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    guinea pig (n.) — Gwendolyn

    guinea pig (n.)

    rodent native to South America, 1660s. It does not come from Guinea and has nothing to do with the pig. Perhaps so called either because it was brought back to Britain aboard Guinea-men, ships that plied the triangle trade between England, Guinea, and South America [Barnhart, Klein], or from its resemblance to the young of the Guinea-hog "river pig" [OED], or from confusion of Guinea with the South American region of Guyana (but OED is against this). Pig probably for its grunting noises. In the extended sense of "one subjected to an experiment" it is first recorded 1920, because they were commonly used in medical experiments (by 1865).ETD guinea pig (n.).2


    fem. proper name, also Guiniver, Guinever, Gwiniver; the name is Welsh, said to be from Gwenhwyvar, said to mean literally "white-cheeked," but "Magic Fairy" also has been proposed.ETD Guinevere.2

    guise (n.)

    late 13c., "style or fashion of attire," from Old French guise "manner, fashion, way," from Frankish *wisa or some similar Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *wison "appearance, form, manner," from *wissaz (source also of Old High German wisa "manner, wise"), from PIE root *weid- "to see." Sense of "assumed appearance" is from 1660s, from earlier meaning "mask, disguise" (c. 1500).ETD guise (n.).2

    guiser (n.)

    "masquerader, mummer, one who goes from house to house, whimsically disguised, and making diversion with songs and antics, usually at Christmas," late 15c., agent noun from guise.ETD guiser (n.).2

    guitar (n.)

    lute-like musical instrument, 1620s, from French guitare, which was altered by Spanish and Provençal forms from Old French guiterre, earlier guiterne, from Latin cithara, from Greek kithara "cithara," a triangular seven-stringed musical instrument related to the lyre, perhaps from Persian sihtar (see sitar).ETD guitar (n.).2

    In post-classical times, the ancient instrument developed in many varieties in different places, keeping a local variant of the old name or a diminutive of it. Some of these local instruments subsequently became widely known, and many descendants of kithara reached English in reference to various stringed, guitar-like instruments: citole, giterne (both early 14c.), gittern, cithern (1560s), cittern (1590s), cither (c. 1600), guitar, and zither.ETD guitar (n.).3

    Modern guitar also is directly from Spanish guitarra (14c.), which ultimately is from the Greek. The Arabic word is perhaps from Spanish or Greek, though often the relationship is said to be the reverse. The modern guitar is one of a large class of instruments used in all countries and ages but particularly popular in Spain and periodically so in France and England. Other 17c, forms of the word in English include guittara, guitarra, gittar, and guitarre.ETD guitar (n.).4

    guitarist (n.)

    1770, from guitar + -ist.ETD guitarist (n.).2


    from Gujarat, state in western India, Hindi, from Sanskrit Gurjara.ETD Gujarati.2

    gulag (n.)

    system of prisons and labor camps, especially for political detainees, in the former Soviet Union; rough acronym from Russian Glavnoe upravlenie ispravitel'no-trudovykh lagerei "Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps," set up in 1931.ETD gulag (n.).2

    gulch (n.)

    "deep ravine," 1832, perhaps from obsolete or dialectal verb gulsh "sink in" (of land), "gush out" (of water), from Middle English gulchen "to gush forth; to drink greedily" (c. 1200). Compare gulche-cuppe "a greedy drinker" (mid-13c.). "There appears to be no etymological connection with gully" [Century Dictionary].ETD gulch (n.).2

    gules (adj.)

    "red," in heraldic descriptions, c. 1300, from Old French goules "neckpiece of (red) fur," plural of gole, guele "throat," from Latin gula "throat" (see gullet). Or perhaps the reference is to the red open mouth of the heraldic lion. Derivation from Persian gul "a rose" is "a poetical fancy" [Century Dictionary].ETD gules (adj.).2

    gulf (n.)

    late 14c., "profound depth," from Old French golf "a gulf, whirlpool," from Italian golfo "a gulf, a bay," from Late Latin colfos, from Greek kolpos "bay, gulf of the sea," earlier "trough between waves, fold of a loose garment," originally "bosom," the common notion being "curved shape."ETD gulf (n.).2

    This is from PIE *kuolp- "arch, curve, vault" (compare Old English hwealf "vault," a-hwielfan "to overwhelm," Old Norse holfinn "vaulted," Old High German welban "to vault").ETD gulf (n.).3

    The geographic sense "large tract of water extending into the land" (larger than a bay, smaller than a sea, but the distinction is not exact and not always observed) is in English from c. 1400, replacing Old English sæ-earm. The figurative sense of "a wide interval" is from 1550s.ETD gulf (n.).4

    Latin sinus underwent the same development, being used first for "bosom," later for "gulf" (and in Medieval Latin, "hollow curve or cavity in the body"). Blount (1656) defines English gulph as "a part the Sea, insinuating and embosoming it self within the land, or between two several lands."ETD gulf (n.).5

    The U.S. Gulf States have been so called from 1836. The Gulf Stream (1775) takes its name from the Gulf of Mexico.ETD gulf (n.).6

    gull (n.1)

    shore bird, early 15c. (in a cook book), probably from Brythonic Celtic; compare Welsh gwylan "gull," Cornish guilan, Breton goelann; all from Old Celtic *voilenno-. Replaced Old English mæw (see mew (n.1)).ETD gull (n.1).2

    gull (v.)

    "to dupe, cheat, mislead by deception," 1540s, earlier "to swallow" (1520s), ultimately from gull "throat, gullet" (early 15c.); see gullet. Related: Gulled; gulling.ETD gull (v.).2

    gull (n.2)

    cant term for "dupe, sucker, credulous person," 1590s, of uncertain origin. Perhaps from verb meaning "to dupe, cheat" (see gull (v.)). Or it is perhaps from (or influenced by) the bird name (see gull (n.1)); in either case with a sense of "someone who will swallow anything thrown at him." Another possibility is Middle English gull, goll "newly hatched bird" (late 14c.), which is perhaps from Old Norse golr "yellow," from the hue of its down.ETD gull (n.2).2


    "of or pertaining to blacks on the sea-islands of Georgia and South Carolina," 1739 (first attested as a male slave's proper name), of uncertain origin. Early 19c. folk etymology made it a shortening of Angola (homeland of many slaves) or traced it to a West African tribal group called the Golas.ETD Gullah.2

    gullet (n.)

    "passage from the mouth of an animal to the stomach," c. 1300 (as a surname), from Old French golet "neck (of a bottle); gutter; bay, creek," diminutive of gole "throat, neck" (Modern French gueule), from Latin gula "throat," also "appetite," which is related to gluttire "to gulp down, devour," glutto "a glutton." De Vaan writes, "We seem to be dealing with an onomatopoeic formation of the form *gul- / *glu-." Compare Old English ceole "throat;" Old Church Slavonic glutu "gullet," Russian glot "draught, gulp;" Old Irish gelim "I devour."ETD gullet (n.).2

    gully (n.)

    "channel in earth made by running water," 1650s, possibly a variant of Middle English golet "water channel" (see gullet). Gully-washer, American English colloquial for "heavy rainstorm," attested by 1887.ETD gully (n.).2

    gullibility (n.)

    1782, earlier cullibility (1728), probably from gull (n.2) "dupe, sucker" + -ability.ETD gullibility (n.).2

    gullible (adj.)

    1821, apparently a back-formation from gullibility. Spelling gullable is attested from 1818.ETD gullible (adj.).2


    male proper name, from Old French goulafre "glutton," a very common name, found as a surname in Domesday Book (William Gulafra).ETD Gulliver.2

    gulp (n.)

    1560s, from gulp (v.), or else from Flemish gulpe, Dutch gulp "stream of water, large draught."ETD gulp (n.).2

    gulp (v.)

    late 14c., a native coinage or else from Flemish gulpe or Dutch gulpen "to gush, pour forth, guzzle, swallow," in any case possibly of imitative origin (compare Swedish dialectal glapa "to gulp down"). Related: Gulped; gulping.ETD gulp (v.).2

    gum (n.1)

    c. 1300, "resin from dried sap of plants," from Old French gome "(medicinal) gum, resin," from Late Latin gumma, from Latin gummi, from Greek kommi "gum," from Egyptian kemai. As the name of a hardened, sweetened gelatine mixture as a candy, 1827. As a shortened form of chewing gum, first attested 1842 in American English. The gum tree (1670s) was so called for the resin it exudes. Latin gummi also is the source of German Gummi (13c.).ETD gum (n.1).2

    gum (v.1)

    early 14c., gommen, "treat with (medicinal or aromatic) gums," from gum (n.1). In the transferred or figurative sense of "spoil, ruin" (usually with up), as if by some gummy substance, it is first recorded 1901, probably from the notion of machinery becoming clogged. Related: Gummed; gumming.ETD gum (v.1).2

    gum (v.2)

    of infants, toothless adults, etc., "to chew or gnaw (something) with the gums," by 1907, from gum (n.2). Related: Gummed; gumming.ETD gum (v.2).2

    gum (n.2)

    "soft tissues of the mouth," Old English goma "palate, side of the mouth" (single or plural), from a Germanic source represented by Old Norse gomi "palate," Old High German goumo; related to Lithuanian gomurys "palate," and perhaps from PIE root *ghieh- "to yawn, gape, be wide open."ETD gum (n.2).2

    gumbo (n.)

    soup thickened with okra, 1805, from Louisiana French, probably ultimately from Central Bantu dialect (compare Mbundu ngombo "okra"). Also used for "the creole patois of Louisiana" (1838).ETD gumbo (n.).2

    gum-drop (n.)

    also gumdrop, type of confection, 1856, from gum (n.1) + drop (n.).ETD gum-drop (n.).2

    gummy (adj.)

    "gum-like, sticky," late 14c., from gum (n.1) + -y (2). Related: Gumminess.ETD gummy (adj.).2

    gump (n.)

    "dolt, numskull, foolish person," 1825, "a term most generally applied to a female" [Jamieson]; meaning "chicken" is from 1914, U.S. thieves' slang.ETD gump (n.).2

    gumption (n.)

    1719, originally Scottish, "common sense, shrewdness, acuteness of practical understanding," also "drive, initiative," a word possibly connected with Middle English gome "attention, heed," from Old Norse gaumr "heed, attention." The sense of "initiative" is recorded by 1812. Related: Gumptious (adj.), attested from 1823.ETD gumption (n.).2

    gumshoe (n.)

    "plainclothes detective," 1906, from the rubber-soled shoes they wore (allowing stealthy movement), which were so called from 1863 (gums "rubber shoes" is attested by 1859); from gum (n.1) + shoe (n.).ETD gumshoe (n.).2

    gun (n.)

    mid-14c., gunne "an engine of war that throws rocks, arrows or other missiles from a tube by the force of explosive powder or other substance," apparently a shortening of woman's name Gunilda, found in Middle English gonnilde "cannon" and in an Anglo-Latin reference to a specific gun from a 1330 munitions inventory of Windsor Castle ("... una magna balista de cornu quae Domina Gunilda ..."). Also compare gonnilde gnoste "spark or flame used to fire a cannon" (early 14c.).ETD gun (n.).2

    The woman's name is from Old Norse Gunnhildr, a compound of gunnr and hildr, both meaning "war, battle." First element from PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill" (see bane); for second, see Hilda.ETD gun (n.).3

    The identification of women with powerful weapons is common historically (such as Big Bertha, Brown Bess, Mons Meg, etc.).ETD gun (n.).4

    Or perhaps gun is directly from Old Norse gunnr "battle." The word was perhaps influenced by or confirmed by (or possibly from) Old French engon, dialectal variant of engin "engine."ETD gun (n.).5

    Meaning grew with technology, from cannons to firearms as they developed 15c.; popularly applied to pistols and revolvers from 1744. In modern military use the word is restricted to cannons (which must be mounted), especially long ones used for high velocity and long trajectory. Hence great guns (1884 as an exclamation) distinguished from small guns (such as muskets) from c. 1400. Meaning "thief, rascal" is from 1858. For son of a gun, see son. To jump the gun (1912, American English) is a figurative use from track and field. Guns "a woman's breasts" (especially if prominent) attested by 2006.ETD gun (n.).6

    gunning (n.)

    1560s, "science of firing guns;" 1620s, "shooting," verbal noun from gun (v.).ETD gunning (n.).2

    gun (v.)

    "shoot with a gun," 1620s, from gun (n.). Related: Gunned; gunning. The sense of "accelerate an engine" is from 1930, from earlier phrase give (her) the gun (1917), which appears to have originated in pilots' jargon in World War I; perhaps from the old military expression give a gun "order a gun to be fired" (c. 1600).ETD gun (v.).2

    gunboat (n.)

    also gun-boat, "small boat fitted with guns for service inshore or up rivers," 1793, from gun (n.) + boat (n.). Gunboat diplomacy is from 1916, originally with reference to Western policies in China.ETD gunboat (n.).2

    gunfight (n.)

    also gun-fight, a combat with handguns, 1889, American English, from gun (n.) + fight (n.). Related: Gunfighter.ETD gunfight (n.).2

    gung ho (adj.)

    also gung-ho, gungho, 1942, slang motto of Carlson's Raiders (2nd Marine Raider Battalion, under Lt. Col. Evans Carlson, 1896-1947), U.S. guerrilla unit operating in the Pacific in World War II, from Chinese kung ho "work together, cooperate." Widely adopted in American English 1959.ETD gung ho (adj.).2

    gunk (n.)

    "viscous substance," 1949, American English, apparently from Gunk, trademark for a thick liquid soap patented 1932 by A.F. Curran Co. of Malden, Mass.ETD gunk (n.).2

    gunman (n.)

    1620s, from gun (n.) + man (n.). In early American English use, especially of Indian warriors.ETD gunman (n.).2

    gun-metal (n.)

    type of bronze or other alloy formerly used in the manufacture of light cannons (since superseded by steel), 1540s, from gun (n.) + metal. Used attributively of a dull blue-gray color since 1905.ETD gun-metal (n.).2

    gun moll (n.)

    "female criminal," 1908, second element from nickname of Mary, used of disreputable females since early 1600s; first element from slang gonif "thief" (1885), from Yiddish, from Hebrew gannabh "thief" (compare gonoph); influenced by gun (n.).ETD gun moll (n.).2

    gunnel (n.)

    small marine fish, 1680s, of unknown origin; perhaps from Cornish.ETD gunnel (n.).2

    gunner (n.)

    mid-14c., gonner "one who works a cannon, catapult, or mangonel," from gun (n.) + -er (1).ETD gunner (n.).2

    gunnery (n.)

    c. 1600, "science of gun-making," from gun + -ery. Meaning "science of firing guns" is from 1816.ETD gunnery (n.).2

    gunny (n.1)

    1711, Anglo-Indian goney name of a strong, coarse fabric made from jute or hemp, from Hindi goni, from Sanskrit goni "sack." Gunny sack attested by 1862.ETD gunny (n.1).2

    gunny (n.2)

    1940s, Armed Forces slang, short for gunnery sergeant.ETD gunny (n.2).2

    gunplay (n.)

    also gun-play, 1891, from gun (n.) + play (n.).ETD gunplay (n.).2

    gunpowder (n.)

    "explosive powder for the discharge of projectiles from guns," early 15c., from gun (n.) + powder (n.). The Gunpowder Plot (or treason or conspiracy) was a plan to blow up the Houses of Parliament on Nov. 5, 1605, while the King, Lords and Commons were assembled there in revenge for the laws against Catholics (see guy (n.2)).ETD gunpowder (n.).2

    gunsel (n.)

    by 1910, American English underworld slang, from hobo slang, "naive young boy," but especially "a catamite;" specifically "a young male kept as a sexual companion, especially by an older tramp," from Yiddish genzel, from German Gänslein "gosling, young goose" (see goose (n.)). The secondary, non-sexual meaning "young hoodlum" seems to be entirely traceable to Dashiell Hammett, who sneaked it into "The Maltese Falcon" (1929) while warring with his editor over the book's racy language:ETD gunsel (n.).2

    The context implies some connection with gun and a sense of "gunman," and evidently that is what the editor believed it to mean. The word was retained in the script of the 1941 movie made from the book, so evidently the Motion Picture Production Code censors didn't know it either.ETD gunsel (n.).3

    gun-shy (adj.)

    1849, originally of sporting dogs, from gun (n.) + shy (adj.).ETD gun-shy (adj.).2

    gunshot (n.)

    also gun-shot, early 15c., "the firing of a gun," from gun (n.) + shot (n.). Meaning "range of a gun or cannon" is from 1530s.ETD gunshot (n.).2

    gun-slinger (n.)

    1916, American English, from gun (n.) + agent noun from sling (v.).ETD gun-slinger (n.).2

    gunsmith (n.)

    1580s, from gun (n.) + smith (n.). Middle English had gun-maker (late 14c.).ETD gunsmith (n.).2


    masc. proper name, also Gunter, Old High German Gundhard, literally "bold in war," from gund "war" (see gun (n.)) + hart "hard, strong, bold" (see hard (adj.)).ETD Gunther.2

    gunwale (n.)

    "uppermost edge of a ship's side," mid-15c., gonne walle, from gun (n.) + wale "plank" (see wale). Originally a platform on the deck of a ship to support the mounted guns.ETD gunwale (n.).2

    guppy (n.)

    1918, so called about the time they became popular as aquarium fish, from the scientific name (Girardinus guppii), which honored R.J.L. Guppy, the British-born Trinidad clergyman who supplied the first specimen (1866) to the British Museum. The family name is from a place in Dorset. Other early popular names for it were rainbow fish and million fish. The class of streamlined U.S. submarines (1948) is an acronym from greater underwater propulsion power + -y.ETD guppy (n.).2

    Gupta (adj.)

    1871 in reference to the 4c.-6c. North Indian dynasty, from Chandragupta, name of the founder.ETD Gupta (adj.).2

    gurges (n.)

    1660s, "heraldic spiral," from Latin gurges, literally "whirlpool," from PIE *gwrg-, reduplicated form of root *gwora- "food, devouring."ETD gurges (n.).2

    gurgitation (n.)

    late 14c., from Late Latin gurgulationem (nominative gurgulatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of gurgitare "to engulf," from gurges "whirlpool, gorge" (see gurges).ETD gurgitation (n.).2

    gurgle (v.)

    early 15c., medical term for "gurgling heard in the abdomen," a native, echoic formation, or ultimately from Latin gurguliare, perhaps via Dutch, German gurgeln. Extended (non-anatomical) use, in reference to water over stones, etc., is first recorded 1713. "This phenomenon of long specialized use before becoming a part of the general vocabulary is often found in English" [Barnhart]. Related: Gurgled; gurgling.ETD gurgle (v.).2

    gurgle (n.)

    early 15c., from gurgle (v.).ETD gurgle (n.).2

    Gurkha (n.)

    member of a dominant race of Nepal, 1811. They are of Hindu descent, famous as warriors. Said to be ultimately from Sanskrit gauh "cow" (from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow") + raksati "he protects," from PIE *aleks-, extended form of root *lek- "to ward off, protect" (see Alexander).ETD Gurkha (n.).2

    gurnard (n.)

    small marine fish, early 14c., from Old French gournart (13c.), formed by metathesis of gronir, from Latin grunire "to grunt." The fish so called for the sound it makes when pulled from the water. Compare grunt (n.), grunion.ETD gurnard (n.).2

    gurney (n.)

    type of hospital cart, by 1921, of unknown origin. It also is a surname, and perhaps this use traces to the Gurney Ball Bearing Co. of Jamestown, N.Y., which was in active operation at the time but seems to have specialized in bearings for automobiles. Earliest use in hospital literature is in reference to carts for food and laundry.ETD gurney (n.).2

    guru (n.)

    1806, gooroo, from Hindi guru "teacher, priest," from Sanskrit guru-s "one to be honored, teacher," from guru- "venerable, worthy of honor," literally "heavy, weighty," from PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy." Generalized sense of "mentor" is from 1940 (in H.G. Wells); sense of "expert in something" first recorded c. 1966 in Canadian English in reference to Marshall McLuhan.ETD guru (n.).2

    gush (v.)

    c. 1400, "to rush out suddenly and forcefully" (of blood, water, etc.), probably formed imitatively in English or from Low German, or from or based on Old Norse gusa "to gush, spurt," from PIE *gus-, from root *gheu- "to pour," and thus related to geyser. Metaphoric sense of "speak in an effusive manner" first recorded 1873. Related: Gushed; gushing. The noun is 1680s, from the verb.ETD gush (v.).2

    gusher (n.)

    "oil well that flows without pumping," 1886, agent noun from gush (v.). Earlier in a sense of "overly effusive person" (1864).ETD gusher (n.).2

    gushy (adj.)

    1845, from gush in the metaphoric sense + -y (2). Related: Gushily; gushiness.ETD gushy (adj.).2

    gusset (n.)

    early 14c., from Old French gosset "armhole; piece of armor for the armpit" (13c.), apparently from gousse "shell of a nut," a word of unknown origin. Originally an armorer's term; of clothing from 1560s.ETD gusset (n.).2

    gussy (v.)

    "to dress up or decorate in a showy way," 1952, American English slang, apparently from Gussy (adj.), schoolyard slang for "overly dressed" (1940); perhaps related to gussie "effeminate man" (1901) and somehow connected to the nickname for Augusta and Augustus.ETD gussy (v.).2

    gust (n.)

    1580s, "sudden squall of wind," possibly a dialectal survival from Old Norse gustr "a cold blast of wind" (related to gusa "to gush, spurt") or Old High German gussa "flood," both from Proto-Germanic *gustiz, from PIE *gheus-, from root *gheu- "to pour." Probably originally in English as a nautical word.ETD gust (n.).2

    gust (v.)

    1813, from gust (n.). Related: Gusted; gusting.ETD gust (v.).2

    gustation (n.)

    "act of tasting," 1590s, from Latin gustationem (nominative gustatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of gustare "to taste, partake of, enjoy" (from PIE root *geus- "to taste; to choose").ETD gustation (n.).2

    gustatory (adj.)

    "of or pertaining to tasting," 1680s, from Latin gustatus "sense of taste; a taste" (noun use of past participle of gustare "to taste;" from PIE root *geus- "to taste; to choose") + -ory. Gustative is from 1610s.ETD gustatory (adj.).2


    masc. proper name, Latinized form of Swedish Gustaf; first element of unknown origin, second element literally "staff." Related: Gustavian.ETD Gustavus.2

    gusty (adj.)

    c. 1600, from gust (n.) + -y (2). Related: Gustily; gustiness.ETD gusty (adj.).2

    gusto (n.)

    1620s, "very common from the beginning of the 19th c." [OED], from Italian gusto "taste," from Latin gustus "a tasting," related to gustare "to taste, take a little of," from PIE *gus-tu-, suffixed form of root *geus- "to taste; to choose." English first borrowed the French form, guste "organ of taste; sense of taste" (mid-15c.), but this became obsolete.ETD gusto (n.).2

    guts (n.)

    "spirit, courage," 1893, figurative plural of gut (n.). The idea of the bowels as the seat of the spirit goes back to at least mid-14c. (compare bowel).ETD guts (n.).2

    gut (n.)

    Old English guttas (plural) "bowels, entrails," literally "a channel," related to geotan "to pour," from Proto-Germanic *gut-, from PIE root *gheu- "to pour." Related to Middle Dutch gote, Dutch goot, German Gosse "gutter, drain," Middle English gote "channel, stream." Meaning "abdomen, belly" is from late 14c. Meaning "narrow passage in a body of water" is from 1530s. Meaning "easy college course" is student slang from 1916, probably from obsolete slang sense of "feast" (the connecting notion is "something that one can eat up"). Sense of "inside contents of anything" (usually plural) is from 1570s. To hate (someone's) guts is first attested 1918. The notion of the intestines as a seat of emotions is ancient (see bowel) and probably explains expressions such as gut reaction (1963), gut feeling (by 1970), and compare guts. Gut check attested by 1976.ETD gut (n.).2

    gut (v.)

    "remove the guts of" (fish, etc.), late 14c., from gut (n.); figurative use "plunder the contents of" is by 1680s. Related: Gutted; gutting.ETD gut (v.).2

    gut-bucket (adj.)

    in reference to jazz, "earthy," by 1929, supposedly originally a reference to the buckets which caught the drippings, or gutterings, from barrels. Which would connect it to gutter (v.).ETD gut-bucket (adj.).2

    gutless (adj.)

    "cowardly," 1900, from gut (n.) in the figurative "spirit" sense (see guts) + -less. Literal sense "disemboweled" is from c. 1600. Related: Gutlessly; gutlessness.ETD gutless (adj.).2

    gutsy (adj.)

    "tough, plucky," 1893, from guts + -y (2). Earlier it meant "greedy" (1803).ETD gutsy (adj.).2

    gutta-percha (n.)

    1845, from Malay (Austronesian) getah percha, literally "the gum of percha," the name of the tree; the form of the word was influenced by Latin gutta "drop." As the name of the tree itself, from 1860.ETD gutta-percha (n.).2

    gutter (n.)

    late 13c., "watercourse, water drainage channel along the side of a street," from Anglo-French gotere, Old French guitere, goutiere "gutter, spout" of water (12c., Modern French gouttière), from goute "a drop," from Latin gutta "a drop" (see gout). Meaning "furrow made by running water" is from 1580s. Meaning "trough under the eaves of a roof to carry off rainwater" is from mid-14c. Figurative sense of "low, profane" is from 1818. In printers' slang, from 1841.ETD gutter (n.).2

    gutter (v.)

    late 14c., "to make or run in channels" (transitive), from gutter (n.). Intransitive use, in reference to candles (1706) it is from the channel that forms as the molten wax flows off. Related: Guttered; guttering.ETD gutter (v.).2

    guttersnipe (n.)

    also gutter-snipe, 1857, from gutter (n.) + snipe (n.); originally Wall Street slang for "streetcorner broker," attested later (1869) as "street urchin," also "one who gathers rags and paper from gutters." As a name for the common snipe, it dates from 1874 but is perhaps earlier.ETD guttersnipe (n.).2

    guttural (adj.)

    "pertaining to the throat," 1590s, from French guttural, from Latin guttur "throat, gullet," perhaps expressive of throat-noises. "Note that gula, glut- and gurgulio also refer to the 'throat' and 'swallowing', and also contain g(l)u-. Guttur may belong to this same family, which has no PIE etymology" [de Vaan]. The noun, in linguistics, is from 1690s.ETD guttural (adj.).2

    guv (n.)

    1890, shortening of guvner, casual British pronunciation of governor as a title of respect.ETD guv (n.).2


    from a native word perhaps meaning "respectable." Related: Guyanese.ETD Guyana.2

    guyot (n.)

    "flat-topped submarine mountain," 1946, named for Swiss geographer/geologist Arnold Guyot (1807-1884).ETD guyot (n.).2

    guzzle (n.)

    1590s, "a drain," from guzzle (v.). From 1704 as "liquor," 1836 as "bout of heavy drinking."ETD guzzle (n.).2

    guzzle (v.)

    1570s, "swallow liquid greedily" (intransitive), 1580s in transitive sense, probably related to Old French gosillier "to go down the gullet; to vomit, chatter, talk," from gosier (13c.) "jaws, throat, gullet." Or imitative of the sound of drinking greedily. Related: Guzzled; guzzling.ETD guzzle (v.).2

    guzzler (n.)

    1704, agent noun from guzzle (v.).ETD guzzler (n.).2


    *gwā-, also *gwem-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go, come."ETD *gwa-.2

    It forms all or part of: acrobat; adiabatic; advent; adventitious; adventure; amphisbaena; anabasis; avenue; base (n.) "bottom of anything;" basis; become; circumvent; come; contravene; convene; convenient; convent; conventicle; convention; coven; covenant; diabetes; ecbatic; event; eventual; hyperbaton; hypnobate; intervene; intervenient; intervention; invent; invention; inventory; juggernaut; katabatic; misadventure; parvenu; prevenient; prevent; provenance; provenience; revenant; revenue; souvenir; subvention; supervene; venire; venue; welcome.ETD *gwa-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit gamati "he goes," Avestan jamaiti "goes," Tocharian kakmu "come," Lithuanian gemu, gimti "to be born," Greek bainein "to go, walk, step," Latin venire "to come," Old English cuman "come, approach," German kommen, Gothic qiman.ETD *gwa-.4


    also *gweie-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to live."ETD *gwei-.2

    It forms all or part of: abiogenesis; aerobic; amphibian; anaerobic; azo-; azoic; azotemia; bio-; biography; biology; biome; bionics; biopsy; biota; biotic; cenobite; Cenozoic; convivial; couch-grass; epizoic; epizoon; epizootic; macrobiotic; Mesozoic; microbe; Protozoa; protozoic; quick; quicken; quicksand; quicksilver; quiver (v.) "to tremble;" revive; survive; symbiosis; viable; viand; viper; vita; vital; vitamin; victuals; viva; vivace; vivacious; vivarium; vivid; vivify; viviparous; vivisection; whiskey; wyvern; zodiac; Zoe; zoetrope; zoic; zoo-; zoolatry; zoology; zoon; zoophilia; zoophobia; zooplankton.ETD *gwei-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit jivah "alive, living;" Old Persian *jivaka- "alive," Middle Persian zhiwak "alive;" Greek bios "one's life, course or way of living, lifetime," zoe "animal life, organic life;" Old English cwic, cwicu "living, alive;" Latin vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" Old Church Slavonic zivo "to live;" Lithuanian gyvas "living, alive," gyvata "(eternal) life;" Old Irish bethu "life," bith "age;" Welsh byd "world."ETD *gwei-.4


    *gwelə-, also *gwel-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to throw, reach," with extended sense "to pierce."ETD *gwele-.2

    It forms all or part of: anabolic; arbalest; astrobleme; ball (n.2) "dancing party;" ballad; ballet; ballista; ballistic; ballistics; belemnite; catabolism; devil; diabolical; discobolus; emblem; embolism; hyperbola; hyperbole; kill (v.); metabolism; palaver; parable; parabola; parley; parliament; parlor; parol; parole; problem; quell; quail (v.) "lose heart, shrink, cower;" symbol.ETD *gwele-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit apa-gurya "swinging," balbaliti "whirls, twirls;" Greek ballein "to throw, to throw so as to hit," also in a looser sense, "to put, place, lay," bole "a throw, beam, ray," belemnon "dart, javelin," belone "needle," ballizein "to dance;" Armenian kelem "I torture;" Old Church Slavonic zali "pain;" Lithuanian galas "end," gėla "agony," gelti "to sting."ETD *gwele-.4


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "woman."ETD *gwen-.2

    It forms all or part of: androgynous; banshee; gynarchy; gyneco-; gynecology; gynecomastia; gyno-; misogyny; polygyny; quean; queen.ETD *gwen-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit janis "a woman," gná "wife of a god, a goddess;" Avestan jainish "wife;" Armenian kin "woman;" Greek gynē "a woman, a wife;" Old Church Slavonic zena, Old Prussian genna "woman;" Gaelic bean "woman;" Old English cwen "queen, female ruler of a state, woman, wife;" Gothic qino "a woman, wife, qéns "queen."ETD *gwen-.4


    fem. proper name, typically short for Gwendolyn.ETD Gwen.2


    fem. proper name; the first element is Breton gwenn "white" (source also of Welsh gwyn, Old Irish find, Gaelic fionn, Gaulish vindo- "white, shining," literally "visible"), from nasalized form of PIE root *weid- "to see."ETD Gwendolyn.2

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