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Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon - Contents
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    טָרַח — טְרֵפָה


    [טָרַח] vb. toil, be burdened (NH id., toil, Hiph. weary, importune; Aramaic טְרַח toil, etc.; Arabic طَرَحَ is cast, throw, remove)
    Hiph. Impf. אַף־בְּרִי יַטְרִיחַ עָ֑ב Jb 37:11 he burdeneth with moisture the cloud(s).
    BDB טָרַח.2


    טֹ֫רַח n.m. burden, fig., הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹ֑רַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֽׂא׃ Is 1:14 they are become a burden on me, I am weary of bearing; אֵיכָה אֶשָּׂא טָרְחֲכֶם Dt 1:12 (+ מַשַּׂאֲכֶם וְרִיבְכֶם) how can I bear the burden of you?BDB טֹ֫רַח.2


    [טָרִי] adj. fresh, only fs. טְרִיָּה fresh, לְחִי־חֲמוֹר טְרִיָּה Ju 15:15 the fresh jawbone of an ass, i.e. not yet dry and brittle; מַכָּה ט׳ Is 1:6 fresh, raw wound, not yet healed or even treated (so Ges Ew Brd Di Du; festering De Che).BDB טָרִי.2


    טֶ֫רֶם54 once (Ru 3:14 Kt) טְרוֹם, adv. of time, not yet, ere, before that (deriv. unknown: not found in cogn. languages)—construed mostly with the impf. (with the pf. only Gn 24:15 (v 45 impf.), 1 S 3:7a (v b impf.), and בְּטֶרֶם ψ 90:2 Pr 8:25):—
    1.טֶרֶם in an independent sentence, not yet, Gn 2:5 and all the plants of the field טרם יהיה בארץ were not yet in the earth, etc., 19:4 טרם ישׁכבו not yet had they lain down, when etc., 24:15, 45 Nu 11:33 Jos 2:8 1 S 3:3, 7(×2); of present time, Ex 9:30; 10:7 הֲטֶרֶם תֵּדַע dost thou not yet know, etc.?; in a subord. clause, ere, before that, Ex 12:34 they took their dough טרם יחמץ before it was leavened, Jos 3:1 ψ 119:67; of future time Is 65:24. More frequently
    2. בְּטֶרֶם39, with the same force: of past time, Gn 27:33 I ate of all בטרם תבא before thou camest, 37:18; 41:50 Ju 14:18 1 S 2:15 Je 1:5; 47:1 Ez 16:57; ψ 90:2 Pr 8:25 (both with pf.); more often of pres. or fut., as Gn 27:4 בטרם אמות before I die (so 45:28, cf. ψ 39:14 Jb 10:21), Lv 14:36 Dt 31:21 1 S 9:13 2 K 2:9 Is 7:16; 42:9; 48:5 Je 13:16; the impf. with a freq. force, Ex 1:19 before the midwife cometh, they are wont to bear, Ru 3:14 Pr 18:13. Pleon. בְּטֶרֶם לֹא Zp 2:2(×2). Construed with a subst. in the gen., †Is 17:14 בְּטֶרֶם בֹּקֶר = ere morning, 28:4 בְּטֶרֶם קַיִץ; with an inf. †Zp 2:2a (but read here with 𝔊 We בְּטֶרֶם לֹא תִהְיוּן כְּמוֹץ עֹבֵר, without יוֹם, ‘before ye become as chaff passing away’).
    3.מִטֶּרֶם Hg 2:15 (sq. inf.) מִטֶּרֶם שׂוּם אֶבֶן from before the laying of one stone upon another, etc.
    BDB טֶ֫רֶם.2


    טֶ֫רֶף n.m. Na 3:1 prey, food; leaf;—טֶרֶף Gn 49:9 +; טָ֑רֶף Jb 4:11 +; sf. טַרְפֵּךְ Na 2:14; טַרְפּוֹ Is 31:4; pl. cstr. טַרְפֵּי Ez 17:9;—
    1. prey of lion Am 3:4 Jb 4:11; 38:39 ψ 104:21; metaph. of Judah’s conquests Gn 49:9, Israel like lion Nu 23:24 (both poems in JE); of Assyrians Is 5:29; of Nineveh and its king Na 2:13, 14; 3:1; Israel’s princes (as young lion) Ez 19:3, 6; sim. of false prophet (like lion) 22:25; of princes of Judah v 27; sim. of י’s descending to battle, like lion Is 31:4; cf. ψ 76:5 coming down from mountains of prey (the lion’s lair), but read perhaps עַד, cf. 𝔊 Bi Che crit. n.; fig. of spoil of wicked Jb 29:17, cf. ψ 124:6.
    2. food, of outcasts, under fig. of wild ass פֶּרֶא Jb 24:5; of human food (late): for those who fear God ψ 111:5; for household Pr 31:15; in י׳’s house Mal 3:10.
    3. leaf, (cf. Gn 8:11) טַרְפֵּי צִמְחָהּ Ez 17:9 metaph. of Judah.
    BDB טֶ֫רֶף.2


    טָרַף vb. tear, rend, pluck (NH id., especially of wild beasts; Aramaic טְרַף tear, seize, especially of creditors; טְרֵיפָא torn flesh or animal; Arabic طَرَفَ depasture, said of camel)
    Qal Pf. טָרַף Jb 16:9; טָרָ֑ף Ho 6:1, etc.; Impf. יִטְרֹף ψ 7:3; וַיִּטְרֹף Am 1:11 (but v. infr.); יִטְרָ֑ף Gn 49:27; אֶטְרֹף Ho 5:14 ψ 50:22; Inf. לִטְרֹף ψ 17:12; Pt. act. טֹרֵף Jb 18:4, etc.;—tear rend, of wild beasts, Gn 37:33 (J), 44:28 (J; inf. abs. c. Pu. q.v.), Ex 22:12 (JE; inf. abs. c. Niph. q.v.) Elsewhere only in sim. and metaph.; sim. of Gad’s fierceness Dt 33:20 (like a lioness, poem); so of Benjamin Gn 49:27 (as a wolf, poem); of the remnant of Jacob, like a young lion among sheep, רָמַם וְטָרַף Mi 5:7; of the wicked, ψ 17:12 (lion), 7:3 obj. נַפְשִׁי (like a lion); 22:14 psalmist’s foes like lion (‖ שֹׁאֵג); Ez 22:25 (טֹרֵף טָ֑רֶף), princes like wolves v 27 (id.); metaph. of Israel’s princes, like young lion 19:3, 6 (c. טֶרֶף acc. cogn.); of Nineveh’s king Na 2:13 (as lion); of God’s treatment of the wicked Ho 5:14 (like a lion), ψ 50:22; subj. wrath of God (אַף) conceived as assailing Job, Jb 16:9 his wrath teareth and persecuteth me; cf. טָרָ֖ף וְיִרְפָּאֵנוּ Ho 6:1 subj. י׳ (‖ יַךְ וְיַחְבְּשֵׁנוּ; on tenses v. Dr§ 84 β; 171, 174 n. 1); subj. anger of Edom (abs.) Am 1:11, but read perhaps וַיִּטֹּר for וַיִּטְרֹף and he kept his anger perpetually, so Ol on ψ 103:9 We; טֹרֵף נַפְשׁוֹ בְּאַפּוֹ, said of Job by Bildad Jb 18:4.
    Niph. Impf. of animal torn (by wild beasts) טָרֹף יִטָּרֵף Ex 22:12 (JE); יִטָּרֵף also in prediction of judgment on people of Jerusalem Je 5:6.
    Pu. Pf. טָרֹף טֹרַף יוֹסֵף Gn 37:33 (J) Joseph has certainly been torn in pieces; cf. ט׳ טֹרָ֑ף 44:28 (J).
    Hiph. Imv. ms. sf., note especially 2nd acc. לֶחֶם, הַטְרִיפֵנִי לֶחֶם חֻקִּי Pr 30:8 let me devour my appointed bread (of men, late; cf. טֶרֶף 31:15, and ψ 111:5 Mal 3:10).
    BDB טָרַף.2


    טָרָףadj. fresh-plucked (Aramaic ܛܰܪܦܳܐ, טַרְפָּא fresh leaf)עֲלֵה זַיִת טָרָף Gn 8:11 (J) a fresh-plucked olive leaf.BDB טָרָף.2


    טְרֵפָה n.f. animal torn (by wild beasts); torn flesh;—abs. ט׳ Gn 31:39 + 8 times 1. animal torn (by wild beasts), of sheep and goats Gn 31:39 (E); ox, ass or sheep Ex 22:12 (JE; del. WeKlPr on Am 3:12, as gloss from Gn 31:39); indef. v 31 (JE; forbidden as food); commonly c. נְבֵלָה (i.e. what dies naturally) as forbidden food, Lv 7:24 (P), 17:15; 22:8 (both H), Ez 4:14; 44:31; torn flesh, in metaph. of Nineveh’s king as lion Na 2:13 (‖ טֶ֫רֶף).BDB טְרֵפָה.2

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