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    tun (n.) — twaddle (n.)

    tun (n.)

    "large cask," especially one for wine, ale, or beer, Old English tunne "tun, cask, barrel," a general North Sea Germanic word (compare Old Frisian tunne, Middle Dutch tonne, Old High German tunna, German tonne), also found in Medieval Latin tunna (9c.) and Old French tonne (diminutive tonneau); perhaps from a Celtic source (compare Middle Irish, Gaelic tunna, Old Irish toun "hide, skin"). Tun-dish (late 14c.) was a funnel made to fit into the bung of a tun.ETD tun (n.).2

    tuna (n.)

    1881, from American Spanish (California) tuna, from Spanish atun, from Arabic tun, borrowed, probably in Spain, from Latin thunnus "tunny" (see tunny).ETD tuna (n.).2

    tundra (n.)

    an Arctic steppe, 1841, from Russian tundra, from Lappish (Finno-Ugric) tundar, said to mean "elevated wasteland, high-topped hill," or "a marshy plain."ETD tundra (n.).2

    tune (n.)

    early 14c., "a musical sound," unexplained variant of tone (n.). From late 14c. as "a well-rounded succession of musical notes, an air, melody." Meaning "state of being in proper pitch" is from mid-15c.ETD tune (n.).2

    tuneful (adj.)

    1590s, from tune (n.) + -ful. Related: Tunefully. Songful is older but rarer.ETD tuneful (adj.).2

    tuning (n.)

    1550s, "action of putting in tune," verbal noun from tune (v.). Of motors, from 1863. Tuning fork attested from 1776, supposedly invented by John Shore (d.1753), royal trumpeter.ETD tuning (n.).2

    tune (v.)

    "bring into a state of proper pitch," c. 1500, from tune (n.). Non-musical meaning "to adjust an organ or receiver, put into a state proper for some purpose" is recorded from 1887. Verbal phrase tune in in reference to radio (later also TV) is recorded from 1913; figurative sense of "become aware" is recorded from 1926. Tune out "eliminate radio reception" is recorded from 1908; figurative sense of "disregard, stop heeding" is from 1928. Related: Tuned; tuning.ETD tune (v.).2

    tuneless (adj.)

    1590s, from tune (n.) + -less. Related: Tunelessly; tunelessness.ETD tuneless (adj.).2

    tuner (n.)

    "one who tunes musical instruments," 1801, agent noun from tune (v.). From 1570s as "musician, singer." From 1909 as "device for varying the frequency of a radio or (later) television." Industry jargon for "musical play or film" by 1991.ETD tuner (n.).2

    tunesmith (n.)

    1926, U.S. colloquial coinage, from tune (n.) + smith (n.).ETD tunesmith (n.).2

    tune-up (n.)

    "adjustments made to an automobile to improve its working," 1911, from verbal phrase tune up "bring to a state of effectiveness," 1718, in reference to musical instruments, from tune (v.) + up (adv.). Attested from 1901 in reference to engines. Meaning "event that serves as practice for a later one" is from 1934, U.S. sports jargon.ETD tune-up (n.).2


    1889, from Chinese tong.ETD tung.2

    tungsten (n.)

    rare metallic element, 1796, from Swedish tungsten "calcium tungstate," coined 1780 by its discoverer, Swedish chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) from tung "heavy" + sten "stone" (see stone (n.)). The word was used earlier as the name for calcium tungstate (1770). Atomic symbol W is from Latin wolframium, from German Wolfram "iron tungstate" (see wolfram).ETD tungsten (n.).2

    tunic (n.)

    late 15c., from Old French tunique (12c.) or directly from Latin tunica "undergarment worn by either sex" (source of Spanish tunica, Italian tonica, Old English tunece, Old High German tunihha), probably from a Semitic source (compare Hebrew kuttoneth "coat," Aramaic kittuna). Compare chitin, from a Greek name for a similar garment, also probably from a Semitic source.ETD tunic (n.).2

    tunicate (adj.)

    1760, from Latin tunicatus "clothed with a tunic only (i.e. without a toga), in shirt-sleeves," past participle of tunicare "to clothe in a tunic," from tunica (see tunic). As a noun, from 1848.ETD tunicate (adj.).2

    tunnel (n.)

    early 15c., tonel, "funnel-shaped net for catching birds," from Old French tonnelle "net," or tonel "cask," diminutive of Old French tonne "tun, cask for liquids," possibly from the same source as Old English tunne (see tun).ETD tunnel (n.).2

    Sense of "tube, pipe" (1540s) developed in English and led to sense of "underground passage" (1660s). This sense subsequently has been borrowed into French (1878). The earlier native word for this was mine (n.). Meaning "burrow of an animal" is from 1873. Tunnel vision is attested from 1912. The amusement park tunnel of love is attested from 1911 (in reference to New York's Luna Park). The figurative light at the end of the tunnel has been seen since 1882.ETD tunnel (n.).3

    tunnel (v.)

    "excavate underground," 1795, from tunnel (n.). From 1570s as "furnish with a tunnel." Related: Tunneled; tunneling.ETD tunnel (v.).2

    tunny (n.)

    large sea-fish of the mackerel order, 1520s, probably from French thon (14c.), from Old Provençal ton and directly from Latin thunnus "a tuna, tunny," from Greek thynnos "a tuna, tunny," possibly with a literal sense of "darter," from thynein "dart along."ETD tunny (n.).2

    In ancient Greece, the food-fish par excellence, with its own vocabulary of culinary and market terms for the cuts and preparations of it.ETD tunny (n.).3

    tup (n.)

    "male sheep," c. 1300, Scottish and Northern English; of unknown origin. As a verb, "to copulate," 1540s. Related: Tupped; tupping.ETD tup (n.).2

    tupelo (n.)

    American black gum tree, 1730, from an Algonquian language, such as Muskogee eto opelwv "swamp-tree." Also a place-name in several southern U.S. states.ETD tupelo (n.).2

    Tupi (n.)

    a native language group of South America, also Tupian.ETD Tupi (n.).2


    1863, word-forming element abstracted from quintuple, etc.ETD -tuple.2

    tuppence (n.)

    mid-15c., to-pens, representing the common pronunciation of twopence (see two + pence).ETD tuppence (n.).2

    Tupperware (n.)

    1954, trademark (reg. U.S.), from Earl S. Tupper, president of Tupper Corp., + ware (n.). Patent claims use from 1950.ETD Tupperware (n.).2

    tuque (n.)

    type of cap worn in Canada, 1871, from Canadian French variant of French toque (see toque).ETD tuque (n.).2

    tu quoque

    Latin, literally "thou also" (or, in modern vernacular, "so are you!"); an argument which consists in retorting accusations.ETD tu quoque.2

    turban (n.)

    1560s, from French turbant (15c.), from Italian turbante (Old Italian tolipante), from Turkish tülbent "gauze, muslin, tulle," from Persian dulband "turban." The change of -l- to -r- may have taken place in Portuguese India and thence been picked up in other European languages. A men's headdress in Muslim lands, it was popular in Europe and America c. 1776-1800 as a ladies' fashion. Related: Turbaned.ETD turban (n.).2

    turbidity (n.)

    "state of being turbid," 1782, from Medieval Latin turbiditas, from Latin turbidus "muddy, full of confusion" (see turbid). Turbidity current is from 1939.ETD turbidity (n.).2

    turbid (adj.)

    "muddy, foul with extraneous matter, thick, not clear," used of liquids having the lees disturbed or colors, 1620s, from Latin turbidus "muddy, full of confusion," from turbare "to confuse, bewilder," from turba "turmoil, crowd," which is of uncertain origin. De Vaan writes:ETD turbid (adj.).2

    Related: Turbidly; turbidness.ETD turbid (adj.).3

    turbine (n.)

    1838, "waterwheel driven by the impact or reaction of a flowing stream of water," from French turbine (19c.), from Latin turbinem (nominative turbo) "spinning top, eddy, whirlwind, that which whirls," related to turba "turmoil, crowd" (see turbid). Originally applied to a wheel spinning on a vertical axis driven by falling water, later of mechanisms driven by the flow of air. Turbo in reference to gas turbine engines is attested from 1904.ETD turbine (n.).2


    word-forming element, abstracted c. 1900 from turbine; influenced by Latin turbo "spinning top." E.g. turbocharger (1934), aeronautic turboprop (1945, with second element short for propeller); turbojet (1945).ETD turbo-.2

    turbot (n.)

    large, edible flatfish, c. 1300, from Old French turbut (12c., Modern French turbot), probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Swedish törnbut, from törn "thorn" + but "flatfish;" see butt (n.4) and compare halibut). But OED says of uncertain origin and speculates on a connection to Latin turbo "spinning top."ETD turbot (n.).2

    turbulent (adj.)

    early 15c., "disorderly, tumultuous, unruly" (of persons), from Old French turbulent (12c.), from Latin turbulentus "full of commotion, restless, disturbed, boisterous, stormy," figuratively "troubled, confused," from turba "turmoil, crowd" (see turbid). In reference to weather, from 1570s. Related: Turbulently.ETD turbulent (adj.).2

    turbulence (n.)

    early 15c., from Late Latin turbulentia "trouble, disquiet," from Latin turbulentus (see turbulent). In reference to atmospheric eddies that affect airplanes, by 1918. Related: Turbulency.ETD turbulence (n.).2

    turd (n.)

    Old English tord "piece of excrement," from Proto-Germanic *turdam (source also of Middle Dutch torde "piece of excrement," Old Norse tord-yfill, Dutch tort-wevel "dung beetle"), from PIE *drtom, past participle of root *der- "to split, flay, peel;" thus "that which is separated ("torn off") from the body" (compare shit (v.) from root meaning "to split;" Greek skatos from root meaning "to cut off; see scatology). As a type of something worthless and vile, it is attested from mid-13c. Meaning "despicable person" is recorded from mid-15c.ETD turd (n.).2

    tureen (n.)

    1706, terrine, "fireproof cooking vessel" (by 1752 with -u-), from French terrine "earthen vessel, earthen jar," from Old French noun use of fem. of terrin (adj.) "earthen," from Gallo-Roman *terrinus "made of earth," from Latin terrenus "of the earth," from terra "earth" (see terra; and compare terrene). The French word had been borrowed earlier as terein "deep cooking or serving vessel" (late 14c.), and in modern times developed specific commercial senses: "usually a covered jar, used for containing some fine comestible, and sold with its contents" [Century Dictionary, 1895].ETD tureen (n.).2

    turf (n.)

    Old English turf, tyrf "slab of soil and grass, sod," also "surface of grassland," from Proto-Germanic *turfa- (source also of Old Norse torf, Danish tørv, Old Frisian turf, Old High German zurba, German Torf), from PIE root *drebh- "to wind, compress" (source also of Sanskrit darbhah "tuft of grass").ETD turf (n.).2

    Especially "the race course," hence the turf "the profession of racing horses" (1755). French tourbe "turf" is a Germanic loan-word. The Old English plural was identical with the singular, but in Middle English turves sometimes was used. Slang meaning "territory claimed by a gang" is attested from 1953 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; earlier it had a jive talk sense of "the street, the sidewalk" (1930s), which is attested in hobo use from 1899, and before that "the work and venue of a prostitute" (1860). Turf war is recorded from 1962.ETD turf (n.).3

    turf (v.)

    early 15c., "to cover (ground) with turf," from turf (n.). Related: Turfed; turfing.ETD turf (v.).2

    turgid (adj.)

    1610s, from Latin turgidus "swollen, inflated, distended," from turgere "to swell," of unknown origin. Figurative use in reference to prose is from 1725. Related: Turgidly; turgidness.ETD turgid (adj.).2

    turgor (n.)

    1857, from medical Latin turgor, from Latin turgere "to swell" (see turgid).ETD turgor (n.).2


    city in northern Italy, Italian Torino, Roman Augusta Taurinorum, probably from the Taurini, a Ligurian people who had a capital there, the name perhaps from Celtic *tauro "mountain" or *tur "water," but long interpreted by folk etymology as from Latin taurus "bull."ETD Turin.2

    Turing machine (n.)

    1937, named for English mathematician and computer pioneer Alan M. Turing (1912-1954), who described such a device in 1936.ETD Turing machine (n.).2

    Turk (n.)

    c. 1300, from French Turc, from Medieval Latin Turcus, from Byzantine Greek Tourkos, Persian turk, a national name, of unknown origin. Said to mean "strength" in Turkish. Compare Chinese tu-kin, recorded from c. 177 B.C.E. as the name of a people living south of the Altai Mountains (identified by some with the Huns). In Persian, turk, in addition to the national name, also could mean "a beautiful youth," "a barbarian," "a robber."ETD Turk (n.).2

    In English, the Ottoman sultan was the Grand Turk (late 15c.), and the Turk was used collectively for the Turkish people or for Ottoman power (late 15c.). From 14c. and especially 16c.-18c. Turk could mean "a Muslim," reflecting the Turkish political power's status in the Western mind as the Muslim nation par excellence. Hence Turkery "Islam" (1580s); turn Turk "convert to Islam."ETD Turk (n.).3

    Meaning "person of Irish descent" is first recorded 1914 in U.S., apparently originating among Irish-Americans; of unknown origin (Irish torc "boar, hog" has been suggested). Young Turk (1908) was a member of an early 20c. political group in the Ottoman Empire that sought rejuvenation of the Turkish nation. Turkish bath is attested from 1640s; Turkish delight from 1877.ETD Turk (n.).4


    country name, late 14c., from Medieval Latin Turchia, from Turcus (see Turk) + -ia.ETD Turkey.2

    turkey (n.)

    1540s, originally "guinea fowl" (Numida meleagris), a bird imported from Madagascar via Turkey, and called guinea fowl when brought by Portuguese traders from West Africa. The larger North American bird (Meleagris gallopavo) was domesticated by the Aztecs, introduced to Spain by conquistadors (1523) and thence to wider Europe. The word turkey first was applied to it in English 1550s because it was identified with or treated as a species of the guinea fowl, and/or because it got to the rest of Europe from Spain by way of North Africa, then under Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Indian corn was originally turkey corn or turkey wheat in English for the same reason.ETD turkey (n.).2

    The Turkish name for it is hindi, literally "Indian," probably influenced by French dinde (c. 1600, contracted from poulet d'inde, literally "chicken from India," Modern French dindon), based on the then-common misconception that the New World was eastern Asia.ETD turkey (n.).3

    The New World bird itself reputedly reached England by 1524 at the earliest estimate, though a date in the 1530s seems more likely. The wild turkey, the North American form of the bird, was so called from 1610s. By 1575, turkey was becoming the usual main course at an English Christmas. Meaning "inferior show, failure," is 1927 in show business slang, probably from the bird's reputation for stupidity. Meaning "stupid, ineffectual person" is recorded from 1951. Turkey shoot "something easy" is World War II-era, in reference to marksmanship contests where turkeys were tied behind a log with their heads showing as targets.ETD turkey (n.).4

    To talk turkey (1824) is not explained in early usage; it is American English, said by 1860 to be from a joke or tale of an attempt to swindle a Native in dividing up a turkey and a less-appealing bird as food.ETD turkey (n.).5

    turkey-vulture (n.)

    1823, from turkey + vulture. From 1670s as turkey-buzzard.ETD turkey-vulture (n.).2

    Turkish (adj.)

    1540s, from Turk (n.) + -ish. As a noun, "the Turkish language," from 1718.ETD Turkish (adj.).2


    also Turcoman, c. 1600, from Medieval Latin Turcomannus, from Persian Turkman, literally "Turk-like," from Turk + -man "like."ETD Turkoman.2


    also Turcophile, 1876, from combining form of Turk + -phile.ETD Turkophile.2

    turmeric (n.)

    pungent powder made from the root of an East Indian plant, 1530s, altered from Middle English turmeryte (early 15c.), which is of uncertain origin. "Middle English Compendium" compares Medieval Latin terra merita (16c.), French terre mérite (17c.), literally "worthy earth," though the reason why it would be called this is obscure. Klein suggests it might be a folk-etymology corruption of Arabic kurkum "curcuma, saffron."ETD turmeric (n.).2

    turmoil (n.)

    1520s, of uncertain origin, perhaps an alteration of French tremouille "mill hopper," in reference to the hopper's constant motion to and fro, from Latin trimodia "vessel containing three modii," from modius, a Roman dry measure, related to modus "measure." Attested earlier in English as a verb (1510s), though this now is obsolete.ETD turmoil (n.).2

    turn (v.)

    late Old English turnian "to rotate, revolve," in part also from Old French torner "to turn away or around; draw aside, cause to turn; change, transform; turn on a lathe" (Modern French tourner), both from Latin tornare "to polish, round off, fashion, turn on a lathe," from tornus "lathe," from Greek tornos "lathe, tool for drawing circles," from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn." Transitive sense in English is from c. 1300. Related: Turned; turning.ETD turn (v.).2

    Use in expression to turn (something) into (something else) probably retains the classical sense of "to shape on a lathe." To turn up "arrive, make an appearance" is recorded from 1755. Turn about "by turns, alternately" is recorded from 1640s. To turn (something) loose "set free" is recorded from 1590s. Turn down (v.) "reject" first recorded 1891, American English. Turn in "go to bed" is attested from 1690s, originally nautical. To turn the stomach "nauseate" is recorded from 1620s. To turn up one's nose as an expression of contempt is attested from 1779.ETD turn (v.).3

    Turning point is attested by 1640s in a figurative sense "point at which a decisive change takes place;" literal sense "point on which a thing turns; point at which motion in one direction ceases and that in another or contrary direction begins" is from 1660s.ETD turn (v.).4

    turn (n.)

    c. 1200, "action of rotating," from Anglo-French tourn (Old French torn, tour), from Latin tornus "turning lathe;" also partly from turn (v.). Meaning "an act of turning, a single revolution or part of a revolution" is attested from late 15c. Sense of "place of bending" (in a road, river, etc.) is recorded from early 15c. Meaning "beginning of a period of time" is attested from 1853 (as in turn-of-the-century, from 1921 as an adjectival phrase).ETD turn (n.).2

    Sense of "act of good will" is recorded from c. 1300. Meaning "spell of work" is from late 14c.; that of "an individual's time for action, when these go around in succession" is recorded from late 14c. The automatic automobile turn-signal is from 1915. Turn-sick "dizzy," is attested from early 15c. Phrase done to a turn (1780) suggests meat roasted on a spit. The turn of the screw (1796) is the additional twist to tighten its hold, sometimes with reference to torture by thumbscrews.ETD turn (n.).3

    turn-around (n.)

    also turnaround, 1936, from verbal phrase turn around "reverse," 1880, American English, from turn (v.) + around (adv.).ETD turn-around (n.).2

    turnbuckle (n.)

    also turn-buckle, 1703, "catch or fastening for windows and shutters," from turn (v.) + buckle (n.). Meaning "coupling with internal screw threads for connecting metal rods" is attested from 1877.ETD turnbuckle (n.).2

    turncoat (n.)

    1550s, from turn (v.) + coat (n.). The image is of one who attempts to hide the badge of his party or leader. The expression to turn one's coat "change principles or party" is recorded from 1570s.ETD turncoat (n.).2

    turner (n.)

    c. 1400, "one who works a lathe," agent noun from turn (v.). As a surname from late 12c.ETD turner (n.).2

    turnip (n.)

    c. 1500, turnepe, probably from turn (from its shape, as though turned on a lathe) + Middle English nepe "turnip," from Old English næp, from Latin napus "turnip." The modern form of the word emerged late 18c.ETD turnip (n.).2

    turnkey (adj.)

    1650s, "jailer," from turn (v.) + key (n.). In reference to a job that only has to be done only once, it is recorded from 1934. The notion probably is of something that can be accomplished with a single turn of a key.ETD turnkey (adj.).2

    turn-off (n.)

    "something that dampens one's spirits" recorded by 1971 (said to have been in use since 1968), from verbal phrase turn off "stop the flow of" (1850), from turn (v.) + off (adv.). Turn-off (n.) as "place where one road diverges from another" is from 1881.ETD turn-off (n.).2

    turn-on (n.)

    that which arouses or excites, 1968, originally of psychedelic drugs, from verbal phrase turn on "activate (a mechanism)" (1833), specifically from figurative sense turn (someone) on "excite, stimulate, arouse," recorded from 1903; from turn (v.) + on (adv.).ETD turn-on (n.).2

    turn-out (n.)

    "audience, assemblage of persons who have come to see a show, spectacle, etc.," 1816, from the verbal phrase; see turn (v.) + out (adv.).ETD turn-out (n.).2

    turnover (n.)

    also turn-over, 1650s, "action of turning over," from the verbal phrase; see turn (v.) + over (adv.). As a kind of pastry tart, from 1798. Meaning "number of employees leaving a place and being replaced" is recorded from 1955.ETD turnover (n.).2

    turnpike (n.)

    early 15c., "spiked road barrier used for defense," from turn + pike (n.2) "shaft." Sense transferred to "horizontal cross of timber, turning on a vertical pin" (1540s), which were used to bar horses from foot roads. This led to the sense of "barrier to stop passage until a toll is paid" (1670s). Meaning "road with a toll gate" is from 1748, shortening of turnpike road (1745).ETD turnpike (n.).2

    turnstile (n.)

    1640s, from turn (v.) + stile (n.).ETD turnstile (n.).2

    turntable (n.)

    also turn-table, "circular platform designed to turn upon its center," 1835, originally in the railway sense, from turn (v.) + table (n.). The record-player sense is attested from 1908.ETD turntable (n.).2

    turpentine (n.)

    early 14c., "semi-liquid resin of the terebinth tree," terbentyn, terebentine, from Old French terebinte "turpentine" (13c.), from Latin terebintha resina "resin of the terebinth tree," from Greek rhētinē terebinthē, from fem. of terebinthos (see terebinth). By 16c. applied generally to resins from fir trees.ETD turpentine (n.).2

    turpitude (n.)

    "depravity, infamy, inherent baseness or vileness," late 15c., from Old French turpitude (early 15c.), from Latin turpitudinem (nominative turpitudo) "baseness," from turpis "vile, foul, physically ugly, base, unsightly," figuratively "morally ugly, scandalous, shameful," a word of uncertain origin. De Vaan finds proposed connections to IE words meaning "to turn" (via the notion of "to turn away") as "too constructed" to be credible. Klein suggests perhaps originally "what one turns away from" (compare Latin trepit "he turns").ETD turpitude (n.).2

    turquoise (n.)

    greenish-blue precious stone, 1560s, from French, replacing Middle English turkeis, turtogis (late 14c.), from Old French fem. adjective turqueise "Turkish," in pierre turqueise "Turkish stone," so called because it was first brought to Europe from Turkestan or some other Turkish dominion. Cognate with Spanish turquesa, Medieval Latin (lapis) turchesius, Middle Dutch turcoys, German türkis, Swedish turkos. As an adjective, 1570s. As a color name, attested from 1853. "Chemically it is a hydrated phosphate of aluminum and copper" [Flood].ETD turquoise (n.).2

    turret (n.)

    c. 1300, touret "small tower forming part of a city wall or castle," from Old French torete (12c., Modern French tourette), diminutive of tour "tower," from Latin turris (see tower (n.1)). Meaning "low, flat gun-tower on a warship" is recorded from 1862, later also of tanks. Related: Turreted. Welsh twrd is from English.ETD turret (n.).2

    turtle (n.1)

    "tortoise," c. 1600, originally "marine tortoise," from French tortue, tortre (13c.) "turtle, tortoise" (often associated with diabolical beasts), of unknown origin. The English word perhaps is a sailors' mauling of the French one, influenced by the similar sounding turtle (n.2). Later extended to land tortoises; sea-turtle is attested from 1610s.ETD turtle (n.1).2

    turtle (n.2)

    "turtledove," Old English turtle, dissimilation of Latin turtur "turtledove," a reduplicated form imitative of the bird's coo. Graceful, harmonious and affectionate to its mate, hence a term of endearment in Middle English. Turtle-dove is attested from c. 1300.ETD turtle (n.2).2

    turtleneck (n.)

    also turtle-neck "close-fitting collar," 1893, from turtle (n.1) + neck (n.).ETD turtleneck (n.).2


    river in Alabama, first attested in Spanish as Tascaluza, from Choctaw (Muskogean) taska-losa, literally "warrior-black."ETD Tuscaloosa.2

    Tuscan (n.)

    late 14c., from Italian Toscano, from Late Latin Tuscanus "belonging to the Tusci," a people of ancient Italy, from Tuscus, earlier *Truscus, shortened form of Etruscus (see Etruscan).ETD Tuscan (n.).2


    Iroquoian people originally inhabiting what is now North Carolina, 1640s, from Catawba (Siouan) /taskarude:/, literally "dry-salt eater," a folk-etymologizing of the people's name for themselves, Tuscarora (Iroquoian) /skaru:re/, literally "hemp-gatherers."ETD Tuscarora.2

    tush (interj.)

    mid-15c.; see tut. Related: Tushery.ETD tush (interj.).2

    tush (n.)

    "backside, buttocks," 1962, an abbreviation of tochus (1914), from Yiddish tokhes, from Hebrew tahat "beneath."ETD tush (n.).2

    tushy (n.)

    also tushie, 1962, from tush (n.) + -y (3).ETD tushy (n.).2

    tusk (n.)

    Old English tusc, also transposed as tux, "long, pointed tooth protruding from the mouth of an animal," cognate with Old Frisian tusk, probably from Proto-Germanic *tunthsk- (source also of Gothic tunþus "tooth"), from an extended form of PIE root *dent- "tooth." But "there are no certain cognates outside of the Anglo-Frisian area" [OED].ETD tusk (n.).2


    place in Alabama, named from a Muskogee tribal town taskeke (first recorded in Spanish as tasquiqui), literally "warriors."ETD Tuskegee.2

    tussive (adj.)

    "pertaining to cough," 1857, from Latin tussis "a cough," of unknown origin, + -ive.ETD tussive (adj.).2

    tussle (v.)

    "to struggle, scuffle, wrestle confusedly," late 15c. (transitive); 1630s (intransitive), Scottish and northern English variant of touselen (see tousle). Related: Tussled; tussling.ETD tussle (v.).2

    tussle (n.)

    "a struggle, conflict, scuffle," 1620s (but rare before 19c.), from tussle (v.).ETD tussle (n.).2

    tussock (n.)

    1540s, "tuft of hair," of uncertain origin; perhaps a diminutive of earlier tusk (1520s) with the same meaning (and also of obscure origin). The extended meaning "tuft of grass" is attested by c. 1600.ETD tussock (n.).2

    tut (interj.)

    1520s, along with tush (mid-15c.), a natural interjection expressing impatient or dismissive contempt.ETD tut (interj.).2

    tutee (n.)

    1927; see tutor (v.) + -ee.ETD tutee (n.).2

    tutelage (n.)

    "guardianship," c. 1600, from -age + Latin tutela "a watching, keeping, safeguard, protection," from variant past participle stem of tueri "watch over" (see tutor (n.)). Meaning "instruction" first appeared 1857.ETD tutelage (n.).2

    tutelary (adj.)

    1610s, from Late Latin tutelarius "a guardian," from Latin tutela "protection, watching" (see tutor (n.)).ETD tutelary (adj.).2

    tutor (v.)

    1590s, from tutor (n.). Related: Tutored; tutoring.ETD tutor (v.).2

    tutor (n.)

    late 14c., "guardian, custodian," from Old French tuteor "guardian, private teacher" (13c., Modern French tuteur), from Latin tutorem (nominative tutor) "guardian, watcher," from tutus, variant past participle of tueri "watch over, look at," a word of uncertain origin. De Vaan suggests the sense evolution is from "to protect," and suggests connection with Sanskrit tavas- "strong, powerful," Greek sōs "safe, safe and sound, healthy," from a root meaning "to be strong." Specific sense of "senior boy appointed to help a junior in his studies" is recorded from 1680s.ETD tutor (n.).2

    tutorial (adj.)

    1742, from tutor (n.) + -al (1). As a noun, attested from 1923.ETD tutorial (adj.).2

    tutti-frutti (n.)

    1834, from Italian tutti frutti "all fruits," from tutti, plural of tutto "all" (from Latin totus "whole, entire;" see total (adj.)) + frutti, plural of frutto "fruit" (from Latin fructus; see fruit).ETD tutti-frutti (n.).2

    tutu (n.)

    ballet skirt, 1910, from French tutu, alteration of cucu, infantile reduplication of cul "bottom, backside," from Latin culus "bottom, backside, fundament," from PIE *kuh-lo- "backside, rear" (source also of Old Irish cul "back," Welsh cil "corner, angle"), ultimate origin obscure [de Vaan].ETD tutu (n.).2

    tux (n.)

    1922, colloquial shortening of tuxedo.ETD tux (n.).2

    tuxedo (n.)

    man's evening dress for semiformal occasions, 1889, named for Tuxedo Park, N.Y., a rural resort development for wealthy New Yorkers and site of a country club where it first was worn, supposedly in 1886. The name is an attractive subject for elaborate speculation, and connections with Algonquian words for "bear" or "wolf" were proposed. The authoritative Bright, however, says the tribe's name probably is originally a place name, perhaps Munsee Delaware (Algonquian) p'tuck-sepo "crooked river."ETD tuxedo (n.).2

    TV (n.)

    1948, shortened form of television (q.v.). Spelled out as tee-vee by 1949. TV dinner (1954), meant to be eaten from a tray while watching a television set, is a proprietary name registered by Swanson & Sons, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.ETD TV (n.).2


    contraction of it was.ETD 'twas.2

    twa (n.)

    Scottish form of two.ETD twa (n.).2


    formed May 16, 1928, as Transcontinental Air Transport, merged 1930 with Western Air Express to form Transcontinental and Western Air Inc. (TWA). Name changed to Trans World Airlines 1950, but the moniker remained the same. Its last remnants were bought out by rival American Airlines in April 2001.ETD TWA.2

    twaddle (n.)

    "silly talk, prosy nonsense," 1782, probably from twattle (1550s), of obscure origin.ETD twaddle (n.).2

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