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    apnea (n.) — Appian Way

    apnea (n.)

    in pathology, "suspension of breathing," originally, and until recently most commonly, apnoea, 1719, Modern Latin, from Greek apnoia "absence of respiration," from apnoos "without breathing, without wind," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + pnein "to breathe" (see pneuma).ETD apnea (n.).2

    apnoeic (adj.)

    "pertaining to or involving apnea," 1883, from apnoea (see apnea) + -ic.ETD apnoeic (adj.).2


    also *ap-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "off, away."ETD *apo-.2

    It forms all or part of: ab-; abaft; ablaut; aft; after; apanthropy; aperitif; aperture; apo-; apocalypse; apocryphal; Apollyon; apology; apoplexy; apostle; apostrophe; apothecary; apotheosis; awk; awkward; ebb; eftsoons; of; off; offal; overt.ETD *apo-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit apa "away from," Avestan apa "away from," Greek apo "from, away from; after; in descent from," Latin ab "away from, from," Gothic af, Old English of "away from."ETD *apo-.4


    before vowels ap-, word-forming element meaning "of, from, away from; separate, apart from, free from," from Greek apo "from, away from; after; in descent from," in compounds, "asunder, off; finishing, completing; back again," of time, "after," of origin, "sprung from, descended from; because of," from PIE root *apo- "off, away" (source also of Sanskrit apa "away from," Avestan apa "away from," Latin ab "away from, from," Gothic af, Old English of "away from," Modern English of, off).ETD apo-.2

    apocalypse (n.)

    late 14c., "revelation, disclosure," from Church Latin apocalypsis "revelation," from Greek apokalyptein "uncover, disclose, reveal," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + kalyptein "to cover, conceal" (from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save"). The Christian end-of-the-world story is part of the revelation in John of Patmos' book "Apokalypsis" (a title rendered into English as pocalipsis c. 1050, "Apocalypse" c. 1230, and "Revelation" by Wycliffe c. 1380).ETD apocalypse (n.).2

    Its general sense in Middle English was "insight, vision; hallucination." The general meaning "a cataclysmic event" is modern (not in OED 2nd ed., 1989); apocalypticism "belief in an imminent end of the present world" is from 1858. As agent nouns, "author or interpreter of the 'Apocalypse,'" apocalypst (1829), apocalypt (1834), and apocalyptist (1824) have been tried.ETD apocalypse (n.).3

    apocalyptic (adj.)

    1660s, "pertaining to the 'Revelation of St. John' in the New Testament," from Greek apokalyptikos, from apokalyptein "uncover, disclose, reveal" (see apocalypse). The original general sense was "prophetic" (1680s); the meaning "pertaining to the imminent end of the world" is attested by 1864. Related: Apocalyptical (1630s).ETD apocalyptic (adj.).2

    apocryphal (adj.)

    1580s, "of doubtful authenticity," from apocrypha + -al (1). Middle English had apocrive (late 14c.) in same sense. Related: Apocryphally.ETD apocryphal (adj.).2

    apocrypha (n.)

    late 14c., Apocrifa, "the apocryphal books of the Bible," from Late Latin apocrypha (scripta), from neuter plural of apocryphus "secret, not approved for public reading," from Greek apokryphos "hidden; obscure, hard to understand," thus "(books) of unknown authorship" (especially those included in Septuagint and Vulgate but not originally written in Hebrew and not counted as genuine by the Jews), from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + kryptein "to hide" (see crypt).ETD apocrypha (n.).2

    The non-Biblical sense of "writing of doubtful authorship or authenticity" is from 1735. Properly plural (the single would be Apocryphon or apocryphum), but commonly treated as a collective singular.ETD apocrypha (n.).3

    apodal (adj.)

    "having no feet," 1769, with -al + Greek apous (genitive apodos) "footless," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + pous "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot").ETD apodal (adj.).2

    apodictic (adj.)

    also apodeictic, "clearly demonstrated," 1650s, from Latin apodicticus, from Greek apodeiktikos, from apodeiktos, verbal adjective of apodeiknynai "to show off, demonstrate, show by argument, point out, prove," literally "to point away from" (other objects, at one), from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + deiknynai "to show" (from PIE root *deik- "to show"). Related: Apodictical (1630s); apodictically (1610s).ETD apodictic (adj.).2

    apodyterium (n.)

    "undressing room" (in a Greek or Roman bath house or palaestra), 1690s, from Latin apodyterium, from Greek apodyterion "undressing room," from apodyein "to put off, undress," from apo "off" (see apo-) + dyein "to put on, enter, go in" (see ecdysiast).ETD apodyterium (n.).2

    apogee (n.)

    "point at which the moon is farthest from the earth," 1590s, from French apogée or directly from Latin apogaeum, from Greek apogaion (diastema) "(distance) away from the earth," from apogaion, neuter adjective, "from land," here in a specialized sense "away from the earth," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + gaia/ge "earth" (see Gaia).ETD apogee (n.).2

    The figurative sense of "climax, culmination" is from 1640s. A term from Ptolemaic astronomy, which regarded the earth as the center of the universe and applied the word to the sun and planets; for these bodies it was displaced in the Copernican system by aphelion. Adjective forms are apogeal, apogean, apogeic.ETD apogee (n.).3

    apo koinu

    Greek, literally "in common." Applied to sentences with one subject and two predicates; a formation rare in modern English, though it occurs more often in Old English. For the elements, see apo- + koine.ETD apo koinu.2

    apolitical (adj.)

    "disregarding politics," 1947, from a- (3) "not" + political.ETD apolitical (adj.).2


    Olympian deity, god of music, poetry, medicine, etc., later identified with Helios, the sun god; the name is a Latin form of Greek Apollon, which is of uncertain origin. Beekes, after considering the alternatives, concludes, "In spite of repeated attempts, there is no IE etymology. ... The name is probably Pre-Greek, and Hitt. Appaliunaš, mentioned in a treaty between Alaksandus of Wilusa and the Hittite king, may well be the Pre-Greek proto-form Apal'un." The U.S. space program ran from 1961 to 1972.ETD Apollo.2

    Apollonian (adj.)

    1660s, "of, pertaining to, or resembling the Greek god Apollo," from Apollo (Greek Apollon) + -ian. The Greek adjective was Apollonios. Other adjectival forms in English include Apollinarian, Apollonic, Apolline (c. 1600). Also sometimes in reference to Apollonius of Perga, the great geometer.ETD Apollonian (adj.).2


    destroying angel of the bottomless pit in Revelation ix.11 (a name also sometimes given to the Devil), late 14c., from present participle of Greek apollyein "to destroy utterly" (from apo "from, away from" (see apo-) + olluein "to destroy, make an end of;" compare abolish); a translation of Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).ETD Apollyon.2

    apological (adj.)

    c. 1600; see apology + -ical.ETD apological (adj.).2

    apologize (v.)

    1590s, "to speak in defense of;" see apology + -ize. The sense of "regretfully acknowledge" is attested by 1725. The Greek equivalent, apologizesthai, meant simply "to give an account." Related: Apologized; apologizing; apologizer.ETD apologize (v.).2

    apology (n.)

    early 15c., "defense, justification," from Late Latin apologia, from Greek apologia "a speech in defense," from apologeisthai "to speak in one's defense," from apologos "an account, story," from apo "away from, off" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see Logos).ETD apology (n.).2

    In classical Greek, "a well-reasoned reply; a 'thought-out response' to the accusations made," as that of Socrates. The original English sense of "self-justification" yielded a meaning "frank expression of regret for wrong done," attested by 1590s, but this was not the main sense until 18c. In Johnson's dictionary it is defined as "Defence; excuse," and adds, "Apology generally signifies rather excuse than vindication, and tends rather to extenuate the fault, than prove innocence," which might indicate the path of the sense shift. The old sense has since tended to go with the Latin form apologia (1784), a word known from early Christian writings in defense of the faith.ETD apology (n.).3

    apologetic (adj.)

    1640s, "vindicatory, containing a defense," from French apologétique, from Latin apologeticus, from Greek apologetikos "defensible," from apologeisthai "speak in one's defense," from apologos "an account, story," from apo "away from, off" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (from PIE root *leg- (1).ETD apologetic (adj.).2

    The meaning "regretfully acknowledging fault or failure" is by 1836 (apologetic for himself). Apologetical is from c. 1600 as "containing or of the nature of a defense;" by 1630s as "regretfully acknowledging fault or failure."ETD apologetic (adj.).3

    apologetics (n.)

    "branch of theology which defends Christian belief," 1733, from apologetic (which is attested from early 15c. as a noun meaning "formal defense"); also see -ics.ETD apologetics (n.).2

    apologia (n.)

    "defense, justification," 1784, the Latin form of apology (q.v.); popularized by J.H. Newman's "Apologia pro Vita Sua" (1864). It preserves the older sense of the English apology and the sense of the Greek original, especially as used by the Church fathers.ETD apologia (n.).2

    apologise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of apologize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Apologised; apologising.ETD apologise (v.).2

    apologist (n.)

    "one who speaks or write in defense of something," especially "a defender of Christianity," 1630s, from French apologiste, from apologie, from Late Latin apologia "a speech in defense" (see apology).ETD apologist (n.).2

    apologue (n.)

    "moral fable, fictitious story intended to convey useful truths," 1550s, from French apologue, from Latin apologus, from Greek apologos "a story, tale, fable," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see Logos). Literally, "(that which comes) from a speech."ETD apologue (n.).2

    aponeurosis (n.)

    "fascia, fascia-like tendon, white fibrous membrane of the body (often connecting a muscle with a tendon)," 1670s, from Latin, from Greek aponeurosis, from aponeuroein, from apo "change into" (see apo-) + neuron "sinew" (see neuro-).ETD aponeurosis (n.).2

    apophasis (n.)

    in rhetoric, "a denial of an intention to speak of something which nonetheless is hinted at," 1650s, from Late Latin apophasis, from Greek apophasis "denial, negation," from apophanai "to speak off," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + phanai "to speak," related to phēmē "voice" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").ETD apophasis (n.).2

    apophatic (adj.)

    "involving a mention of something one feigns to deny; involving knowledge obtained by negation," 1850, from Latinized form of Greek apophatikos, from apophasis "denial, negation," from apophanai "to speak off," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + phanai "to speak," related to phēmē "voice" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").ETD apophatic (adj.).2

    apophenia (n.)

    "tendency to perceive meaningful connections between unrelated things," 1961, from German Apophänie, said to have been coined 1958 by psychiatrist Klaus Conrad, from Greek apophainein "to show, make known, show by reasoning, produce evidence," from apo- "from" (see apo-) + phainein " to show, cause to appear" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine").ETD apophenia (n.).2

    apophthegm (n.)

    see apothegm. Related: Apophthegmatic.ETD apophthegm (n.).2

    apoplectic (adj.)

    1610s, "involving apoplexy," from French apoplectique (16c.), from Latin apoplecticus, from Greek apoplektikos "disabled by a stroke, crippled, struck dumb, senseless; crippled, palsied," extended form of apoplektos, verbal adjective of apoplessein "strike down and incapacitate" (see apoplexy). The meaning "showing symptoms of apoplexy" (1721) gradually shaded into "enraged, very angry" by early 19c. The noun meaning "one suffering apoplexy" is from 1660s.ETD apoplectic (adj.).2

    apoplexy (n.)

    "sudden fit of paralysis and dizziness," late 14c., from Old French apoplexie or directly from Late Latin apoplexia, from Greek apoplexia, from apoplektos "disabled by a stroke, struck dumb," verbal adjective from apoplēssein "to strike down and incapacitate," from apo "off" (see apo-), in this case perhaps an intensive prefix, + plēssein "to hit" (from PIE root *plak- (2) "to strike;" source also of plague, which also has a root sense of "stricken"). The Latin translation, sideratio, means "disease caused by a constellation."ETD apoplexy (n.).2

    aporetic (adj.)

    "inclined to doubt," c. 1600, from French aporetique, from Greek aporetikos, from aporeein "to be at a loss, be without means or resources," from aporos "impassable, impracticable, very difficult; hard to deal with; at a loss," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + poros "passage" (see pore (n.)).ETD aporetic (adj.).2

    aporia (n.)

    1580s, in rhetoric, "professed doubt as to where to begin," from Latin, from Greek aporia "difficulty, perplexity, want of means, poverty," abstract noun from aporos "impassable, impracticable, very difficult; hard to deal with; at a loss," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + poros "passage" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over"). The meaning "equality of reasons for or against" is by 1893.ETD aporia (n.).2

    aposiopesis (n.)

    rhetorical artifice wherein the speaker suddenly breaks off in the middle of a sentence, 1570s, from Latin, from Greek aposiōpesis "a becoming silent," also "rhetorical figure of breaking off," from aposiōpan "become silent," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + siōpē "silence," which is perhaps from a PIE *swī- "to be silent," but Beekes suspects it is Pre-Greek (non-IE). Related: Aposiopetic.ETD aposiopesis (n.).2

    apostate (adj.)

    "unfaithful to a religious creed or to a principle," late 14c., see apostate (n.).ETD apostate (adj.).2

    apostate (n.)

    mid-14c., "one who forsakes his religion or faith," from Old French apostat and directly from Late Latin apostata (which form also was used in Middle English), from Greek apostasia, apostasis "defection, desertion, rebellion," from apostanai "to defect," literally "to stand off," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + stanai, aorist of histanai "to set, place," literally "cause to stand" (from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm").ETD apostate (n.).2

    The word was used from mid-14c. in non-religious situations, "one who has forsaken the party, opinion, etc., to which he previously adhered."ETD apostate (n.).3

    apostasy (n.)

    late 14c., apostasie, "renunciation, abandonment or neglect of established religion," from Late Latin apostasia, from later Greek apostasia for earlier apostasis "revolt, defection," literally "a standing off," from apostanai "to stand away" (see apostate (n.)). The general (non-religious) sense of "abandonment of what one has professed" is attested from 1570s.ETD apostasy (n.).2

    apostatize (v.)

    "abandon one's faith, principles, or church," 1610s, from Late Latin apostatizare, earlier apostatare, from apostata "one who forsakes his religion or faith" (see apostate (n.)). Related: Apostatized; apostatizing. The past participle form apostazied is attested from late 14c.ETD apostatize (v.).2

    apostatise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of apostatize (q.v.); for suffix, see -ize. Related: Apostatised; apostatising.ETD apostatise (v.).2

    a posteriori

    17c., in reference to reasoning from a consequent to its antecedent, from an effect to its cause; Latin, literally "from what comes after;" from a "off, away from," usual form of ab before consonants (see ab-) + posteriori, neuter ablative of posterius, comparative of posterus "after, subsequent," from post "after" (see post-). Opposed to a priori. In modern use (from c. 1830, based on Kant) roughly equivalent to "from experience."ETD a posteriori.2

    apostille (n.)

    "marginal note, especially on a text of the Bible," also apostil, 1520s, from French apostille (15c.), which is of uncertain origin; perhaps from á "to" + Medieval Latin postilla, which probably represents Latin post illa, literally "after those."ETD apostille (n.).2

    apostle (n.)

    Old English apostol "messenger," especially the twelve witnesses sent forth by Jesus to preach his Gospel (Luke vi.13), from Late Latin apostolus, from Greek apostolos "messenger, envoy," literally "person sent forth," from apostellein "send away, send forth," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + stellein in its secondary sense of "to send" (from suffixed form of PIE root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place). Compare epistle.ETD apostle (n.).2

    The current form of the word, predominant since 16c., is influenced by Old French apostle (12c., Modern French apôtre), from the same Late Latin source. The meaning "missionary who brings Christianity to a new region or people" is from early 15c. The figurative sense of "chief advocate of a new principle or system" is from 1810. The New Testament book title Apostles (c. 1400) is short for "The Acts and Epistles of the Apostles."ETD apostle (n.).3

    apostleship (n.)

    "the office, dignity, or functions of an apostle," 1520s, from apostle + -ship. Old English had apostolhad (Middle English apostlehed).ETD apostleship (n.).2

    apostolic (adj.)

    "pertaining to, related to, or descended from the apostles," early 15c., from French apostolique or directly from Church Latin apostolicus, from Greek apostolikos, from apostolos (see apostle). Apostolical also is early 15c.ETD apostolic (adj.).2

    apostrophe (n.2)

    "a turning aside of an orator in the course of a speech to address briefly some individual," 1530s, from French apostrophe, from Late Latin apostrophus, from Greek apostrophos, "turning away," from apostrephein "avert, turn away," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + strephein "to turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn"). Related: Apostrophic; apostrophize.ETD apostrophe (n.2).2

    apostrophe (n.1)

    "mark indicating an omitted letter," 1580s, from French apostrophe, from Late Latin apostrophus, from Greek apostrophos (prosoidia) "(the accent of) turning away," thus, a mark showing where a letter has been omitted, from apostrephein "avert, turn away," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + strephein "to turn" (see strepto-).ETD apostrophe (n.1).2

    In English, the mark often represents loss of -e- in -es, possessive ending. By 18c. it was being extended to all possessives, whether they ever had an -e- or not.ETD apostrophe (n.1).3

    apothecary (n.)

    mid-14c., "shopkeeper," especially "pharmacist; one who stores, compounds, and sells medicaments," from Old French apotecaire (13c., Modern French apothicaire), from Late Latin apothecarius "storekeeper," from Latin apotheca "storehouse," from Greek apothēkē "barn, storehouse," literally "a place where things are put away," from apo "away" (see apo-) + thēkē "receptacle" (from a suffixed form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").ETD apothecary (n.).2

    The same Latin word produced French boutique, Spanish bodega, German Apotheke. Cognate compounds produced Sanskrit apadha- "concealment," Old Persian apadana- "palace."ETD apothecary (n.).3

    Drugs and herbs being among the chief items of non-perishable goods, the meaning narrowed 17c. to "druggist" (the Apothecaries' Company of London separated from the Grocers' in 1617). Apothecaries were notorious for "the assumed gravity and affectation of knowledge generally put on by the gentlemen of this profession, who are commonly as superficial in their learning as they are pedantic in their language" [Francis Grose, "A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1796]. Hence, Apothecary's Latin, barbarously mangled, also known as Dog Latin.ETD apothecary (n.).4

    apothegm (n.)

    "short, pithy, instructive saying," 1550s, from Greek apophthegma "terse, pointed saying," literally "something clearly spoken," from apophthengesthai "to speak one's opinion plainly," from apo "from" (see apo-) + phthengesthai "to utter" (see diphthong). See aphorism for nuances of use. The spelling apophthegm, restored by Johnson, is "now more frequent in England," according to OED (1989). Related: Apothegmatic.ETD apothegm (n.).2

    apotheosize (v.)

    "exalt to godhood, deify," 1760; see apotheosis + -ize. Related: Apotheosized; apotheosizing. Earlier in same sense was apotheose (1670s).ETD apotheosize (v.).2

    apotheosis (n.)

    "deification," 1600s, from Late Latin apotheosis "deification," especially of an emperor or royal person, from Greek apotheosis, from apotheoun "deify, make (someone) a god," from apo, meaning, here, "change" (see apo-) + theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts).ETD apotheosis (n.).2

    apothesis (n.)

    "setting of a fractured or dislocated limb," 1811, from Greek apothesis "setting of a limb," literally "a laying up in store; a putting back or away," noun of action from apotithenai "to lay aside," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + tithenai "to put, set, place" (from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").ETD apothesis (n.).2

    apotropaic (adj.)

    "having the power of averting evil influence," 1883, with -ic + Greek apotropaios "averting evil," from apotrepein "to turn away, avert," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Related: Apotropaion "amulet, etc., reputed to avert evil;" apotropaism.ETD apotropaic (adj.).2

    app (n.)

    computerese shorthand for application, attested by 1992.ETD app (n.).2

    appall (v.)

    also appal, early 14c., "to fade;" c. 1400, "to grow pale," from Old French apalir "become or make pale," from a- "to" (see ad-) + palir "grow pale," from Latin pallere "to be pale" (from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale"). The transitive meaning "cause dismay or shock," is 1530s. Related: Appalled; appalling.ETD appall (v.).2

    appalling (adj.)

    "causing dismay or horror," 1620s, present-participle adjective from appall. Colloquial weakened sense of "distasteful" is attested from 1919. Related: Appallingly.ETD appalling (adj.).2

    appalled (adj.)

    1570s, "enfeebled;" c. 1600, "dismayed;" past-participle adjective from appall.ETD appalled (adj.).2


    "cultural and geographical region of inland Eastern U.S.," 1880s, from the Appalachian Mountains, which are its core. Earlier Appalachia was proposed as a better name for "United States of America" by Washington Irving in 1839 (though he preferred Alleghenia) and he may get the credit for coinage of the word (see America).ETD Appalachia.2


    in reference to the North American mountain range, c. 1600, Mountaynes Apalatsi; written apalachen by Spanish explorers and originally in reference only to the southern end of the range. Originally the name of the Apalachee, a Muskogean people of northwestern Florida, perhaps from Apalachee abalahci "other side of the river" or Hitchiti (Muskogean) apalwahči "dwelling on one side." The spelling shifted under influence of adjectives in -ian.ETD Appalachian.2


    breed of horses favored by Indian tribes in U.S. West, 1849, either from Opelousa (perhaps from Choctaw api losa "black body") in Louisiana, or from the name of the Palouse Indians, who lived near the river of that name in Idaho, whose name is from Sahaptin palou:s "what is standing up in the water."ETD Appaloosa.2

    appanage (n.)

    c. 1600, "provision made for the younger children of royal or noble families," from French appanage (16c.), restored from earlier apanage (13c.), a term in feudal law, from apaner "to endow with means of subsistence," from Medieval Latin appanare "equip with bread," from ad "to" (see ad-) + panis "bread" (from PIE root *pa- "to feed"). The restored double -p- was subsequently abandoned in French. The meaning "dependent territory" is from 1807.ETD appanage (n.).2

    apparent (adj.)

    late 14c., "indisputable, clearly understood;" c. 1400, "easily seen or perceived," from Old French aparant "evident, obvious, visible," from Latin apparentem (nominative apparens) "visible, manifest," present participle of apparere "appear, come in sight" (see appear).ETD apparent (adj.).2

    First attested in phrases such as heir apparent (see heir). The meaning "superficial, spurious" is from c. 1400; that of "appearing to the senses or mind but not necessarily real" is from 1640s. Apparent magnitude in astronomy (how bright a heavenly body looks from earth, as opposed to absolute magnitude, which is how bright it really is) is attested from 1875. Middle English had noun forms apparence, apparency, but both are obsolete since 17c.ETD apparent (adj.).3

    apparently (adv.)

    late 14c., "visibly, openly," from apparent + -ly (2). The meaning "evidently" is from 1550s; that of "to all appearances" (but not necessarily "really") is from 1560s; the sense of "so far as can be judged" is by 1846.ETD apparently (adv.).2

    apparat (n.)

    "administrative machinery of the Communist Party in Russia," 1950, from Russian, from German apparat "apparatus, instrument," from Latin apparatus "tools, implements" (see apparatus).ETD apparat (n.).2

    apparatchik (n.)

    "Communist agent or spy," 1941, originally in the writings of Arthur Koestler, from Russian, from apparat "political organization" (see apparat). Russian plural is apparatchiki.ETD apparatchik (n.).2

    apparatus (n.)

    "a collection of tools, utensils, etc. adapted as a means to some end," 1620s, from Latin apparatus "tools, implements, equipment; preparation, a preparing," noun of state from past-participle stem of apparare "prepare," from ad "to" (see ad-) + parare "make ready" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").ETD apparatus (n.).2

    apparel (n.)

    c. 1300, appareil, "fighting equipment or accouterments, armor, weapons;" mid-14c., "furnishings, trappings;" late 14c., "personal outfit, a person's outer clothing, attire," from Old French apareil "preparation, planning; dress, vestments," from apareillier (see apparel (v.)). Middle English had also apparelment (late 14c.).ETD apparel (n.).2

    apparel (v.)

    late 13c., appareillen, "prepare, make preparations;" late 14c., "to equip, provide with proper clothing; dress or dress up," from Old French apareillier "prepare, make (someone) ready, dress (oneself)," 12c., Modern French appareiller, from Vulgar Latin *appariculare.ETD apparel (v.).2

    This is either from Latin apparare "prepare, make ready" (see apparatus), or from Vulgar Latin *ad-particulare "to put things together," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot" (see particle (n.)). "The 15th c. spellings were almost endless" [OED].ETD apparel (v.).3

    By either derivation the sense is etymologically "to join like to like, to fit, to suit." Compare French habiller "to dress," originally "prepare, arrange," English dress, from Latin directus. The words were "specially applied to clothing, as the necessary preparation for every kind of action" [Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859].ETD apparel (v.).4

    Cognate with Italian aparecchiare, Spanish aparejar, Portuguese aparelhar. Related: Appareled; apparelled; appareling; apparelling.ETD apparel (v.).5

    apparition (n.)

    early 15c., "supernatural appearance or manifestation," from Anglo-French aparicion, Old French aparicion, aparoison (15c.), used in reference to the Epiphany (the revealing of the Christ child to the Wise Men), from Late Latin apparitionem (nominative apparitio) "an appearance," also "attendants," in classical Latin "service; servants," noun of action from past-participle stem of apparere "appear" (see appear).ETD apparition (n.).2

    The meaning "ghost" is recorded from c. 1600; the sense differentiation between appearance and apparition is that the latter tends to be unexpected or startling. Related: Apparitional.ETD apparition (n.).3

    appeach (v.)

    obsolete variant form of impeach. Related: Appeached; appeaching.ETD appeach (v.).2

    appealing (adj.)

    1590s, "suppliant, applying to a higher authority," present-participle adjective from appeal (v.). The sense of "attractive" is attested by 1854. Related: Appealingly.ETD appealing (adj.).2

    appeal (v.)

    early 14c., appelen, originally in the legal sense, to "call" to a higher judge or court, from Anglo-French apeler "to call upon, accuse," Old French apeler "make an appeal" (11c., Modern French appeler), from Latin appellare "to accost, address, appeal to, summon, name," iterative of appellere "to prepare," from ad "to" (see ad-) + pellere "to beat, push, drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive").ETD appeal (v.).2

    Probably a Roman metaphoric extension of a nautical term for "driving a ship toward a particular landing." The popular modern meaning "be attractive or pleasing" is attested from 1907 (appealing in this sense is from 1891), extended from the sense of "address oneself in expectation of a sympathetic response" (1794). Related: Appealed.ETD appeal (v.).3

    appeal (n.)

    c. 1300, "proceeding taken to reverse a decision by submitting it to the review of a higher authority," from Old French apel "call, appeal in court" (Modern French appel), back-formation from apeler "call upon" (see appeal (v.)). The meaning "a call to an authority" is from 1620s; that of "attractive power" attested by 1904.ETD appeal (n.).2

    appear (v.)

    late 13c., "come into view," from stem of Old French aparoir, aperer "appear, come to light, come forth" (12c., Modern French apparoir), from Latin apparere "to appear, come in sight, make an appearance," from ad "to" (see ad-) + parere "to come forth, be visible; submit, obey," which is of uncertain origin; de Vaan says from a PIE *prh-o- "providing."ETD appear (v.).2

    Of persons, "present oneself," late 14c. The meaning "seem, have a certain appearance" is late 14c. Related: Appeared; appearing.ETD appear (v.).3

    appearance (n.)

    late 14c., "visible state or form, figure; mere show," from Anglo-French apparaunce, Old French aparance "appearance, display, pomp" (13c.), from Latin apparentia, abstract noun from aparentem, past participle of apparere "come in sight, make an appearance," especially "be evident, be seen in public, show oneself" (see appear).ETD appearance (n.).2

    The meaning "semblance" is recorded from early 15c.; that of "action of coming into view" is by mid-15c.; that of "a coming before the public or an audience" is from 1670s. The phrase keeping up appearances is attested from 1751 (save appearances in a similar sense is by 1711; see save (v.)).ETD appearance (n.).3

    appease (v.)

    c. 1300 appesen, "reconcile," from Anglo-French apeser, Old French apaisier "to pacify, make peace, appease, be reconciled, placate" (12c.), from the phrase a paisier "bring to peace," from a "to" (see ad-) + pais, from Latin pacem (nominative pax) "peace" (see peace). The meaning "pacify (one who is angry)" is from late 14c.; for political sense, see appeasement. Related: Appeased; appeasing.ETD appease (v.).2

    appeaser (n.)

    "one who or that which pacifies or appeases," mid-15c., agent noun from appease (v.). The pejorative political sense is attested from 1940.ETD appeaser (n.).2

    appeasable (adj.)

    "capable of being calmed or pacified," 1540s; see appease + -able. Related: Appeasably.ETD appeasable (adj.).2

    appeasement (n.)

    mid-15c., appesement, "pacification," from Old French apaisement "appeasement, calming," noun of action from apaisier "pacify, make peace, placate" (see appease). First recorded 1919 in the international political sense; it was not pejorative until the failure of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's policy toward Germany in 1939 (methods of appeasement was Chamberlain's description of his policy).ETD appeasement (n.).2

    appellate (adj.)

    "pertaining to appeals," 1726, from Latin appellatus, past participle of appellare "appeal to" (see appeal (v.)).ETD appellate (adj.).2

    appellant (n.)

    "one who appeals from a lower to a higher court," 1610s, from Anglo-French, French appellant, noun use of present participle of French appeller "make an appeal" (Old French apeler), from Latin appellare "appeal to" (see appeal (v.)).ETD appellant (n.).2

    appellative (adj.)

    early 15c., of a noun, "serving to name or mark out, common (as opposed to proper)," from Latin appellativus, from appellat-, past-participle stem of appellare "address, name, appeal to" (see appeal (v.)). As a noun, attested from 1590s, "common name;" 1630s as "title, descriptive name."ETD appellative (adj.).2

    appellation (n.)

    "designation, name given to a person, thing, or class," mid-15c., from Old French apelacion "name, denomination" (12c.), from Latin appellationem (nominative appellatio) "an addressing, accosting; an appeal; a name, title," noun of action from past-participle stem of appellare "address, appeal to, name" (see appeal (v.)).ETD appellation (n.).2

    appellee (n.)

    "person against whom an appeal is brought," 1530s, from Anglo-French (late 14c.), from Old French apelé (Modern French appelé) "accused, defendant," noun use of past participle of appeler "speak to, call upon, appeal to, address, call by name;" see appeal (v.). Also see -ee.ETD appellee (n.).2

    appendicitis (n.)

    "inflammation of the vermiform appendix," 1886, from Latin stem of appendix, in the medical sense, + -itis "inflammation."ETD appendicitis (n.).2

    append (v.)

    late 14c., appenden, "to belong to as a possession or right," from Old French apendre (13c.) "belong, be dependent (on); attach (oneself) to; hang, hang up," and directly from Latin appendere "cause to hang (from something); weigh out," from ad "to" (see ad-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weight; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").ETD append (v.).2

    The meaning "to hang on, attach as a pendant" is by 1640s; that of "attach as an appendix" is recorded by 1843. OED says the original word was obsolete by c. 1500, and these later transitive senses thus represent a reborrowing from Latin or French. Related: Appended; appending.ETD append (v.).3

    appendage (n.)

    "that which is appended to something as a proper part," 1640s; see append + -age.ETD appendage (n.).2

    appendectomy (n.)

    "surgical operation to remove the appendix," 1891, a hybrid from appendix in the anatomical sense + -ectomy "a cutting, surgical removal."ETD appendectomy (n.).2

    appendices (n.)

    proper Latin plural of appendix.ETD appendices (n.).2

    appendicular (adj.)

    1650s, from Latin appendicula "a little addition, small appendage," diminutive of appendix (see appendix) + -ar. In anatomy, opposed to axial.ETD appendicular (adj.).2

    appendix (n.)

    1540s, "subjoined addition to a document or book," from Latin appendix "an addition, continuation, something attached," from appendere "cause to hang (from something)," from ad "to" (see ad-) + pendere "to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").ETD appendix (n.).2

    It has been used for "small outgrowth of an internal organ" from 1610s, especially in reference to the vermiform appendix. This sense in English is perhaps from or influenced by French, where the word was in use in anatomy from 1540s.ETD appendix (n.).3

    apperceive (v.)

    c. 1300, "to perceive, notice," especially of internal observation (a sense now obsolete), from Old French apercevoir "perceive, notice, become aware of" (11c.), from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + percipere "gather, seize entirely," also, figuratively, "to grasp with the mind, learn, comprehend" (see perceive). In modern psychological use (1876), it is a back-formation from apperception (q.v.). Related: Apperceived; apperceiving; apperceptive.ETD apperceive (v.).2

    apperception (n.)

    1753, "self-consciousness," from French aperception (17c.), from Latin apperceptionem, from ad "to" (see ad-) + perceptionem (nominative perceptio) "perception, apprehension, a taking," noun of action from past-participle stem of percipere "to perceive" (see perceive).ETD apperception (n.).2

    The meaning "act of the mind by which it becomes conscious of its ideas as its own (1876) is from German Apperzeption, coined by mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) as noun corresponding to French apercevoir "perceive, notice, become aware of" on analogy of Perzeption/percevoir.ETD apperception (n.).3

    appertain (v.)

    late 14c., appertenen, "belong as parts to the whole, or as members to a family or class, belong by association or attribution," from Anglo-French apartenir, Old French apartenir "be related to; be incumbent upon" (12c.), from Late Latin appertinere "to pertain to," from ad "to; completely" (see ad-) + pertinere "to belong to" (see pertain). Related: Appertained; appertaining.ETD appertain (v.).2

    appetize (v.)

    "make hungry, give an appetite to," 1782 (implied in appetized), irregularly formed (on model of verbs in -ize) from appetite, or else a back-formation from appetizing. The French word is appétissant. "In Fr. only the pples. are found; and in English the simple vb. is perhaps only colloquial" [OED].ETD appetize (v.).2

    appetizer (n.)

    "something taken to whet the appetite," 1820, agent noun from appetize.ETD appetizer (n.).2

    appetence (n.)

    "strong desire, act of seeking or craving that which satisfies the senses," c. 1600, from French appétence "desire," from Latin appetentia "longing after something," abstract noun from appetentem (nominative appetens), present participle of appetere, from ad "to" (see ad-) + petere "to seek, request" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly"). Related: Appetency.ETD appetence (n.).2

    appetizing (adj.)

    "exciting desire or hunger," 1650s, from appetite on model of present-participle adjective forms in -ing.ETD appetizing (adj.).2

    appetite (n.)

    c. 1300, "craving for food," from Anglo-French appetit, Old French apetit "appetite, desire, eagerness" (13c., Modern French appétit), from Latin appetitus "appetite, longing," literally "desire toward," from appetitus, past participle of appetere "to long for, desire; strive for, grasp at," from ad "to" (see ad-) + petere "go to, seek out" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly").ETD appetite (n.).2

    Formerly with of or to, now with for. In reference to other desires or cravings, from late 14c. As an adjective, "characterized by appetite," OED and Century Dictionary list appetitious (1650s) and appetitual (1610s) as obsolete, but appetitive (1570s) continues.ETD appetite (n.).3

    Appian Way

    road between Rome and Capua, so called because it was begun (312 B.C.E.) by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus of the ancient gens of the Appii.ETD Appian Way.2

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