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    ancestral (adj.) — Anglo-French (n.)

    ancestral (adj.)

    "pertaining to ancestors," 1520s, from Old French ancestrel (Anglo-French auncestrel) "ancestral," from ancestre (see ancestor). Alternative form ancestorial is from 1650s. Related: Ancestrally.ETD ancestral (adj.).2

    ancestry (n.)

    "series or line of ancestors, descent from ancestors," early 14c., auncestrie, from Old French ancesserie "ancestry, ancestors, forefathers," from ancestre (see ancestor). The spelling was modified in English by influence of ancestor.ETD ancestry (n.).2

    anchor (n.)

    "device for securing ships to the ground under the water by means of cables," Old English ancor, borrowed 9c. from Latin ancora "an anchor," which is from or cognate with Greek ankyra "an anchor, a hook," from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)).ETD anchor (n.).2

    A very early borrowing into English and said to be the only Latin nautical term used in the Germanic languages (German Anker, Swedish ankar, etc.). The unetymological -ch- emerged late 16c., a pedantic imitation of a corrupt spelling of the Latin word. The figurative sense of "that which gives stability or security" is from late 14c. The meaning "host or presenter of a TV or radio program" is from 1965, short for anchorman (q.v.).ETD anchor (n.).3

    anchor (v.)

    "fix or secure in a particular place," c. 1200, perhaps in Old English, from anchor (n.) or from Medieval Latin ancorare. Figurative use from 1580s; in reference to television or radio programs, 1961. Related: Anchored; anchoring.ETD anchor (v.).2

    anchorage (n.)

    mid-14c., "toll or charge for anchoring;" see anchor (v.) + -age. The meaning "act of dropping anchor, being at anchor" is from 1610s; that of "place suitable for anchoring" is from 1706. The Alaska city of Anchorage was founded 1914.ETD anchorage (n.).2

    anchoress (n.)

    "female recluse, nun," late 14c.; see anchorite + -ess.ETD anchoress (n.).2

    anchorite (n.)

    mid-15c., "hermit, recluse, one who withdraws from the world for religious reasons," especially in reference to the Christian hermits of the Eastern deserts in the two centuries after c. 300 C.E., from Medieval Latin anchorita, Late Latin anchoreta, from Greek anakhorētēs, literally "one who has retired," agent noun from anakhorein "to retreat, go back, retire (from battle, the world, etc.)," from ana "back" (see ana-) + khōrein "withdraw, give place," from khōros "place, space, free space, room" (from PIE root *ghē- "to release, let go; be released"). It replaced Old English ancer, from Late Latin anchoreta. Related: Anchoritic.ETD anchorite (n.).2

    anchorman (n.)

    1903, "last man of a tug-of-war team," from anchor (n.) + man (n.). Later, "one who runs last in a relay race" (1934). Transferred sense "host or presenter of a TV or radio program" is from 1958.ETD anchorman (n.).2

    anchovy (n.)

    small, common fish of the Mediterranean and other seas, esteemed for its rich, peculiar flavor, 1590s, from Portuguese anchova, from Genoese or Corsican dialect, perhaps ultimately from either Latin apua "small fish" (from Greek aphyē "small fry") [Gamillscheg, Diez], or from Basque anchu "dried fish," from anchuva "dry" [Klein, citing Mahn].ETD anchovy (n.).2

    anchylosis (n.)

    "stiffening of joints caused by consolidation or fusion of two or more bones into one," 1713, from Latinized form of Greek ankylos "crooked" (see angle (n.)) + -osis. Related: Anchylotic.ETD anchylosis (n.).2


    word-forming element denoting quality or state, from Latin -antia, forming abstract nouns on past-participle adjectives in -antem, appearing in English mostly in words borrowed directly from Latin (those passing through French usually have -ance or -ence; see -ance). But English also has kept many pairs of words in -ance and -ancy (radiance/radiancy, etc.). Though typically one of the two forms has been more common, both were kept "as metrically useful or rhetorically effective" [Fowler, 1926].ETD -ancy.2

    ancien regime (n.)

    1794, from French ancien régime, literally "old rule," referring to the government and social order of France before the Revolution there. See ancient + regime.ETD ancien regime (n.).2

    anciently (adv.)

    "of yore, in times long since past," c. 1500, from ancient (adj.) + -ly (2).ETD anciently (adv.).2

    ancient (adj.)

    late 14c., auncyen, of persons, "very old;" c. 1400, of things, "having lasted from a remote period," from Old French ancien "old, long-standing, ancient," from Vulgar Latin *anteanus, literally "from before," adjectivization of Latin ante "before, in front of, against" (from PIE *anti "against," locative singular of root *ant- "front, forehead"). The unetymological -t dates from 15c. by influence of words in -ent.ETD ancient (adj.).2

    From early 15c. as "existing or occurring in times long past." Specifically, in history, "belonging to the period before the fall of the Western Roman Empire" (c. 1600, contrasted with medieval and modern). In English law, "from before the Norman Conquest."ETD ancient (adj.).3

    As a noun, "very old person," late 14c.; "one who lived in former ages," 1530s. Ancient of Days "supreme being" is from Daniel vii.9. Related: Anciently.ETD ancient (adj.).4

    ancient (n.)

    "standard-bearer," 1590s, short for ancient-bearer (1570s), from ancient "flag, banner, standard" (1550s), a corruption of ensign (q.v.). Archaic, but preserved in Shakespeare's character Aunchient Pistoll in "Henry V."ETD ancient (n.).2

    ancillary (adj.)

    "subservient, subordinate, serving as an aid," 1660s, from Latin ancillaris "relating to maidservants," from ancilla "handmaid," fem. diminutive of anculus "servant," literally "he who bustles about," from root of ambi- "around" (from PIE root *ambhi- "around") + PIE *kwol-o-, from root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round."ETD ancillary (adj.).2

    and (conj.)

    Old English and, ond, originally meaning "thereupon, next," from Proto-Germanic *unda (source also of Old Saxon endi, Old Frisian anda, Middle Dutch ende, Old High German enti, German und, Old Norse enn), from PIE root *en "in."ETD and (conj.).2

    Introductory use (implying connection to something previous) was in Old English. To represent vulgar or colloquial pronunciation often written an', 'n'. Phrase and how as an exclamation of emphatic agreement dates from early 1900s.ETD and (conj.).3


    great mountain system along the Pacific coast of South America, from Quechua (Inca) andi "high crest." Related: Andean.ETD Andes.2


    former name of southern Spain, from Spanish, from al Andalus, Arabic name for the entire peninsula, which probably is from Late Latin *Vandalicia "the country of the Vandals" (see vandal) in reference to the Germanic tribe that, with others, overran the Western Empire 3c.-4c., and for a time settled in southern Spain. See vandal. Related: Andalusian.ETD Andalusia.2

    andante (adj., n.)

    musical direction, "moderately slow," 1742, from Italian andante, suggesting "walking," present participle of andare "to go," from Vulgar Latin ambitare (source of Spanish andar "to go"), from Latin ambitus, past participle of ambire "to go round, go about," from amb- "around" (from PIE root *ambhi- "around") + ire "go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").ETD andante (adj., n.).2


    familiar shortening of masc. proper name Andrew (q.v.).ETD Andy.2

    andiron (n.)

    "fire-dog, one of the pair of metallic stands used to support wood burned on an open hearth," c. 1300, aundiren, from Old French andier "andiron," which is of unknown origin, perhaps from Gaulish *andero- "a young bull" (source also of Welsh anner "heifer"), which would make sense if they once had bull's heads cast onto them. Altered by influence of Middle English iren (see iron (n.)).ETD andiron (n.).2


    small republic in the Pyrenees between France and Spain, probably from indigenous (Navarrese) andurrial "shrub-covered land." Related: Andorran.ETD Andorra.2

    andouille (n.)

    type of sausage, c. 1600, from French andoille "sausage" (12c.), from Latin inductilia, neuter plural of inductilis, from inducere "to load or put in" (see induct). The original notion was perhaps of the filling "introduced" into the sausage.ETD andouille (n.).2


    masc. proper name, from Old French Andreu (Modern French André), from Late Latin Andreas (source also of Spanish Andrés, Italian Andrea, German Andreas, Swedish and Danish Anders), from Greek Andreas, a personal name equivalent to andreios (adj.) "manly, masculine, of or for a man; strong; stubborn," from anēr (genitive andros) "man" (from PIE root *ner- (2) "man").ETD Andrew.2

    Nearly equivalent to Charles. Andrew Millar (1590s) for some forgotten reason became English naval slang for "government authority," and especially "the Royal Navy." St. Andrew (feast day Nov. 30) has long been regarded as patron saint of Scotland; the Andrew's cross (c. 1400) supposedly resembles the one on which he was crucified.ETD Andrew.3


    word-forming element meaning "man, male, masculine," from Greek andro-, combining form of anēr (genitive andros) "a man, a male" (as opposed to a woman, a youth, or a god), from PIE root *ner- (2) "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong."ETD andro-.2

    Equivalent to Latin vir (see virile). Sometimes in later use it was equivalent to Greek anthrōpos, Latin homo "a person, a human being," and in compounds it often retain this genderless sense (e.g. androcephalous "having a human head," said of monsters including the Sphinx, which in Greece was female).ETD andro-.3

    androcentrism (n.)

    "the system or doctrine of having males at the center," 1915; see androcentric + -ism.ETD androcentrism (n.).2

    androcentricity (n.)

    "state or condition of having men or males at the center," 1907; see androcentric + -ity.ETD androcentricity (n.).2

    androcentric (adj.)

    "having males as the center," 1887, from andro- "man, male" + -centric. Popularized from 1911 by feminist writer Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Man-Made World or, Our Androcentric Culture."ETD androcentric (adj.).2

    androcracy (n.)

    "rule or supremacy of men," 1883; see andro- "man, male" + -cracy "rule or government by." Related: Androcratic.ETD androcracy (n.).2

    androgen (n.)

    "male sex hormone," 1936, from andro- "man, male" + -gen "thing that produces or causes."ETD androgen (n.).2

    androgyne (n.)

    "a hermaphrodite," mid-12c., from Medieval Latin androgyne (fem.), from Greek androgynos "a hermaphrodite, a woman-man" (see androgynous). Related: Androgynism.ETD androgyne (n.).2

    androgynous (adj.)

    1620s, "womanish" (of a man); 1650s, "having two sexes, being both male and female," from Latin androgynus, from Greek androgynos "hermaphrodite, male and female in one; womanish man;" as an adjective (of baths) "common to men and women," from andros, genitive of anēr "male" (from PIE root *ner- (2) "man") + gynē "woman" (from PIE root *gwen- "woman"). Related: Androgynal (1640s).ETD androgynous (adj.).2

    androgyny (n.)

    "state of being androgynous, union of sexes in one individual," 1833; see androgynous.ETD androgyny (n.).2

    android (n.)

    "automaton resembling a human being in form and movement," 1837, in early use often in reference to automated chess players, from Modern Latin androides (itself attested as a Latin word in English from 1727), from Greek andro- "man" (from PIE root *ner- (2) "man") + -eides "form, shape" (see -oid). Greek androdes meant "like a man, manly;" compare also Greek andrias "image of a man, statue." Listed as "rare" in OED 1st edition (1879), popularized from c. 1950 by science fiction writers.ETD android (n.).2


    wife of Hector, Latin Andromache, from Greek Andromakhē, perhaps literally "whose husband excels in fighting," fem. of andromakhos "fighting with men;" see anthropo- + -machy.ETD Andromache.2


    northern constellation, 1667 (earlier Andromece, mid-15c.), from Greek, literally "mindful of her husband," from andros, genitive of anēr "man" (from PIE root *ner- (2) "man") + medesthai "to be mindful of, think on," related to medea (neuter plural) "counsels, plans, devices, cunning" (and source of the name Medea). In classical mythology the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia, she was bound to a rock to be destroyed by the sea monster Cetus, but was rescued by Perseus, mounted on Pegasus. The whole group was transferred to the Heavens (except the rock).ETD Andromeda.2

    andron (n.)

    men's apartment in a house, from Greek andron, collateral form of andronitis "men's apartment," from anēr (genitive andros) "man" (from PIE root *ner- (2) "man"). The female equivalent was a gynaeceum.ETD andron (n.).2

    androphagous (adj.)

    "man-eating," 1847; see andro- "man" + -phagous "eating."ETD androphagous (adj.).2

    androphobia (n.)

    "morbid fear of the male sex" (sometimes, rather, "of the human race" or "of crowds"), 1844, from andro- "man, male" + -phobia. Related: Androphobic.ETD androphobia (n.).2

    anear (adv.)

    "nearly," c. 1600, from a- (1) + near (adv.). The meaning "close by" (opposite of afar) is from 1798. As a preposition, "near to," 1732.ETD anear (adv.).2

    anecdote (n.)

    1670s, "secret or private stories," from French anecdote (17c.) or directly from Medieval Latin anecdota, from Greek anekdota "things unpublished," neuter plural of anekdotos, from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + ekdotos "published," from ek- "out" (see ex-) + didonai "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give").ETD anecdote (n.).2

    Procopius' 6c. Anecdota, unpublished memoirs of Emperor Justinian full of court gossip, gave the word a sense of "revelation of secrets," which decayed in English to "brief, amusing story" (1761).ETD anecdote (n.).3

    anecdotal (adj.)

    "pertaining to anecdotes, of the nature of an anecdote," 1794, from anecdote + -al (1). Related: Anecdotally. Anecdotical is attested from 1744.ETD anecdotal (adj.).2

    anecdotage (n.)

    1823, "anecdotes collectively," from anecdote + -age. As a jocular coinage meaning "garrulous old age" it is recorded from 1835, and spawned anecdotard (1894).ETD anecdotage (n.).2

    anechoic (adj.)

    "free from echo; tending to deaden sound," 1948, in electronics, from an- (1) "not" + echoic.ETD anechoic (adj.).2

    anemic (adj.)

    "affected with anemia, deficient in blood," alternative (chiefly U.S.) spelling of anaemic (q.v.); also see æ (1).ETD anemic (adj.).2

    anemia (n.)

    "deficiency of blood in a living body," alternative (chiefly U.S.) spelling of anaemia (q.v.); also see æ (1). As a genus of plants, Modern Latin, from Greek aneimon "unclad," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + eima "a dress, garment" (see wear (v.)).ETD anemia (n.).2


    before vowels anem-, word-forming element meaning "wind," from Greek anemos "wind," from PIE root *ane- "to breathe."ETD anemo-.2

    anemometer (n.)

    "wind-gage, instrument for indicating the velocity of the wind," 1727, from anemo- "wind" + -meter. Related: Anemometry; anemometric.ETD anemometer (n.).2

    anemone (n.)

    flowering plant genus, 1550s, from French anemone (16c., corrected from Old French anemoine) and directly from Latin anemone, from Greek anemonē "wind flower," literally "daughter of the wind," from anemos "wind" (cognate with Latin anima, from PIE root *ane- "to breathe") + -one feminine patronymic suffix.ETD anemone (n.).2

    According to Asa Gray it was so called because it was thought to open only when the wind blows. Klein suggests the flower name perhaps originally is from Hebrew (compare na'aman, in nit'e na'amanim, literally "plants of pleasantness," in Isaiah xvii.10, from na'em "was pleasant").ETD anemone (n.).3

    In zoology, the word was applied to a type of sea creature from 1773 (probably short for sea anemone, which is by 1742). Related: Anemonic. Greek akalēphē "sea-anemone," also "stinging nettle," is of uncertain origin.ETD anemone (n.).4

    anencephalic (adj.)

    "having no brain" (biology), 1821, with -ic + Latinized form of Greek anenkephalos, from an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + enkephalos "brain," "the brain," literally "within the head," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + kephalē "head;" see cephalo-. Related: Anencephalous (1834); anencephalia; anencephaly.ETD anencephalic (adj.).2

    anent (prep.)

    "concerning, about, in respect or reference to," c. 1200, onont "on level with, beside," also "in the company of, fronting against," a contraction of Old English on efn "near to, close by," literally "on even (ground with);" see a- (1) + even (adj.).ETD anent (prep.).2

    As an adverb, c. 1400, anents, anentes, with adverbial genitive. The unetymological -t was added 12c. Compare German neben "near to, by the side of," short for in eben, from Old High German ebani "equality."ETD anent (prep.).3

    anesthesia (n.)

    1721, "loss of feeling," medical Latin, from Greek anaisthēsia "want of feeling or perception, lack of sensation (to pleasure or pain)," abstract noun from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + aisthēsis "feeling" (from PIE root *au- "to perceive"). For the abstract noun ending, see -ia.ETD anesthesia (n.).2

    As "a procedure for the prevention of pain in surgical operations," attested from 1846. Aesthesia "capacity for feeling" is attested in English from 1853, perhaps a back-formation.ETD anesthesia (n.).3

    anesthesiology (n.)

    1908, from anesthesia + -ology.ETD anesthesiology (n.).2

    anesthesiologist (n.)

    "specialist in the administration of anesthetics," 1943, American English, from anesthesiology + -ist.ETD anesthesiologist (n.).2

    anesthetic (adj.)

    1846, "insensible;" 1847, "producing temporary loss of sensation," with -ic + Latinized form of Greek anaisthētos "insensate, without feeling; senseless, tactless, stupid" (see anesthesia). The noun meaning "agent that produces anesthesia" was first used in the modern sense 1848 by Scottish doctor James Young Simpson (1811-1870), pioneer in the surgical use of chloroform.ETD anesthetic (adj.).2

    anesthetize (v.)

    "bring under the influence of an anesthetic," 1848, from Latinized form of Greek anaisthētos "insensate, without feeling" (see anesthesia) + -ize. Related: Anesthetized; anesthetizing; anesthetization.ETD anesthetize (v.).2

    anesthetist (n.)

    "one who administers anesthetics," 1861, from stem of anesthesia + -ist.ETD anesthetist (n.).2

    aneuploidy (n.)

    abnormal number of chromosomes, 1934, from adjective aneuploid (1931), Modern Latin, coined 1922 by G. Täckholm from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + euploid, from Greek eu "well, good" (see eu-) + -ploid, from -ploos "fold" (from PIE root *pel- (2) "to fold").ETD aneuploidy (n.).2

    aneurism (n.)

    the less correct, but more popular, spelling of aneurysm (q.v.), by influence of words in -ism. The -y- is etymologically correct; the spelling with -i- suggests a meaning "nervelessness."ETD aneurism (n.).2

    aneurysm (n.)

    "dilation of an artery," early 15c., from Medieval Latin aneurisma, from Greek aneurysmos "dilation," from aneurynein "to dilate," from ana "up" (see ana-) + eurynein "widen," from eurys "broad, wide" (see eury-). Related: Aneurysmal; aneurysmic.ETD aneurysm (n.).2

    anew (adv.)

    "over again, once more, afresh," c. 1300, a neue, from Old English of-niowe; see a- (1) + new. One-word form dominant from c. 1400.ETD anew (adv.).2

    anext (adv.)

    "next to," c. 1400, from a- (1) + next.ETD anext (adv.).2

    anfractuous (adj.)

    1620s, "full of windings and turnings," from Latin anfractuosus "roundabout, winding," from anfractus "a winding, turning, a bending round," especially "a circuitous route," also figuratively, in rhetoric, "circumlocution," from am(bi)- "around" (from PIE root *ambhi- "around") + fractus, past participle of frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break"). T.S. Eliot uses it in the French sense "craggy," which probably he got from Laforgue. Related: Anfractuosity (1590s).ETD anfractuous (adj.).2

    angelic (adj.)

    early 14c., "consisting of angels;" late 14c., "like or befitting an angel;" mid-15c., "pertaining to angels," from Old French angelique "angelic" (13c., Modern French angélique), from Latin angelicus, from Greek angelikos "angelic," from angelos (see angel). The sense of "wonderfully pure, sweet" is recorded from early 16c. Related: Angelically.ETD angelic (adj.).2

    angel (n.)

    "one of a class of spiritual beings, attendants and messengers of God," a c. 1300 fusion of Old English engel (with hard -g-) and Old French angele. Both are from Late Latin angelus, from Greek angelos, literally "messenger, envoy, one that announces," in the New Testament "divine messenger," which is possibly related to angaros "mounted courier," both from an unknown Oriental word (Watkins compares Sanskrit ajira- "swift;" Klein suggests Semitic sources).ETD angel (n.).2

    The Greek word was used in Scriptural translations for Hebrew mal'akh (yehowah) "messenger (of Jehovah)," from base l-'-k "to send." An Old English word for it was aerendgast, literally "errand-spirit."ETD angel (n.).3

    Of persons, "one who is loving, gracious, or lovely," by 1590s. The medieval English gold coin (a new issue of the noble, first struck 1465 by Edward IV) was so called for the image of archangel Michael slaying the dragon, which was stamped on it. It was the coin given to patients who had been "touched" for the King's Evil. Angel food cake is from 1881; angel dust "phencyclidine" is from 1968.ETD angel (n.).4


    fem. proper name, Latin fem. of angelus "angel" (see angel).ETD Angela.2

    Angeleno (n.)

    "resident or native of Los Angeles," 1888, from American Spanish Angeleño, from (Los) Angeles + -eño, suffix indicating a native or resident. See Los Angeles.ETD Angeleno (n.).2

    angel-fish (n.)

    also angelfish, 1660s, from angel + fish (n.); so called for its wing-like pectoral fins.ETD angel-fish (n.).2


    fem. proper name, Latin fem. of angelicus "angelic" (see angelic). As a type of plant, 1570s, probably so called for its scent.ETD Angelica.2


    fem. proper name, diminutive of Angela.ETD Angelina.2

    angelolatry (n.)

    "worship of angels," 1847, from angel + -latry "worship of," with connective -o-.ETD angelolatry (n.).2

    anger (n.)

    mid-13c., "hostile attitude, ill will, surliness" (also "distress, suffering; anguish, agony," a sense now obsolete), from Old Norse angr "distress, grief, sorrow, affliction," from Proto-Germanic *angaz (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful"). It is cognate with German Angst. The sense of "rage, wrath" is attested by early 14c.ETD anger (n.).2

    Old Norse also had angr-gapi "rash, foolish person;" also angr-lauss "free from care;" angr-lyndi "sadness, low spirits."ETD anger (n.).3

    anger (v.)

    c. 1200, "to irritate, annoy, provoke," from Old Norse angra "to grieve, vex, distress; to be vexed at, take offense with," from Proto-Germanic *angaz (source also of Old English enge "narrow, painful," Middle Dutch enghe, Gothic aggwus "narrow"), from PIE *anghos, suffixed form of root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful."ETD anger (v.).2

    In Middle English, also of physical pain. The meaning "excite to wrath, make angry" is from late 14c. Related: Angered; angering.ETD anger (v.).3

    Angevin (adj.)

    in reference to the English royal house of the 12th and early 13th centuries (Henry II, Richard I, and John) descended from Geoffrey, count of Anjou, and Matilda, daughter of Henry I, 1650s, literally "pertaining to the French province of Anjou," from French Angevin, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus, from Andegavum "Angers," city in France, capital of Anjou (Latin Andegavia), from Andecavi, Roman name of the Gaulish people who lived here, which is of unknown origin.ETD Angevin (adj.).2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tight, painfully constricted, painful."ETD *angh-.2

    It forms all or part of: agnail; anger; angina; angry; angst; anguish; anxious; hangnail; quinsy.ETD *angh-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit amhu- "narrow," amhah "anguish;" Armenian anjuk "narrow;" Lithuanian ankštas "narrow;" Greek ankhein "to squeeze," ankhone "a strangling;" Latin angere "to throttle, torment;" Old Irish cum-ang "straitness, want;" Old English enge "narrow, painful," Old Norse angra "to grieve, vex, distress," Gothic aggwus "narrow."ETD *angh-.4

    angina (n.)

    1570s, "severe inflammatory infection of the throat," from Latin angina "infection of the throat, quinsy," literally "a strangling," from Greek ankhonē "a strangling" (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful"); probably influenced in Latin by angere "to throttle." Angina pectoris "acute, constricting pain in the chest" is from 1744, from Latin pectoris, genitive of pectus "chest" (see pectoral (adj.)). Related: Anginal.ETD angina (n.).2


    before vowels angi-, word-forming element meaning "vessel of the body," now often "covered or enclosed by a seed or blood vessel," from Latinized form of Greek angeion "case, capsule, vessel of the body," diminutive of angos "vessel, jar, vat, vase," which is of unknown origin. Beekes says "Possibly a Mediterranean loanword ..., as kitchen utensils are often borrowed."ETD angio-.2

    angiogenesis (n.)

    "development of new blood vessels," 1896, from angio- + -genesis "birth, origin, creation."ETD angiogenesis (n.).2

    angiogram (n.)

    "X-ray image of the arteries, veins, and/or heart chambers," 1933, from angio- + -gram.ETD angiogram (n.).2

    angiography (n.)

    1731, "description of the vessels of the body" (blood and nymph), from angio- "blood vessel" + -graphy.ETD angiography (n.).2

    angioma (n.)

    "tumor produced by enlargement or new formation of blood vessels," 1867, medical Latin, from angio- + -oma. Related: Angiomatous.ETD angioma (n.).2

    angioplasty (n.)

    procedure used to open blocked arteries, by 1976, from angio- + -plasty.ETD angioplasty (n.).2

    angiosperm (n.)

    "plant with seeds contained in a protective vessel" (as distinguished from a gymnosperm, in which the seeds are naked), 1852, from Modern Latin Angiospermae, coined 1690 by German botanist Paul Hermann (1646-1695), from Greek angeion "vessel" (see angio-) + spermos, adjective from sperma "seed" (see sperm). So called because the seeds in this class of plants are enclosed. Related: Angiospermous.ETD angiosperm (n.).2

    angle (v.1)

    "to fish with a hook," mid-15c., from Old English angel (n.) "angle, hook, fish-hook," related to anga "hook," from Proto-Germanic *angul-, from PIE *ankulo-, suffixed form of root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (see angle (n.)). Compare Old English angul, Old Norse öngull, Old High German angul, German Angel "fishhook." The figurative sense "catch or elicit by artful wiles" is recorded from 1580s. Related: Angled; angling.ETD angle (v.1).2

    angle (v.2)

    "to move at an angle, to move diagonally or obliquely," 1741, from angle (n.). Related: Angled; angling.ETD angle (v.2).2

    angle (n.)

    "space or difference in direction between intersecting lines," late 14c., from Old French angle "an angle, a corner" (12c.) and directly from Latin angulus "an angle, a corner," a diminutive form from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (source also of Greek ankylos "bent, crooked," Latin ang(u)ere "to compress in a bend, fold, strangle;" Old Church Slavonic aglu "corner;" Lithuanian anka "loop;" Sanskrit ankah "hook, bent," angam "limb;" Old English ancleo "ankle;" Old High German ango "hook").ETD angle (n.).2

    The figurative sense "point or direction from which one approaches something" is from 1872. Angle-bracket is attested by 1781 in carpentry; 1956 in typography.ETD angle (n.).3


    member of a Teutonic tribe, Old English, from Latin Angli "the Angles," literally "people of Angul" (Old Norse Öngull), a region in what is now Holstein, said to be so-called for its hook-like shape (see angle (n.)). Or the name might refer to fishing (with hooks) as a main activity of the people, and Proto-Germanic *anguz is said also to have meant "narrow," so it might refer to shallow coastal waters.ETD Angle.2

    People from the tribe there founded the kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbia, and East Anglia in 5c. Britain. Their name, rather than that of the Saxons or Jutes, may have become the common one for the whole group of Germanic tribes because their dialect was the first committed to writing.ETD Angle.3

    angling (n.)

    "art of fishing with a rod and line," late 15c., verbal noun from angle (v.1).ETD angling (n.).2

    angler (n.)

    "fisher with a hook and line," mid-15c. (c. 1300 as a surname); agent noun from angle (v.1).ETD angler (n.).2

    Anglian (adj.)

    "of the Angles; of East Anglia," 1726; see Angle. The Old English word was Englisc, but as this came to be used in reference to the whole Germanic people of Britain, a new word was wanted to describe this branch of them.ETD Anglian (adj.).2

    anglicize (v.)

    "make English, render conformable to English modes or usages," 1710, with -ize + Medieval Latin Anglicus "of the English," from Angli "the Angles" (see Angle). Related: Anglicized; anglicizing.ETD anglicize (v.).2

    anglicization (n.)

    "process of making English in form or character," 1836, noun of action from anglicize; earlier in same sense was anglification (1822), from anglify (1751).ETD anglicization (n.).2

    Anglicism (n.)

    1640s, "Englished language; that which is peculiar to England in speech or writing," from Latin Anglicus "of the English" (see Angle) + -ism. As an instance of this, "a word or expression used particularly in England and not in America," from 1781.ETD Anglicism (n.).2

    Anglice (adv.)

    "in (plain) English," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin Anglice, from Anglicus (see Angle).ETD Anglice (adv.).2

    Anglican (adj.)

    1630s, "high-church, of the Church of England," from Medieval Latin Anglicanus, from Anglicus "of the English people, of England," from Angli "the Angles" (see Angle). The noun meaning "adherent of the Church of England" is by 1797. Related: Anglicanism.ETD Anglican (adj.).2

    Anglist (n.)

    "student of English," from German Anglist, from Medieval Latin Angli (see Angle). Related: Anglistics.ETD Anglist (n.).2

    Anglo (n.)

    "American, English-speaking white person," 1941, southwestern U.S., from Anglo-American. Anglo was used similarly of native, English-speakers in Canada from 1800 and Britain from 1964.ETD Anglo (n.).2


    word-forming element meaning "of or pertaining to England or the English (including the English inhabitants of North America and other places); of England and," from Medieval Latin Anglo-, combining form of Angli "the English" (see Angle).ETD Anglo-.2

    Anglo-American (n.)

    "English person who has settled in North America," 1738, from Anglo- + American. Originally often in contrast to German immigrants; later (1830s) in contrast to French-Canadians, Louisiana French, Spanish Mexicans. As an adjective from 1797, "pertaining to the English who have settled in America;" the meaning "pertaining to both England and the United States" is from 1812.ETD Anglo-American (n.).2

    Anglo-French (n.)

    the form of Old French written in England from the Norman Conquest (1066) through the Middle Ages; the administrative and legal language of England 12c.-17c.; the name is attested from 1887 and was popularized, if not coined, by Skeat.ETD Anglo-French (n.).2

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