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    חַרְהֲיָה — חֶשְׁבּוֹן


    חַרְהֲיָה v. חרחיה.BDB חַרְהֲיָה.2


    [חָרוּז] n.[m.] string of beads, only pl. צַוָּארֵךְ בַּחֲרוּזִים Ct 1:10 thy neck (is comely) with strings of beads.BDB חָרוּז.2


    חָרוּל n.[m.] a kind of weed, perhaps chickpea (cicercula), v. Löw p. 153 (Syriac ܚܽܘܪܠܴܐ fodder for horses; 𝔗 Pr 24:31 gives חוּרְלָא)—abs. ח׳ Jb 30:7 Zp 2:9; pl. חֲרֻלִּים Pr 24:31;—as growing in devastated land, coll. Zp 2:9; in vineyard of slothful, pl. כִּסּוּ פניו ח׳ Pr 24:31 (‖ קִמְּשׂנִים); as sole shelter of certain outcast peoples Jb 30:7 (שִׂיחִים).BDB חָרוּל.2


    חֲרוּמַף n.pr.m. father of one of the builders of the wall Ne 3:10.BDB חֲרוּמַף.2


    חָרוֹן n.m. (burning of) anger (cf. LagBN 204 Anm. )ח׳ Ez 7:12 + 2 times; cstr. חֲרוֹן Nu 25:4 + 33 times; sf. חֲרוֹנִי Ez 7:14 (Co חרון), חֲרוֹנוֹ ψ 2:5; חֲרֹנְךָ Ex 15:7; pl. sf. חֲרוֹנֶי֑ךָ ψ 88:17;—always of God’s anger (v. note, infr.), חֲרוֹן אף Ex 32:12 Nu 25:4; 32:14 Jos 7:26 (J), Dt 13:18 1 S 28:18 2 K 23:26 2 Ch 28:11, 13; 29:10; 30:8 Ezr 10:14 Ho 11:9 Na 1:6 Zp 2:2; 3:8 Is 13:9, 13 Je 4:8, 26; 12:13; 25:37, 38; 30:24; 49:37; 51:45 Jon 3:9 ψ 69:25; 78:49; 85:4 Jb 20:23 La 1:12; 4:11; אף om., Ex 15:7 (song), Ne 13:18 ψ 2:5 Ez 7:12 (del. Co), v 14; pl. bursts of burning anger ψ 88:17.—
    Note. כְּמוֹ־חָרוֹן ψ 58:10 burning anger 𝔊 𝔙 Jer AV Bae Che; but Thes MV SS DeW Ew Ol Pe, something burning, e.g. thorns, antith. green thorns; Hengst De cooked flesh, antith. raw; Je 25:38 מפני ח׳ הַיּוֹנָה because of the fierceness of the oppressor (? AV) would then be the only use of the word of other than God’s anger; here 𝔊 𝔗 Ew Hi Gf Ke Che Gie RV rightly read חרב oppressing sword (as 46:16; 50:16). חרון is not used in H P D 2 or E (except song, Ex 15:7) of the Hex; nor in Ez except 7:12 (del. Co), v 14.
    BDB חָרוֹן.2


    חֹרוֹנַיִם, חֹרֹנַיִם n.pr.loc. (poss. two hollows, caves, ravines, v. בֵּית חוֹרֹן)דֶּרֶךְ חרונים Is 15:5 Je 48:3, מוֹרַד חֹרוֹנָ֑יִם Je 48:5, חֹרֹנַיִם 48:34, city of Moab; = MI31.32 חורנן (i.e. prob. הוֹרֹנֵן); 𝔊 Αρωνιειμ, Ωρωναιμ.—On חֹרֹנַיִם 𝔊 Jos 13:10, 11 2 S 13:34 v. We Dr and בֵּית חוֹרֹן.BDB חֹרוֹנַיִם.2


    † I. חָרוּץ adj. sharp, diligent (on this and foll. v. BaNB 173)חָרוּץ Is 28:27 + 11 times; pl. חֲרוּצִים Pr 10:4; 12:24; חֲרֻצִים Pr 13:4; חֲרֻצוֹת Am 1:3;—
    1. sharp: of threshing instrument מוֹרָג ח׳ חָדָשׁ Is 41:15; without מ׳, as subst., 28:27 (where יוּדַשׁ); ח׳ הַבַּרְזֶל Am 1:3; Jb 41:22 (fig. of crocodile).
    2. fig. diligent: as subst. Pr 21:5; opp. רְמִיָּה Pr 10:4; 12:24, 27; opp. עָצֵל Pr 13:4.—Dn 9:25 v. iv. חרוץ.
    BDB חָרוּץ.2


    † II. חָרוּץ n.[m.] strict decision, only עֵמֶק הֶחָרוּץ Jo 4:14(×2) valley of strict decision (v. Bal. c.).BDB חָרוּץ².2


    † III. חָרוּץ n.[m.] trench, moat (Aramaic חֲרִיצָא; Assyrian ḫariṣu, ḫiriṣu, id., DlHWB)—only in רְחוֹב וְח׳ Dn 9:25, si vera l.; as above Ges Herzf Ew Zö Meinh (q.v.); Gr רְחוֹב וחיץ; < 𝔊 Bev רְחוֹב וָחוּץ with public places and streets.BDB חָרוּץ³.2


    † IV. חָרוּץ n.pr.m. father of king Amon’s mother 2 K 21:19, 𝔊 Αρους.BDB חָרוּץ⁴.2


    † V. חָרוּץ n.m. Pr 8:10 gold, poet. (Ph. חרץ, v. DrSm xxviii.; Assyrian ḫurâṣu)חָרוּץ ψ 68:14 + 5 times; gold, always ‖ כֶּסֶף; Zc 9:3, of dove’s wings ψ 68:14 בִּירַקְרַק ח׳; elsewhere in comparison with value of wisdom, etc. Pr 3:14; 8:10 (ח׳ נִבְחָר) v 19; 16:16.BDB חָרוּץ⁵.2


    חרז (√ of foll.; NH חֲרַז string together, especially jewels or pearls; Aramaic חֲרַז id.; ܚܪܰܙ id.; Arabic خَرَزَ sew or stitch, خَرَزٌ beads strung together, neck-ornament).BDB חרז.2


    חַרְחוּר, חַרְחֻר v. sub i. חרר.BDB חַרְחוּר.2


    חַרְחוּר n.pr.m. head of a family of returning exiles Ezr 2:51 = Ne 7:53; 𝔊 Αρου(α)ρ (meaning as above? or from ii. חרר?).BDB חַרְחוּר².2


    חַרְחֲיָה (van d. H. חרהיה), n.pr.m. (√ and meaning. unknown)—father of one of the builders of the wall, Neh.’s time Ne 3:8.BDB חַרְחֲיָה.2


    חַרְחַס n.pr.m. grandfather of Shallum, who was husband of Huldah the prophetess 2 K 22:14 (v. חַסְרָה).BDB חַרְחַס.2


    חַרְחֻר n.m. violent heat, fever (v. BaNB 206)בַּשַּׁחֶפֶת וּבַקַּדַּחַת וּבַדַּלֶּקֶת וּבַח׳ ובחרב וגו׳ Dt 28:22.BDB חַרְחֻר.2


    I. חרט (√ of foll.; Aramaic ܚܪܰܛ cut, scratch, tear; cf. Arabic خَرَطَ peel off bark, strip off leaves (mod. Arabic turn wood), مِخْرَطٌ iron instrument for doing this).BDB חרט.2


    חֶ֫רֶט n.[m.] graving-tool, stylus
    1. graving-tool, with which Aaron fashioned (וַיָּצַר) the molten calf Ex 32:4 (E).
    2. stylus, for writing on tablet (גִּלָּיוֹן): כְּתֹב עָלָיו בְּחֶרֶט אֱנוֹשׁ Is 8:1 write on it with a man’s (i.e. an ordinary) stylus = in common characters, intelligible to all (v. BenzArch. 290).
    BDB חֶ֫רֶט.2


    II. חרט (√ of foll.; relation to I. חרט obscure).BDB חרט².2


    [חַרְטֹם] n.m. Ex 7:22 engraver, writer, only in deriv. sense of one possessed of occult knowledge, diviner, astrologer, magician (prob. = ם + חֶרֶט, v. Di Ol§ 216, 5 Sta§§ 295, 327 a)—only pl. abs. חַרְטֻמִּים Gn 41:24 + 4 times; חַרְטֻמִּם Ex 8:15; 9:11; cstr. חַרְטֻמֵּי Gn 41:8 + 2 times;—
    1. magicians of Egypt Gn 41:8 (E; ‖ חֲכָמִים), v 24 (E), Ex 8:3, 14, 15; 7:11 (‖ חֲכָמִים, מְכַשְּׁפִים), v 22 9:11(×2) (all P).
    2. magicians of Babylon Dn 1:20; 2:2 (‖ אַשָּׁפִים, מְכַשְּׁפִים, כַּשְׂדִּים). the fact that the word is always applied to Egypt. magicians, except Dn 2:2 (late), suggests Egypt. origin, but no agreement among Egyptologists: HarkavyJAs, 1870, Mars—Avril, 169 proposes xar, speak + tum, hidden = teller of hidden things; WiedSamml 44: thinks Heb. word perhaps imitating an Egypt. cher-ṭem-t, he who holds the book; FCCook ‘Speaker’s’ Comm. i. 279 proposes cher-tum = bearer of sacred words.
    BDB חַרְטֹם.2


    חֳרִי n.m. burning, always חֳרִי (הָ)אַף of Moses Ex 11:8 (J); Jonathan 1 S 20:34; army of Ephraim 2 Ch 25:10; Rezin Is 7:4; of God Dt 29:23 La 2:3.BDB חֳרִי.2


    † I. חֹרִי n.[m.] white bread or cake שְׁלֹשָׁה סַלֵּי חֹרִי Gn 40:16 three baskets of white bread.—ii. חֹרִי v. iii. חרר.BDB חֹרִי.2

    חֲרֵי יוֹנים

    חֲרֵי יוֹנים v. [חרא, חרי]. חֲרִישִׁי v. p. 362.BDB חֲרֵי יוֹנים.2


    חֳרִי v. חָרָה.BDB חֳרִי².2


    I. חֹרִי white bread v. sub I. חור.BDB חֹרִי².2


    II. חֹרִי, חוֹרִי n.pr.gent. v. sub III. חרר.BDB חֹרִי³.2


    † II. חֹרִי, חוֹרִי adj., usually n.pr.gent. et pers. (prob. = cave-dweller, so Thes Rob-Ges. MV VB; v. also W Max Müll Asien u. Europa 136, 155, 156)
    1. adj. gent. שֵׂעִיר הַח׳ Gn 36:20 Seir the Horite (P); read הַח׳ also v 2 for MT הַחִוִּי.
    2. n.pr.gent. always c. art.; usually sg. coll. הַחֹרִי, ancient inhabitants of land of Edom Gn 14:6 (בְּהַרֲרָם שֵׂעִיר); in P called בְּנֵי שֵׂעִיר בְּאֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם 36:21 (vid. v 20); cf. v 29, 30; according to Dt 2:12 (where alone הַחֹרִים), v 22 they were driven out by sons of Esau (yet v. Gn 36l. c. and Di); 𝔊 ὁ Χορραιος, οἱ Χορραιοι, (Gn 36:29, 30 Χορρ(ε)ι).
    3. n.pr.pers.m. a. חֹרִי an Edomite Gn 36:22 = 1 Ch 1:39; 𝔊 Χορρ(ε)ι. b. חוֹרי a Simeonite Nu 13:5, but 𝔊 Σουρ(ε)ι, 𝔊L Σουδρι.—i. חֹרִי v. sub i. חור.
    BDB חֹרִי⁴.2


    [חָרִיט] n.m. 2 K 5:23 bag, purse (cf. Arabic خَرِيطَةٌ bag or purse made of skin or other material)—only pl. abs. שְׁנֵי חֲרִטִים 2 K 5:23, containing each a talent of silver; הַֽחֲרִיטִים Is 3:22 in list of ladies’ finery.BDB חָרִיט.2


    [חָרִיץ] n.m. 1 S 17:18 a cut, thing cut, sharp instrument;—pl. cstr. חֲרִיצֵי 1 S 17:18 1 Ch 20:3; חֲרִצֵי 2 S 12:31;—
    1. ח׳ הֶחָלָב 1 S 17:18 cuts of milk i. e. cheeses.
    2. sharp instr. of iron, 2 S 12:31 = 1 Ch 20:3 בַּמְּגֵרָה ובח׳ הַבַּרְזֶל וּבַמְּגֵרוֹת (cf. Am 1:3 sub חרוץ 1, and DrSm).
    BDB חָרִיץ.2


    חָרִישׁ n.m. ploughing, ploughing-time—abs. ח׳ וְקָצִיר Gn 45:6 (E) ploughing and harvesting; also (= time of ploughing and harvest) Ex 34:21 (JE); c. sf. as acc. cogn. חָרַשׁ חֲרִישׁוֹ 1 S 8:12 (v. supr. חָרַשׁ 2).BDB חָרִישׁ.2


    [חֲרִישִׁי] adj. meaning wholly dub.; only רוּחַ קָדִים חֲרִישִׁית Jon 4:8; a silent east wind is not suitable in context; still = sultry is mere conject.; Hi autumnal (√ I. חרשׁ); St proposes חרישׂית = חריסית, from חֶרֶם sun (or √ whence חֶרֶס comes) hot east wind; We makes no attempt to explain.BDB חֲרִישִׁי.2


    II. חרך (√ of foll.; meaning unknown).BDB חרך.2


    † I. [חָרַךְ] vb. set in motion, start (cf. Arabic حَرُكَ move, be agitated, ii. set in motion)—only
    Qal Impf. 3 ms. לֹא־יַחֲרֹךְ רְמִיָּה צֵידוֹ Pr 12:27 slackness (i.e. a slack or slothful man) doth not start its game De RVm, cf. Now (> Be Ew after Jewish trad., doth not roast, Aramaic חֲרַךְ, ܚܪܰܟ scorch, parch).
    BDB חָרַךְ.2


    חֲרַכִּים n.[m.]pl. lattice or other opening through which one may look (Aramaic חֲרַכָּא 𝔗 Jos 2:15 al. = Heb. חַלּוֹן; but NH חֲרָךְ is an opening smaller than a window)—only מֵצִיץ מִן־הַח׳ Ct 2:9 peeping in at the lattice (‖ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחַלֹּנוֹת).BDB חֲרַכִּים.2


    חרל (√ of foll.; meaning unknown).BDB חרל.2


    חֳרֵם n.pr.loc. (sacred; cf. Sab.. n.pr.loc. אחרם DHMEpigr. Denkm. 43)—a place in tribe of Naphtali Jos 19:38 (P); not identified.BDB חֳרֵם.2


    † I. חֵ֫רֶם n.m. Lv 27:28 1. devoted thing. 2. devotion, ban;—ח׳ abs. Jos 6:17 + 24 times (most read חֶרֶם Zc 14:11, Baer חֵרֶם); חֶ֑רֶם Jos 7:1; sf. חֶרְמִי 1 K 20:42 Is 34:5;—thing devoted to י׳:
    1. thing hostile to theocracy, and therefore (in the strictest application) to be either destroyed, or, in the case of certain objects (e.g. silver and gold, vessels of brass and iron Jos 6:19, 24), set apart to sacred uses; especially a. of a Canaan. city, as Jericho, incl. all inhab. (except Rahab’s family) and spoil Jos 6:17, 18(×2); 7:1, 11, 15; Achan by taking מִן־הַחֵרֶם made (camp of) Isr. ח׳ 7:12 cf. 6:18, and became himself ח׳, and was stoned and, with his family and possessions, incl. the spoil, was burnt 7:1, 11, 12, 13(×2) (all JE except 7:1 P; cf. v 15, 24, 25); מָעַל מַעַל בַּח׳ committed unfaithfulness in the matter of the devoted thing is term for the sin Jos 7:1 22:20 (both P), cf. מָעַל בַּח׳ 1 Ch 2:7; Saul and Isr. spared Agag king of Amalek and רֵאשִׁית הַח׳ i.e. of the spoil (sheep and oxen), wh. should have been utterly destroyed 1 S 15:21 (cf. v 3, 8; Saul rejected by י׳ for this v 11, 26); so an idolatr. city in Isr. should become ח׳, with all its contents, and be utterly destroyed Dt 13:17 (cf. v 13, 15, 16). b. of individuals, one having relic of Canaanit. god in his house should become ח׳, the relic being ח׳ Dt 7:26(×2); every human being who became ח׳ should be killed Lv 27:29(×2) (P; v. Di).
    2. appar. (so Di) anything devoted to sanctuary under specially stringent conditions Lv 27:28 (v. Di; and cf. Ezr 10:8); a field consecrated to י׳ becomes under certain conditions כִּשְׂדֵה הַח׳ Lv 27:21; every ח׳ is קֹדֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁים ליהוה v 28, and no ח׳ that a man may devote, whether man, beast or field, may be sold or redeemed v 28; every such ח׳ (as in case of metals and metal objects Jos 6:17, 19) went to Aaron and his sons Nu 18:14 (P), to Zadokite priests Ez 44:29.
    3. devotion, ban, involving destruction; אִישׁ חֶרְמִי 1 K 20:42 man under my (י׳’s) ban (of Benhadad); עַם חֶרְמִי Is 34:5 (of Edom); נתן לַח׳ Is 43:28 fig. of י׳’s giving over Jud. to Chald.; ח׳ not to be in future Zc 14:11; פֶּן־אָבוֹא וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ ח׳ Mal 3:24 smite the land with a ban, i.e. utterly destroy it.
    BDB חֵ֫רֶם.2


    חָרִם n.pr.m. (consecrated; cf. Sab. n.pr.m. חרם, יחרמאל Hal411. 504 DHMl.c.)
    1. priest of the third course, David’s time, according to 1 Ch 24:8.
    2. priest of time of Nehemiah Ne 10:6.
    3. heads of families of returning exiles: a. Ezr 2:39 = Ne 7:42, Ezr 10:21 Ne 12:15. b. Ezr 2:32 = Ne 7:35, Ezr 10:31 Ne 3:11.
    4. a prince Ne 10:28.
    BDB חָרִם.2


    † I. [חָרַם] vb.Hiph. ban, devote, exterminate (MI17 החרמתה of devoting, dedicating a city to Chemosh, in cl. with כי explaining massacre of all inhabitants; the altar-hearth of י׳ there was dragged before Chemosh; حَرُمَ be prohibited, forbidden, unlawful, become sacred; ii. make, pronounce sacred, inviolable; Ethiopic ሐረመ prohibit from common use, consecrate to God, esteem unlawful; Palm. חרם = consacré VogNo. 35; Nab. id., Eutp. 28; Sab. מחרם sanctuary, temple, OsZMG 1865, 176, 252, חרמתן DHMZMG 1875, 594; Aramaic אַחֲרִים, and especially ܐܰܚܪܶܡ anathematize, excommunicate; v. also WeSkizzen iii, 165, DrSm 100 ff., RSSem. i. 140(150))
    Hiph. Pf. הֶהֱרִים Jos 8:26 + 5 times; הֶחֱרִם Jos 10:28; 2 ms. וְהַחֲרַמְתָּ֫ה 1 S 15:18; 1 s. הֶחֱרַמְתִּי 1 S 15:20; וְהַחֲרַמְתִּ֫י Nu 21:2; 2 fs. וְהַחֲרַמְתְּ(י) consec. Mi 4:13 (so 𝔊 𝔙 𝔖 𝔗 RV most; MT 1 s.), v. Ges§ 44, R. 4; pl. הֶחֱרִימוּ 1 S 15:9 2 Ch 32:14 etc.; (1 S 15:3 read והחרמתו 𝔊 We Dr); Impf. יַחֲרִם Lv 27:28; וַיַּחֲרֵם Nu 21:3 Jos 10:37; sf. וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ Jos 10:1; 1 pl. וַנַּחֲרֵם Dt 2:34; 3:6 etc.; Imv. הַחֲרֵם Dt 13:16; pl. הַחֲרִימוּ Je 51:3; sf. הַחֲרִימוּהָ Je 50:26; Inf. abs. הַחֲרֵם Dt 3:6 + 4 times; cstr. הַחֲרִים 2 Ch 20:23 Dn 11:44; sf. הַחֲרִימָם Jos 11:20 + 4 times;—ban, devote (especially religiously, sq. objects hostile to the theocracy [v. especially Ex 22:19 Hoph.]; this involved gen. their destruction; when a city was ‘devoted’ the inhab. were put to death, the spoil being destroyed or not according to the gravity of the occasion [contrast Jos 6:17, 21 1 S 15:3 with Dt 2:34f.; 3:6, 7], cf. MI17 לעשתר כמש החרמתה to Ashtar-Chemosh I devoted it, i.e. the city Nebo);— 1. most often of devoting to destruction cities of Canaanites and other neighbours of Isr., exterminating inhabitants, and destroying or appropriating their possessions: a. Isr. and her leaders subj. Nu 21:2, 3 (destruction according to vow), Jos 6:21 (cf. חֵרֶם ליהוה v 17; all J); in v 18 read תַּחְמְדוּ (for MT תַּחֲרִימוּ, v. Di VB); 8:26 𝔊, not 𝔊L, om. v.), 10:1 (JE), Dt 2:34; 3:6(×2); 7:2(×2) (commanded through Moses, cf. for underlying thought v 4, 5, 6), 20:17(×2) (commanded by י׳), Jos 2:10 10:28, 35, 37, 39, 40 (divine command), 11:11, 12, 20, 21 (divine command v 12, 20; all D), 1 S 15:3, 8, 9(×2), 15, 18, 20 (divine command v 3, 18, 20, cf. v 11, 22, 23); quite secondary is simple exterminate 1 K 9:21, 1 Ch 4:41. b. secondary meaning destroy, exterminate, also with other nations subj.:—2 K 19:11 = Is 37:11 = 2 Ch 32:14, 2 Ch 20:23, Je 50:21, 26 (both by divine command), 51:3 Dn 11:44. c. God as subj., fig. all nations and their armies Is 34:2; the nations of Western Asia Je 25:9; the tongue of the Egyptian sea (by drying it up) Is 11:15 (but read perhaps החריב with 𝔊 𝔖 𝔙 𝔗). d. so also of devoting even Israelites: a city of Isr. for worshipping other gods Dt 13:16; residents of Jabesh-Gilead for not joining in campaign against Benj. Ju 21:11. 2. devote to י׳: for sacred uses החרים ליהוה the spoil of the nations Mi 4:13; private possessions, whether a man, animal, or field Lv 27:28 (P).
    Hoph. Impf. יָחֳרַם Lv 27:29 Ezr 10:8; יָחֳרָ֑ם Ex 22:19;— 1. be put under the ban, devoted (to death), for worshipping other gods than י׳ Ex 22:19 (JE; earliest use of word in OT); for some other theocratic offence Lv 27:29 (P; v. Di). 2. devoted, i.e. forfeited, to the temple treasures Ezr 10:8.—On חרם v. especially Di (Kn) Lv 27:28; EwAntiq.75.78, Dr 1 S 15:33.
    BDB חָרַם.2


    † II. חֵ֫רֶם n.m. net (as something perforated; cf. Arabic مُخَرَّمٌ perforated work, Fl in NHWBii. 208; NH חֵרֶם net; Ph. חרם maker of nets)—abs. ח׳ Mi 7:2; sf. חֶרְמִי Ez 32:3, חֶרְמוֹ Hb 1:15, 16, 17; pl. חֲרָמִים Ec 7:26 Ez 26:5, 14; 47:10;—hunter’s net Mi 7:2 Ec 7:26; fisherman’s net Ez 26:5, 14; 32:3; 47:10 Hb 1:15, 16, 17.BDB חֵ֫רֶם².2


    † II. [חָרַם] vb. slit (nose, lip, ear, etc.), mutilate, especially face (Arabic خَرَمَ perforate, pierce, slit the partition between the nostrils, or the lip, or the lobe of the ear)
    Qal Pt. pass. אִישׁ עִוֵּר אוֹ פִּסֵּחַ אוֹ חָרֻם אוֹ שָׂרוּעַ a man blind or lame or mutilated in the face (in nose, lip, ear, etc.), or too long in a limb Lv 21:18 (H), v. Di (Kn).
    BDB חָרַם².2


    חָרְמָה n.pr.loc. (asylum, cf. Arabic id., WetzstZKW v. 1884, 115)—a royal city of Canaanites, in the South, in tribe of Simeon Nu 14:45 (JE; art. only here v. Di), 21:3 (J) where name expl. from Israel’s devoting Canaanites of Arad to destruction; Jos 15:30; 19:4 (P), Dt 1:44 Jos 12:14 (D), 1 S 30:30 1 Ch 4:30; originally called צְפַת Ju 1:17, where name is said to have been changed to Ḥormah because Judah and Simeon (after death of Joshua) devoted its inhabitants to destruction, v. Di Nu 21:3.—On site v. צְפַת.BDB חָרְמָה.2


    חֶרְמוֹן n.pr.mont. Hermon (sacred mountain, cf. Sab. מחרם, etc., temple, Arabic حَرَامٌ interior of mosque, حُرْمَةٌ asylum, WetzstZKW v. 1884, 115 RSSem i. 93; 2nd ed., 94)—the highest peak of Anti-Lebanon range, usually snow-capped, commanding southern Syria & northern Palestine; it is called שִׂיאֹן by the author of Dt 4:48; by the Amorites שְׂנִיר, by the Sidonians שִׂרְיֹן Dt 3:9. It has three peaks; and the names חרמון and שׂניר, distinguished in 1 Ch 5:23 Ct 4:8, may refer to two of these peaks; חֶרְמוֹנִים ψ 42:7 prob. refers to these different peaks (see RobBR iii, 357 BädPal. 301). It is a northern boundary עד הר ח׳ Dt 3:8 Jos 12:1; הר חרמוֹן mount Hermon is used also Jos 11:17; 12:5; 13:5, 11 1 Ch 5:23; but חרמון Jos 11:3 ψ 89:13; 133:3 Ct 4:8. Vid. בַּעַל חֶרְמוֹן Ju 3:3 1 Ch 5:23 (see Wetzstib. 115).BDB חֶרְמוֹן.2


    חֶרְמוֹנִים v. foregoing.BDB חֶרְמוֹנִים.2


    חֶרְמֵשׁ n.[m.] sickle (on form v. Ges§ 85 xii. 55)Dt 16:9; 23:26.BDB חֶרְמֵשׁ.2


    † I. חָרָן n.pr.loc. city in northern Mesopotamia (Assyrian ḫarrânu = road, path COTGloss.; cf. DlPa 185; JensenKosmologie 28 ‘junction of trading-routes’ = cross-roads)—mentioned as city of Abram’s sojourn Gn 11:31, where his father Teraḥ died v 32, and whence he departed for Canaan 12:4, 5; where Laban, Jacob’s uncle, lived, and whither Jacob fled 27:43; 28:10 (both חָרָ֫נָה), 29:4; as conquered by fathers of Sennacherib 2 K 19:12 = Is 37:12; as place of trade Ez 27:23; Assyrian Ḫarrana (-ni), SchrCOT on Gn 11:31; 27:43 𝔊 Χαρραν. It was an ancient seat of worship of moon-god (Sin), v. SchrKG 355, 536; see further ChwolsohnSsabier i, 303 ff. WüstenfeldZMG 1864, 443 f. SchrKG 355, 536 SachauReise 217 ff. Mez Gesch. d. Stadt Harran, 1892.BDB חָרָן.2


    † II. חָרָן n.pr.m. son of Caleb of Judah 1 Ch 2:46(×2); 𝔊 Αρραν, 𝔊L Ωρων (Sab. n.pr. חרן DHMEpigr. Dakm. 56).BDB חָרָן².2


    חֹרֹנִי adj.gent. v. id.BDB חֹרֹנִי.2


    חַרְנֶ֫פֶר n.pr.m. name in tribe of Asher 1 Ch 7:36 = n.pr.loc. v. Be—𝔊 Αναρφαρ, A Αρναφαρ, 𝔊L Αριαφερ.BDB חַרְנֶ֫פֶר.2


    חרס (√ of foll.; meaning dubious).BDB חרס.2


    † I. חֶ֫רֶס n.m. Ju 14:18 sun (NH id.)—abs. ח׳ Jb 9:7 (‖ כוכבים); c. ה epenth. בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַחַ֫רְסָה Ju 14:18 (cf. לַיִל, לַיְלָה) before the sun could go down (but read perhaps הַחַ֫דְרָה into the (bridal) chamber StaZAW 1884, 253 ff.).BDB חֶ֫רֶס.2


    III. חֶרֶס, חַרְסִית, חרסות v. sub חרשׂ.BDB חֶרֶס.2


    † II. [חֶ֫רֶס] n.pr.loc.
    1. abode of Amorites, בְּהַר־חֶרֶס בְּאַיָּלוֹן וּבְשַׁעַלְבִֿים Ju 1:35, since חֶרֶס sun = שֶׁמֶשׁ, perhaps = בֵּית שֶׁמֶשׁ 1. (q.v.), so Stu (who proposes עִיר חֶרֶס = עָר), Ke Be BuRS17 Öt Bla 𝔊 ἐν τῷ [ὄρει τοῦ] Μυρσινῶνι(-ος) = הַר הֲדַס.
    2. place E. of Jordan מִלְמַעֲלֵה הֶחָ֑רֶס Ju 8:13 from the ascent of Ḥeres, 𝔊 Αρες; the point whence Gideon turned back from pursuing Midian; Aq Symm read הֶהָרִים (v. LagOnom. 96, 2nd ed. 131) so SS.—תִּמְנַת־חֶרֶס Ju 2:9 v. sub תִּמְנַת, √ מנה.
    BDB חֶ֫רֶס².2


    † III. [חֶ֫רֶס] n.[m.] an eruptive disease, itch (Aramaic חַרְסָא, ܚܶܪܣܳܐ; also ܚܰܪܘܽܣ rough, etc.)וּבֶחָ֑רֶס Dt 28:27 (‖ עפלים Kt, גָּרָב),—i, ii. חֶרֶס v. sub חרס.BDB חֶ֫רֶס³.2


    חרסות Kt, חַרְסִית Qr n.f.coll. potsherdפֶּתַח שַׁעַר הַחַרְסִ֯ות Je 19:2, designation of a gate in Jerus.; opening of the gate of potsherds, i. e. where they were thrown (vid. v 10, 11 and Gf); it led into the valley of Hinnom; 𝔊 χαρσ(ε)ιθ favours Qr v. BaldenspergerPEF 1904, 136 on the crushing of potsherds in the Valley of Hinnom.BDB חרסות.2


    חרע (√ of foll.; perhaps cf. Aramaic ܚܪܰܥ Ethpa. be clever, ܚܳܪܥܳܐ shrewd, especially in bad sense; Arabic خَرَعَ split, viii. originate, invent).BDB חרע.2


    † II. חרף (√ of foll.; cf. Arabic خَرَفَ gather fruit, pluck).BDB חרף.2


    חָרִף, חָרִיף n.pr.m. (cf. Arabic خَرِيفٌ autumn, v. חֹרֶף supr.)
    1. חָרִף head of a family of returned exiles Ne 7:24 (𝔊 Αρειφ, 𝔊L Ιωρηε) = יוֹרָה (cf. יוֹרֶה early rain) Ezr 2:18 (𝔊 Ουρα, A Ιωρα, 𝔊L Ωραι).
    2. חָרִיף one of those sealed Ne 10:20 𝔊 Αρειφ(α), 𝔊L Αρηφ.
    BDB חָרִף.2


    חָרֵף (dub. whether from I. or II.) n.pr.m. a chief of the line of Judah 1 Ch 2:51.BDB חָרֵף.2


    † I. [חָרַף] vb. reproach (NH Pi. id.; Aramaic חֲרַף id., ܚܰܪܶܦ sharpen, ܚܰܪܺܝܦ sharp, keen, acute);—
    Qal Impf. לֹא־יֶחֱרַף לְבָבִי מִיָּמָ֑י Jb 27:6; Pt. sf. חֹרְפִי ψ 119:42 Pr 27:11; חוֹרְפֶיךָ ψ 69:10.
    Piel. Pf. חֵרֵף Ju 5:18 + 6 times; חֵרַפְתָּ Is 37:23 + 4 times etc. + 10 times pf.; Impf. יְחָרֵף 2 S 21:21 1 Ch 20:7; וְחָ֫רֶף ψ 74:10 + 2 times sf.; Inf. לְחָרֵף Is 37:4 + 5 times; בְּחָֽרְפָם 2 S 23:9 (but v. infr.); Pt. מְחָרֵף ψ 44:17;—reproach,—proposes say sharp things against,—taunt, c. acc. Ju 8:15 1 S 17:10, 25, 26, 36, 45 2 S 21:21 + 1 Ch 20:7; God, by injustice to the poor Pr 14:31; 17:5; Yahweh, by idolatry Is 65:7; Yahweh as the God of Israel 2 K 19:4, 16, 22, 23 = Is 37:4, 17, 23, 24 = 2 Ch 32:17 (c. לְ); c. בְּ, Philistines 2 S 23:9 MT (but read בְּפַס דַּמִּים at Pas-dammîm, n.pr.loc., as 1 Ch 11:13 We Dr); reproach, Ne 6:13 ψ 42:11; 44:17; 55:13; 57:4; 74:10, 18; 79:12; 89:52(×2); 102:9 Zp 2:8, 10; poet. and fig., despise, scorn, ח׳ נפשׁ למוּת Ju 5:18.
    BDB חָרַף.2


    חֹ֫רֶף n.m. harvest-time, autumn (Arabic خَرِيفٌ freshly gathered fruit, autumn (also rain of autumn or beginning of winter) = Sab. חֿרפ(ן) DHMZMG 1875, xxix. 597; Sab. חֿרף, חֿרפם = year, cf. Ethiopic ኀሪፍ annus currens Os(Levy)ZMG 1865, 168, 174 DHMZMG 1883, 369; Assyrian ḫarpu, SchrJPTh 1875, 341 KAT2 53 n. = COT i. 54 n.)—abs. ח׳ Zc 14:8 + 5 times; sf. חָרְפִּי Jb 29:4;—קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף Gn 8:22 (J), ψ 74:17 Zc 14:8; בֵּית הַח׳ autumn-house or palace Am 3:15 Je 36:22 (+ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַתְּשִׁיעִי in the 9th month, i.e. Nov.—Dec.); מח׳ עָצֵל לֹא יַחֲרֹשׁ Pr 20:4 a sluggard ploughs not after harvest; as implying maturity, בִּימֵי חָרְפִּי Jb 29:4 in the days of my autumn (prime).BDB חֹ֫רֶף.2


    III. [חָרַף] vb.denom. remain in harvest-time (so Arabic خَرَفَ; Eng. to winter)—only
    Qal Impf. 3 fs. כָּל־בֶּהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו תֶּחֱרָ֑ף Is 18:6 all the beasts of the earth shall spend the harvest-time upon it.
    BDB חָרַף².2


    † IV. [חָרַף] vb. acquire (cf. Arabic حَرَفَ turn a thing from its proper way or manner, but also gain, acquire [subsistence] for one’s family)—only
    Niph. Pt. f. שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ a maidservant acquired for a man (viz. as his concubine) Lv 19:20 (H; cf. NH חֲרוּפָה of woman designated for a man).
    BDB חָרַף³.2


    חֶרְפָּה n.f. reproachח׳ Gn 34:14 + 35 times; cstr. חֶרְפַּת Jos 5:9 + 15 times; sf. חֶרְפָּֽתְךָ ψ 74:22 etc. + 17 times sfs.; pl. חֲרָפוֹת ψ 69:11 Dn 12:2; cstr. חֶרְפּוֹת ψ 69:10.—
    1. taunt of enemy 1 S 17:26; so also 1 S 25:39; reproach cast upon another, scorn, contumely Ne 3:36; 5:9 ψ 69:20, 21; 71:13; 89:51; 119:22 Pr 18:3 Is 51:7 Ez 21:33; שׁמע ח׳ Je 51:51 Zp 2:8 La 3:61; נתן ח׳ על Je 23:40; נשׂא ח׳ על ψ 15:3 (slander); נשׂא ח׳ Je 31:19 Ez 36:15 Mi 6:16 (reproach); נשׂא ח׳ על bear reproach for ψ 69:8 Je 15:15 Zp 3:18; השׁיב ח׳ Ho 12:15 Ne 3:36; חרף ח׳ ψ 69:10; 79:12; 89:51; הסיר ח׳ מעל 1 S 17:26 Is 25:8; העביר ח׳ ψ 119:39; reproaches against God ψ 69:10 (חֶרְפּוֹת חוֹרְפֶיךָ), 74:22; 79:12.
    2. reproach which rests upon one, condition of shame, disgrace: a. sexual 2 S 13:13 Is 47:3 Ez 16:57 Pr 6:33. b. barrenness of womb Gn 30:23 (E) Is 4:1; widowhood Is 54:4. c. hunger Ez 36:30; disease Jb 19:5. d. ritual, uncircumcision Gn 34:14 (P) Jos 5:9 (JE). e. injuries from enemies La 3:30; 5:1 Ne 1:3; 2:17 Jb 16:10 Dn 11:18(×2).
    3. a reproach, the object of reproach, the person or thing reproached חֶרְפַּת אָדָם a reproach of man ψ 22:7; ח׳ נבל 39:9; היה ח׳ ל׳ become an object of reproach to 31:12; 79:4; 89:42; 109:25 Ez 5:15; (היה) לח (ל׳) Is 30:5 Je 6:10; 20:8; 42:18; 44:8, 12; 49:13 ψ 69:11 Dn 9:16; 12:2; נתן ח׳ (ל׳) Ez 22:4 Jo 2:19 ψ 78:66; נתן לח׳ Je 24:9; 29:18 Ez 5:14 Jo 2:17; שׂים ח׳ ל׳ ψ 44:14; שׂים ח׳ על 1 S 11:2.
    BDB חֶרְפָּה.2


    II. חרץ be yellow (prob. √ of foll.: Syriac ܚܪܰܥ id. (rare), ܚܰܪܘܽܥܳܐ yellow; cf. Aramaic חריע safflower, Arabic إِحْرِيضٌ id.: v. NöZMG 1886, 728, Löw Aramaic Pflanzenn. 218ii 1, 137).BDB חרץ.2


    † I. חָרַץ vb. cut, sharpen, decide (NH id., cut in, decide, Aramaic in deriv.; Assyrian ḫarâṣu, dig, decide, ḫariṣu, trench, ZehnpfundBAS i. 502; Ph. חרץ decision, HoffmAGG xxxvi. May 1889, 11)
    Qal Pf. 3 ms. ח׳ Jos 10:21; חָרָ֑צְתָּ 1 K 20:40; Impf. יֶחֱרַץ־ Ex 11:7; 2 ms. תֶּחֱרָ֑ץ 2 S 5:24; Pt. pass. חָרוּץ Is 10:22 Lv 22:22; pl. חֲרוּצִים Jb 14:5 (v. also חָרוּץ infr.)— 1. cut, mutilate Lv 22:22 (עַוֶּרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ־חָרוּץ אוֹ יַבֶּלֶת). 2. sharpen, fig. the tongue, לֹא יֶח׳־כֶּלֶב לְשֹׁנוֹ לְ Ex 11:7 (J), i.e. utter no sound against Isr., Jos 10:21. 3. decide 1 K 20:40 (abs.); so pt. pass. חרוצים ימיו Jb 14:5 his days are determined, fixed (‖ מִסְפַּר חדשׁיו), Is 10:22 כִּלָּיוֹן ח׳; act with decision 2 S 5:24.
    Niph. Pt. נֶחֱרָצָה Is 10:23 + 3 times; נֶחֱרֶצֶת Dn 9:26 (both these forms inf. cstr. according to BaNB 90); decisive כָּלָה וְנֶח׳ Is 10:23; 28:22 Dn 9:27 a consumption and strict decision (i.e. that which is strictly determined), כי נ׳ נֶעֱשָׂ֑תָה Dn 11:36; נח׳ שֹׁמֵמוֹת Dn 9:26 strict determining of desolation.
    BDB חָרַץ.2


    חרצב (quadrilit. √ of foll.; cf. Arabic حَضْرَبَ bind or twist powerfully, Frey).BDB חרצב.2


    [חַרְצֻבָּה] n.[f.] bond, fetter, pang, only pl. חַרְצֻבּוֹת;—
    1. cstr. ח׳ רֶשַׁע Is 58:6 bonds of wickedness i. e. imposed by wicked men (‖ אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה).
    2. pangs (cf. חֶבֶל, חֵבֶל), abs. אֵין ח׳ למותם ψ 73:4 they have no pangs (read לָ֑מוֹ תָּם וגו׳).
    BDB חַרְצֻבָּה.2


    חַרְצַנִּים n.m.pl. some insignificant vine-product, usually taken as grape-kernels, grapestones, from acrid taste, so Thes (after Onk Mishn.), v. also זָג p. 260 supr.: מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן מֵח׳ וְעַד־זָג Nu 6:4 of the wine-vine, including both חרצנים and זג, he shall not eat.BDB חַרְצַנִּים.2


    חַרְצַנִּים v. sub i. חרץ.BDB חַרְצַנִּים².2


    חָרַק vb. gnash or grind the teeth, only poet. (NH id.; Arabic حَرَقَ file, rub together, grate or grind (teeth); Aramaic ܚܰܪܶܩ id.)
    Qal Pf. 3 ms. ח׳ Jb 16:9; Impf. יַחֲרֹק ψ 112:10; וַיַּחַרְקוּ־ La 2:16; Inf. abs. חָרֹק ψ 35:16; Pt. חֹרֵק ψ 37:12;—grind the teeth in rage against: ח׳ שׁניו על ψ 37:12; 35:16; abs. without על 112:10 La 2:16 (only here c. שֵׁן sing.); c. בְּ instr. (Ges§ 119. 3 b. R. DaSynt. § 73 R. 6) ח׳ בשׁניו על־ Jb 16:9.
    BDB חָרַק.2


    II. חרר (√ of foll.; Arabic حَرَّ be or become free, حُرٌّ free, freeborn; NH חרר Pi. set free, חֹר freeman; Aramaic חֲרַר, ܚܰܪ Pa. set free, חֹרָא, חָרְתָּא freed-man, -woman; Sab. חר freeman, noble(?) DHMEpigr. Denkm. 57; Ethiopic ሐራ coll. army, troops (in Amhar. free, noble, according to Di85), ሐራዊ free, noble, etc.)BDB חרר.2


    [חָרֵר] n.[m.] parched place (Arabic حَرَّاتٌ, BdPal. 196), only pl. abs. חֲרֵרִים; ח׳ במדבר Je 17:6 (‖ עֲרָבָה) fig. of life of godless.BDB חָרֵר.2


    † I. [חָרַר] vb. be hot, scorched, burn, poet. & late (Arabic حَرٌّ be hot, burn, thirst; Ethiopic ሐረረ Aramaic חַר; cf. Assyrian arâru, glow, SASmAsrb. i, p. 97 BelserBAS ii, 155)
    Qal Pf. 3 fs. חָ֫רָה Jb 30:30, וְחָ֫רָה consec. Ez 24:11, חָ֫רוּ Is 24:6;— 1. be hot, scorched, Jerus., under fig. of caldron Ez 24:11. 2. burn = be burned, fig. of men, in י׳’s judgment, Is 24:6. 3. burn, of bones of sick men in fever ח׳ מִנִּי־חֹרֶב Jb 30:30.
    Niph. Pf. 3 ms. נָחָ֑ר Ez 15:4, נִחַר ψ 69:4; 3 pl. נִחָ֑רוּ ψ 102:4 (Köi. 368); Impf. וַיֵּחָ֑ר Ez 15:5 יֵח֑רוּ Ez 24:10 (del. Co B al.) 1. be scorched, of bellows מַפֻּחַ in fierce fire Je 6:29 (fig.); scorched, charred, of the vine (as fuel) Ez 15:4, 5 middle part charred, the ends devoured (אכל) by fire (sim. of inhab. of Jerus.); bones (sim. id.) Ez 24:10 (v. supr.). 2. burn, of bones in fever ψ 102:4 (כְּמוֹקֵד, cf. Qal Jb 30:30); be parched, of throat נח׳ גרוני 69:4.—Is 41:11; 45:24 Ct 1:6 v. חרה. Niph. 1. נָחַר Je 6:29 from √ נחר snort, puff, according to Mich Ew Gf Gie al.,—not Du.
    Pilp. Inf. לְחַרְחַר־רִיב Pr 26:21 to kindle strife.
    BDB חָרַר.2


    III. חרר (√ of foll.; v. Assyrian ḫarâru, bore, pierce, ḫurru, hole, ravine DlPr 150, 182; Arabic خُرٌْ hole or mouth of millstone; NH חִרְחֵר bore, pierce).BDB חרר².2


    חרשׂ (√ of foll.; cf. Arabic خَرَشَ vb. scratch, lacerate, خِرَاشٌ irritation, etc.)BDB חרשׂ.2


    III. חרשׁ (√ of foll.; meaning unknown).BDB חרשׁ.2


    חֵרֵשׁ adj. deafחֵרֵשׁ (= חִרֵּשׁ) Ex 4:11 + 4 times; pl. חֵרְשִׁים Is 29:18 + 3 times;—deaf, Ex 4:11 (J; ‖ אִלֵּם), ψ 38:14 (‖ id.); also Lv 19:14 (H), Is 29:18; 35:5; 42:18, 19 + v 19 b (for last עִוֵּר, cf. 43:8; GrJQ 1891, Oct. p. 2 v. CheComm., JQ Jan. 1892, 332), 43:8; פֶּ֫תֶן ח׳ ψ 58:5 a deaf adder.BDB חֵרֵשׁ.2


    חֶ֫רֶשׂ n.[m.] earthenware, earthen vessel, sherd, potsherd, P and late (NH חֶרֶס, Aramaic חֲרַס)—abs. ח׳ Lv 6:21 + 9 times, חָ֑רֶשׂ Nu 5:17 + 4 times; pl. cstr. חַרְשֵׂי Is 45:9; sf. חֲרָשֶׂיהָ Ez 23:34.—
    1. earthenware: כְּלִי־ח׳ earthen vessel Je 32:14; especially P Lv 6:21; 11:33; 14:5, 50; 15:12; Nu 5:17; without כְּלִי Pr 26:23; cf. בַּקְבֻּק יוֹצֵר ח׳ Je 19:1; לְנִבְלֵי ח׳ La 4:2 they are reckoned as earthen vessels, sim. of sons of Zion; חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה Is 45:9 a potsherd (perhaps = earthen vessel, v. Pr 26:23 supr.) among earthen potsherds (of men, over against י׳ their potter); sim. of dryness ψ 22:16.
    2. a fragment of earthenware, sherd Is 30:14 Ez 23:34; ה׳ לְהִתְגָּרֵד Jb 2:8 a sherd to scrape himself; חַדּוּדֵי ח׳ Jb 41:22 sharpest potsherds, fig. of sharp scales on belly of crocodile.
    BDB חֶ֫רֶשׂ.2


    † I. חֶ֫רֶשׁ n. m. as adv. silently, secretlyמְרַגְּלִים ח׳ Jos 2:1 (JE) exploring secretly.BDB חֶ֫רֶשׁ.2


    † II. [חָרֵשׁ] vb.
    1. be silent, dumb, speechless; 2. be deaf; chiefly poet. (NH Pi. make deaf; Aramaic ܚܪܶܫ, ܚܪܰܫ be dumb, deaf; Arabic خَرِسَ be dumb, speechless, cf. Assyrian ḫarâšu, restrain, according to DlPr 100; v. LagBN 120)
    Qal Impf. יֶחֱרָ֑שׁ ψ 50:3; 2 ms. תֶּחֱרַשׁ ψ 28:1; 83:2; תֶּחֱרַ֑שׁ ψ 35:22; 109:1; תֶּחֱרָ֑שׁ ψ 39:13; 3 fpl. תֶּחֱרַ֑שְׁנָה Mi 7:16;— 1. be silent, always of God’s keeping silence when men pray ψ 35:22; 50:3; 83:2; 109:1; sq. אֶל־ 39:13. 2. be deaf, subj. י׳, sq. מִמֶּנִּי ψ 28:1; subj. אָזְנַיִם Mi 7:16.
    Hiph. Pf. חֶחֱרִשׁ Nu 30:15 Gn 34:5; וְהֶחֱרִישׁ consec. Nu 30:5, 8; וְהֶחֱרִשׁ consec. Nu 30:12; הֶחֱרַ֫שְׁתִּי Est 7:4 + 2 times etc.; Impf. יַחֲרִישׁ Nu 30:15 + 2 times (incl. Zp 3:17 v. infr.); 2 ms. תַּחֲרִישׁ Hb 1:13; juss. תַּחְרֵשׁ 1 S 7:8; 2 mpl. תַּחֲרִישׁוּן Jb 13:5; תַּחֲרִשׁוּן Ex 14:14, etc.; Imv. הַחֲרֵשׁ Ju 18:19 + 2 times; הַחֲרִ֫ישִׁי 2 S 13:20; הַחֲרִ֫ישׁוּ Jb 13:13 Is 41:1; Inf. abs. הַחֲרֵשׁ Nu 30:15 + 2 times; Pt. מַחֲרִישׁ Gn 24:21 + 2 times (incl. 1 S 10:27 v. infr.); מַחֲרִישִׁים 2 S 19:11;— 1. be silent (= exhibit silence) a. almost always of men Gn 24:21; 34:5 Ex 14:14 (all J), Ju 18:19 2 S 13:20; 19:11 2 K 18:36 = Is 36:21, Je 4:19 Jb 6:24; 13:5, 13, 19; 33:31, 33 Pr 11:12; 17:28 ψ 32:3 Ne 5:8 Est 4:14(×2); 7:4; also וַיְהִי כְּמַחֲרִישׁ 1 S 10:27 (but read rather ויהי כְּמֵחֹדֶשׁ and it came to pass after about a month, 𝔊 Dr); יחרישׁ באהבתו Zp 3:17 (𝔊 𝔖 יְחַדֵּשׁ he will renew his love, v. especially BuhlZAW v. 1885, 183); ח׳ c. לְ pers. keep silence at one, i.e. fail to make objection at proper time Nu 30:5, 8, 12, 15(×3) (all P); הח׳ אלי Is 41:1 pregn. = come silently unto me; sq. מִן pers. cease to speak with Je 38:27; be silent about, pass by in silence, sq. acc. אח׳ בַּדָּיו Jb 41:4. b. rarely of God, permitting evil in silence Hb 1:13 Is 42:14 ψ 50:21. 2. once causat. make silent, c. acc. Jb 11:3. 3. be deaf, shew deafness: אַל־תַּחֲרֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מִזְּעֹק 1 S 7:8 be not deaf (turning) from us, so as not to cry.
    Hithpa. Hithp. Impf. 3 mpl. וַיִּתְחָֽרְשׁוּ Ju 16:2 and they kept quiet.
    BDB חָרֵשׁ.2


    † I. [חָרַשׁ] vb. cut in, engrave, plough, devise (NH id., plough, so Ethiopic ሐረሰ Ph. חרש, Aramaic (rare) חֲרַת engrave, ܚܪܰܬ cleave, plough, Arabic حَرَثَ plough)
    Qal Pf. חָֽרְשׁוּ ψ 129:3, חֲרַשְׁתֶּם Ju 14:18 Ho 10:13; Impf. יַחֲרֹשׁ Is 28:24 Pr 20:4; יַחֲרוֹשׁ Ho 10:11 + Am 6:12 (v. infr.); 2 ms. תַּחֲרֹשׁ Dt 22:10 Pr. 3:29; Inf. cstr. חֲרֹשׁ 1 S 8:12; Pt. חֹרֵשׁ Gn 4:22 + 5 times; חוֹרֵשׁ Am 9:13; pl. חֹרְשִׁים ψ 129:3, חֹרְשֵׁי Jb 4:8 + 3 times, fpl. abs. חֹרְשׁוֹת Jb 1:14; pass. חֲרוּשָׁה Je 17:1:— 1. cut in, engrave, of worker in metals ח׳ נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל Gn 4:22 (J), ח׳ נחשׁת 1 K 7:14; fig. ח׳ עַל־לוּחַ לִבָּם Je 17:1 engraved on the tablet of their heart. 2. plough, lit., human subj. (animal usually c. בְּ), no obj. expr. 1 K 19:19 Dt 22:10 Is 28:24, so יַחֲרוֹשׁ בבקרים Am 6:12 (but read prob. יֵחָרֵשׁ בבקר יָם, v. We al.); c. acc. cogn. ח׳ חֲרִישׁוֹ 1 S 8:12 plough his ploughing (= do his ploughing), Pr 20:4; fig. Ju 14:18 Ho 10:11; with ethical ref. ח׳ רֶשַׁע v 13 (‖ קצר), ח׳ אָוֶן Jb 4:8 (‖ זרע, קצר); עַל־גַּבִּי חָֽרְשׁוּ חֹרְשִׁים ψ 129:3 upon my back have ploughmen ploughed (fig. of oppression by wicked); חֹרֵשׁ = ploughman Is 28:24, Am 9:13 (‖ קוֹצֵר); ח׳ with oxen subj. only Jb 1:14. 3. devise (as one who works in, practises), usually bad sense, obj. רָעָה Pr 3:29, רַע 6:14; מַחְשְׁבוֹת אָוֶן v 18, חֹרְשֵׁי רַע Pr 12:20; 14:22; but also חֹרְשֵׁי טוֹב v 22.
    Niph. Impf. 3 fs. צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵּחָרֵשׁ Mi 3:12 Zion, as a field she shall be ploughed = Je 26:18.
    Hiph. Pt. מַחֲרִישׁ רָעָה עַל־ 1 S 23:9 fabricating mischief against (v. Dr, and cf. We).
    BDB חָרַשׁ.2


    חָרָשׁ n.m. Ex 38:23 graver, artificer (Ph. חרש)—abs. ח׳ (= חַרָּשׁ) Ex 35:35 + 14 times; cstr. חָרַשׁ Ex 28:11 + 2 times; pl. חָֽרָשִׁים Ho 13:2 + 7 times; חֲרָשִׁים 1 Ch 4:14(×2) Ne 11:35 (v. infr.); cstr. חָֽרָשֵׁי 2 S 5:11 + 6 times;—
    1. graver, artificer: a. worker in metal 1 S 13:19 Ho 8:6; 13:2 Dt 27:15 Je 10:9 (‖ צֹרֵף), Is 40:19 (‖ id.), 54:16 1 Ch 29:5; ח׳ בַּרְזֶל Is 44:12 2 Ch 24:12; perhaps also Is 41:7 (+ צֹרֵף); appar. = hammerer Zc 2:3 (symbol.). b. worker in wood ח׳ עֵץ 2 S 5:11 = 1 Ch 14:1 (עֵצִים), 2 K 12:12; 22:6 = 2 Ch 34:11, Je 10:3 Is 40:20; 44:13 (v. also 1 Ch 22:15 infr.); perhaps also Ezr 3:7 2 Ch 24:12 (both ‖ חצב). c. worker in stone ח׳ אֶבֶן קִיר 2 S 5:11 = 1 Ch 14:1 (om. אבן); also of engraving on gems ח׳ אבן Ex 28:11 (P; ‖ פִּתּוּחֵי חֹתָם); see also foll. d. in gen. ח׳ אֶבֶן וָעֵץ 1 Ch 22:15; idol-maker ח׳ צִירִים Is 45:16, cf. 44:11 (also v 12, 13 supr.), 2 K 24:14, 16 Je 24:1; 29:2 (all ‖ מַסְגֵּר), Ex 35:35; 38:23 (both P; both ‖ חֹשֵׁב). In גֵּיא חֲרָשִׁים 1 Ch 4:14, גֵּי הַחֲ׳ Ne 11:35 valley of (the) artificers, and חֲרָשִׁים artificers 1 Ch 4:14, ח has—ֲ exceptionally, v. Ol§ 183 aii § 60. 5; read חָֽרָשִׁים?
    2. fig. ח׳ מַשְׁחִית Ez 21:36 men skilled to destroy.
    BDB חָרָשׁ.2


    חֹ֫רֶשׁ n.m. Ez 31:3 wood, wooded height (Assyrian ḫuršu, wooded height COTGloss LyonSargontexte, Gloss (v. also DlPr 180 Checrit. n. on Is 17, 9); NH חוֹרֶשׁ wood, forest; Aramaic חוּרְשָׁא id.)—abs. ח׳ Is 17:9 Ez 31:3 (but on both v. infr.); חֹ֫רְשָׁה 1 S 23:16 (v. Dr); בַּחֹ֫רְשָׁה 1 S 23:15, 18, 19; pl. חֳרָשִׁים 2 Ch 27:4;—wooded height 1 S 23:15 (‖ בָּהָר v 14), v 16, 18, so בַּמְּצָדוֹת בַּח׳ בְּגִבְעַת הַחֲכִילָה v 19; וּבֶח׳ בנה בִּירָנִיּוֹת וּמִגְדָּלִים 2 Ch 27:4 and on the wooded heights he built fortresses and towers (‖ בְּהַר יְהוּדָה); עֲזוּבַת הַחֹרֶשׁ וְהָאָמִיר Is 17:9 the forsaken places of the wooded heights and summits Ges Ew De Di RV; but read prob. ע׳ החוי והאמרי forsaken places of the Hivites and the Amorites, so 𝔊 Lag Che Or Brd Du; ח׳ מֵצַל Ex 31:3 shade-giving wood or thicket, of close branches of cedar (but sense hardly legitimate; del. 𝔊 Co).BDB חֹ֫רֶשׁ.2


    IV. חרשׁ (√ of foll.; meaning unknown; suggestions on etym. v. infr.)BDB חרשׁ².2


    † II. [חֶ֫רֶשׁ] n.[m.] magic art or perhaps magic drug (Aramaic ܚܰܪܶܫ practice magic, חָרָשׁ, ܚܰܪܳܫܳܐ magician, ܚܶܪܫܳܐ incantation, magic art, preparation of magic potion, so Ethiopic ሐራሲ one using incantations; ሐረስ, ሐርስ, ሐራs incantation, magic; comp. perhaps Arabic خُرْسٌ, خُرْسَةٌ a medicinal broth given to women in childbed; חֶרֶשׁ perhaps magical drug, v. RSJPh. xiv. 1885, 125)—only חֲכַם חֲרָשִׁים Is 3:3 skilled in magic arts, or drugs (‖ נְבוֹן לָ֑חַשׁ), (> others gen. = handicraft).BDB חֶ֫רֶשׁ².2


    † III. חֶ֫רֶשׁ n.pr.m. a Levite 1 Ch 9:15 𝔊 Ραραιηλ, A Αρες, 𝔊L Αρης.BDB חֶ֫רֶשׁ³.2


    חַרְשָׁא n.pr.m. head of a family of returning exiles Ezr 2:52 𝔊 Αρησα, 𝔊L Βαασα, = Ne 7:54 𝔊 Αδασα.BDB חַרְשָׁא.2


    חֲרָשִׁים v. חָרָשׁ and גַּיְא; also ii. חֶרֶשׁ.BDB חֲרָשִׁים.2


    † II. חֲר֫שֶׁת n.pr.loc. only in combin. ח׳ הַגּוֹיִם, Ḥarosheth of the nations (v. גּוֹי), Ju 4:2, 13, 16; perhaps mod. el-Ḥariṯîye, on right bank of lower Kishon, v. ThomsonLand and Book; Central Palestine, 1883, 215 ff. BdPal 241 Be Bla CookeHist. Deb. 3 GASmGeog.393.BDB חֲר֫שֶׁת.2


    חֲרֶשֶׂת v. קִיר־חֲרֶשֶׂת.BDB חֲרֶשֶׂת.2


    † I. חֲרֹ֫שֶׁת n.f. carving, skilful working, only cstr. חֲרֹשֶׁת עֵץ Ex 31:5; 35:33; ח׳ אֶבֶן 31:5; 35:33.—ii. חֲרֹשֶׁת v. p. 361 infr.BDB חֲרֹ֫שֶׁת.2


    [חֶרֶת] n.pr.loc., only in יַעַר חָ֑רֶת 1 S 22:5.BDB חֶרֶת.2


    [חָרַת] vb. grave, engrave, only
    Qal Pt. pass. חָרוּת עַל הַלֻּחֹת Ex 32:16 (E), engraved upon the tablets (by finger of God), but from absence of ‖ in cogn. lang. (Arabic خَرَتَ is perforate, bore, slit) prob. error for חָרוּשׁ (Je 17:1).
    BDB חָרַת.2


    חֵ֫שֶׁב n.m. ingenious work, name of the girdle or band of the ephod (cunningly woven band, RV), only P; always in combin., ח׳ האפ(ו)ד Ex 28:27, 28; 29:5; 39:20, 21 Lv 8:7; ח׳ אֲפֻדָּתוֹ Ex 28:8; 39:5.BDB חֵ֫שֶׁב.2


    חָשַׁב vb. think, account (NH id.; Aramaic חֲשַׁב, ܚܫܶܒ Arabic حَسَبَ; Ethiopic ሐሰበ: id.; Ph. n. חשב meaning dub. v. CISi. 86)
    Qal Pf. ח׳ Is 33:8 + 9 times; חָשַׁבְתָּה 2 S 14:13 etc.; Impf. יַחְשֹׁב Is 10:7 + 4 times; יַחֲשָׁב־ 2 S 19:20 ψ 40:18; sf. יַחְשְׁבֵנִי Jb 19:11; 33:10; pl. יַחְשְׁבוּ ψ 41:8 Dn 11:25; יַחְשֹׁ֑בוּ Is 13:17; יַחֲשֹׁבוּן ψ 35:20; נַחְשְׁבָה Je 18:18, etc. + 9 times Impf.; inf. cstr. לַחְשֹׁב Ex 31:4 + 3 times; Pt. חֹשֵׁב Ex 26:1 + 15 times, חוֹשֵׁב 2 Ch 26:15; חֹשְׁבִים Ne 6:2 + 3 times, חֹשְׁבֵי Mi 2:1 + 3 times;— I. of man: 1. think, account לבבו לא כן יחשׁב Is 10:7 not so thinketh his mind; חשׁבי שׁמוֹ Mal 3:16 those thinking of his name; sq. 2 acc. חשׁבנהו נגוע Is 53:4 we thought him stricken; elsewhere c. acc. + לְ Gn 38:15 (J), 1 S 1:13 Jb 19:15; 35:2; 41:24; so, fig., of crocodile Jb 41:19 he reckoneth iron as straw. 2. devise, plan, mean, c. acc. מַחֲשֶׁבֶת רָעָה Ez 38:10, רעה ψ 35:4; 140:3 Zc 7:10; 8:17, תַּהְפֻּכ֑וֹת Pr 16:30, מְזִמּוֹת ψ 10:2; 21:12, דִּבְרֵי מִרְמוֹת ψ 35:20, אָוֶן Mi 2:1 Ez 11:2 ψ 36:5, הַוּוֹת ψ 52:4; ח׳ רע(ה) על devise evil against Gn 50:20 (E), Je 48:2 Na 1:11, ח׳ רעה לְ ψ 41:8, ח׳ מַחֲשֶׁבֶת על Je 11:19; 18:11, 18; 49:30 Dn 11:25 Est 8:3; 9:25, ח׳ כזאת על 2 S 14:13; c. inf. 1 S 18:25 Je 18:8; 23:27 Jb 6:26 Ne 6:2, 6 Est 9:24 ψ 140:5; c. לבלתי + Impf. 2 S 14:14 (reading חוֹשֵׁב for וְחָשַׁב and taking man as subj. We Dr; in this case לבלתי carries on לֹא יִשָּׂא). 3. count, reckon ח׳ עון ל׳, 2 S 19:20 ψ 32:2 reckon iniquity to. 4. esteem, value, regard, silver Is 13:17, a man Is 33:8, the servant of י׳ Is 53:3. 5. invent ingenious and artistic things, ח׳ להם כלי שׁיר Am 6:5 invent for themselves instruments of music; ח׳ (כל) מחשׁבת invent cunning work (of artistic devices in constr. of tabern.) Ex 31:4; 35:32, 35 (all P), so 2 Ch 2:13; מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב work of the cunning (ingenious, inventive) workman (of artistic devices in weaving; see especially VB and Di) Ex 26:1, 31; 28:6, 15; 36:8, 35; 39:3, 8 (all P); מַחֲשֶׁבֶת חוֹשֵׁב 2 Ch 26:15 inventions of inventive men (of engines of war); חָרָשׁ וְחשֵׁב craftsman and inventive workman (in constr. of tabern., vid. supr.) Ex 35:35; 38:23 (P). II. of God: 1. think, c. acc. pers. + לְ indirect obj. account one לאויב, for an enemy Jb 13:24; 33:10; ח׳ לוֹ כצריו Jb 19:11 he accounted me unto him as his adversaries. 2. devise, plan, mean, c. acc. + ל indirect obj. לטבה for good Gn 50:20 (E); c. ל pers. לִי devise for me ψ 40:18; acc. rei + עַל, devise something against a person Mi 2:3 Je 18:11; towards one Je 29:11, c. אל against Je 49:20; 50:45; sq. inf. Je 26:3; 36:3 La 2:8. 3. count, reckon c. acc. rei + ל pers., the habit of believing in י׳ he reckoned to Abram as righteousness Gn 15:6 (JE; cf. Niph. 3); not reckon iniquity to one ψ 32:2.
    Niph. Pf. נֶחְשַׁב Nu 18:27, 30, נֶחְשַׁבְתִּי ψ 88:5 etc. + 10 times Pf.; Impf. יֵחָשֵׁב Lv 7:18 + 7 times, etc., + 6 times Impf.; Pt. נֶחְשָׁב Is 2:22 1 K 10:21 2 Ch 9:20:— 1. be accounted, thought, esteemed, c. כְּ as Ho 8:12 Is 5:28; 29:16; 40:15 ψ 44:23 Jb 18:3; 41:21; c. לְ Is 29:17 = 32:15, La 4:2; עִם with, among ψ 88:5, בַּמֶּה Is 2:22 at what (value)? (v. prob. interpol.; om. 𝔊); c. acc. Dt 2:11, 20 Pr 17:28 Ne 13:13; נָכְרִיּוֹת נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ לוֹ Gn 31:15 (E; 𝔊 Sam כְּנֶח׳) Is 40:17. 2. be computed, reckoned, c. לְ Jos 13:3 (D), עַל Lv 25:31 (P), 2 S 4:2: abs. כסף was not counted (so plentiful was it) 1 K 10:21 = 2 Ch 9:20 2 K 22:7. 3. be imputed to any one, c. לְ Lv 7:18 Nu 18:27, 30 (all P), Lv 17:4 (H) Pr 27:14; the interposition of Phinehas נח׳ לוֹ לצדקה ψ 106:31 was imputed to him for righteousness (cf. Qal II 3).
    Pi. Pf. 3 ms. חִשַּׁב Lv 25:27 + 4 times; f. חִשְּׁבָה Jon 1:4; 1 s. חִשַּׁבְתִּי ψ 77:6; 119:59; Impf. יְחַשֵּׁב Pr 16:9 Dn 11:24, תְּחַשְּׁבוּן Na 1:9, etc., + 4 times Impf.; Pt. מְחַשֵּׁב Pr 24:8:— 1. think upon, consider, be mindful of, c. acc. ψ 77:6; 119:59, (מה) בֶּן־אֱנוֹשׁ וַתְּחַשְּׁבֵהוּ (מה) ψ 144:3 what (is) man’s son, and thou thinkest upon him (‖ תֵּדָעֵהוּ). 2. think to do, devise, plan. c. acc. Pr 16:9, אֶל of persons against whom Ho 7:15 Na 1:9, עַל Dn 11:24; c. inf. ψ 73:16 Pr 24:8; so of inanim. object הָאֳנִיָּה חִשְּׁבָה לְהִשָּׁבֵר Jon 1:4 the ship was about to (minded to) be broken up. 3. count, reckon, the years since a sale of land Lv 25:27 (H); c. לְ pers. Lv 25:52 (H), 27:18, 23 (P); c. עִם Lv 25:50 (P); c. אֶת 2 K 12:16.
    Hithp. Impf. בַּגּוֹיִם לֹא יִתְחַשָּׁ֑ב Nu 23:9 (JE) among the nations it shall not reckon itself.
    BDB חָשַׁב.2


    חַשְׁבַּדָּנָה n.pr.m. (etym. dub.)—one of those who stood with Ezra at the reading of the law Ne 8:4; B om.; A Ασαβααμα, 𝔊L Αβαανας.BDB חַשְׁבַּדָּנָה.2


    חֲשֻׁבָה n.pr.m. (consideration)—son of Zerubbabel 1 Ch 3:20; 𝔊 Ασουβε, 𝔊L Αασαβαθ.BDB חֲשֻׁבָה.2


    [חִשָּׁבוֹן] n.m. device, invention (cf. LagBN 200)—only pl. abs. חִשְּׁבֹנוֹת; עָשָׂה הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם יָשָׁר וְהֵמָּה בִקְשׁוּ חִשְּׁבֹנוֹת רַבִּים Ec 7:29 God made mankind upright but they sought out many devices; וַיַּעַשׂ חִשְּׁבֹנוֹת מַחֲשֶׁבֶת חֹוֹשֵׁב 2 Ch 26:15 and he made contrivances (i.e. engines of war for hurling stones and arrows, see v b) the invention of inventive men.BDB חִשָּׁבוֹן.2


    † I. חֶשְׁבּוֹן n.m. reckoning, account (NH Aramaic id.) Ec 9:10, בקּשׁ ח׳ Ec 7:25, מצא ח׳ Ec 7:27.BDB חֶשְׁבּוֹן.2

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