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    institution (n.) — interment (n.)

    institution (n.)

    c. 1400, "action of establishing or founding (a system of government, a religious order, etc.)," from Old French institucion "foundation; thing established" (12c.), from Latin institutionem (nominative institutio) "a disposition, arrangement; instruction, education," noun of state from institutus (see institute (v.)).ETD institution (n.).2

    Meaning "established law or practice" is from 1550s. Meaning "establishment or organization for the promotion of some charity" is from 1707. Jocular or colloquial use for "anything that's been around a long time" is from 1837.ETD institution (n.).3

    institute (n.)

    1510s, "purpose, design," from Latin institutum "an ordinance; a purpose; a custom; precedents; principal components," literally "thing set up," noun use of neuter past participle of instituere "to set up, put in place; arrange; found, establish" (see institute (v.)).ETD institute (n.).2

    From 1540s in English as "an established law." The sense of "an organization or society devoted to some specific work," especially literary or scientific, is from 1828, from French use in Institut national des Sciences et des Arts (established 1795); Dutch instituut, German Institut also are from French. The specialized (mostly U.S.) sense "traveling academy for teachers in a district" is from 1839.ETD institute (n.).3

    institutionalize (v.)

    "to put into institutional life" (usually deprecatory), 1897; see institution. Earlier (1860) it meant "to make into an institution" and "to adjust to life in an institution" (1893). Related: Institutionalized.ETD institutionalize (v.).2

    institutionalization (n.)

    1898, noun of action from institutionalize (q.v.).ETD institutionalization (n.).2

    in-store (adj.)

    also instore, 1954, from in (prep.) + store (n.). In Middle English, instore was a verb meaning "to restore, renew," from Latin instaurare.ETD in-store (adj.).2

    instreaming (adj.)

    1855, from in (adv.) + streaming (see stream (v.)). As a noun from 1876.ETD instreaming (adj.).2

    instruction (n.)

    c. 1400, instruccioun, "action or process of teaching," from Old French instruccion (14c., Modern French instruction), from Latin instructionem (nominative instructio) "an array, arrangement," in Late Latin "teaching," from past participle stem of instruere "arrange, prepare, set in order; inform, teach," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + struere "to pile, build" (from PIE *streu-, extended form of root *stere- "to spread").ETD instruction (n.).2

    Meaning "an authoritative direction telling someone what to do; a document giving such directions," is early 15c. Related: Instructions.ETD instruction (n.).3

    instruct (v.)

    early 15c., "to tell, inform, impart knowledge or information," also "furnish with authoritative directions," from Latin instructus, past participle of instruere "arrange, prepare, set in order; inform, teach," literally "to build, erect," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + struere "to pile, build" (from PIE *streu-, extended form of root *stere- "to spread"). Related: Instructed; instructing.ETD instruct (v.).2

    instructive (adj.)

    "serving to instruct or inform," 1610s, from instruct (v.) + -ive. An earlier adjective was instructing (1580s). Related: Instructively; instructiveness.ETD instructive (adj.).2

    instructional (adj.)

    1801, from instruction + -al (1).ETD instructional (adj.).2

    instructible (adj.)

    c. 1600, from instruct + -ible.ETD instructible (adj.).2

    instructor (n.)

    mid-15c., from Old French instructeur (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin instructor "teacher" (in classical Latin, "preparer"), agent noun from instruere "arrange; inform, teach" (see instruct).ETD instructor (n.).2

    instrument (n.)

    late 13c., "musical instrument, mechanical apparatus for producing musical sounds," from Old French instrument, enstrument "means, device; musical instrument" (14c., earlier estrument, 13c.) and directly from Latin instrumentum "a tool, an implement; means, furtherance; apparatus, furniture; ornament, dress, embellishment; a commission, authorization; a document," from instruere "arrange, prepare, set in order; inform, teach," literally "to build, erect," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + struere "to pile, build" (from PIE *streu-, extended form of root *stere- "to spread").ETD instrument (n.).2

    The word in other Germanic languages also is from French. In English the meaning "a means, an agency" is from mid-14c. The sense of "hand-tool, implement, utensil, something used to produce a mechanical effect" is from early 14c. "Now usually distinguished from a tool, as being used for more delicate work or for artistic or scientific purposes" [OED]. The legal meaning "written document by which formal expression is given to a legal act" is from early 15c. Formerly also used of body parts or organs with special functions.ETD instrument (n.).3

    instrumentation (n.)

    "composition and arrangement of music for instruments," 1836, from French instrumentation, from instrument "musical instrument" (see instrument (n.)); also see -ation.ETD instrumentation (n.).2

    instrumental (adj.)

    late 14c., "of the nature of an instrument, serving as a means to an end," from Old French instrumental, from Medieval Latin *instrumentalis, from Latin instrumentum "a tool, apparatus" (see instrument (n.)). Meaning "serviceable, useful" is from c. 1600. Of music, c. 1500; noun meaning "musical composition for instruments only" is attested by 1940. Related: Instrumentally; instrumentality.ETD instrumental (adj.).2

    instrumentalist (n.)

    "musical performer on an instrument," 1818, from instrumental in the musical sense + -ist. Perhaps from German Instrumentalist (18c.).ETD instrumentalist (n.).2

    instrumentary (adj.)

    "of or pertaining to a deed or legal instrument," 1722, from instrument (n.) in the legal sense.ETD instrumentary (adj.).2

    insue (v.)

    obsolete form of ensue. Related: Insued; insuing.ETD insue (v.).2

    insubordination (n.)

    1790, on the model of French insubordination (1775); from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordination.ETD insubordination (n.).2

    insubordinate (adj.)

    1792, on model of French insubordonné (1787); from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordinate (adj.) "submitting to authority." Related: Insubordinately.ETD insubordinate (adj.).2

    insubstantial (adj.)

    c. 1600, from Medieval Latin insubstantialis "not substantial," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Late Latin substantialis "having substance or reality, material," in Late Latin "pertaining to the substance or essence," from substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). Related: Insubstantially.ETD insubstantial (adj.).2

    insubstantiality (n.)

    1827, from insubstantial + -ity.ETD insubstantiality (n.).2

    insufferable (adj.)

    "intolerable, not to be endured," early 15c., from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + sufferable. Related: Insufferably.ETD insufferable (adj.).2

    insufficient (adj.)

    late 14c., from Old French insufficient (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insufficientem (nominative insufficiens) "not sufficient," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + sufficientem (see sufficient). Originally of persons, "inadequate, unable;" of things, "lacking in what is necessary or required," from late 15c. Related: Insufficiently.ETD insufficient (adj.).2

    insufficiency (n.)

    1520s, from Old French insufficience and directly from Late Latin insufficientia "insufficience," abstract noun from insufficientem "insufficient" (see insufficient). Insufficience "deficiency" is from early 15c.ETD insufficiency (n.).2

    insufflation (n.)

    1570s, in ecclesiastical use, "a breathing upon," to symbolize the influence of the Holy Ghost or to expel evil spirits, from Late Latin insufflationem (nominative insufflatio) "a blowing into," noun of action from past-participle stem of insufflare, from in- "in, into" (from PIE root *en "in") + sufflare "blow from below," from assimilated form of sub "under, below" (see sub-) + flare "to blow" (according to Watkins from PIE root *bhle- "to blow").ETD insufflation (n.).2

    The medical sense of "a blowing of air into" (the lungs) is from 1821; that sense is found earlier in French.ETD insufflation (n.).3

    insulator (n.)

    1801, agent noun in Latin form from insulate (v.). In reference to the glass or earthenware devices to hold telegraph (later telephone) wires, from 1840s.ETD insulator (n.).2

    insulation (n.)

    noun of action from insulate (v.) in its various senses. From 1767 as "a blocking from electricity or heat" (by interposition of a non-conductor). Sense of "state or action of being detached from others" is from 1798. Literal meaning "act of making (land) into an island" is from 1784; that of "state of being an island" is from 1799. The concrete sense of "insulating material" is recorded by 1870.ETD insulation (n.).2

    insulate (v.)

    1530s, "make into an island," from Late Latin insulatus "made like an island," from insula "island" (see isle). Sense of "place in an isolated situation, cause (someone or something) to be detached from surroundings" is from 1785. Electrical/chemical sense of "block from electricity or heat" (by interposition of a non-conductor) is from 1742. Related: Insulated; insulating.ETD insulate (v.).2

    insula (n.)

    Latin, literally "an island" (also, in ancient Rome, "a block of buildings"); see isle. In anatomical use, the notion is "detached or standing out by itself."ETD insula (n.).2

    insularity (n.)

    1755, "narrowness of feelings," from insular in the metaphoric sense + -ity. Sense of "state of being an island" (from the classical sense) attested from 1784, in reference to explorations of Australia and New Zealand.ETD insularity (n.).2

    insularism (n.)

    1828, from insular in the figurative sense + -ism.ETD insularism (n.).2

    insular (adj.)

    1610s, "of or pertaining to an island," from Late Latin insularis "of or belonging to an island," from Latin insula "island" (see isle). Metaphoric sense "narrow, prejudiced" is from 1775, from notion of being isolated and cut off from intercourse with other nations or people (an image that naturally suggested itself in Great Britain). The earlier adjective in the literal sense was insulan (mid-15c.), from Latin insulanus.ETD insular (adj.).2

    insulin (n.)

    1922 (earlier insuline, 1914), coined in English from Latin insula "island" (see isle and compare insula); so called because the hormone is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insuline was coined independently in French in 1909.ETD insulin (n.).2

    insult (n.)

    c. 1600, "an attack;" 1670s as "an act of insulting, contemptuous treatment," from French insult (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insultus "insult, scoffing," noun use of past participle of insilire, literally "to leap at or upon" (see insult (v.)). The older noun was insultation (1510s). To add insult to injury translates Latin injuriae contumeliam addere.ETD insult (n.).2

    insult (v.)

    1560s, "triumph over in an arrogant way" (obsolete), from French insulter "to wrong; reproach; triumph arrogantly over," earlier "to leap upon" (14c.) and directly from Latin insultare "to assail, to make a sudden leap upon," which was used by the time of Cicero in sense of "to insult, scoff at, revile," frequentative of insilire "leap at or upon," from in- "on, at" (from PIE root *en "in") + salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)).ETD insult (v.).2

    Sense of "verbally abuse, affront, assail with disrespect, offer an indignity to" is from 1610s. Related: Insulted; insulting.ETD insult (v.).3

    insulting (adj.)

    "containing or inflicting insult," 1590s, present-participle adjective from insult (v.). Related: insultingly.ETD insulting (adj.).2

    insuperable (adj.)

    mid-14c., "unconquerable, incapable of being surmounted," from Old French insuperable (14c.) or directly from Latin insuperabilis "that cannot be passed over, unconquerable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + superabilis "that may be overcome," from superare "to overcome," from superus "one that is above," from super "over" (from PIE root *uper "over"). Figurative use from 1650s. Related: Insuperably; insuperability.ETD insuperable (adj.).2

    insupportable (adj.)

    1520s, from French insupportable (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insupportabilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + *supportabilis, from Latin supportare "to carry" (see support (v.)). Related: Insupportably.ETD insupportable (adj.).2

    insurable (adj.)

    1786, from insure (v.) + -able. Related: Insurability.ETD insurable (adj.).2

    insurance (n.)

    1550s, "engagement to marry," a variant of ensurance "an assurance, pledge, guarantee," from Old French enseurance "assurance," from ensurer, from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + sur "safe, secure, undoubted" (see sure (adj.)).ETD insurance (n.).2

    Commercial sense of "security against loss or death in exchange for payment" is from 1650s. Assurance was the older word for this specific sense (late 16c.). Compare insure.ETD insurance (n.).3

    insure (v.)

    mid-15c., insuren, spelling variant of ensuren "to assure, give formal assurance" (late 14c.), also "make secure, make safe" (c. 1400), from Anglo-French enseurer, Old French ensurer, from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + seur, sur "safe, secure, undoubted" (see sure (adj.)).ETD insure (v.).2

    The particular commercial senses of "make safe against loss by payment of premiums; undertake to ensure against loss, etc." are from mid-17c. (replacing assure in that meaning). Related: Insured; insuring.ETD insure (v.).3

    insurer (n.)

    1650s, agent noun from insure (v.).ETD insurer (n.).2

    insurgent (n.)

    "one who rises in revolt" against a government or its laws, 1745, from Latin insurgentem (nominative insurgens), present participle of insurgere "rise up, lift oneself; rise against; stand high, gather force," from in- "against," or here perhaps merely intensive, + surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)).ETD insurgent (n.).2

    An obsolete verb insurge (from French insurger) "to rise in opposition or insurrection" was common 16c. For verb forms 19c. writers sometimes turned to insurrectionize or insurrect.ETD insurgent (n.).3

    insurgence (n.)

    1776; see insurgent + -ence. Perhaps from French insurgence (by 1740s).ETD insurgence (n.).2

    insurgency (n.)

    1798, from insurgent + abstract noun suffix -cy.ETD insurgency (n.).2

    insurmountable (adj.)

    1690s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + surmountable. Related: Insurmountably. Brachet calls French insurmontable a "ghastly philological monster."ETD insurmountable (adj.).2

    insurrection (n.)

    "an uprising against civil authority," early 15c., insurreccion, from Old French insurreccion or directly from Late Latin insurrectionem (nominative insurrectio) "a rising up," noun of action from past-participle stem of insurgere "to rise up" (see insurgent).ETD insurrection (n.).2

    insurrectionary (adj.)

    1796, from insurrection + -ary. As a noun from 1893. Earlier adjectives were insurrectional (1794), insurrective (1590s), insurrectious (1630s). Insurrectionist (n.) is from 1811.ETD insurrectionary (adj.).2

    insusceptible (adj.)

    c. 1600; see in- (1) "not, opposite of" + susceptible (adj.). Perhaps modeled on French insusceptible (16c.).ETD insusceptible (adj.).2


    archaic or poetic contraction of in it, attested from 17c. I'nt, also i'n't, as a contraction of is not is recorded from 1742.ETD in't.2


    also i'n't, 18c., contraction representing a casual pronunciation of isn't it.ETD i'nt.2

    intact (adj.)

    mid-15c., from Latin intactus "untouched, uninjured; undefiled, chaste; unsubdued," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + tactus, past participle of tangere "to touch," from PIE root *tag- "to touch, handle."ETD intact (adj.).2

    intaglio (n.)

    "incised engraving" (as opposed to carving in relief), 1640s, from Italian intaglio "engraved work" (plural intagli), from intagliare "to cut in, engrave," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + tagliare "to cut," from Late Latin taliare "to split" (see tailor (n.)).ETD intaglio (n.).2

    intail (v.)

    obsolete form of entail. Related: Intailed; intailing.ETD intail (v.).2

    intake (n.)

    c. 1800, "place where water is taken into a channel or pipe," from verbal phrase, from in (adv.) + take (v.). Meaning "act of taking in" (food, breath, etc.) is first attested 1808.ETD intake (n.).2

    intangible (adj.)

    1630s, "incapable of being touched," from French intangible (c. 1500) or directly from Medieval Latin intangibilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Late Latin tangibilis "that may be touched" (see tangible). Figurative sense of "that cannot be grasped by the mind" is from 1880. Noun meaning "anything intangible" is from 1909. Related: Intangibly.ETD intangible (adj.).2

    integer (n.)

    "a whole number" (as opposed to a fraction), 1570s, from noun use of Latin integer (adj.) "intact, whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + root of tangere "to touch" (from PIE root *tag- "to touch, handle"). The word was used earlier in English as an adjective in the Latin sense, "whole, entire" (c. 1500).ETD integer (n.).2

    integral (adj.)

    late 15c., "of or pertaining to a whole; intrinsic, belonging as a part to a whole," from Old French intégral (14c.), from Medieval Latin integralis "forming a whole," from Latin integer "whole" (see integer). Related: Integrally. As a noun, 1610s, from the adjective.ETD integral (adj.).2

    integrate (v.)

    1630s, "to render (something) whole, bring together the parts of," from Latin integratus, past participle of integrare "make whole," from integer "whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + root of tangere "to touch," from PIE root *tag- "to touch, handle."ETD integrate (v.).2

    The meaning "put together parts or elements and combine them into a whole" is from 1802. The "racially desegregate" sense (1940) probably is a back-formation from integration. Related: Integrated; integrating.ETD integrate (v.).3

    integrity (n.)

    c. 1400, integrite, "innocence, blamelessness; chastity, purity," from Old French integrité and directly from Latin integritatem (nominative integritas) "soundness, wholeness, completeness," figuratively "purity, correctness, blamelessness," from integer "whole" (see integer).ETD integrity (n.).2

    The sense of "wholeness, perfect condition" is attested from mid-15c.; that of "soundness of moral principle and character; entire uprightness or fidelity, especially in regard to truth and fair dealing" is by 1540s.ETD integrity (n.).3

    integration (n.)

    1610s, "act of bringing together the parts of a whole," from French intégration and directly from Late Latin integrationem (nominative integratio) "renewal, restoration," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin integrare "make whole," also "renew, begin again" (see integrate). Anti-discrimination sense (opposed to segregation) is recorded from 1934.ETD integration (n.).2

    integrated (adj.)

    1580s, "combined into a whole," past-participle adjective from integrate (v.). Sense of "desegregated, not or no longer divided by race, etc." is from 1947.ETD integrated (adj.).2

    integument (n.)

    1610s, from Latin integumentum "a covering," from integere "to cover over," from in- "in, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + tegere "to cover" (from PIE root *(s)teg- "to cover"). Specific sense in biology is from 1660s.ETD integument (n.).2

    integumentary (adj.)

    1826, from integument + -ary.ETD integumentary (adj.).2

    intellect (n.)

    "the sum of the cognitive facilities (except sense or sense and imagination), the capacity for reasoning truth," late 14c. (but little used before 16c.), from Old French intellect "intellectual capacity" (13c.), and directly from Latin intellectus "discernment, a perception, understanding," noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence). The Latin word was used to translate Greek nous "mind, thought, intellect" in Aristotle.ETD intellect (n.).2

    intellection (n.)

    c. 1400, intellecioun "meaning, purpose;" mid-15c., "the understanding;" 1610s, "an act of understanding," from Old French intelleccion and directly from Medieval Latin intellectionem (nominative intellectio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence).ETD intellection (n.).2

    intellectual (adj.)

    late 14c., "grasped by the understanding" (rather than by the senses), from Old French intellectuel (13c.) and directly from Latin intellectualis "relating to the understanding," from intellectus "discernment, understanding," noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence).ETD intellectual (adj.).2

    Sense of "characterized by a high degree of intellect" is from 1819. Meaning "appealing to or engaging the mental powers" is from 1834. Intellectual property "products of the intellect" is attested from 1845. Adjective formations in the sense "of or pertaining to the intellect" included intellective (early 15c.), intellectile (1670s).ETD intellectual (adj.).3

    intellectualism (n.)

    1818, in philosophy, "belief in the supremacy of the intellect," probably based on German Intellektualismus (said by Klein to have been coined 1803 by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854) from Late Latin intellectualis); see intellectual + -ism. Meaning "devotion to intellectuality" also is from 1818.ETD intellectualism (n.).2

    intellectuality (n.)

    mid-15c., "the part of the mind which understands; understanding, intellect;" from Old French intellectualité and directly from Late Latin intellectualitas, from Latin intellectualis "relating to the understanding" (see intellectual).ETD intellectuality (n.).2

    intellectualization (n.)

    1821, noun of action from intellectualize.ETD intellectualization (n.).2

    intellectualize (v.)

    1819 (Coleridge), "infuse with intellectual quality," from intellectual + -ize. From 1827 as "exercise the mind, reason upon a matter of intellect." Related: Intellectualized; intellectualizing.ETD intellectualize (v.).2

    intellectually (adv.)

    late 14c., "to or by the understanding," from intellectual + -ly (2).ETD intellectually (adv.).2

    intellectual (n.)

    1590s, "mind, intellect, intellectual powers," from intellectual (adj.). The meaning "an intellectual person" is attested from 1650s but was hardly used in that sense in 19c. and the modern use in this sense seems to be a re-coinage from c. 1906. Related: Intellectuals.ETD intellectual (n.).2

    intelligibility (n.)

    1670s, from intelligible + -ity.ETD intelligibility (n.).2

    intelligible (adj.)

    late 14c., "able to understand, intelligent," from Latin intelligibilis, intellegibilis "that can understand; that can be understood," from intellegere "to understand, come to know" (see intelligence). In Middle English also "to be grasped by the intellect" (rather than the senses). In English, sense of "capable of being understood, that can be understood" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Intelligibly.ETD intelligible (adj.).2

    intelligent (adj.)

    c. 1500, a back-formation from intelligence or else from Latin intelligentem (nominative intelligens), present participle of intelligere. Intelligent design, as a name for an alternative to atheistic cosmology and the theory of evolution, is from 1999. Related: Intelligently.ETD intelligent (adj.).2

    intelligence (n.)

    late 14c., "the highest faculty of the mind, capacity for comprehending general truths;" c. 1400, "faculty of understanding, comprehension," from Old French intelligence (12c.) and directly from Latin intelligentia, intellegentia "understanding, knowledge, power of discerning; art, skill, taste," from intelligentem (nominative intelligens) "discerning, appreciative," present participle of intelligere "to understand, comprehend, come to know." This is from assimilated form of inter "between" (see inter-) + legere "choose, pick out, read," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')."ETD intelligence (n.).2

    The meaning "superior understanding, sagacity, quality of being intelligent" is from early 15c. The sense of "information received or imparted, news" is recorded by mid-15c., especially "secret information from spies" (1580s). The meaning "a being endowed with understanding or intelligence" is late 14c. Intelligence quotient is recorded by 1921 (see I.Q.).ETD intelligence (n.).3

    intelligencer (n.)

    1580s, "spy, informant," agent noun from intelligence. Perhaps modeled on French intelligencier or Italian intelligentiere. Meaning "bringer of news, one who conveys intelligence" is from 1630s; as a newspaper name from 1640s.ETD intelligencer (n.).2

    intelligentsia (n.)

    "the intellectual class collectively," 1905, from Russian intelligyentsiya, from Latin intelligentia "intelligence" (see intelligence). Perhaps via Italian intelligenzia.ETD intelligentsia (n.).2

    intemperate (adj.)

    "characterized by excessive indulgence in a passion or appetite," late 14c., from Latin intemperatus "excessive, immoderate," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + temperatus "restrained, regulated, limited, moderate, sober, calm, steady," past participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)). Related: Intemperately.ETD intemperate (adj.).2

    intemperance (n.)

    early 15c., "lack of restraint, excess," also of weather, "inclemency, severity," from Old French intemperance (14c.) and directly from Latin intemperantia "intemperateness, immoderation, excess" (as in intemperantia vini "immoderate use of wine"), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + temperantia "moderation, sobriety, discretion, self-control," from temperans, present participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)).ETD intemperance (n.).2

    intendant (n.)

    "one who has charge of some business," 1650s, from French intendant (16c.), from Latin intendantem, present participle of intendere "turn one's attention, exert oneself" (see intend).ETD intendant (n.).2

    intended (n.)

    "one's intended husband or wife," 1767, noun use of past participle of intend (v.).ETD intended (n.).2

    intend (v.)

    c. 1300, entenden, "direct one's attention to, pay attention, give heed," from Old French entendre, intendre "to direct one's attention" (in Modern French principally "to hear"), from Latin intendere "turn one's attention, strain (in quest of something), be zealous," literally "stretch out, extend," from in- "toward" (from PIE root *en "in") + tendere "to stretch," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch."ETD intend (v.).2

    Sense of "have as a plan, have in mind or purpose" (late 14c.) was present in Latin. A Germanic word for this was ettle, from Old Norse ætla "to think, conjecture, propose," from Proto-Germanic *ahta "consideration, attention" (source also of Old English eaht, German acht). Related: Intended; intending.ETD intend (v.).3

    intensity (n.)

    1660s, from intense + -ity. Earlier was intenseness (1610s). A scientific term originally; sense of "extreme depth of feeling" attested by 1830.ETD intensity (n.).2

    intense (adj.)

    early 15c., of situations or qualities, "great, extreme," from Old French intense (13c.), from Latin intensus "stretched, strained, high-strung, tight," originally past participle of intendere in its literal sense of "stretch out, strain" (see intend). From 1630s of persons, "high-strung." Related: Intensely; intenseness.ETD intense (adj.).2

    intensive (adj.)

    mid-15c., "intense, fervent, great," from Old French intensif (14c.) and Medieval Latin intensivus, from Latin intens-, past participle stem of intendere "turn one's attention; strain, stretch" (see intend).ETD intensive (adj.).2

    Grammatical meaning "expressing intensity" is from c. 1600; as a noun, "something expressing intensity," 1813, from the adjective. Alternative intensitive is a malformation. Intensive care attested from 1958. Related: Intensively; intensiveness.ETD intensive (adj.).3

    intension (n.)

    c. 1600, "action of stretching; increase of degree or force," from Latin intensionem/intentionem (nominative intensio/intentio) "a stretching, straining," figuratively "exertion, effort," noun of action from past participle stem of intendere in its literal sense of "stretch out, strain" (see intend, and compare intention, which has the figurative sense). Related: Intensional.ETD intension (n.).2

    intensification (n.)

    1835, noun of action from intensify.ETD intensification (n.).2

    intensify (v.)

    1817 (transitive), from intense + -ify, first attested in Coleridge, in place of intend, which he said no longer was felt as connected with intense. Intransitive sense is from 1845. Middle English used intensen (v.) "to increase (something), strengthen, intensify," early 15c. Related: Intensified; intensifying.ETD intensify (v.).2

    intent (n.)

    "purpose," early 13c., from Old French entent, entente "goal, end, aim, purpose; attention, application," and directly from Latin intentus "a stretching out," in Late Latin "intention, purpose," noun use of past participle of intendere "stretch out, lean toward, strain," literally "to stretch out" (see intend). In law, "state of mind with respect to intelligent volition" (17c.).ETD intent (n.).2

    intent (adj.)

    late 14c., "very attentive, eager," from Latin intentus "attentive, eager, waiting, strained," past participle of intendere "to strain, stretch" (see intend). Sense of "having the mind fixed (upon something)" is from c. 1600. Related: Intently.ETD intent (adj.).2

    intention (n.)

    late 14c., entencioun, "purpose, design, aim or object; will, wish, desire, that which is intended," from Old French entencion "intent, purpose, aspiration; will; thought" (12c.), from Latin intentionem (nominative intentio) "a stretching out, straining, exertion, effort; attention," noun of action from intendere "to turn one's attention," literally "to stretch out" (see intend). Also in Middle English "emotion, feelings; heart, mind, mental faculties, understanding."ETD intention (n.).2

    intentions (n.)

    "one's purposes with regard to courtship and marriage," by 1796; see intention.ETD intentions (n.).2

    intentive (adj.)

    late 14c., "eager, assiduous; attentive, paying attention," from Old French ententif, intentif "attentive, solicitous, assiduous" (12c.), from Late Latin intentivus, from intent-, past-participle stem of Latin intendere "turn one's attention" (see intend). Related: Intentively; intentiveness.ETD intentive (adj.).2

    intentioned (adj.)

    "having intentions" (of a specified kind), 16c., from intention + -ed.ETD intentioned (adj.).2

    intentional (adj.)

    "done with intention, design, or purpose; intended," 1520s, from intention + -al (1) or else from Medieval Latin intentionalis. Intentional fallacy recorded from 1946. Related: Intentionality.ETD intentional (adj.).2

    intentionally (adv.)

    "on purpose," 1660s; see intentional + -ly (2). Middle English had the phrase of entencioun (1420) "on purpose, intentionally."ETD intentionally (adv.).2


    word-forming element used freely in English, "between, among, during," from Latin inter (prep., adv.) "among, between, betwixt, in the midst of" (also used extensively as a prefix), from PIE *enter "between, among" (source also of Sanskrit antar, Old Persian antar "among, between," Greek entera (plural) "intestines," Old Irish eter, Old Welsh ithr "among, between," Gothic undar, Old English under "under"), a comparative of root *en "in."ETD inter-.2

    A living prefix in English from 15c. and used with Germanic as well as Latinate words. Spelled entre- in French; most words borrowed into English in that form were re-spelled 16c. to conform with Latin except entertain, enterprise. In Latin, spelling shifted to intel- before -l-, hence intelligence, etc.ETD inter-.3

    interment (n.)

    "burial, the act of depositing in the ground," early 14c., from Old French enterrement "burial, interment," from enterrer (see inter (v.)).ETD interment (n.).2

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