Larger font
Smaller font
Etymology dictionary - Contents
  • Results
  • Related
  • Featured
No results found for: "".
  • Weighted Relevancy
  • Content Sequence
  • Relevancy
  • Earliest First
  • Latest First
    Larger font
    Smaller font

    disappointed (adj.) — discriminating (adj.)

    disappointed (adj.)

    "having one's anticipations or desires frustrated; baffled, balked, thwarted," 1550s, past-participle adjective from disappoint (v.). Related: Disappointedly; disappointedness.ETD disappointed (adj.).2

    disappoint (v.)

    mid-15c., disappointen, "dispossess of appointed office," from dis- "reverse, opposite of" + appoint, or else from Old French desapointer "undo the appointment, remove from office" (14c., Modern French from désappointer). Modern sense of "to frustrate the expectations or desires of" is from late 15c. of persons; of plans, etc., "defeat the realization or fulfillment of," from 1570s, perhaps via a secondary meaning of "fail to keep an appointment."ETD disappoint (v.).2

    disappointing (adj.)

    "that frustrates hopes, falling short of expectations," 1520s, present-participle adjective from disappoint (v.). Related: Disappointingly.ETD disappointing (adj.).2

    disapprobation (n.)

    "act or fact of disapproving; censure, expressed or unexpressed," 1640s; see dis- + approbation.ETD disapprobation (n.).2

    disapproval (n.)

    "act or fact of disapproving, dislike," 1660s; see disapprove + -al (2), though it might as well be from dis- + approval.ETD disapproval (n.).2

    disapprove (v.)

    late 15c., "disprove, prove to be untrue," a sense now obsolete; as the reverse of approve, "regard with moral condemnation, think wrong or reprehensible," it is attested from 1640s. See dis- + approve. Related: Disapproved; disapproving.ETD disapprove (v.).2

    disarm (v.)

    late 14c., "deprive of power to injure or terrify, render harmless," a figurative sense, from Old French desarmer (11c.), from des- "reverse of" (see dis-) + armer "to arm" (see arm (v.)). The literal senses "deprive of weapons" (transitive), "put off one's armor or lay down one's weapons" (intransitive) are early 15c. Related: Disarmed; disarming; disarmingly.ETD disarm (v.).2

    disarmament (n.)

    "action of disarming," by 1795; see noun of action from disarm. Especially in reference to reduction of military and naval forces from a war to a peace footing.ETD disarmament (n.).2

    disarray (v.)

    late 14c., "break up military formation;" early 15c. in general sense "throw out of arrangement or into disorder;" see dis- "reverse of" + array (v.) "put in order, arrange." Perhaps formed on the analogy of Old French desareer. Related: Disarrayed.ETD disarray (v.).2

    disarray (n.)

    late 14c., "disorder, confusion, condition of being out of regular order," from dis- "opposite of" + array (n.) "order, arrangement, sequence," or perhaps from Old French desarroi.ETD disarray (n.).2

    disarticulate (adj.)

    "divided into parts," early 15c.; see dis- + articulate (adj.). Perhaps based on Medieval Latin dearticulatus.ETD disarticulate (adj.).2

    disarticulate (v.)

    1808, transitive, "undo the articulation of, separate joint from joint;" see dis- "reverse, opposite of" + articulate (v.). Intransitive sense of "become separated, lose articulation" is by 1830. Related: Disarticulated; disarticulating.ETD disarticulate (v.).2

    disarticulation (n.)

    "action of disarticulating; amputation at a joint," 1808, noun of action from disarticulate (v.).ETD disarticulation (n.).2

    disassemble (v.)

    1610s, "to disperse," from see dis- + assemble. It seems to have become obsolete by 19c., and the main modern meaning "to take apart" (with intention to allow for re-assembly) is by 1893, probably a separate formation. Related: Disassembled; disassembling; disassembly.ETD disassemble (v.).2

    disassociate (v.)

    "dissociate, sever from association," c. 1600, from dis- + associate (v.). Related: Disassociated; disassociating.ETD disassociate (v.).2

    disassociation (n.)

    "action of disassociating or state of being disassociated," 1842, noun of action from disassociate (v.).ETD disassociation (n.).2

    disaster (n.)

    "anything that befalls of ruinous or distressing nature; any unfortunate event," especially a sudden or great misfortune, 1590s, from French désastre (1560s), from Italian disastro, literally "ill-starred," from dis-, here merely pejorative, equivalent to English mis- "ill" (see dis-) + astro "star, planet," from Latin astrum, from Greek astron "star" (from PIE root *ster- (2) "star").ETD disaster (n.).2

    The sense is astrological, of a calamity blamed on an unfavorable position of a planet, and "star" here is probably meant in the astrological sense of "destiny, fortune, fate." Compare Medieval Latin astrum sinistrum "misfortune," literally "unlucky star," and English ill-starred.ETD disaster (n.).3

    disastrous (adj.)

    1580s, "ill-starred, unlucky," a sense now obsolete, from French désastreux (16c.), which is from désastre (see disaster) or else from Italian desastroso. The modern meaning "calamitous, ruinous, of the nature of a disaster," is from c. 1600. Related: Disastrously; disastrousness.ETD disastrous (adj.).2

    disavow (v.)

    "refuse to avow; disclaim knowledge of, responsibility for, or connection with," late 14c., from Old French desavouer (13c.), from des- "opposite of" (see dis-) + avouer "acknowledge, accept, recognize" (see avow). Related: Disavowed; disavowing.ETD disavow (v.).2

    disavowal (n.)

    "denial, rejection, repudiation, action of refusing to acknowledge," 1748; see disavow + -al (2). An earlier word was disavowment (1630s).ETD disavowal (n.).2

    disband (v.)

    1590s, transitive, "break up (a company or band), dismiss from united service or action" (especially a military force), also intransitive, "become disunited, go separate ways," from French desbander "discharge in a body from military service" (Modern French débander), from des- "opposite of" (see dis-) + bander "to bind" (see band (v.)). Related: Disbanded; disbanding; disbandment.ETD disband (v.).2

    disbar (v.)

    "deprive of the privileges of a barrister, expel from the bar," 1630s; see dis- + bar (n.3) in the legal sense. Related: Disbarred; disbarring; disbarment.ETD disbar (v.).2

    disbelief (n.)

    "positive unbelief, mental rejection of a statement or assertion for which credence is demanded," 1670s; see dis- + belief. A Latin-Germanic hybrid.ETD disbelief (n.).2

    disbelieve (v.)

    "not to believe or credit, reject the truth or reality of," 1640s; see dis- + believe. Related: Disbelieved; disbelieving; disbeliever.ETD disbelieve (v.).2

    disburse (v.)

    1520s, disbourse, "pay out or expend (money," from Old French desbourser "extract (money) from a purse, spend (money)" (13c., Modern French débourser), from des- (see dis-) + bourse "purse" (see bursar). Related: Disbursed; disbursing.ETD disburse (v.).2

    disbursement (n.)

    1590s, "action or fact of paying out or expending;" see disburse + -ment. From c. 1600 as "money paid out,"ETD disbursement (n.).2

    disc (n.)

    Latinate spelling preferred in British English for most uses of disk (q.v.). American English tends to use it in the musical recording sense (1888); originally of phonograph records, recently of compact discs.ETD disc (n.).2

    discalceate (adj.)

    "unshod, barefoot," 1650s, from Latin discalceatus, from dis- (see dis-) + calceatus, past participle of calceare "to furnish with shoes," from calceus "shoe," from calx "heel" (see calcaneus). Related: Discalceation.ETD discalceate (adj.).2

    discard (v.)

    1590s, "throw out or reject a card dealt to a player, in accordance with the rules of the game," literally "to throw a card away," from dis- "away" + card (n.1). Figurative use (in a non-gaming sense) "cast off, dismiss" is attested slightly earlier (1580s). In the card-playing sense, decard is attested by 1550s. Related: Discarded; discarding. As a noun, "act of discarding or rejecting," from 1742.ETD discard (v.).2

    discern (v.)

    "perceive or recognize the difference or distinction between (two or more things);" also "distinguish (an object) with the eyes, see distinctly, behold;" also "perceive rationally, understand;" late 14c., from Old French discerner (13c.) "distinguish (between), separate" (by sifting), and directly from Latin discernere "to separate, set apart, divide, distribute; distinguish, perceive," from dis- "off, away" (see dis-) + cernere "distinguish, separate, sift" (from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish"). Related: Discerned; discerning.ETD discern (v.).2

    discernment (n.)

    1580s, "keenness of intellectual perception, insight, acuteness of judgment;" see discern + -ment. From 1680s as "act of perceiving by the intellect."ETD discernment (n.).2

    discernible (adj.)

    also discernable, "perceptible, visible, observable," 1560s, from French discernable, from discerner "distinguish (between), separate" (see discern). Form with -a- was more common at first; spelling changed to -i- 17c. to conform to Late Latin discernibilis. Related: Discernibly.ETD discernible (adj.).2

    discerning (adj.)

    "having or showing discernment, discriminating, acute," c. 1600, present-participle adjective from discern (v.) in the sense "discover by the intellect, understand." Related: Discerningly.ETD discerning (adj.).2

    discharge (v.)

    early 14c., "to exempt, exonerate, release, free (from an obligation)," from Old French deschargier "to unload, discharge" (12c., Modern French décharger), from Late Latin discarricare, from dis- "do the opposite of" (see dis-) + carricare "to load a wagon or cart," from Latin carrus "two-wheeled wagon" (see car).ETD discharge (v.).2

    Meaning "to fulfill, to perform (one's duties, etc.)" is from c. 1400. Sense of "dismiss from office or employment" is from c. 1400. Meaning "to unload, to free from, disburden" is late 14c. Of weapons, "send forth by propulsion," transitive, 1550s; "to fire off," intransitive, 1580s. Of a river, "to empty itself," c. 1600. The electrical sense is first attested 1748. Related: Discharged; discharging.ETD discharge (v.).3

    dischargeable (adj.)

    mid-15c., "exonerated," a sense now obsolete, from discharge (v.) + -able. Meaning "capable of being discharged" is from 1781.ETD dischargeable (adj.).2

    discharge (n.)

    late 14c., "relief from misfortune," see discharge (v.). Meaning "release from work or duty" is from early 15c. Meaning "act of sending out or pouring forth" is from c. 1600; sense of "that which is emitted or poured forth" is from 1727. Meaning "action of firing off a firearm or other missile weapon" is from 1590s. Electricity sense is from 1794.ETD discharge (n.).2

    disciple (n.)

    Old English discipul (fem. discipula), "one who follows another for the purpose of learning," especially "the personal followers of Jesus Christ during his life, the twelve Apostles chosen or called by him to be his immediate associates," a Biblical borrowing from Latin discipulus "pupil, student, follower," which is of uncertain origin.ETD disciple (n.).2

    In OED (1989) and Watkins it is said to be from discere "to learn," from a reduplicated form of the PIE root *dek- "to take, accept." But according to Barnhart and Klein, it is from a lost compound *discipere "to grasp intellectually, analyze thoroughly," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + capere "to take, take hold of," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." De Vaan finds the ending -pulus "difficult to explain" in the former theory and finds the latter theory "semantically not compelling."ETD disciple (n.).3

    It was not common in Old English, where the usual word was leorningcniht, and in some cases þegn (see thane). The pre-Christian Latin sense of "scholar, pupil, student" is rare in English. Meaning "one who follows or is influenced by the doctrine or example of another" is from c. 1300.ETD disciple (n.).4

    discipleship (n.)

    "state or condition of being a follower of another in doctrines and precepts," 1540s, from disciple + -ship. Old English had discipulhad, Middle English disciplehood.ETD discipleship (n.).2

    discipline (n.)

    c. 1200, "penitential chastisement; punishment for the sake of correction," from Old French descepline "discipline, physical punishment; teaching; suffering; martyrdom" (11c., Modern French discipline) and directly from Latin disciplina "instruction given, teaching, learning, knowledge," also "object of instruction, knowledge, science, military discipline," from discipulus "pupil, student, follower" (see disciple (n.)).ETD discipline (n.).2

    The Latin word is glossed in Old English by þeodscipe. The meaning "treatment that corrects or punishes" is from the notion of "order necessary for instruction."ETD discipline (n.).3

    Meaning "branch of instruction or education" is first recorded late 14c. Meaning "system of rules and regulations" is from mid-14c. Meaning "military training" is from late 15c., via the notion of "training to follow orders and act in accordance with rules;" that of "orderly conduct as a result of training" is from c. 1500. Sense of "system by which the practice of a church is regulated, laws which bind the subjects of a church in their conduct" is from 1570s.ETD discipline (n.).4

    disciplinable (adj.)

    mid-15c., "amenable to discipline by instruction or improvement by teaching," from Medieval Latin disciplinabilis "docile." Meaning "subject or liable to discipline or correction" is from 1870, from discipline + -able.ETD disciplinable (adj.).2

    disciplinant (n.)

    1610s, "one who subjects himself to a course of discipline," from Spanish Disciplinantes, name of a former religious order whose members scourged themselves in public, from Latin disciplina (see discipline (n.)).ETD disciplinant (n.).2

    discipline (v.)

    c. 1300, disciplinen, "to subject to (penitential) discipline, correct, chastise, punish," from Old French descepliner and directly from Medieval Latin disciplinare, from Latin disciplina (see discipline (n.)). Meaning "instruct, educate, train" is from late 14c. Related: Disciplined; disciplines; disciplining.ETD discipline (v.).2

    disciplinary (adj.)

    "promoting orderly observance of rules," 1590s, from Medieval Latin disciplinarius, from Latin disciplina "instruction given, teaching," also "military discipline" (see discipline (n.)).ETD disciplinary (adj.).2

    disciplinarian (n.)

    1630s, "one who enforces order;" see discipline; it was earlier used (often with capital D-) of Puritans who wanted to establish the Presbyterian "discipline" in England (1580s). An earlier word in the sense "enforcer of discipline" was discipliner (mid-15c.). Meaning "advocate of greater discipline" is from 1746.ETD disciplinarian (n.).2

    disclaimer (n.)

    "denial of a claim," mid-15c., from Anglo-French disclaimer "disavowal, denial," infinitive used as a noun in French (see disclaim). Compare waiver.ETD disclaimer (n.).2

    disclaim (v.)

    c. 1400, disclaimen, "renounce, relinquish, or repudiate a legal claim," originally in a feudal sense, from Anglo-French disclaimer (c. 1300), Old French desclamer "disclaim, disavow," from des- (see dis-) + clamer "to claim," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Meaning "disavow any connection with, reject as not belonging to oneself" is from 1590s. Related: Disclaimed; disclaiming.ETD disclaim (v.).2

    disclose (v.)

    late 14c., disclosen, "to uncover and expose to view, open to the knowledge of others," from Old French desclos "open, exposed, plain, explicit," past participle of desclore (Modern French déclore) "open, break open, unlock, reveal," from des- "opposite of" (see dis-) + clore "to close" (see close (v.)). Related: Disclosed; disclosing.ETD disclose (v.).2

    disclosure (n.)

    1590s, "act of opening up to view, a making known or revealing;" see disclose + -ure. Formed in English, perhaps on model of closure. Meaning "that which is disclosed or made known" is by 1825.ETD disclosure (n.).2

    disco (n.)

    1964, American English shortening of discotheque; sense extended by 1972 to the kind of dance music played there and the subculture of urban night-clubs built around it in the 1970s. As an adjective by 1965.ETD disco (n.).2

    discobolus (n.)

    "a discus-thrower," 1727, from Latin, from Greek diskobolos, from diskos "quoit, discus" (see disk (n.)) + -bolos "thrower," related to ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Especially in reference to a famous ancient Greek bronze statue by Myron (5c. B.C.E.), known now only through Roman copies.ETD discobolus (n.).2

    discography (n.)

    "catalogue of recordings by a composer or performer," 1933; see disc + -graphy.ETD discography (n.).2

    discoloration (n.)

    1640s, "action of altering the natural or proper color of; condition of being discolored," noun of action from discolorate (early 15c.), from past-participle stem of Medieval Latin discolorare, from Latin dis- "off, away from" (see dis-) + colorare "to color," from color "color of the skin, color in general" (see color (n.)).ETD discoloration (n.).2

    discolor (v.)

    late 14c., "alter the proper or natural color of," from Old French descolorer, from des- (see dis-) + colorer "to color," from Latin colorare "to color, to get tanned," from color "color of the skin, color in general" (see color (n.)). Sense of "become discolored" is from 1550s. Related: Discolored; discoloring.ETD discolor (v.).2

    discolour (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of discolor (q.v.); for ending see -or. Related: Discoloured; discolouring; discolouration.ETD discolour (v.).2

    discombobulate (v.)

    "to upset, embarrass," 1834, discombobricate, American English, fanciful mock-Latin coinage of a type popular then. Compare, on a similar pattern, confusticate (1852), absquatulate (1840), spifflicate "confound, beat" (1850), scrumplicate "eat" (1890). Related: discombobulating; discombobulation.ETD discombobulate (v.).2

    discombobulated (adj.)

    1834 (as discombobracated); see discombobulate.ETD discombobulated (adj.).2

    discomfit (v.)

    c. 1200, discomfiten, "to undo in battle, defeat, overthrow," from Anglo-French descomfiter, Old French desconfire "to defeat, destroy," from des- "not" (see dis-) + confire "make, prepare, accomplish," from Latin conficere "to prepare," from com- "with" (see com-) + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").ETD discomfit (v.).2

    General sense of "defeat or overthrow the plans or purposes of" is from late 14c. Weaker sense of "disconcert" is first recorded 1520s in English, probably by confusion with discomfort. Related: Discomfited; discomfiting.ETD discomfit (v.).3

    discomfiture (n.)

    mid-14c., "defeat in battle, overthrow," from Old French desconfiture "rout, defeat" (12c.; Modern French déconfiture), from desconfire (see discomfit). Sense of "frustration, disappointment" is from late 14c. Confused since 15c. with discomforture "discouragement, distress."ETD discomfiture (n.).2

    discomfort (v.)

    c. 1300, discomforten, "to deprive of courage," from Old French desconforter (Modern French déconforter), from des- (see dis-) + conforter "to comfort, to solace; to help, strengthen," from Late Latin confortare "to strengthen much" (used in Vulgate); see comfort (v.). Meaning "make uncomfortable or uneasy" is by 1856. Related: Discomforted; discomforting.ETD discomfort (v.).2

    discomfort (n.)

    mid-14c., "misfortune, adversity;" late 14c., "grief, sorrow; discouragement," from Old French desconfort (12c.), from desconforter (v.), from des- (see dis-) + conforter "to comfort, to solace; to help, strengthen," from Late Latin confortare "to strengthen much" (used in Vulgate); see comfort (v.). Meaning "absence of comfort or pleasure, condition of being uncomfortable" is by 1841.ETD discomfort (n.).2

    disconcert (v.)

    "throw into confusion," 1680s, from French disconcerter (Modern French déconcerter) "confused," from dis- "do the opposite of" (see dis-) + concerter (see concert (v.)). Related: Disconcerted; disconcerting; disconcertingly.ETD disconcert (v.).2

    disconnection (n.)

    1735, disconnexion; see dis- "not" + connection. Spelling disconnection attested from 1758.ETD disconnection (n.).2

    disconnect (v.)

    "sever the connection of or between," 1770; see dis- + connect (v.). Perhaps a back-formation from disconnection. Related: Disconnected; disconnecting.ETD disconnect (v.).2

    disconsolate (adj.)

    late 14c., "causing discomfort, dismal;" c. 1400, "unhappy, dejected, melancholy, wanting consolation or comfort," from Medieval Latin disconsolatus "comfortless," from Latin dis- "away" (see dis-) + consolatus, past participle of consolari "offer solace, encourage, comfort, cheer," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + solari "to comfort" (see solace (n.)). Related: Disconsolately; disconsolateness.ETD disconsolate (adj.).2

    discontent (v.)

    "deprive of contentment, late 15c., from dis- "not, reverse of" + content (v.). Perhaps from Old French descontenter. Related: Discontented; discontentedly; discontentment; discontentedness.ETD discontent (v.).2

    discontent (n.)

    "state or feeling of mental dissatisfaction, uneasiness of mind," 1580s, from dis- "opposite of" + content (n.). Winter of our discontent is from "Richard III" (1594).ETD discontent (n.).2

    discontent (adj.)

    "unquiet in mind through having one's desires unsatisfied," mid-15c., from dis- "opposite of" + content (adj.).ETD discontent (adj.).2

    discontinue (v.)

    late 14c., discontinuen, "be interrupted, cease, stop," from Old French discontinuer (14c.), from Medieval Latin discontinuare "discontinue," from dis- "not" (see dis-) + Latin continuare "to continue" (see continue). Transitive sense "cause to cease" is from late 15c. Related: Discontinued; discontinuity; discontinuous; discontinuation.ETD discontinue (v.).2

    discontinuance (n.)

    "action of breaking off, intermission, interruption," late 14c., from Anglo-French discontinuance, from Old French discontinuer "to discontinue," from Medieval Latin discontinuare, from dis- "not" (see dis-) + Latin continuare "to continue" (see continue).ETD discontinuance (n.).2

    discontinuity (n.)

    "quality or state of being discontinuous, interrupted condition," 1560s, from Medieval Latin discontinuus, from discontinuare (see discontinue) + -ity.ETD discontinuity (n.).2

    discontinuous (adj.)

    "not continuous in space or time," 1718, from Medieval Latin discontinuus, from discontinuare (see discontinue). Related: Discontinuously; discontinuousness.ETD discontinuous (adj.).2

    discontinuation (n.)

    "interruption of continuity, separation of parts which form a connected series," 1610s, from French discontinuation (14c.), from Medieval Latin discontinuationem (nominative discontinuatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of discontinuare (see discontinue (v.)).ETD discontinuation (n.).2

    discophile (n.)

    "enthusiast for or collector of gramophone recordings," 1940, from disc in the musical recording sense + -phile "one that loves or is attracted to." The earlier word was gramophile.ETD discophile (n.).2

    discordant (adj.)

    late 14c., discordaunt, "conflicting in nature or kind, not harmoniously connected or related, at variance, contradictory," from Old French descordant, present participle of descorder and directly from Latin discordare "be at variance, differ, quarrel," from discors "disagreeing, disagreement" (see discord (n.)). Of sounds, "inharmonious, dissonant, disagreeable to the ear," c. 1400. Related: Discordantly.ETD discordant (adj.).2

    discordance (n.)

    mid-14c., discordaunce, "improper behavior;" late 14c., "disagreement, want of accord," from Old French discordance and directly from Medieval Latin; see discord (v.) + -ance. Related: Discordancy.ETD discordance (n.).2

    discord (n.)

    early 13c., descorde, "unfriendly feeling, ill will;" also "dissension, strife," from Old French descorde (12c.) "disagreement," from Latin discordia, from discors (genitive discordis) "disagreeing, disagreement," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + cor (genitive cordis) "heart," from PIE root *kerd- "heart."ETD discord (n.).2

    Musical sense "want of harmony between two notes sounded together; a combination of notes not in harmony with one another" is from late 14c.ETD discord (n.).3

    discord (v.)

    c. 1300, discorden, "differ in will or opinion, disagree, quarrel," from Old French discorder (13c.) and directly from Latin discordare "be at variance, differ, quarrel," from discors (genitive discordis) "disagreeing, disagreement," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + cor (genitive cordis) "heart," from PIE root *kerd- "heart."ETD discord (v.).2

    discotheque (n.)

    "club where recorded dance music is played," 1954 as a French word in English; nativized by 1964, from French discothèque "nightclub with recorded music for dancing" (by 1951), also "record library," borrowed 1932 from Italian discoteca "record collection, record library," coined 1927 from disco "phonograph record" (see disc) + -teca "collection" (from Latinized combining form of Greek thēkē "case, receptacle;" see theco-), probably on model of biblioteca "library."ETD discotheque (n.).2

    discount (n.)

    1620s, "abatement" (a sense now obsolete), alteration of French descompte (16c., Modern French décompte), from Medieval Latin discomputus (source of Italian disconto), from discomputare, from dis- (see dis-) + computare "to count" (see compute). Commercial meaning "deduction for early or prompt payment" is from 1680s; meaning "a reduction in the price of goods" attested by 1837.ETD discount (n.).2

    discount (v.)

    1620s, "reckon as an abatement or deduction" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French desconter "reckon off, account back" (13c., Modern French décompter), from Medieval Latin discomputare, from dis- "away, from" (see dis-) + computare "to reckon, to count" (see compute). Hence, "to abate, deduct" (1650s), and figurative sense "to leave out of account, disregard" (1702). Formerly also discompt. Commercial sense of "make a deduction from, put a reduced price upon" is by 1977. Related: Discounted; discounting.ETD discount (v.).2

    discountenance (v.)

    1570s, "put to shame," a sense now obsolete; 1590s "show disapprobation of," hence "discourage, check, or restrain," etymologically "set the countenance against," from French descontenancer "to abash," literally "put out of countenance" (16c., Modern French décontenancer), from des- "off, away" (see dis-) + contenancer "to behave (a certain way)," from Old French contenance "demeanor, bearing, conduct," from Latin continentia "way one contains oneself" (see countenance (n.)).ETD discountenance (v.).2

    discourage (v.)

    mid-15c., discoragen, "deprive of or cause to lose courage," from Old French descoragier "dishearten" (Modern French décourager), from des- "away" (see dis-) + coragier, from corage "spirit" (see courage). Meaning "express disapproval or opposition, dissuade or hinder from" is from 1640s. Related: Discouraged; discouragement; discouraging.ETD discourage (v.).2

    discouraging (adj.)

    "tending to dishearten," 1670s, present-participle adjective from discourage. Related: Discouragingly.ETD discouraging (adj.).2

    discouragement (n.)

    1560s, "state of being discouraged;" c. 1600, "act of discouraging;" 1610s, "that which discourages;" see discourage + -ment. Perhaps based on French descouragement (12c.).ETD discouragement (n.).2

    discourse (n.)

    late 14c., "process of understanding, reasoning, thought," from French discours, from Latin discursus "a running about," in Late Latin "conversation," in Medieval Latin "reasoning," noun use of past participle of discurrere "to run about, run to and fro, hasten," in Late Latin "to go over a subject, speak at length of, discourse of," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + currere "to run" (from PIE root *kers- "to run").ETD discourse (n.).2

    Meaning "a running over a subject in speech, communication of thought in words" is from 1550s; sense of "discussion or treatment of a subject in formal speech or writing," is from 1580s.ETD discourse (n.).3

    discourse (v.)

    "hold discourse, communicate thoughts or ideas, especially in a formal manner," 1570s, from discourse (n.). Sense of "speak or write at length" is from 1560s. Earlier in now-obsolete sense of "run or travel over" (1540s), the literal sense of the Latin verb. Related: Discoursed; discoursing.ETD discourse (v.).2

    discourteous (adj.)

    "uncivil, rude," 1570s; see dis- + courteous. Related: Discourteously; discourteousness.ETD discourteous (adj.).2

    discourtesy (n.)

    1550s, "incivility, bad manners, rudeness;" see dis- "opposite of" + courtesy. Perhaps based on Old French discourtoisie (15c.), from discourtois. Meaning "an act of disrespect" is from 1590s.ETD discourtesy (n.).2

    discover (v.)

    c. 1300, discoveren, "divulge, reveal, disclose, expose, lay open to view, betray (someone's secrets)," senses now obsolete, from stem of Old French descovrir "uncover, unroof, unveil, reveal, betray," from Medieval Latin discooperire, from Latin dis- "opposite of" (see dis-) + cooperire "to cover up, cover over, overwhelm, bury" (see cover (v.)).ETD discover (v.).2

    At first with a sense of betrayal or malicious exposure (discoverer originally meant "informant"). Also in Middle English used in literal senses, such as "to remove" (one's hat, the roof from a building). The meaning "to obtain the first knowledge or sight of what was before not known," the main modern sense, is by 1550s.ETD discover (v.).3

    Sense of "make famous or fashionable" is by 1908. Related: Discovered; discovering.ETD discover (v.).4

    discoverable (adj.)

    "capable of being found out," 1570s, from discover + -able.ETD discoverable (adj.).2

    discovery (n.)

    1550s (Hakluyt), "fact of discovering what was previously unknown;" see discover + -y (1). Earlier in this sense was discovering (mid-14c.). Meaning "that which is discovered" is from 1630s. Sense "act of revealing" (1580s) preserves the usual Middle English sense of discover but is now obsolete except in the legal sense of "disclosure by a party to an action" (of facts, documents, etc.), attested from 1715.ETD discovery (n.).2

    discreditable (adj.)

    "tending to injure reputation," 1630s; see discredit + -able. Related: Discreditably.ETD discreditable (adj.).2

    discredit (v.)

    1550s, "disbelieve, give no credit to," from dis- "opposite of" + credit (v.). Meaning "show to be unworthy of belief" is from 1560s; that of "injure the reputation of, make less esteemed or honored" is from 1570s. As a noun, "want of credit or good repute," 1560s, from the verb. Related: Discredited; discrediting.ETD discredit (v.).2

    discreet (adj.)

    late-14c., "morally discerning, prudent, circumspect, wise or judicious in avoiding mistakes," from Old French discret "discreet, sensible, intelligent, wise," from Latin discretus "separated, distinct," in Medieval Latin "discerning, careful," past participle of discernere "to separate, set apart, divide, distribute; distinguish, perceive," from dis- "off, away" (see dis-) + cernere "distinguish, separate, sift" (from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish").ETD discreet (adj.).2

    Meaning "separate, distinct" in English is late 14c. Spellings discrete and nativized discreet co-existed until after c. 1600, when discreet became the common word for "careful, prudent," and discrete was maintained in philosophy, medicine, music and other disciplines that remembered Latin and took some pains to show it. Related: Discreetly.ETD discreet (adj.).3

    discrepancy (n.)

    "variance or contrariety, especially of facts or sentiments," mid-15c. (discrepauns, discrepance), from Latin discrepantia "discordance, discrepancy," from discrepantem (nominative discrepans), present participle of discrepare "sound differently, differ," from dis- "apart, off" (see dis-) + crepare "to rattle, crack" (see raven). Modern form is from early 17c. Related: Discrepancies.ETD discrepancy (n.).2

    discrete (adj.)

    "separate, distinct from others," late 14c., from Old French discret, discre, and directly from Latin discretus "separated;" see discreet. Related: Discretely; discreteness.ETD discrete (adj.).2

    discretion (n.)

    c. 1300, dyscrecyounne, "ability to perceive and understand;" mid-14c., "moral discernment, ability to distinguish right from wrong;" c. 1400, "prudence, sagacity regarding one's conduct," from Old French discrecion and directly from Medieval Latin discretionem (nominative discretio) "discernment, power to make distinctions," in classical Latin "separation, distinction," noun of state from past-participle stem of discernere "to separate, distinguish" (see discern).ETD discretion (n.).2

    Phrase at (one's) discretion attested from 1570s (earlier in (one's) discretion, late 14c.), from sense of "power to decide or judge, power of acting according to one's own judgment" (late 14c.). The age of discretion (late 14c.) in English law was 14.ETD discretion (n.).3

    discretionary (adj.)

    "left to discretion, restrained only by judgment," 1680s (implied in discretionarily); see discretion + -ary.ETD discretionary (adj.).2

    discriminate (v.)

    1620s, "distinguish from something else or from each other, observe or mark the differences between," from Latin discriminatus, past participle of discriminare "to divide, separate," from discrimen (genitive discriminis) "interval, distinction, difference," derived noun from discernere "to separate, set apart, divide, distribute; distinguish, perceive," from dis- "off, away" (see dis-) + cernere "distinguish, separate, sift" (from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish").ETD discriminate (v.).2

    The adverse sense, "make invidious distinctions prejudicial to a class of persons" (usually based on race or color) is first recorded 1866 in American English. Positive sense remains in discriminating. Related: Discriminated.ETD discriminate (v.).3

    discrimination (n.)

    1640s, "the making of distinctions, act of observing or marking a difference," from Late Latin discriminationem (nominative discriminatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of discriminare "to divide, separate" (see discriminate (v.)). Sense of "making invidious distinctions prejudicial to a class of persons" (usually based on race or color) is from 1866 in American English in the language of Reconstruction. Meaning "discernment" is from 1814.ETD discrimination (n.).2

    discriminating (adj.)

    "possessing discernment, noting distinctions and differences accurately and in detail," 1792, present-participle adjective from discriminate (v.).ETD discriminating (adj.).2

    Larger font
    Smaller font