָדַף.2


    הֲדַר n.pr.m. a king in Edom (Aramaic form) Gn 36:39 = הֲדַד (q.v.) 1 Ch 1:50 (so here Codd., 𝔖 Sam. no doubt rightly, cf. Di).BDB הֲדַר.2


    הֶ֫דֶר n.[m.] ornament, adornment, splendour, only cstr. ה׳ מַלְכוּת Dn 11:20 splendour of (the) kingdom, cf. AV RV, i.e. Judaea, or perhaps Jerusalem according to Leng Hi Meinh; but rather royal splendour, cf. Gr, & especially Bev who reads נוֹגֵשׂ מַעֲבִיר ה׳ (for ℌ מעביר נוגשׂ) i.e. an exactor who shall cause the royal splendour to pass away.BDB הֶ֫דֶר.2


    [הָדַר] vb. swell (?), honour, adorn, (NH הִדֵּר adorn; Aramaic הַדַּר ܗܰܕܰܪ Pa. adorn, honour; perhaps all denom.; cf. Palm. n.pr.f. הדירת ornata, honorata VogNo. 55; Arabic هَدَرَ be of no account; but also ferbuit (vinum) & أَهْدَرُ inflatus, tumens (venter))
    Qal Pf. 2 ms. וְהָדַרְתָּ֫ Lv 19:32; Impf. 2 ms. תֶּהְדַּר Ex 23:3 Lv 19:15; Pt. pass. הָדוּר Is 63:1, pl. הֲדוּרִים Is 45:2 (poss. הררים 𝔊 ὄρη, cf. Di, but v. הר):— 1. swell, only pt. pass. pl. Is 45:2 (si vera l.) in neuter sense, of hills, swelling places, swells of land (made level before Cyrus). 2. honour, pay honour to, sq. acc.; in good sense וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן Lv 19:32 (H) and thou shalt honour the face of an old man (‖ מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם); in bad sense (of partiality, favouritism) לֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל Lv 19:15 (H) (‖ לֹא תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל); cf. וְדַל לֹא תֶּהְדַּר בְּרִיבוֹ Ex 23:3 (JE; either read גָּדֹל for ודל,—ו not needed at beginning of v.,—so Kn SS al., yet 𝔊 πένητα;—or suppose balancing cl., as Lv 19:15, to have fallen out, cf. Di). 3. adorn, only pt. pass. adorned, made splendid הָדוּר בִּלְבוּשׁוֹ Is 63:1.
    Niph. Pf. נֶהְדָּ֑רוּ La 5:12 were (not) honoured, subj. פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים.
    Hithp. Impf. juss. 2 ms. תִּתְהַדַּר Pr 25:6 honour oneself, i.e. claim honour.
    BDB הָדַר.2


    הָדָר n.m. ψ 149:9 ornament, splendour, honour (chiefly poet.)—abs. ה׳ Dt 33:17 + 12 times; cstr. הֲדַר Is 2:10 + 7 times; sf. הֲדָרִי Mi 2:9 (but cf. infr.) Ez 16:14; הֲדָרְךָ ψ 45:5; 90:16; הֲדָרֶ֑ךָ ψ 45:4; הֲדָרֵךְ Ez 27:10; הֲדָרָהּ Is 5:14 La 1:6; pl. cstr. הַדְרֵי ψ 110:3 (but read prob. הררי so Symm Jer edd.; Ol Hup Gr Bi Che);—
    1. ornament Pr 20:29 (grey hair, for old men; ‖ תִּפְאֶרֶת), Ez 16:14 (fig. of ornaments of Jerus. as bride of י׳); פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר Lv 23:40 (H) i.e. fruit of goodly (ornamental, beautiful) trees, so AV RV & most, or goodly tree-fruit, 𝔊 καρπὸν ξύλου ὡραῖον, so Di;—here would come also בהדרי קדשׁ ψ 110:3, ref. to sacred, festal garments, according to Thes al. cf. RVm; but read prob. on the holy mountains, vid. supr.
    2. splendour, majesty Dt 33:17 of Ephraim under figure of a noble bull (cf. Di); of Jerusalem Is 5:14 cf. La 1:6; of Carmel Is 35:2 (‖ כָּבוֹד); of majesty & dignity conferred by י׳ on man ψ 8:6 (‖ כָּבוֹד), on king 21:6 (‖ id., הוֹד), cf. 45:4 (‖ הוֹד) & v 5 (but text perhaps erron. Checrit. n.); denied of suffering servant of י׳ Is 53:2 (‖ תֹּאַר); of dignity of good & capable woman (אֵשֶׁת חַיִל) Pr 31:25 (‖ עֹז); of splendour due to warlike equipment Ez 27:10; especially of majesty of י׳ 1 Ch 16:27 = ψ 96:6, cf. Jb 40:10 ψ 111:3 (all ‖ הוֹד); also ψ 104:1 (‖ id., under fig. of garment); further ψ 29:4 (‖ כֹּחַ), 90:16 (‖ פֹּעַל); in combination הֲדַר כְּבוֹד הוֹדְךָ ψ 145:5; כְּבוֹד ה׳ v 12; הֲדַר גְּאֹנוֹ Is 2:10, 19, 21.
    3. honour, glory ψ 149:9 for saints of י׳; cf. Mi 2:9 of י׳’s glory as possession of his people, lost by exile & slavery: but perhaps textual error; HoffmZAW 182, 103 proposes הַדְּרוֹר, from their children ye take freedom (yet מֵעַל then hardly suitable).
    BDB הָדָר.2


    [הֲדָרָה] n.f. adornment, glory—only cstr. הַדְרַת;—
    1. ה׳־קֹדֶשׁ holy adornment (Che ψ), always in connexion with public worship of י׳ 1 Ch 16:29 2 Ch 20:21 ψ 29:2; 96:9.
    2. ה׳־מֶלֶךְ the glory of a king, fig. of רָב־עַם, Pr 14:28.
    BDB הֲדָרָה.2


    הֲדֹרָם n.pr.m. an official of Rehoboam 2 Ch 10:18 (𝔊 Ἀδωνειραμ) = אֲדֹרָם 1 K 12:18 (𝔊 Ἀραμ, Ἀδωνιραμ), & אֲדֹנִירָם, q.v.—הֲדוֹרָם v.p.213.BDB הֲדֹרָם.2


    הֲדַרְעֶ֫זֶר n.pr.m. a king of Aram (צוֹבָה) defeated by David 2 S 10:16(×2), 19 = 1 Ch 19:16, 19; also 1 Ch 18:3, 5, 8, 9, 10 & הֲדַרְע֑זֶר v 7, 10; all erron. for הֲדַדְעֶזֶר (q.v.), although 𝔊 throughout Ἁδρααζαρ.BDB הֲדַרְעֶ֫זֶר.2


    הָהּ interj. expressing woe, alas! Ez 30:2 howl ye הָהּ לַיּוֹם alas for the day! AV Woe worth the day! (cf. אֲהָהּ לַיּוֹם Joel 1:15.)BDB הָהּ.2


    הוֹ interj. i.q. the more usual הוֹי (q.v.) Ah! Am 5:16 of mourners וּבְכָל־חוּצוֹת יֹאמְרוּ הוֹ־הוֹ.BDB הוֹ.2


    הוּ Je 29:23 Kt, v. הוּא.BDB הוּ.2


    הוּא m. הִיא f. (pl. m. הֵ֫מָּה, הֵם; fem. הֵ֫נָּה, הֵן [the latter only with prefixes]; see these words), pron. of the 3rd ps. sing., he, she, used also (in both genders) for the neuter, it, Lat. is, ea, id. (The א is not orthographic merely, but radical, being written on Moab. and Ph. inscriptions, though dropped in some of the later dialects. [In Heb. only Je 29:23 Kt, and in the prn. אֱלִיהוּ.] Moab. (MI 6.27) and Ph. (often) הא; Aramaic of Zinjirli הא, once הו (DHMInschr. von Sendschirli 55); 𝔗 הוּא, הִיא, Syriac ܗܽܘ, ܗܺܝ Arabic هُوَ, هِىَ (for hūʾa, hīʾa, WSG 104); Ethiopic ውእቱ, ይእቲ weʾĕtū, yeʾĕtī; perhaps also Assyrian šû, šî, himself, herself, suff. s̆u, ši, cf. demonstr. šuatu, šiati (v. KraetzschmarBAS i. 383 & reff., WSG 98, 105 Dl§ 55 b, 57). In the Pent., הוא is of common gender, the fem. form הִיא occurring only 11 times, viz. Gn 14:2; 20:5; 38:25 (v. Mass here), Lv 11:39; 13:10, 21; 16:31; 20:17; 21:9 Nu 5:13, 14. The punctuators, however, sought to assimilate the usage of the Pent. to that of the rest of the OT, and accordingly wherever הוא was construed as a fem. pointed it הִוא (as a Qrê perpetuum). Outside the Pent. the same Qrê occurs 1 K 17:15 Is 30:33 Jb 31:11a—prob. for the sake of removing gramm. anomalies: five instances of the converse change, viz. of היא to be read as הוּא, occur for a similar reason, 1 K 17:15 (וַתֹּאכַל הוּא־וָהִיא to be read as וַתֹּאכַל הִיא־וָהוּא, on account of the fem. verb) ψ 73:16 Jb 31:11b (כי הוא זמה והיא עָוֹן פלילים to be read as כי היא זמה והוא עון פלילים), Ec 5:8 1 Ch 29:16. The origin of the peculiarity in the Pent. is uncertain. It can hardly be a real archaism: for the fact that Arabic, Aramaic, & Ethiopic have distinct forms for masc. & fem. shews that both must have formed part of the original Semitic stock, and consequently of Hebrew as well, from its earliest existence as an independent language. Nor is the peculiarity confined to the Pent.: in the ms. of the Later Prophets, of a.d. 916, now at S. Petersburg, published in facsimile by Strack (1876), the fem. occurs written הוא (see the passages cited in the Adnotationes Criticae, p. 026). In Ph. both masc. and fem. ar alike written הא (CIS i. 1:9 מלך צדק הא, 1:13 מלאכת הא, 3:19 אדם הא, l:11 ממלכת הא, 93:2; 94:2), though naturally this would be read as hu’ or hi’ as occasion required. Hence, as 𝔊 shews that in the older Heb. MSS. the scriptio plena was not yet generally introduced, it is prob. that originally הא was written for both genders in Hebrew likewise, and that the epicene הוא in the Pent. originated at a comparatively late epoch in the transmission of the text—perhaps in connexion with the assumption, which is partly borne out by facts (cf. DeZKWL 1880, pp. 393—399), that in the older language fem. forms were more sparingly used than subsequently.)
    In usage הוּא (f. הִיא; pl. הֵ֫מָּה, הֵם, הֵ֫נָּה: v. הֵ֫מָּה is
    1. an emph. he (she, it, they), sometimes equivalent to himself (herself, itself, themselves), or (especially with the art.) that (those): a. Gn 3:15 הוא ישׁופך ראשׁ he (𝔊 αὐτὸς) shall bruise thee as to the head (opp. to the foll. אתה thou), v 20 for she (and no one else) was the mother of all living (so often in causal sentences, where some emph. on the subject is desirable, as Ju 14:3 ψ 24:2; 25:15; 33:9; 91:3; 103:14; 148:5 Jb 5:18; 11:11; 28:24 Je 5:5; 34:7b Ho 6:1; 11:10: Dr 1 S 14, 18), 4:20 Adah bare Jabal הוא היה אבי ישׁב אהלים he (ἐκεῖνος) was the father of tent-dwellers, v 21; 10:8 he began to be a mighty one in the earth, 20:5 (αὐτός), Ju 13:5 Is 32:7; 33:22 2 K 14:7, 22, 25; Ho 10:2 he—the unseen observer of their thoughts and deeds (Che), 13:15b (he, the foe figured by the E. wind). (For its use thus in circ. clauses v. Dr§ 157, 160, 168, 169.) And where the predic. is a subst. or ptcp., Gn 2:11 הוּא הַסֹּבֵבthat is the one which encompasseth etc., v 13, 14 10:12 that is the great city. So in the explanatory notices, Gn 14:3 הוּא יָם הַמֶּלַח that is the salt sea, v 8 הוּא־צֹעַר that is Zoar, 36:1 + often b. pointing back to the subj. and contrasting it with something else: Gn 4:4 הבל גם־הוא Abel, he also … v 26; 10:21; 20:5 וְהִיא־גַם־הִוא and she, herself also said, Ex 1:10 + often c. appended alone to a verb (more rarely, but always with intentional emphasis), Ex 4:14 I know כי דבר ידבר הוא that he can speak, v 16 1 S 22:18 ויפגע הוא בכהנים and he (though none else would do it) smote the priests, 23:22 for one hath told me, עָרֹם יַעְרִם הוּא He can deal subtilly, Ez 12:12 (peculiarly), cf. Dr§ 160 n.: very rarely indeed to a noun Nu 18:23 הַלֵּוִי הוּא, Is 7:14 י׳ הוא, Est 9:1 (הֵמָּה) being probably all the exx. in the OT d. Gn 13:1 and Abram came up out of Egypt, הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ himself and his wife, and all that he had, 14:15 הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו he and his servants, 19:30; so very often e. prefixed to a noun (very rare, and mostly late), Ex 12:42b Ez 3:8 & 33:8 הוּא רָשָׁע: to pr. names Ex 6:27 הוא משׁה ואהרן, 1 Ch 26:26 that Shelomoth, 27:6 2 Ch 28:22; 32:12 (diff. from 2 K 18:22), v 30; 33:23 Ezr 7:6: cf. הֵם Ne 10:38 (comp. in Syriac ܗܽܘ, Nö§ 227): cf. ψ 87:5 1 S 20:29.
    2. It resumes the subj. with emph.: a. when the predic. is a verb (especially if it be separated from its subject by an intervening clause), Gn 15:4 but one that shall come forth out of thine own bowels, הוּא יִירָשֶׁ֑ךָ he shall be thy heir, 3:12 the woman whom thou gavest to be with me, הוא נתנה לי she gave to me, 24:7; 44:17 etc. Ju 7:4 2 S 14:19 (throwing stress on יוֹאָב) 1 Ch 11:20 Is 33:15—16; 34:16; 38:19; 47:10; 59:16; 63:5 Ho 7:8; often in Pr, as 10:18, 22, 24; 11:28; 13:13; 19:21; 22:9; 24:12; 1 S 1:13 (v. Dr), ψ 68:36. b. when the predic. is a noun, Gn 2:14 and the fourth river, הוּא פְרָת it was the Euphrates, v 19 9:18; 15:2; 42:6 וְיוֹסֵף הוּא הַשַּׁלִּיט and Joseph, he was the ruler etc.: in sentences of the type י׳ הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים, י׳ הוּא הַנִּלְחָם לָכֶם, י׳ הוּא נַחֲלָתְֽךָ, Dt 3:22; 4:35; 7:9; 10:9 Jos 13:14, 33 Is 9:14; 33:6 Ho 11:5 (in these cases, to avoid stiffness, it is convenient often to drop the pron. in translating, as ‘And the fourth river was the Euphrates:’ the pronoun, however, though it then corresponds to the substantive verb in English, does not really express it, the copula, as the exx. shew, being in fact understood. Sts. in AV the pron. is retained for emphasis, as Dt. ll. cc.) So c. after אֲשֶׁר in an affirmative sentence, Gn 9:3 all creeping things אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי which are living, Lv 11:39 Nu 9:13; 14:8; 35:31 אֲשֶׁר הוּא רָשָׁע לָמוּת who is guilty of death, Dt 20:20 1 S 10:19 Hg 1:9 Ru 4:15 +. (On 2, cf. Dr§ 199, with Obs.)
    3. Where, however, the pron. follows the pred., its position gives it the minimum of emphasis, and it expresses (or resumes) the subject as unobtrusively as possible: thus a. Gn 12:18 why didst thou not tell me כי אשׁתך הוא that she was thy wife? 20:13; 21:13 כי זרעך הוא for he is thy seed, 31:20 because he told him not כִּי בֹרֵחַ הוּא, 37:3 + often (the opp. order rare and emph.: Gn 24:65 Dt 4:6; 30:20 Jos 10:2 1 K 2:22; 3:4; 21:2 Ho 2:4 ψ 45:12). b resuming the subj., Gn 31:16 all the wealther which God hath taken etc., לנו הוא ולבנינו it is ours and our children’s, v 43 and all that thou seest, לי הוא it is mine (or, omitting the pronoun, as not required in our idiom, simply) is mine, 41:25 חלום פרעה אחד הוא the dream of Pharaoh is one, 48:5 (לי הם), Ex 3:5 for the place whereon thou standest, אַדְמַת קֹדֶשׁ הוּא it is holy ground, Nu 13:22; 21:26; Dt 1:17; Jos 5:15; 6:19; Jb 3:19 + often; Gn 23:15 ארץמַה־הִוא, so ψ 39:5 Is 41:22 (הֵנָּה); אַתֶּםהֵמָּה (unusual) Zp 2:12. (In all such cases the predicate is not referred directly to the subject, but, the subject being made a casus pendens, it is resumed by the pron., and the pred. thus referred to it indirectly. By this means the sentence is lightened and relieved, especially if the subject consist of many words: in Gn 31:16 for instance, the direct form of predicate כִּי לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ כָּל־הָעֹשֶׁר אֲשֶׁר הִצִּיל אֱלֹהִים מֵאָבִינוּ would have been heavy and inelegant.) So c. after אֲשֶׁר in a negative sentence, Gn 7:2; 17:12 אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִוַּרְעֲךָ הוּא which is not of thy seed, Nu 17:5; Dt 17:15; 1 K 8:41 (cf. הֵמָּה 3 c). d. peculiarly, as the subject of לֹא, Je 5:12 לוֹא הוּא He is not; and as embracing its predicate in itself, Is 18:2, 7 a nation terrible מִן־הוּא (= מֵאֲשֶׁר הוּא) from (the time that) it was, Na 2:9 מִימֵי הִיא from the days that (st. c. Ges§ 130.4) it was, 2 K 7:7 they left the camp כַּאֲשֶׁר הִיא as it was (cf. כַּאֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה v 10). (On 3, cf. Dr§ 198, with Obs.)
    4. It anticipates (as it seems) the subject viz. a. (rare) Ct 6:9 אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי one is she, my dove my perfect one, Lv 25:11; Ez 11:15; 21:16, La 1:18 צַדִּיק הוּא י׳ (often so in NH); Ec 6:10 וְנוֹדָע אֲשֶׁר הוּא אָדָם and that which he, even man, is, is known (De Now); cf. 1 S 6:19 מִקְרֶה הוּא הָיָה לָנוּ an accident is it, (that) hath befallen us. (Cf. הֵמָּה 4 a.) b. after pronouns—(α) 2 S 7:28 אַתָּה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים Thou art he—God, ψ 44:5 אתה הוא מלכי thou art he—my king, Is 37:16; 43:25 (אנכי), 51:9, 10, 12; 52:6; Je 14:22; 29:23 Kt +; cf. Je 49:12 וְאַתָּה הוּא נָקֹה תִנָּקֶה and art thou he (that) shall be unpunished? (with change of pers. κατὰ σύνεσιν, cf. Ju 13:11; 1 Ch 21:17; Ez 38:17.) So Ew§ 297 b Müll § 499. But others, as GesThes Roo § 563 De Is 37:16; ψ 44:5, treat הוא as emphasizing the pronoun, ‘Thou, he, art God’ i.e. Thou and none else art God; ‘Thou (emph.) art my king.’ (β) מִי הוּא, sq. a ptcp. or subst. Gn 27:33 ψ 24:10 מִי הוּא זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד who is he, then—the king of glory? (according to others, as before, ‘Who (emph.), then, is the king of glory?’); sq. a verb Is 50:9 מִי הוּא יַרְשִׁיעֵנִי who is he (that) will condemn me? (al. ‘Who (emph.) will condemn me?’) Jb 4:7; 13:19; 17:3; 41:2 Je 30:21 (so with הֵנָּה Gn 21:29, הֵמָּה Zc 1:9; 4:5). (γ) זֶה־הוּא1 Ch 22:1; Ec 1:17 (freq. in NH, where the two words coalesce into one זֶהוּ). On the analogous אֵלֶּה הֵם …, v. הֵמָּה 4 b (γ). (Cf. Dr§ 200, 201.)
    5. As an emph. predicate, of God, ‘I am He,’ i.e. I am He Who is (opp. to unreal gods, named in context, or to transitory world), the Unseen, yet Omni-present, and Self-consistent, Ruler of the world, †Dt 32:39 אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא I, I am he, and beside me there is no God, Is 41:4 (v. Che) 43:10, 13 even from to-day I am he, 46:4; 48:12 ψ 102:28 (v. Che) thou art he, and thy years have no end (𝔊 usually ἐγώ εἰμι: in ψ σὺ δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς εἶ). So also, according to many, Jb 3:19, but is הוא a mere predicate of identity? v. rather 3 b.
    6. In a neuter sense, that, it (of an action, occurrence, matter, etc.)— a. Jos 2:21 כְּדִבְרֵיכֶם כֶּן־הוּא according to your words, so be it; Gn 42:14 הוא אשׁר דברתי that is what I said, Ex 16:23; Lv 10:3; 2 K 9:36; Jb 8:19 הן הוא משׂושׂ דרכו lo that (what has just been described) is the joy of his way, 13:16; 15:9; 31:28; Pr 7:23; Ec 2:1; 3:22; 9:9; Est 9:1b; similarly the fem. הִיא, Ju 14:4 they knew not כי מי׳ היא that it was from י׳, Nu 14:41; Jos 10:13; Is 14:24; ψ 77:10 חַלּוֹתִי הִיא it (this perplexity) is my sickness, Jb 9:22; Pr 18:13; Je 22:16; 2 Ch 25:20 Ec 3:13; ref. to זאת Am 7:6; ψ 118:23 Jb 5:27, זֹה Ec 2:24. (Where there is a predicate, the gender of this usually regulates the choice of m. or f.: hence הִוא Gn 34:14; Ex 8:15; Nu 15:25 (Ec 5:5) Dt 4:6 +.) b. affirming the presence or existence of something (rare): 2 K 18:36 = Is 36:21 כִּי מִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ הִיא for it was the king’s command, saying etc., 1 S 20:33 (text dub.), Je 50:15, 25; 51:6, 11; Mi 2:3, perhaps Jb 32:8. Cf. Dr§ § 198—201.
    7. With the art. הַהוּא, הַהִיא, הָהֵ֫מָּה, הָהֵם, הָהֵ֫נָּה: so regularly when joined to a subst. defined itself by the art.: Gn 2:12 הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא that land, 19:35 ובלילה ההוא and in that night, 21:22 בָּעֵת הַהִוא at that time, Dt 1:19 המדבר הגדול והנורא ההוא. Only four times does there occur the anomalous construction בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא Gn 19:33; 30:16; 32:23; 1 S 19:10.
    BDB הוּא.2


    [הָוָא] vb. fall (Arabic هَوَى id. e.g. of a star Qor 53:1)
    Qal Imv. Jb 37:6 for he saith to the snow הֱוֵא־אָ֑רֶץ Fall earthwards (an Arabizing usage).
    BDB הָוָא.2


    הובנים v. [הָבְנִי].BDB הובנים.2


    הוד (√ of foll.; De Jb 39:20 comp. Bed. هَوِيدٌ crash, roar, resonance; ‘weithin hallende Selbstverkündigung’ Id. ψ 8:6; but هَادَ ordinarily means be gentle, quiet, especially in speech).BDB הוד.2


    † I. הוֹד n.m. Jb 37:22 splendour, majesty, vigour (chiefly poet.) (NH id.)ה׳ abs. Jb 37:22 + 8 times (הַה׳ 1 Ch 29:11); cstr. Is 30:30 + 3 times; sf. הוֹדִי Dn 10:8; הוֹדְךָ Nu 27:20 + 2 times; הוֹדֶ֑ךָ Pr 5:9 ψ 145:4; הוֹדוֹ Ho 14:7 + 3 times; הֹדֹה Je 22:18;—
    1. splendour, majesty, of king הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶ֑ךָ ψ 45:4; הוֹד וְהָדָר תְּשַׁוֶּה עָלָיו ψ 21:6, subj. י׳ (‖ גָּדוֹל כְּבוֹדוֹ בִּישׁוּעָתֶ֑ךָ); foretold of the צֶמַה Zc 6:13 וְהוּא־יִשָּׂא הוֹד וְיָשַׁב וּמָשַׁל עַל־כִּסְאוֹ; cf. וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו הוֹד מַלְכוּת 1 Ch 29:25 (י׳ confers on Sol.); וְלֹא נָֽתְנוּ עָלָיו ה׳ מַלְכוּת Dn 11:21 (of usurper); v. also וְהוֹי הֹדֹה Je 22:18 in lament for king. Hence also
    2. divine splendour, majesty, light & glory which God wears as king: הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָ֑שְׁתָּ ψ 104:1 (7 times joined with הָדָר); cf. Jb 40:10 where י׳ addresses Job in irony; עַל־אֱלוֹהַּ נוֹרָא הוֹד Jb 37:22; ה׳ וְהָדָר לְפָנָיו ψ 96:6 = 1 Ch 16:26; also הַגְּדֻלָּה וְהַגְּבוּרָה וְהַתִּפְאֶרֶת וְהַנֵּצַח וְהַה׳ 1 Ch 29:11; see further כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ Hb 3:3 (‖ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָֽלְאָה הָאָ֑רֶץ); אֲשֶׁר־תְּנָה הוֹדְךָ עַל־הַשָּׁמַיִם ψ 8:2 (‖ מָה־אַדִּיר שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ); also הוֹדוֹ עַל־אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָ֑יִם ψ 148:13 (‖ נִשְׂגָּב שְׁמוֹ לְבַדּוֹ); הֲדַר כְּבוֹד הוֹדֶ֑ךָ 145:4; of Yahweh’s actions הוֹד וְהָדָר פָּעֳלוֹ 111:3; of his voice וְהִשְׁמִיעַ י׳ אֶת־הוֹד קוֹלוֹ Is 30:30.
    3. a. splendour of Israel under divine blessing וִיהִי כַזַּיִת הוֹדוֹ Ho 14:7. b. majesty, dignity, authority of Moses Nu 27:20 (P; only here in Hex) וְנָתַתָּ מֵהוֹדְךָ עָלָיו. Also, c. manly vigour פֶּן־תִּתֵּן לַאֲחֵרִים הוֹדֶ֑ךָ Pr 5:9, in warning against licentiousness; as displayed in outward appearance וְהוֹדִי נֶהְפַּךְ עָלַי לְמַשְׁחִית Dn 10:8 (‖ כֹּחַ).
    4. of a horse, majesty, majestic force הוֹד נַחְרוֹ אֵימָה Jb 39:20 the majesty of his snorting (majestic snorting, VB) is a terror; also in sim. of Yahweh’s dealings with Judah, וְשָׂם אוֹתָם כְּסוּס הוֹדוֹ בַּמִּלְחָמָה Zc 10:3 and he will make them like the horse of his majesty in battle.
    BDB הוֹד.2


    † II. הוֹד n.pr.m. (splendour, vigour)—a man of Asher 1 Ch 7:37.BDB הוֹד².2


    הודוה Kt, הוֹדְיָה Qr, n.pr.m. only in בְּנֵי לְה׳ Ne 7:43 of a Levitical family; = הוֹדַוְיָה Ezr 2:40 q.v. sub ידה.BDB הודוה.2


    הוֹדַוְיָה, הוֹדַוְיָהוּ, הודיוהו n.pr.m. v. sub ידה.BDB הוֹדַוְיָה.2


    הוֹדַוְיָה; n.pr.m.
    1. 1 Ch 5:24.
    2. 1 Ch 9:7.
    3. Ezr 2:10 (replace by יְהוּדָה, 3:9). הוֹדַוְיָהוּ Q., הודיוהו K n.pr.m. 1 Ch 3:24.
    BDB הוֹדַוְיָה;.2


    הוֹדְיָה Qr Ne 7:43 v. הודוה supr.BDB הוֹדְיָה.2


    הוֹדִיָּה n.pr.m. (my splendour is Yah)
    1. a man of Judah 1 Ch 4:19.
    2. Levites a. Ne 8:7; 9:5; 10:11; b. Ne 10:14.
    3. a chief of the people Ne 10:19.
    BDB הוֹדִיָּה.2


    הַוָּה n.f. 1.desire; 2. chasm, fig. destruction (cf. هَوًى desire, هَوَاءٌ atmosphere, emptiness, هَاوِيَةٌ a deep pit, hell (cf. sub הָוָה); Aramaic ܗܰܘܬܴܐ gulf, chasm (Lu 16:26 𝔖)) cstr. הַוַּת Mi 7:3 +, sf. הַוָּתִי Jb 6:2 +, pl. הַוּוֹת ψ 5:10 +;—
    1. desire (in bad sense) Mi 7:3 דֹּבֵר הַוַּת נַפְשׁוֹ speaketh the desire of his soul, Pr 10:3 הַוַּת רְשָׁעִים, 11:6 ה׳ בֹּגְדִים, ψ 52:9 יָעֹז בְּהַוָּתוֹ became strong through his (evil) desire (but read rather with 𝔖 𝔗 Lag Gr Bi Che Now בְּהוֹנוֹ: ‖ בְּעָשְׁרוֹ).
    2. engulfing ruin, destruction Jb 6:2 Qr 30:13 (cf. Baer’s note) הַוָּתִי of Job’s great calamity; pl. (intens.) הַוּוֹת, especially as wrought, or meditated, by one against another, ψ 5:10 קִרְבָּם הַוּוֹת their inward part is windy chasm (‖ קבר), 38:13 דִּבְּרוּ הַוּוֹת, 52:4 ה׳ תַּחְשֹׁב לְשׁוֹנְךָ (cf. Pr 17:4 לְשׁוֹן הַוּוֹת), 55:12 ה׳ בְּקִרְבָּהּ, 57:2 עַד יַעֲבֹר ה׳ till the storm of ruin (Che) pass by, 91:3 דֶּבֶר ה׳ destructive pestilence, 94:20 כִּסֵּא ה׳ the seat (tribunal) of destruction (i.e. which ruins the innocent by injustice), Pr 19:13 a foolish son is הַוּוֹת לְאָבָיו, Jb 6:30 (cf. v 2 supr.)
    BDB הַוָּה.2


    [הָוָה] vb. become (Arabic هَوَى to fall (v. הָוָא), also to gape or yawn, and to desire (cf. הַוָּה): cf. FlDe Jb 6:2; Aramaic הֲוָא, ܗܘܳܐ the usual word for to be (prob. orig. to fall out, accidit, hence come to pass, come to be, γίγνεσθαι), Mish. id. very common) a rare syn. of הָיָה q.v.:—
    Qal Impf. apoc. יְהוּא Ec 11:3 (for יְהוּ with א otiosum; Ges§ 75 R. I 3 e Kön p. 597 f.; but Gr. plausibly הוּא); Imv. ms. הֱוֵה Gn 27:29, fs. הֱוִי Is 16:4, Pt. הֹוֶה Ec 2:22; Ne 6:6:—Gn 27:29 הֱוֵה גְבִיר לְאַחֶיךָ become lord to thy brethren, Is 16:4 (perhaps in imit. of Moab. dialect) הֱוִי סֵתֶר לָמוֹ become thou (Zion) a defence to them, Ec 2:22; 11:3; Ne 6:6.
    BDB הָוָה.2


    הֹוָה n.f. ruin, disaster (cf. sub הַוָּה) Ez 7:26(×2) הֹוָה עַל הֹוָה תָבוֹא disaster shall come upon disaster, Is 47:11 וְתִפֹּל עָלַיִךְ הֹוָה disaster shall fall upon thee (‖ רָעָה, שֹׁאָה).BDB הֹוָה.2


    הוֹהָם n.pr.m. Canaanitish king of Hebron Jos 10:3.BDB הוֹהָם.2


    הוֹי51 interj. (onomatop.; cf. ܗܳܘܳܝ = הוֹ הוֹ Am 5:16 𝔖, = הֵידָד Je 51:14 𝔖; also Mod. Aramaic ú hú, ú hú (in a lament), SoUrmia-Dial. 102.4)—expressing usually dissatisfaction and pain, Ah, Alas, Ha (not distinctly Woe! which is אוֹי): used in lamentations, 1 K 13:30 and they mourned over him (saying) הוֹי אָחִי Ah, my brother! Je 22:18 הוֹי אָחִי וְהוֹי אָחוֹתהוֹי אָדוֹן וְהוֹי הֹדֹה, 34:5 וְהוֹי אָדוֹן יִסְפְּדוּ לָ֑ךְ (cf. הוֹ־הוֹ Am 5:16): hence Is 1:4 הוֹי גּוֹי חֹטֵא Ah! sinful nation, v 24 Ah! I will ease me of my adversaries; especially preparatory to a declaration of judgment, Is 10:5 הוֹי אַשּׁוּר שֵׁבֶט אַפִּי, 17:12; 28:1, often sq. a ptcp. Ah! those that …, 5:8, 11, 18; 29:15; 31:1; 45:9, 10 Je 22:13 Am 5:18; 6:1 Hb 2:6, 9, 12, 15, 19; Zc 11:17 + (more sympathetic than אוֹי לְ): sq. כִּי Je 30:7, אֶל 48:1, עַל 50:27; Ez 13:3, לְ 13:18. Sometimes hardly more than an exclam. arousing attention Ha! (though perh. with a touch of sympathy or pity) Is 18:1; 55:1 Zc 2:10(×2), 11 Je 47:6.BDB הוֹי.2


    [הוֹלֵלָה] n.f. madness (on text v. infr.), only pl. הֹלֵלוֹת, הוֹלֵלוֹת, and only Ec: Ec 1:17 and I set my heart (וָאֶתְּנָה לִבִּי) to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly (הֹלֵלוֹת וְשִׂכְלוּת), cf. הוֹלֵלוֹת 2:12 (‖ id.); וְלָדַעַת רֶשַׁע כֶּסֶל וְהַסִּכְלוּת ה׳ 7:25, i.e. to know folly to be madness; possibly read חוֹלֵלוּת, cf. סִכְלוּת & foll.; the moral evil of it is specif. recognised in Ec 9:3 (‖ רָע).BDB הוֹלֵלָה.2


    הוֹלֵלוּת n.f. id. (formed unusually from the ptcp., an Aramaic formation, cf. BaNB 414 f.) תְּחִלַּת דִּבְרֵי־פִיהוּ סִכְלוּת וְאַחֲרִית פִּיהוּ הוֹלֵלוּת רָעָה Ec 10:13 the beginning of the words of his mouth is folly, and the end of his mouth (his speech) is evil madness.BDB הוֹלֵלוּת.2


    [הוּם, הִים] vb. murmur, roar, discomfit (Arabic هَامَ (med. ى) is rush about madly (lit., or in passion, love, &c.), fig. be distracted; on √ הִים v. Hi ψ 55:3ZMG 1883, 540)
    Qal Pf. 3 ms. sf. וְהָמָם consec. Dt 7:23 וְה׳ מְהוּמָה גְדֹלָה (י׳ subj.) and he shall discomfit them (with) a great discomfiture (according to Di וה׳ is from הָמַם, here pointed as ע״ו because of מְהוּמָה; but v. Köi 486 & reff.); here, according to Nöl.c., belongs Impf. 1 s. cohort. אָהִ֑ימָה (i.e. √ ע״י) ψ 55:3 am driven about (Hi De), or distracted.
    Niph. Impf. 3 fs. וַתֵּהֹם 1 S 4:5 + 2 times (on form cf. Ges§ 72 R. 5); be in a stir, of a city Ru 1:19 (sq. על over, on account of), 1 K 1:45; of ground re-echoing shout 1 S 4:5.
    Hiph. Impf. 1 s. אָהִ֑ימָה ψ 55:3 shew disquietude (so most, cf. supr.); but Ol Che וְאֶהֱמָ֑יָה (77:4); LagProph. Chald. xlviii. 2, BN 27 אֶהֱמֶה (v 18); 3 fpl. תְּהִימֶנָה (? תֶּהֱמֶינָה) Mi 2:12 they (i.e. fold & pasture) shall murmur with men.
    BDB הוּם.2


    הוֹמָם n.pr. v. sub מם.BDB הוֹמָם.2


    הוֹמָ֑ם n.pr.m. son of Seir the Horite 1 Ch 1:39 𝔊 Αἱμαν 𝔊L Ημαν; = הֵימָ֑ם Gn 36:22.BDB הוֹמָ֑ם.2


    הוֹן n.m. Pr 8:18, wealth, sufficiency (poet., almost wholly WisdLt, especially Pr; cf. 1. אוֹן p. 20 supr.)—abs. הוֹן Pr 1:13 + 15 times + Ez 27:12, 18 (where 𝔊 𝔖 Co הוֹנֵךְ); cstr. Pr 6:31 + 3 times; sf. הוֶֹנ֑ךָ Pr 3:9; הוֹנֵךְ Ez 27:27 + v 12, 18 Co; הוֹנוֹ Pr 28:8; pl. sf. הוֹנַיִךְ Ez 27:33
    1. wealth ψ 112:3 (‖ עֹשֶׁר) Pr 8:18 (‖ id.) 1:13 (‖ שָׁלָל) cf. הוֹן עָשִׁיר Pr 10:15 (opp. דַּלִּים), 18:11; Pr 3:9 (‖ רֵאשִׁית כָּל־תְּבוּאָתֶ֑ךָ) הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ Pr 6:31 Ct 8:7, בַּיִת וָהוֹן Pr 19:14; see 19:4 (opp. דָּל) 28:8 (opp. דַּלִּים); also ψ 119:14 Pr 11:4; 12:27; 13:7, 11; 24:4; 28:22 (opp. חֶסֶר) 29:3; Ez 27:12, 18, 27, 33.
    2. with מָכַר + בְּ pretii, = high value, or price תִּמְכֹּר עַמְּךָ בְּלֹא הוֹן ψ 44:13—i.e. cheaply, = ‘for no price at all’ (‖ מחיר).
    3. sufficiency, enough! in exclam. Pr 30:15, 16 (so also 𝔖 𝔗, Aq Sym Theod ἀρκεῖ).
    BDB הוֹן.2


    [הוּן] vb. be easy (Arabic هَانَ be light, easy, cf. هَوْنٌ, هَيْنٌ (v. אוּן), Aramaic NH הוֹן gentleness, ܗܽܘܢ, ܗܰܘܢܳܐ is mind, sense; vid. conject. on development of meanings Fl ChWB i. 423)—only
    Hiph. Impf. וַתָּהִינוּ sq. Inf. Dt 1:41 regard as easy to go up, or make light of going up; so Thes Kn Ke Di RVm (construct. as Nu 14:44 וַיַּעְפִּלוּ לִעֲלוֹת, though ‖ to this in Dt is v 43).
    BDB הוּן.2


    [הוֹר] assumed by Thes al. as ancient form for הַר mountain, to explain הוֹרַי Gn 49:26, read הוֹרֵי־עָד; but better הַרֲרֵי־עַד everlasting mountains, v. הַר sub הרר.BDB הוֹר.2


    הוֹשָׁמָע n.pr.m. = יְהוֹ׳ v. יהוה sub היה.BDB הוֹשָׁמָע.2


    הוֹשֵׁעַ, הוֹשַׁעֲיָה v. sub ישׁע.BDB הוֹשֵׁעַ.2


    הוֹשֵׁעַ n.pr.m. (salvation; on form, cf. הַשְׁמֵד, הַמְשֵׁל; on pronunciation v. HptZA ii, 261 Anm. 2 JägerBAS i, 468)
    1. orig. name of Joshua according to Nu 13:8, 16 (P), 𝔊 Αυση, cf. Dt 32:44 (J; prob. error, v. Dr), 𝔊 Ιησους, v. יְהוֹשׁוּעַ p. 221 supr.
    2. last king of Israel 2 K 15:30; 17:1, 3, 4, 6; 18:1, 9, 10, 𝔊 Ωσηε.
    3. the prophet Hosea Ho 1:1, 2(×2), 𝔊 Ωσηε.
    4. an Ephraimite chief under David 1 Ch 27:20, 𝔊 Ωση(ε).
    5. a chief under Nehemiah Ne 10:24, 𝔊 Ωσηθα, Ωσηε.
    BDB הוֹשֵׁעַ².2


    הוֹשַׁעֲיָה n.pr.m. (Yah has saved)
    1. a prince of Judah Ne 12:32, 𝔊 Ωσαια.
    2. father of Azariah or Jezaniah, a chief in time of Jeremiah Je 42:1; 43:2 𝔊 Μαασ(σ)αιος, etc.
    BDB הוֹשַׁעֲיָה.2


    הוֹשַׁעְנָה v. sub ישׁע.BDB הוֹשַׁעְנָה.2


    [הוּת] vb. shout at, si vera l. (Arabic هَوَّتَ c. على shout at, threaten, dialect. for هَيَّتَ, cf. De ψ 62:4 who comp. Damascene هَوَّتَ عَلَى فُلَانٍ rush upon one with cries and raised fist, cf. further Wetzst in De; so MV SS: Thes al. assign to [התת], attack; text dub.)—only
    Po. Impf. תְּהוֹתֲתוּ עַל־אִישׁ ψ 62:4; but Hup Che read תְּהוֹלֲלוּ be frantic against, cf. 102:9.
    BDB הוּת.2


    הוֹתִיר n.pr.m. v. יתר.BDB הוֹתִיר.2


    הוֹתִיר n.pr.m. (abundance, superabundance)—a son of Heman, according to 1 Ch 25:4, 28 (but on the ostensible list of names v. Ew§ 274 b WeProl.229; Hist. Isr. 219 RSOTJC 224; 2nd ed. 143).BDB הוֹתִיר².2


    [הָזָה] vb. dream, rave (Arabic هَذَى talk deliriously, Syriac ܗܕܳܐ, in Lexx., id., cf. also Vrss; v. especially BoHieroz. ii. 56, p. 680; ed. Rosenm vol. i. 782);—only
    Qal Pt. act. pl. הֹזִים Is 56:10 לֹא יוּכְלוּ לִנְכֹּ֑חַ ה׳ שֹׁכְבִים of dogs, metaph. of false prophets.—הַט v. נטה.
    BDB הָזָה.2


    הִי (?) n.[m.] lamentation, wailing, only Ez 2:10 וְכָתוּב אֵלֶיהָ קִינִים וָהֶגֶה וָהִי and written in it were lamentations and mourning and wailing (𝔊 οὐαί, woe! Ew§ 101 c comp. אִי, cf. III. אִי p. 33 supr.; according to Thes Sta§ 125 b al. הִי = נְהִי, נ being dropped; Ol§ 77 g, 144 c would emend נְהִי & so Co; v. נְהִי sub נהה. Text very dubious).BDB הִי.2


    הִי n.[m.] si vera l., wailing ( = (נְ)הִי q.v.) Ez 2:10 וָהִ֑י, where probably read וּנְהִי Ol Co, cf. Berthol (‖ קינים והגה).BDB הִי².2


    הִיא v. הוּא.BDB הִיא.2


    הֵידָד n.m. Is 16:9 shout, shouting, cheer (of a multitude; on formation compare Ol§ 181 a Sta§ 218 b);—ה׳ only abs., Is 16:9 + 6 times Is & Je;—
    1. shouting in harvest Is 16:10, Je 48:33(×3) where לֹא יִדְרֹךְ הֵידָד הֵידָד לֹא הֵידָד, i.e. the shouting is no vineyard-shouting, but that of the foe, cf. infr.; comp. 25:30 י׳ shall utter (עָנָה) a shout like the (grape-) treaders (sq. אֶל כָּל־ישְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ). Hence also
    2. shout of the foe Is 16:9 (נָפַל עַל), Je 51:14 (וְעָנוּ עָלַיִךְ הֵידָד); cf. 25:30; 48:33 supr.
    BDB הֵידָד.2


    הֵידָד v. sub הדד.BDB הֵידָד².2


    הֻיְּדוֹת v. sub ידה.BDB הֻיְּדוֹת.2


    הֻיְּדוֹת n.f.pl. songs of praise;—Ne 12:8; so Thes but dub.; Ew§ 165 b abstr. הֻיְּדוּת (many MSS.) praising; Ol§ 220 reads inf. הוֹדוֹת.BDB הֻיְּדוֹת².2


    הַיָּה n.f. destruction, sf. הַיָּתִי Jb 6:2 Kt, i.q. הַוָּתִי (Qr), and prob. an error for it: v. הַוָּה 2.BDB הַיָּה.2


    הָיָה3570 vb. fall out, come to pass, become, be (SI 1.6 היה, ib.3 הית; parallel form of הוה, Arabic هَوَى, Aramaic הֲוָא, ܗܘܳܐ; v. הָוָה supr.)
    Qal Pf. 3 ms. הָיָה Gn 3:1 +; וְהָיָה consec. Gn 4:14 +; 3 fs. הָֽיְתָה Gn 1:2 +; הָיָתָ֑ה Is 14:24 + 3 times; וְהָֽיְתָה consec. Gn 9:13 +; והית 2 K 9:37 Kt (Qr וְהָיְתָה); 2 ms. הָיִיתָ Dt 5:15 +; 1 s. הָיִיתִי Gn 31:40; 3 pl. הָיוּ Gn 6:4 +; 2 mpl. הֱיִיתֶם Ex 22:20 +; וִהְיִיתֶם consec. Gn 3:5 +; 1 pl. הָיִינוּ Is 1:9 +; etc.; Impf. 3 ms. יִהְיֶה Gn 1:29 +; juss. יְהִי Gn 1:3 +; יֶהִ֑י Ez 16:15; וִיהִי Gn 1:6 +; וַיְהִי Gn 1:3 +; וַיֶּהִ֑י ψ 33:9 Ez 16:19; 3 fs. תִּהְיֶה Gn 21:30 +; 1 s. אֶהְיֶה Ex 3:12 +; וָאֶהְיֶה 2 S 7:6 + 9 times; וָאֱהִי Ju 18:4 + 12 times; 3 mpl. יִהְיוּ Gn 6:19 +; 3 fpl. תִּהְיֶינָה Is 16:2 + 19 times; תִּהְיֶיןָ Gn 41:36 + 11 times; וְתִהְיֶנָה Je 18:21; 48:6; וַתִּהְיֶינָה 2 S 20:3 + 6 times; וַתִּהְיֶיןָ Gn 26:35; 1 S 25:43; וַתִּהְיֶנָה 1 Ch 7:15; 2 mpl. תִּהְיוּ Gn 34:15 +; תִּהְיוּן Ex 22:20; 1 pl. נִהְיֶה Gn 38:23 +; וַנִּהְיֶה 2 S 11:23; Je 44:17; וַנְּהִי Nu 13:33; Is 64:5, etc.; Imv. ms. הֱיֵה Ex 18:19 +; fs. הֲיִי Gn 24:60; mpl. הֱיוּ Ex 19:15; Nu 16:16, וִהְיוּ 1 S 4:9 + 6 times; Inf. abs. הָיוֹ Gn 18:18 + 3 times; הָיֹה 1 K 13:32 Ez 1:3; cstr. הֱיוֹת Gn 2:18 +, so read prob. also for הֱיֵה Ez 21:15 cf. Sm Köi p. 600 f. (Co em. היה־לה to הָהֵל shine, glitter); with pref. בִּהְיוֹת Ex 5:13 +, בִּהְיֹת Ex 19:16 +; לִהְיוֹת Gn 10:8 +, לִהְיֹת Ex 23:1 +; sf. הֱיוֹתִי Jon 4:2; הֱיוֹתְךָ Ju 18:19(×2); לִהְיֹתְךָ Dt 26:19, etc.; Pt. f. הוֹיָה Ex 9:3. I. 1. a. Fall out, happen מֶה־הָיָה הַדָּבָר 1 S 4:16 how has the matter fallen out, (gone, turned out)? so 2 S 1:4; מֶה־הָיָה לוֹ Ex 32:1, 23 (both JE) what has happened to him? cf. 1 S 10:12; מִקְרֶה הוּא הָיָה לָנוּ 1 S 6:9 a chance it is that has befallen us; also וַיְהִי־לוֹ כֵּן 2 K 7:20 and so it happened to him, cf. וַיְהִי־כֵן infr. b. occur, take place, come about, come to pass:מַגֵּפָה גְדוֹלָה הָֽיְתָה בָּעָם 1 S 4:17 a great slaughter has taken place among the people, cf. 2 S 17:9; הַמִּלְחָמָה בְּיַעַר אֶפְרַיִם וַתְּהִי 2 S 18:6 and the battle took place in the wood of Ephraim (on אפרים cf. Klo Dr); Jos 22:17 (P; of plague); תְּהִי נָא אָלָה Gn 26:28 (J) let an oath take place (be taken) so Ju 21:5; cf. 2 K 17:7 (si vera l.), Ez 16:34; especially late, 2 Ch 29:36; 32:31; Ec 1:9, 10; 3:22; 8:7; 10:14 etc.; often of fulfilment of prediction, command, expectation, etc.:—כֵּן הָיָה Gn 41:3 (E) so it came to pass, 2 S 13:25, וַיְהִי־כֵן Ju 6:38 2 K 15:12 Is 29:5, & especially וַיְהִי־כֵן Gn 1:7, 9, 11, 15, 24, 30 (all P) +; יְהִי כִדְבָרֶ֑ךָ Gn 30:34 let it be as thou sayest, Zc 6:15, v. also לֹא תָקוּם וְלֹא יִהְיֶה Is 7:7 it shall not arise (be realized) & shall not come about, 14:24; (so often בּוֹא q.v. 2 c, p. 98 supr.) 2. especially & very often, come about, come to pass sq. substantive (subj.) cl. almost always + modifying (usually temporal) cl. or phr.: a. (1) וַיְהִי and it came to pass that, most often (c. 292 times) foll. by (a) Impf. consec.: α. with Inf. c. כְּ temp. Gn 12:14; 19:17 (both J) + 75 times + Est 3:4 Qr (Hex chiefly J,—so always Gn,—& JE; P only Ex 16:10, D only Dt 5:20; 31:24 Jos 5:1; 9:1; 27 times in K),—somewhat diff. is 2 K 7:18; β. with Inf. c. בְּ Gn 4:8; 11:2 (both J) + 29 times + Est 3:4 Kt (in Hex 10 times JE; 3 times P, Gn 19:29; Ex 34:29; Nu 17:7; not in D); γ. with בְּ sq. nom. temp. (יוֹם, בֹּקֶר, etc.) Gn 21:22 (E) 26:32 (J) + 45 times (Hex 14 times JE; 3 times P, Ex 6:28; 16:13 Nu 7:1; not D); δ. לְ temp. 1 S 1:20; 2 S 13:23; 1 K 20:26; 1 Ch 20:1; ε. כְּ temp. Gn 39:11 1 S 25:38; ζ. מִן temp. viz.: מֵאָז Gn 39:5, מִיּוֹם 1 S 7:2 cf. 30:25, מִיָּמִים Ju 11:4; 15:1, מִקֵּץ Gn 4:3; 8:6 + 6 times, מִקְצֵה Jos 3:2 2 K 8:3 Ez 3:16, especially מִמָּחֳרָת Gn 19:34 Ex 18:13 + 11 times; η. כַּאֲשֶׁר temp. Gn 12:11 (J) 20:13 (E) + 31 times (Hex 13 times JE, Dt 2:16, not P), characteristic of Neh.’s memoirs, †Ne 3:33; 4:1, 6, 9; 6:1, 16; 7:1; 13:19; θ. with כִּי temp. Gn 6:1 (J) Ex 3:21 (E) + 14 times + Ju 16:25 Kt; ι. אַחֲרֵי temp. Gn 22:20 (J) + 13 times, אַחַר Gn 39:7 Jb 42:7, אַחֲרֵי־כֵן Ju 16:4 + 6 times; κ. sq. עַד temp. 1 S 14:19 (on which cf. Dr); comp. עַד־כֹּה וְעַד־כֹּה 1 K 18:45; λ. with combinations; as בְּ c. nom. temp. + בְּ Inf. Gn 34:25 Ex 19:16 1 S 25:37; בְּ Inf. + כְּ Inf. Jos 3:14; double prep. כְּמִשְּׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים Gn 38:24; מִקְצֵה + אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר Jos 9:16; מִיָּמִים + id. 23:1; μ. other unusual constructions under this head are: those where temporal idea is expr. by a circumst. cl. Is 22:7 1 K 13:20 2 K 8:21 (Dr§ 165, & Obs.) = 2 Ch 21:9; those with indef. כֹּל 1 S 10:11; 2 S 2:23; 15:2, or with pt. = rel. cl. 1 S 11:1 (on all v. Dr§ 78 n. & Sm); quite unique is 1 K 16:31, with הֲנָקֵל לֶכְתּוֹ וגו׳ in place of temp. cl. (b) וַיְהִי sometimes sq. simple Pf., with a negative Gn 39:10 (c. כְּ Inf.), Ex 13:17 (c. בְּ Inf.) 2 K 12:7; 17:25 (both c. בְּ temp.); & without neg., Gn 8:13 (P) 14:1 +, usually c. בְּ temp. (38 times), Hex chiefly P; rarely c. other prep. & adv. as above; note especially מִדֵּי sq. Inf. 1 S 18:20 2 Ch 12:11; sometimes the subj. of foll. Pf. precedes it c. וְ, as Gn 22:1; 41:1; 1 S 18:19; 30:1; 2 K 2:9; 4:40 +; note especially 2 S 17:27 where several subj. & also several objects precede the Pf. (cf. Dr); in these cases the temporal modifier is occasionally a circumst. cl. 2 S 13:30; 1 K 8:10; 2 K 19:37 = Is 37:38; rarely subj. precedes Pf. without וְ 1 K 11:4; 21:1, comp. subj. preceding Pt. without וְ Ne 4:10; in 2 Ch 8:1 the obj. (with וְ) precedes what is appar. the principal vb. (c) וַיְהִי sq. וְהִנֵּה Gn 24:15 (J; טֶרֶם in temp. cl.), 29:25 (E), 38:27 (J, both בְּ temp.) v 29 (כְּ Pt.), 1 S 13:10 (כְּ Inf.); also 2 S 1:2; 13:36; 15:32 (circumst. cl.) 2 K 2:11 (id.), 3:20, 13:21 (circumst. cl.). (d) rarely וַיְהִי (in this sense) sq. other constructions: אָז יִתֵּן 1 K 9:10 (c. מִקְצֵה); Impf. frequentat. 14:28 (c. מִדֵּי־בֹּא, 2 K 4:8 (c. מִדֵּי עָבְרוֹ) Je 36:23 (c. כְּ Inf.); Pf. consec. frequentat. 2 Ch 24:11 (c. בְּ temp.). (2) really also Pf. c. וְ conj. וְהָיָה (cf. Dr§ 133) sq. Impf. consec. as subj. cl.: 1 S 1:12 (c. several circumst. cl.), 10:9 (c. כְּ Inf.) 2 K 3:15 (id.), 1 S 17:48 (c. כִּי), Je 37:11 (c. בְּ Inf.), Am 7:2 (c. אִם temp.); also Je 3:9 (appar. c. מִן causat., but obscure); 1 S 13:22 (c. בְּ temp.) is foll. by וְלֹא & Pf. as well as Impf. consec. b. less often וְהָיָה Pf. consec. and it shall come to pass, or frequentat., came to pass (repeatedly, etc.) usually (a) sq. simple Impf. (c. 100 times): α. c. בְּ temp. Dt 21:16; 25:19 + 37 times, (especially בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא Ho 2:18, 23 Is 7:18, 21, 23 + 21 times); β. c. בְּ loc. Ez 47:23 Zc 13:8 cf. also Ho 2:1 (בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר, but perhaps = instead of, cf. VB); γ. c. indef. rel. cl., or its equiv. (כֹּל indef., etc.), cf. Dr§ 121, Obs. 1: Gn 4:14; Nu 17:20; Dt 12:11; 18:19; Jos 7:14, 15; Ju 7:4; 1 S 2:36; 17:25; 2 S 15:35; 1 K 19:17; 20:6; Is 4:3; 24:18; Na 3:7; Je 27:8; 42:4; Ez 47:9; Zc 14:17; Jo 3:5; δ. c. כַּאֲשֶׁר Nu 33:56; Dt 28:63; Jos 23:15; Ju 7:17; Is 29:8; Je 31:28; Zc 8:13; ε. less often with other modif. phr.: כְּ Inf. Ex 33:8, 9 (both frequentat.), Jos 3:13; 8:8; Je 25:12; 51:63; בְּ Inf. Gn 9:14 (P) 2 K 4:10; Ez 44:17; אִם condit. Dt 20:11 (+ v 11 Dr§ 118 n.), also Jos 22:18, where the arrangement is peculiar, & the condit. is expressed without אִם (cf. Dr§ 155); לְ temp. Dt 23:12; מִקֵּץ Is 23:17; טֶרֶם Is 65:24; מִדֵּי חֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁוֹ Is 66:23, etc. (b) וְהָיָה sq. Pf. consec. (c. 85 times): α. most often + cl. c. כִּי temp. Gn 12:12; 46:33 (both J) Ex 1:10 (E) Dt 11:29; Is 8:21 + 25 times; β. c. אִם Ex 4:8, 9 Nu 15:24; Dt 11:13 + 14 times; also Gn 38:9; Nu 21:9 (both frequentat.); γ. c. בְּ temp. Gn 30:41 (frequentat.) 47:24 (but cf. Ol Di) Ex 16:5 + 11 times; δ. c. indef. rel. cl. or equivalent (Dr§ 121 Obs. 1): Gn 24:14; Nu 10:32 (Dr§ 118 n.) 21:18; Dt 21:3 Ju 11:31; 19:30; Zc 14:16; ε. occas. with other modif. phr.: כַּאֲשֶׁר Gn 27:40 +; כְּ Inf. Gn 44:31 +; בְּ Inf. Ex 33:22 +; מִקֵּץ 2 S 14:26; עֵקֶב causat. Dt 7:12; also (c) sq. וְלֹא + simple Impf. Ex 3:21 (c. כִּי temp.). (d) וְהָיָה sq. Imv. (very rare) Dt 6:10 (c. כִּי temp.), 1 S 10:7 (c. כִּי), cf. 29:10, cf. Pf. consec. in command 1 S 3:9 (c. אִם). (e) וְהָיָה sq. simple Pf. (also very rare) Dt 8:19 (c. אִם). (f) וְהָיָה sq. cl. without vb.: Gn 24:43 Jos 2:19 1 K 18:24 (all c. indef. rel. modifier, or equiv., v. (a) γ, (b) δ, supr.). (g) וְהָיָה (ו conj.) sq. Impf. consec. v. a. (e) supr. II. Come into being, become:1. a. abs., in lively narrative, arise, appear, come וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה Ex 12:30 (J) and there arose a great cry in Egypt; וַיְהִי־קוֹל Ez 1:25 (del. Co cf. Da), 37:7 (del. קוֹל 𝔊 Co); כִּי הָֽיְתָה הָֽרְוָחָה Ex 8:11 (J) Pharaoh saw that respite had come; Mi 7:4 now shall come their confusion (‖ בוא); also of concrete objects וְהָֽיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן Gn 9:16 (P) and the bow shall appear in the clouds (‖ וְנִרְאֲתָה); וְרִמָּה לֹא הָֽיְתָה בּוֹ Ex 16:24 (P) and worms did not appear in it; of condition or action begun & continuing, as: famine Gn 12:10; 26:1, 1 (all J), 41:54 (E), Ru 1:1; 2 S 21:1; 2 K 6:25; strife Gn 13:7, 8 (J), Hb 1:3 (‖ מָדוֹן יִשָּׂא); often of action of the elements, as the coming of hail Ex 9:18, 24, 26 (all J), thunder & lightning, etc., Ex 19:16 (E), rain 1 K 18:45, storm Jon 1:4; especially of creative fiats יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי אוֹר Gn 1:3 let light appear, and light appeared, cf. v 5, 8, 13, 19, 23, 31 (all P); also arise, come on the stage or scene, וְאַחֲרָיו הָיָה שַׁמְגַּר Ju 3:31 and after him arose Shamgar (= וַיָּקָם 10:1); further וַעֲלָטָה הָיָה Gn 15:17 (JE) and darkness came on; הַבֹּקֶר הָיָה Ex 10:13 (J) the morning came, 19:16 (E); וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם1 S 1:4 and the day came, when (v. Dr), 14:1 2 K 4:8, 11, 18 Jb 1:6, 13; 2:1. b. sq. prep.: בְּ, וְיָדֵנוּ אַל־תְּהִי־בוֹ (Gn 37:27 (J) but out hand, let it not come upon him, of hand of י׳ 1 S 5:9; 7:13; 12:15 + (all in hostile sense); וַיְהִי בִּרְכַּת י׳ בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר יֶשׁ־לוֹ Gn 39:5 (J) and the blessing of י׳ came into (on) all that he had; but also of plague Ex 12:13 (P); sq. עַל, וּמֵי הַמַּבּוּל הָיוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ Gn 7:10 (J) that the waters of the flood came upon the earth; עָלַי הָיוּ כֻלָּ֑נָה Gn 42:36 (E) Gn 9:2 (P) fear shall come upon, cf. 35:5 (P) 2 Ch 14:13; 17:10; 20:29 +; of wrath Jos 22:20 1 K 3:27; so of Saul’s evil spirit from God 1 S 16:16, 23; 19:9 (אֶל); but sq. עַל also in good sense וַתְּהִי עָלָיו רוּחַ י׳ conferring strength & efficiency Ju 3:10; 11:29 (היה = צלח Ju 14:6 + often), cf. Nu 24:2 (JE) of prophetic power; (on וַתְּהִי עָלָיו יַד י׳ 2 K 3:15 Ez 3:22 and the like, vid. יָד); יַד אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָֽיְתָה עָלֵינוּ Ezr 8:31, so ψ 80:18; even וַתְּהִי עַל־רֹאשׁ דָּוִד 2 S 12:30 and it (the crown, עֲטֶרֶת) came (i.e. was put, set) on David’s head; with a diff. meaning וַנִּהְיֶה עֲלֵיהֶם עַד־פֶּתַח הַשָּׁ֑עַר 2 S 11:23 and we were close upon them even to the gateway (cf. We Dr); come, go, follow (sq. אַחֲרֵי) i.e. take the side of, adhere to, Ex 23:2 (JE) 1 S 12:14 2 S 2:10 1 K 12:20; 16:21; sq. לְ, of blessings Gn 49:26 (poem); of judgment, punishment Je 40:3; especially ויהי דבראֶל and the word of … came unto: word of Samuel 1 S 4:1; usually word of God (or י׳) Gn 15:1 1 S 15:10 +; constantly in prophets: Ho 1:1 Mi 1:1 etc.; especially Je & Ez: Je 1:4, 11, 13; 2:1; 13:8 +; Ez 3:16; 6:1; 7:1; 11:14, 17, 21, 26, 12:1, 8;+; so also abs. הָיָה הַמַּשָּׂא הַזֶּה Is 14:28 in the death-year of king Ahaz came this utterance; also sq. מִן; מַלְכֵי עַמִּים מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ Gn 17:16 (P), וּקְהַל גּוֹיִם יִהְיֶה מִמֶּ֑ךָּ 35:11 (P), וְהָיָה אַדִּירוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ Je 30:21 (‖ מִקִּרְבּוֹ יֵצֵא); הַכֹּל הָיָה מִן־הֶעָפָר וְהַכֹּל שָׁב אֶל הֶעָפָר Ec 3:20 all came from the dust, & all return unto the dust; וַיְהִי קֶצֶף גָּדוֹל מֵאֵת י׳ צְבָאוֹת Zc 7:12. 2. become: a. sq. pred. noun (to be viewed as implicit accus. Dr§ 161, 3 n. according to the Arabic usage WAG ii, § 41.44.74): הִוא הָֽיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָ֑י Gn 3:20 (J) it was she that became the mother of all living; וַיְהִי הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה 4:2 (J) and Abel became a shepherd of flocks, while Cain became a tiller of ground; 2 S 8:14 Mi 2:11 + often b. sq. pred. adj. Gn 38:7; Ex 36:13 +; cf. Gn 37:20 let us see what his dream will become (turn out to be, signify); c. become like (כְּ), וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים Gn 3:5 and ye shall become like gods cf. v 22, Nu 11:1 (JE), Ho 2:1; 7:11; Is 9:18; 1 K 7:8; Zc 9:7 +; cf. Gn 15:5 so (כֹּה) shall thy seed become; specif. of likeness in punishment Is 1:9 1 S 17:36 +; also with כְּ repeated וְהָיָה כָעָם כַּכֹּהֵן Ho 4:9 and the people shall become like the priest (lit., and the like of the people shall become the like of the priest), so especially Is 24:2 (6 pairs of words as above); וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע Gn 18:25 (J), v. כְּ. b + c Gn 27:23 his hands had become like the hands of Esau his brother, hairy. d. sq. pred. + לְ pers. וּתְהִי אִשָּׁה לְבֶן־אֲדֹנֶיךָ Gn 24:51 (J) and let her become wife to the son of thy lord, 1 S 16:21; 1 K 11:25 ψ 89:42; 1 Ch 18:6 +; = be instituted, established, וְהָיָה לָהֶם חָק־עוֹלָם Ex 30:21 (P) and it shall be established for them as a perpetual ordinance (cf. f infr.). e. sq. לְ pred.: וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה Gn 2:7 (J) and the man became a living soul; וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים Gn 2:10 (J) and it became four heads; גַּם־הוּא יִהְיֶה־לְעָם Gn 48:19 (J) he too shall become a people; וִהְיוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים 1 S 4:9 and become (shew yourselves to be) men (‖ הִתְחַזְּקוּ; cf. with double לְ, f infr.); Zp 1:13; Ez 17:6; 47:12; Jb 16:8; וְהָיָה י׳ לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ Zc 14:9; וַיְהִי לְמַס עֹבֵדGn 49:15; Jos 16:10; so often; also in sense of turn into, be changed so as to become, וַיְהִי לְנָחָשׁ Ex 4:3 and it became a serpent, v 4; 7:10; Is 1:22; Dt 26:5 +; fig. וַיְהִי לְמָ֑יִם Jos 7:5 and it (their heart) turned to water, so וְהוּא הָיָה לְאֶבֶן 1 S 25:37; or, serve as וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת Gn 1:15 (P) and they shall become (fulfil the function of, serve as) luminaries, cf. v 14; וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית Gn 9:13; 17:11 (both P). f. often c. לְ pred. + לְ pers.: וַתְּהִי לָהֶם הַלְּבֵנָה לְאָ֑בֶן Gn 11:3 (J) and the bricks became (served as) stone for them; וַתְּהִי לִי לְאִשָּׁה Gn 20:12 (E) cf. 24:67 (J) +, וַתִּהְיֶינָה מַחְלָה וְחָגְלָהלַבְנֵי דֹדֵיהֶן לְנָשִׁים Nu 36:11; וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה 6:21 (P), Ex 2:10; 15:2 Ju 8:27; וְהָיָה י׳ לִי לֵאלֹהִים Gn 28:21 (E); אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה לוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִי לְבֵן 1 Ch 17:3 +; = shew or prove oneself as הֱיֵה־לִי לְבֶן־חַיִל 1 S 18:17 shew thyself for me a valiant man (cf. 1 S 4:9 e supr.); = be instituted, established (cf. e supr.) וְהָיָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו לְחָק־עוֹלָם Ex 29:28 and it shall be instituted for Aaron and his sons as a perpetual ordinance; cf. v 9 Lv 10:15; וְהָֽיְתָה לִהְיֹת לָהֶם מָשְׁחָתָם לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם Ex 40:15 (all P). g. with עַל and לְ 1 S 22:2 וַיְהִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְשָׂר and he became over them prince. h. sometimes c. לְ pers. only = become the property of, come into the possession of וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וְגו׳ Gn 12:16 (J), and he came to have flocks and herds etc., 26:14; 30:43; לֹא לוֹ יִהְיֶה הַזָּ֑רַע Gn 38:9 not his should the seed become; וְהָיָה לי׳ Ju 11:31 it shall become Yahweh’s; Dt 10:9; Jos 13:29; 1 K 10:26; 11:3 + often; so of a woman, as wife תְּהִי־נָא לְךָ Ju 15:2 pray let her become thine, cf. also וַתְּהִי אֵשֶׁת שִׁמְשׁוֹן לְמֵרֵעֵהוּ 14:20, Ho 3:3 Ru 1:13 Lv 21:3; Dt 24:2; Je 3:1; Ez 16:8 (and also + לְאִשָּׁה, לְנָשִׁים v. f supr.) III. Be (often with subordinate idea of becoming);— 1. exist, be in existence (i.e. orig. have come into existence), כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה 1 S 1:28 all the days which he shall have been (lived, = חַי Gn 5:5 etc., cf. DrSm), Jb 3:16, Is 23:13; often c. בְּ loc. וְכֹל שִׂיחַ הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ Gn 2:5 (J) and there was not yet in the earth any shrub of the field; וּבְאֵלֶּה לֹא הָיָה אִישׁ וגו׳ Nu 26:64 (P) and among them there was not a man to be found, etc.; also וְלֹא הָיָה כַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לְפָנָיו וְאַחֲרָיו Jos 10:14 (JE) & there hath not been a day like that before it nor since, cf. 2 S 14:25; 1 K 18:5; 21:25; 2 K 23:25; Ne 13:26 +; somewhat weaker, in the freq. introductory clause וַיְהִי אִישׁ now there was a man Ju 13:2; 1 S 1:1; 9:1; Nu 9:6 (P), Jb 1:1 +; on אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה Ex 3:14 v. יהוֹה. 2. abide, remain, continue (with word of place or time) וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר Ex 24:18 and Moses remained in the mount forty days, etc., so 34:28 (both JE), Ju 17:4, 12 1 S 6:1 1 K 11:20 2 K 11:3 = 2 Ch 22:12 +; also Lv 22:27; 25:28 (both H), etc.; sq. עַד temp. remain until Dt 22:2 1 K 11:40; 2 K 15:5; 2 Ch 5:9; 26:21; Dn 1:21 etc.; cf. הוּא יִהְיֶה לְעוֹלָם Ec 3:14; so also of space sq. עַד extend unto, as far as, Jos 19:10: of net beneath altar, Ex 27:5 shall reach as far as (עַד) the middle of the altar. 3. with word of locality, be in or at a place, be situated, stand, lie; בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה Gn 4:8 (J) when they were in the field, הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה שָׁם אָהֳלֹה בַּתְּחִלָּה 13:3 (J) the place where his tent had stood at first; וְהָאָרֶץ תִּהְיֶה לִפְנֵיכֶם 34:10 and the land, it lieth before you; cf. Jos 19:1; Ju 7:1, 8; Mi 5:6, 7; sq. עַל be, be found or situated upon Is 30:25 and there shall be upon every high mountain etc., streams, water-courses; Ez 37:27 and my dwelling-place shall be over them; fig. of guilt וְהָיָה עָלָיךָ דָּמִים Dt 19:10 and blood (-guilt) be upon thee. 4. as copula, joining subj. & pred.:— a. sq. pred. adj. וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים Gn 2:25, וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם 3:1, בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים 34:25, וַיְהִי יוֹסֵף יְפֵה־תֹאַר 39:6; Dt 23:15; Jos 19:9; Ju 11:1; Jb 1:1, 3b 2 Ch 7:21. b. sq. pred. noun Gn 1:2; 9:18; 25:3; 36:14; 40:13; 1 S 17:34, 42 2 S 8:10; 20:26; 1 K 10:6; 2 K 3:4; 5:1(×2) 1 Ch 9:20; 11:20; 18:10; 26:10; 2 Ch 13:7; כִּי לֹא־הָיָה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל 2 Ch 18:32 (‖ 1 K 22:33 כִּי־לֹא־מֶלֶךְ ישׂראל הוּא) +; often of age: וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים Gn 17:1 (P) 2 K 8:17; 14:2; 15:2, 33; 18:2; 2 Ch 21:20; 27:8 +; sq. pred. Inf. abs. (very anomal.) וְהַמַּיִם הָיוּ הָלוֹךְ וְחָסוֹר Gn 8:5; = amount to, come to, in enum. of days of life, number of people, amounts of money, etc.: Gn 5:4, 5, 8, 11, 14; 9:29; 11:32; 23:1 +; Ex 38:24 Nu 1:46, etc. c. sq. adv. & adverbial phr.: לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ Gn 2:18 (J) it is not good that the man be alone; חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים 18:11 (J). d. sq. prep.: (a) be with, accompany c. עִם, subj. most often י׳ or אלהים with added idea of protection, aid Gn 26:3; 31:3; 39:10; 48:21 Jos 1:3; 6:27; Ju 1:19; 2:18; 1 S 3:19; 18:12; 20:13; 1 K 1:37; 1 Ch 11:13; 2 Ch 17:3; sq. עִמָּדִי Gn 28:20; 31:5; 35:3; sq. עִם, human subj., of accompaniment וְהָיָה הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן עִם־הַלְוִיִּם Ne 10:39; 1 Ch 11:12, read also in ‖ 2 S 23:9 (Th We Dr); = be on the side of 1 K 1:8; c. עִם also = be near וּמַלְאַךְ י׳ הָיָה עִם־גֹּרֶן האורנה 2 S 24:16 (cf. Dr); also 2 S 13:20 implying sexual intercourse, so Gn 39:10 (perhaps gloss, cf. Di); peculiar uses with עִם are: וּדְבַר־אַבְנֵר הָיָה עִם־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל 2 S 3:17 and the speech of A. had been with the elders of Isr., cf. 1 K 1:7; וַיְהִי עִם־לְבַב דָּוִד אָבִי לִבְנוֹת 1 K 8:17 and it was with (i.e. in) the heart of David my father to build, = 2 Ch 6:7 cf. 1 K 8:18(×2) 1 Ch 22:7; 2 Ch 6:8(×2); 24:4; also 1 K 10:2 = 2 Ch 9:1; (b) be with, sq. אֶת, subj. י׳, אלהים, Gn 21:20; 39:2, 21 but also c. human subj. וּבָנָיו הָיוּ אֶת־מִקְנֵהוּ Gn 34:5, cf. 1 S 29:3 +; (c) sq. לְ of possessor כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִידִדִי Is 5:1 a vineyard had my beloved, Gn 30:30 cf. Ex 20:3 = Dt 5:7, Ju 18:27; 1 S 9:2; 1 K 5:6 + often (cf. I. 2 d, f, h); (d) sq. לְ + other prep.: of boundary וַיְהִי לָהֶם הַגְּבוּל מֵעֲרוֹעֵר Jos 13:16, cf. וַיְהִי גְבוּלָם מִמַּחֲנַיִם v 30; וַיְהִי לָהֶם הַגְּבוּל לִפְאַת צָפוֹנָה מִיַּרְדֵּן 18:12, etc.; (e) sq. בְּ be among, or of, Am 1:1 who was one of the herdsmen, 1 K 2:7 let them be among those eating, Pr 22:26; 23:20. 5. periphrastic conjug.: a. היה + pt., of continuous state, or condition, sometimes, especially late (cf. NH), of habit, c. וַיְהִי also of beginning and continuance (cf. Dr§ 135, (5)): pt. act. Gn 39:22 (J), Ex 3:1 (E), 1 S 2:11; 7:10; 18:9 (cf. Dr) v 14, 29 2 S 8:15 = 1 Ch 18:14, Dt 28:29; Is 30:20; 1 K 5:1, 15, 24 2 K 6:5; 9:14; 2 Ch 9:26; Ezr 4:4; Ne 1:4, 2:13; Dn 1:16 +; Gn 1:6 (P); הָיָה יָרֵא אֶת־י׳ 1 K 18:3; 2 K 4:1; 2 Ch 26:1; pt. pass. Jos 10:26; 1 K 13:24; 22:35 וְהַמֶּלֶךְ הָיָה מָעֳמָד בַּמֶּרְכָּבָה (‖ 2 Ch 18:34 הָיָה מַעֲמִיד), Is 2:2 = Mi 4:1, וְהָיָה סָגוּר Ez 44:2, ה׳ נַעֲשֶׂה Ne 5:18, וְאָהוּב לֵאלֹהָיו ה׳ 13:26;—on 2 S 13:32 cf. Dr b. sq. Inf. c. לְ (Dr§ 203, 204): וְהָיָה לְבָעֵר Is 5:5 and it shall be to burn (is to be, is destined to be burned) etc.; וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא Gn 15:12 and the sun was about to set; וַיְהִי הַשַּׁעַר לִסְגּוֹר Jos 2:5 and the gate was about to be shut; but also וַיְהִי לִדְרשׁ אֱלֹהִים 2 Ch 26:5 (nearly = וַיְהִי + Pt.)
    Niph. Pf. נִהְיָה 1 K 1:27 + 6 times + Mi 2:4 (cf. infr. ad fin.); 3 fs. נִהְיְתָה Ju 19:30 + 5 times, נִהְיָ֑תָה Ex 11:6 Je 48:19, וְנִהְיָ֑תָה consec. Ez 39:8 + 21:12 (del. B Codd 𝔊 Co); 2 ms. נִהְיֵיתָ Dt 27:9; 1 s. נִהְיֵיתִי Dn 8:27; Pt. fs. נִהְיָה Pr 13:19;— 1. became c. ל Dt 27:9. 2. either, be done, or, come to pass: in the strong expressions אֲשֶׁר כָּמֹהוּ לֹא נ׳ וְכָמֹהוּ לֹא תֹסִף Ex 11:6 (J) a cry such as hath not occurred (been raised), and will not be again, cf. Dt 4:32 (be done;נִשְׁמַע), & Ju 19:30 (‖ נִרְאֲתָה);—but simply intrans. Jo 2:2; Dn 12:1 & appar. Ez 21:12 (‖ בָּאָ֫ה; on text, however, v. supr.) 39:8 (‖ id.);—also אֵיכָה נִהְיְתָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת Ju 20:3 how hath this wickedness been done? cf. v 12 Je 5:30; 48:19 also Ne 6:8; c. לֹא, existence denied לֹא נ׳ Zc 8:10 (‖ אֵינֶ֑נָּה); in all the above (except Jo 2:2; Dn 12:1 & Ez 21:12; 39:8) personal agency is clearly implied; it is expressed מֵאֵת אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ נ׳ הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה 1 K 1:27, so of divine agency (מֵאִתִּי) 1 K 12:24 = 2 Ch 11:4; further be attained, secured, of wages Zc 8:10 (c. לֹא, ‖ אֵינֶ֑נָּה); תַּאֲוָה נִהְיָה Pr 13:19 a desire come to pass, realized. 3. be done, finished, gone, only Dn וּשְׁנָתוֹ נִהְיְתָה עָלָיו Dn 2:1 and his sleep was finished upon him, i.e. left him (cf. Aramaic Dn 6:19); נִהְיֵיתִי 8:27 I came to an end, was exhausted (si vera l., del. 𝔊; ‖ נֶחֱלֵיתִי); נִהְיָה, in וְנָהָה נְהִי נִהְיָה Mi 2:4, is dub.; it is done, over, the ruin is come RobGes Ew Hi Ca Che RVm;? < om. as dittogr. StaZAW 1866, 122 f. cf. JBL1890, 74.77.
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