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    dusk (n.) — dystrophy (n.)

    dusk (n.)

    "partial darkness, state between light and darkness, twilight," 1620s, from an earlier adjective dusk, from Middle English dosc (c. 1200) "obscure, not bright; tending to darkness, shadowy," having more to do with color than light, which is of uncertain origin, not found in Old English. Middle English also had it as a verb, dusken "to become dark." The Middle English noun was dusknesse "darkness" (late 14c.).ETD dusk (n.).2

    Perhaps it is from a Northumbrian variant of Old English dox "dark-haired, dark from the absence of light," with transposition of -k- and -s-, (compare colloquial ax for ask). But OED notes that "few of our words in -sk are of OE origin." Old English dox is from PIE *dus-ko- "dark-colored" (source also of Swedish duska "be misty," Latin fuscus "dark," Sanskrit dhusarah "dust-colored;" also compare Old English dosan "chestnut-brown," Old Saxon dosan, Old High German tusin "pale yellow").ETD dusk (n.).3

    dusky (adj.)

    1550s, "somewhat dark, not luminous, dim;" see dusk + -y (2). "The normal source of an adj. in -y is a sb.; but the substantival use of dusk is not known so early as the appearance of dusky, so that the latter would appear to be one of the rare instances of a secondary adj. ..." [OED]. Meaning "rather black, dark-colored" is from 1570s. Related: Duskily; duskiness.ETD dusky (adj.).2

    dust (n.)

    "fine, dry particles of earth or other matter so light that they can be raised and carried by the wind," Old English dust, from Proto-Germanic *dunstaz (source also of Old High German tunst "storm, breath," German Dunst "mist, vapor," Danish dyst "milldust," Dutch duist), from PIE *dheu- (1) "dust, smoke, vapor" (source also of Sanskrit dhu- "shake," Latin fumus "smoke").ETD dust (n.).2

    Meaning "elementary substance of the human body, that to which living matter decays" was in Old English, hence, figuratively, "mortal life." Sense of "a collection of powdered matter in the air" is from 1570s. Dust-cover "protective covering to keep dust off" is by 1852; dust-jacket "detachable paper cover of a book" is from 1927.ETD dust (n.).3

    To kick up the (or a) dust "cause an uproar" is from 1753, but the figurative use of dust in reference to "confusion, disturbance" is from 1560s, and compare Middle English make powder fly "cause a disturbance or uproar" (mid-15c.). For bite the dust see bite (v.).ETD dust (n.).4

    dust (v.)

    c. 1200, "to rise in the air as dust;" later "to sprinkle with dust" (1590s) and "to rid of dust" (1560s); from dust (n.). Related: Dusted; dusting. Sense of "to kill" is U.S. slang first recorded 1938 (compare bite the dust under dust (n.)).ETD dust (v.).2

    dustbin (n.)

    also dust-bin, "covered receptacle for disposal of dust, ashes, rubbish, etc. from a house," by 1819, from dust (n.) + bin. Dustbin of history is by 1870.ETD dustbin (n.).2

    dust bowl (n.)

    also dustbowl, "drought-plagued region of the U.S. Midwest," 1936, from dust (n.) + bowl (n.1).ETD dust bowl (n.).2

    duster (n.)

    1570s, "dust brush for clothes," agent noun from dust (v.). Meaning "sifter, fine sieve" is from 1660s; that of "light overcoat or wrap worn to keep off dust from clothing" is from 1864.ETD duster (n.).2

    dusty (adj.)

    early 13c., "filled, covered, or sprinkled with dust," from Old English dustig; see dust (n.) + -y (2). As "of the hue of dust; cloudy" from 1670s. Related: Dustiness.ETD dusty (adj.).2

    dustman (n.)

    1707, "one employed in the removal of dust, rubbish, and garbage," from dust (n.) + man (n.). As the genius of sleep in popular sayings and folklore, by 1821.ETD dustman (n.).2

    dustpan (n.)

    also dust-pan, "utensil for collecting and removing dust brushed from the floor," by 1785, from dust (n.) + pan (n.).ETD dustpan (n.).2

    dust-storm (n.)

    "windstorm which raises clouds of dust into the air in a desert," by 1838, from dust (n.) + storm (n.).ETD dust-storm (n.).2

    dust-up (n.)

    also dustup, "fight, quarrel, disturbance," 1897, from dust + up; perhaps from dust "confusion, disturbance" (1590s), also compare kick up a dust "cause an uproar" (1753). To dust (someone's) coat was ironical for "to beat (someone) soundly" (1680s).ETD dust-up (n.).2

    dusty miller (n.)

    common name for auricula, 1825, so called from the powder on the leaves and flower; millers, by the nature of their work, being famously dusty.ETD dusty miller (n.).2

    Dutch (adj.)

    late 14c., of language, "German, non-Scandinavian continental Germanic," also as a noun, "a German language;" also in Duche-lond "Germany." By mid-15c. distinguished into Higher and Lower, and used after c. 1600 in the narrower sense "Hollanders, residents of the Netherlands." From Middle Dutch duutsch, from Old High German duitisc, from Proto-Germanic *theudō "popular, national" (source of Modern German Deutsch), from PIE *teuta- "tribe" (compare Teutonic).ETD Dutch (adj.).2

    It corresponds to the Old English adjective þeodisc "belonging to the people," which was used especially of the common language of Germanic people (as opposed to Latin), a derivative of the Old English noun þeod "people, race, nation." The language name is first attested in Latin as theodice (786 C.E.) in correspondence between Charlemagne's court and the Pope, in reference to a synodical conference in Mercia; thus it refers to Old English. Its first use in reference to a German language (as opposed to a Germanic one) is two years later. The sense was extended from the language to the people who spoke it (in German, Diutisklant, ancestor of Deutschland, was in use by 13c.).ETD Dutch (adj.).3

    The sense in of the adjective in English narrowed to "of the Netherlands" in 17c., after they became a united, independent state and the focus of English attention and rivalry. In Holland, Duits (formerly duitsch) is used of the people of Germany. The old use of Dutch for "German" continued in America (Irving and Cooper still distinguish High Dutch "German" and Low Dutch "Dutch") and survives in Pennsylvania Dutch for the descendants of religious sects that immigrated from the Rhineland and Switzerland and their language.ETD Dutch (adj.).4

    Since c. 1600, Dutch (adj.) has been a "pejorative label pinned by English speakers on almost anything they regard as inferior, irregular, or contrary to 'normal' (i.e., their own) practice" [Rawson]. E.g. ironical Dutch treat, of each person paying for himself (1887), Dutch courage "boldness inspired by intoxicating spirits" (1809), nautical Dutch talent "any piece of work not done in shipshape style (1867), etc. — probably exceeded in such usage only by Indian and Irish — reflecting first British commercial and military rivalry and later heavy German immigration to U.S.ETD Dutch (adj.).5

    Dutch oven is from 1769; OED lists it among the words describing things from Holland, but perhaps it is here used in the slighting sense. Dutch elm disease (1927) so called because it was first discovered in Holland (caused by fungus Ceratocystis ulmi). A Dutch uncle (1838) is one who is kindly severe and direct.ETD Dutch (adj.).6

    Dutchy (n.)

    also Dutchie, familiar or slighting name for a Dutch person, by 1835, from Dutch + -y (3).ETD Dutchy (n.).2

    Dutchman (n.)

    late 14c., "member of the German race, person of German birth or ancestry," from Dutch (adj.) + man (n.). From 1590s in narrowed sense of "inhabitant of Holland or the Netherlands," though "Century Dictionary" as late as 1897 reports it "in the U.S. often locally applied to Germans, and sometimes to Scandinavians" (other 19c. sources also include Baltics).ETD Dutchman (n.).2

    From 1650s in nautical use as "Dutch ship." References to the ghost ship called the Flying Dutchman seem to begin late 18c. (see flying).ETD Dutchman (n.).3

    duty (n.)

    late 14c., duete, "obligatory service, that which ought to be done," also "the force of that which is morally right," from Anglo-French duete, from Old French deu "due, owed," hence "proper, just" (on the notion of "that which one is bound by natural, moral, or legal obligation to do or perform"); from Vulgar Latin *debutus, from Latin debitus, past participle of debere "to owe," originally, "keep something away from someone," from de- "away" (see de-) + habere "to have" (from PIE root *ghabh- "to give or receive"). Related: Duties.ETD duty (n.).2

    Military sense of "a requisite service" is by 1580s. The sense of "tax or fee on imports, exports, etc." is from late 14c.; hence duty-free (adv.) "free from tax or duty" (1680s), and, as a noun, "duty-free article" (1958), "duty-free shop" (by 1980).ETD duty (n.).3

    dutiful (adj.)

    "performing the duties required by social or legal obligation; obediently respectful," 1550s, from duty + -ful. Related: Dutifully; dutifulness. Shakespeare uses duteous.ETD dutiful (adj.).2

    dutiable (adj.)

    "subject to a customs duty," 1774, from duty + -able.ETD dutiable (adj.).2

    duvet (n.)

    "quilt or comforter stuffed with down," 1758, from French duvet "down," earlier dumet, diminutive of dum "down."ETD duvet (n.).2


    1995, initialism (acronym) from Digital Video Disc, later changed to Digital Versatile Disc.ETD DVD.2

    dwarf (n.)

    Old English dweorh, dweorg (West Saxon), duerg (Mercian), "very short human being, person much below ordinary stature, whether of proportionate parts or not," also "supernatural being of subhuman size," from Proto-Germanic *dweraz (source also of Old Frisian dwerch, Old Saxon dwerg, Old High German twerg, German Zwerg, Old Norse dvergr), perhaps from PIE *dhwergwhos "something tiny," but with no established cognates outside Germanic.ETD dwarf (n.).2

    Also used by c. 1200 of an animal or plant much below the ordinary size of its species." The use of dwarf in the Germanic mythological sense, "a diminished and generally deformed being, dwelling in rocks and hills and skilled in working metals," seems to have faded after Middle English and been revived after c. 1770 from German.ETD dwarf (n.).3

    The shift of the Old English guttural at the end of the word to modern -f is typical (compare enough, draft) and begins to appear early 14c. In Middle English it also was dwerþ, dwerke. Old English plural dweorgas became Middle English dwarrows, later leveled down to dwarfs. The use of dwarves for the legendary race was popularized by J.R.R. Tolkien. As an adjective, from 1590s.ETD dwarf (n.).4

    The use of giant and dwarf in reference to stars of the highest and lowest luminosity is attested by 1914, said to have been suggested by Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung, (1873-1967); hence red dwarf (attested by 1922), white dwarf, black dwarf "dead and lightless star" (1966).ETD dwarf (n.).5

    dwarf (v.)

    1620s, "to render dwarfish, hinder from growth to the natural size," from dwarf (n.); sense of "to cause to look or seem small by comparison" is by 1829. Related: Dwarfed; dwarfing.ETD dwarf (v.).2

    dwarfish (adj.)

    "below the common stature or size," 1560s, from dwarf (n.) + -ish. Related: Dwarfishly; dwarfishness.ETD dwarfish (adj.).2

    dweeb (n.)

    1968, U.S. college student slang, probably a variant of feeb "feeble or feeble-minded person."ETD dweeb (n.).2

    dwell (v.)

    Old English dwellan "to lead into error, deceive, mislead," related to dwelian "to be led into error, go wrong in belief or judgment," from Proto-Germanic *dwaljana "to delay, hesitate," *dwelana "go astray" (source also of Old Norse dvelja "to retard, delay," Danish dvæle “to linger, dwell,” Swedish dväljas “to dwell, reside;” Middle Dutch dwellen "to stun, perplex;" Old High German twellen "to hinder, delay") from PIE *dhwel-, extended form of root *dheu- (1) "dust, cloud, vapor, smoke" (also forming words with the related notions of "defective perception or wits").ETD dwell (v.).2

    The apparent sense evolution in Middle English was through "to procrastinate, delay, be tardy in coming" (late 12c.), to "linger, remain, stay, sojourn," to "make a home, abide as a permanent resident" (mid-14c.). From late 14c. as "remain (in a certain condition or status)," as in phrase dwell upon "keep the attention fixed on." Related: Dwelled; dwelt (for which see went); dwells.ETD dwell (v.).3

    It had a noun form in Old English, gedweola "error, heresy, madness." Also compare Middle English dwale "deception, trickery," from Old English dwala or from a Scandinavian cognate (such as Danish dvale "trance, stupor, stupefaction"); dwale survived into late Middle English as "a sleeping potion, narcotic drink, deadly nightshade."ETD dwell (v.).4

    dwelling (n.)

    "place of residence, habitation, abode," mid-14c., verbal noun from dwell (v.). Earlier it meant "a stupor" (early 14c.); "delay, procrastination; a staying in a place" (c. 1300).ETD dwelling (n.).2

    dweller (n.)

    "an inhabitant, a resident of some place," late 14c., agent noun from dwell (v.).ETD dweller (n.).2

    dwindle (v.)

    "diminish, become less, shrink," 1590s (Shakespeare), apparently diminutive and frequentative of dwine "waste or pine away," from Middle English dwinen "waste away, fade, vanish," from Old English dwinan, from Proto-Germanic *dwinana (source also of Dutch dwijnen "to vanish," Old Norse dvina, Danish tvine "to pine away," Low German dwinen), from PIE *dheu- (3) "to die" (see die (v.)). Related: Dwindled; dwindling.ETD dwindle (v.).2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "two."ETD *dwo-.2

    It forms all or part of: anadiplosis; balance; barouche; between; betwixt; bezel; bi-; binary; bis-; biscuit; combination; combine; deuce; deuterium; Deuteronomy; di- (1) "two, double, twice;" dia-; dichotomy; digraph; dimity; diode; diphthong; diploid; diploma; diplomacy; diplomat; diplomatic; diplodocus; double; doublet; doubloon; doubt; dozen; dual; dubious; duet; duo; duodecimal; duplex; duplicate; duplicity; dyad; epididymis; hendiadys; pinochle; praseodymium; redoubtable; twain; twelfth; twelve; twenty; twi-; twice; twig; twilight; twill; twin; twine; twist; 'twixt; two; twofold; zwieback.ETD *dwo-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dvau, Avestan dva, Greek duo, Latin duo, Old Welsh dou, Lithuanian dvi, Old Church Slavonic duva, Old English twa, twegen, German zwei, Gothic twai "two;" first element in Hittite ta-ugash "two years old."ETD *dwo-.4


    word-forming element meaning "bad, ill; hard, difficult; abnormal, imperfect," from Greek dys-, inseparable prefix "destroying the good sense of a word or increasing its bad sense" [Liddell & Scott], hence "bad, hard, unlucky," from PIE root (and prefix) *dus- "bad, ill, evil" (source also of Sanskrit dus-, Old Persian duš- "ill," Old English to-, Old High German zur-, Gothic tuz- "un-"), a derivative of the root *deu- (1) "to lack, be wanting" (source of Greek dein "to lack, want").ETD dys-.2

    Very productive in ancient Greek, where it could attach even to proper names (such as dysparis "unhappy Paris"); its entries take up nine columns in Liddell & Scott. Among the words formed from it were some English might covet: dysouristos "fatally favorable, driven by a too-favorable wind;" dysadelphos "unhappy in one's brothers;" dysagres "unlucky in fishing;" dysantiblepos "hard to look in the face."ETD dys-.3

    dying (n.)

    late 13c., "death, act of expiring, loss of life," verbal noun from die (v.).ETD dying (n.).2

    dying (adj.)

    "in the process of becoming dead, decaying from life," mid-15c., present-participle adjective from die (v.).ETD dying (adj.).2

    dyad (n.)

    "the number two, two units treated as one," 1670s, from Latin dyad-, stem of dyas, from Greek dyas "the number two, a group of two," from duo "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two"). Specific sense in chemistry ("a bivalent element") is by 1865; also used in biology, poetics, mathematics. Related: Dyadic.ETD dyad (n.).2


    one of a native race inhabiting Borneo, also their Austronesian language, by 1834, from Malay dayak "up-country."ETD Dyak.2

    dybbuk (n.)

    "malevolent spirit of a dead person possessing the body of a living one," 1903, from Jewish folklore, from Hebrew dibbuk, from dabak "to cling, cleave to."ETD dybbuk (n.).2

    dyeing (n.)

    "the operation or practice of fixing colors in solution in textiles, hides, hair, etc.," late 14c., verbal noun from dye (v.).ETD dyeing (n.).2

    dye (v.)

    "fix a color or colors in the substance of by immersion in coloring matter held in solution," Middle English deien, Old English deagian "to dye," from the source of dye (n.). Spelling distinction between dye and die was not firm till 19c. "Johnson in his Dictionary, spelled them both die, while Addison, his near contemporary, spelled both dye" [Barnhart]. Related: dyed. For dyed in the wool (or grain) see wool (n.).ETD dye (v.).2

    dye (n.)

    "coloring matter in solution," Middle English deie, from Old English deah, deag "a color, hue, tinge," from Proto-Germanic *daugo (source also of Old Saxon dogol "secret," Old High German tougal "dark, hidden, secret," Old English deagol "secret, hidden; dark, obscure," dohs, dox "dusky, dark").ETD dye (n.).2

    dyer (n.)

    "one whose occupation is to dye cloths, skins, etc.," mid-14c. (mid-13c. as a surname), agent noun from dye (v.).ETD dyer (n.).2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god."ETD *dyeu-.2

    It forms all or part of: adieu; adios; adjourn; Asmodeus; circadian; deific; deify; deism; deity; deodand; deus ex machina; deva; dial; diary; Diana; Dianthus; diet (n.2) "assembly;" Dioscuri; Dis; dismal; diurnal; diva; Dives; divine; joss; journal; journalist; journey; Jove; jovial; Julia; Julius; July; Jupiter; meridian; Midi; per diem; psychedelic; quotidian; sojourn; Tuesday; Zeus.ETD *dyeu-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit deva "god" (literally "shining one"); diva "by day;" Avestan dava- "spirit, demon;" Greek delos "clear;" Latin dies "day," deus "god;" Welsh diw, Breton deiz "day;" Armenian tiw "day;" Lithuanian dievas "god," diena "day;" Old Church Slavonic dini, Polish dzień, Russian den "day;" Old Norse tivar "gods;" Old English Tig, genitive Tiwes, name of a god.ETD *dyeu-.4

    dyke (n.)

    "a lesbian," especially one considered tough, mannish, or aggressive, 1931, American English, perhaps a shortening of morphadike, a dialectal garbling of hermaphrodite; but bulldyker "one who engages in lesbian activities" is attested from 1906. See: bull-dyke.ETD dyke (n.).2

    dynamics (n.)

    as a branch of physics that calculates motions in accordance with the laws of force, by 1752, from dynamic (adj.); also see -ics. As "the moving physical or moral force in anything," by 1833.ETD dynamics (n.).2

    dynamism (n.)

    1831, "dynamic energy, force, drive," from Greek dynamis "power, might, strength" (see dynamic (adj.)) + -ism. As a name for philosophical systems that require some force to explain the phenomena of nature, by 1857.ETD dynamism (n.).2

    dynamic (adj.)

    by 1812, "pertaining to mechanical forces not in equilibrium, pertaining to force producing motion" (the opposite of static), from French dynamique introduced by German mathematician Gottfried Leibnitz (1646-1716) in 1691 from Greek dynamikos "powerful," from dynamis "power," from dynasthai "to be able, to have power, be strong enough," which is of unknown origin. The figurative sense of "active, potent, effective, energetic" is from 1856 (in Emerson). Related: Dynamically.ETD dynamic (adj.).2

    dynamic (n.)

    "energetic force; motive force," 1894, from dynamic (adj.). As "manner of interaction," by 1978.ETD dynamic (n.).2

    dynamite (v.)

    "to blow up or destroy by dynamite," by 1878, from dynamite (n.). Related: Dynamited; dynamiting.ETD dynamite (v.).2

    dynamite (n.)

    powerful explosive consisting of a mixture of nitroglycerine with an absorbent, 1867, from Swedish dynamit, coined 1867 by its inventor, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), from Greek dynamis "power" (see dynamic (adj.)) + -ite (2). Figurative sense of "something potentially dangerous" is from 1922. Positive sense of "dynamic and excellent" by mid-1960s, perhaps originally African-American vernacular.ETD dynamite (n.).2

    dynamo (n.)

    "generator for converting mechanical rotation into electric power," 1882, short for dynamo-machine, from German dynamoelektrischemaschine "dynamo-electric machine," coined 1867 by its inventor, German electrical engineer Werner Siemans (1816-1892), from Greek dynamis "power," from dynasthai "to be able, to have power, be strong enough," which is of unknown origin.ETD dynamo (n.).2

    dynastic (adj.)

    "relating to or pertaining to a dynasty," 1800; see dynasty + -ic. Related: Dynastical (1730).ETD dynastic (adj.).2

    dynast (n.)

    "hereditary ruler," 1630s, from Late Latin dynastes, from Greek dynastes "ruler, chief, lord, master" (see dynasty).ETD dynast (n.).2

    dynasty (n.)

    "a race or succession of sovereigns from the same line or family governing a country," mid-15c. (earlier dynastia, late 14c.), from Medieval Latin dynastia, from Greek dynasteia "power, lordship, sovereignty," from dynastes "ruler, chief," from dynasthai "have power," which is of unknown origin.ETD dynasty (n.).2

    dyne (n.)

    in physics, the metric unit of force, 1873, from a specialized scientific use of of Greek dynamis "power" (see dynamic (adj.)); perhaps also influenced by French dyne, which had been proposed c. 1842 as a unit of force in a different sense.ETD dyne (n.).2

    dysentery (n.)

    diseased characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, late 14c., dissenterie, from Old French disentere (13c.) and directly from Medieval Latin dysenteria, from Greek dysenteria, coined by Hippocrates, from dys- "bad, abnormal, difficult" (see dys-) + entera "intestines, bowels," from PIE *enter "between, among," comparative of root *en "in." Related: Dysenteric.ETD dysentery (n.).2

    dysfunctional (adj.)

    "functioning abnormally," 1915, from dysfunction + -al (1). Related: Dysfunctionally.ETD dysfunctional (adj.).2

    dysfunction (n.)

    "failure to function, abnormality or impairment of function," 1914, from dys- "bad, abnormal, difficult" + function (n.). Originally in anatomy and medicine; in sociology by 1949.ETD dysfunction (n.).2

    dysgenics (n.)

    "study of the factors producing genetic deterioration, also loosely, "the carrying on of the species by the worst members," 1906, from dys- + ending from eugenics. Hence dysgenic "having or causing a detrimental effect on the race" (1909).ETD dysgenics (n.).2

    dyslexia (n.)

    "a difficulty in reading due to a condition of the brain," 1885, from German dyslexie (1883), from Greek dys- "bad, abnormal, difficult" (see dys-) + lexis "word" (taken as "reading"), from legein "speak" (from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')") + abstract noun ending -ia. Dyslexic (n.) is recorded by 1946; dyslectic (adj.) by 1962.ETD dyslexia (n.).2

    dyslogy (n.)

    "dispraise," the opposite of eulogy, 1837; see dys- + -logy. Related: Dyslogistic (1802).ETD dyslogy (n.).2

    dyspepsia (n.)

    "impaired power of digestion," 1706, from Late Latin dyspepsia or a back-formation from dyspeptic (q.v.). Earlier Englished as dyspepsy (1650s). Its opposite is eupepsia.ETD dyspepsia (n.).2

    dyspeptic (adj.)

    1690s, "causing dyspepsia" (a sense now obsolete); by 1789 as "pertaining to dyspepsia;" by 1822 as "suffering from dyspepsia;" from Greek dyspeptos "hard to digest," from dys- "bad, difficult" (see dys-) + peptos "digested," from peptein "to digest" (from PIE root *pekw- "to cook, ripen"). Also "characteristic of one suffering from dyspepsia" (depressed, pessimistic, misanthropic), by 1894; dyspepsical in this sense is by 1825.ETD dyspeptic (adj.).2

    dysphemism (n.)

    "substitution of a vulgar or derogatory word or expression for a dignified or normal one," 1873, from Greek dys- "bad, abnormal, difficult" (see dys-) + phēmē "speech, voice, utterance, a speaking," from phanai "speak" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say"); Greek dysphemia meant "ill language, words of ill omen"). The opposite of euphemism. Rediscovered 1933 from French formation dysphémisme (1927, Carnoy).ETD dysphemism (n.).2

    dysphoria (n.)

    "impatience under affliction," 1842, from Greek dysphoria "pain hard to be borne, anguish," etymologically "hard to bear," from dys- "bad, hard" (see dys-) + pherein "to carry" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry").ETD dysphoria (n.).2

    dysplasia (n.)

    "abnormal growth or development of tissue, cells, etc.," 1935, Modern Latin, from dys- "abnormal, imperfect" + -plasia "formation, growth, development." Related: Dysplastic.ETD dysplasia (n.).2

    dysprosium (n.)

    element, obtained 1906 from an earth discovered in 1886, the last to be extracted from the complex earth called yttria, and named dysprosia in reference to the difficulty of obtaining it, from Greek dysprositos "hard to get at, difficult of access," from dys- "bad, difficult" (see dys-) + prositos "approachable." With metallic element suffix -ium.ETD dysprosium (n.).2

    dystopia (n.)

    "imaginary bad place," 1952, from dys- "bad, abnormal" + ending abstracted from utopia. Earlier in medical use, "displacement of an organ" (by 1844), with second element from Greek topos "place" (see topos). Dystopian was used in the non-medical sense in 1868 by J.S. Mill:ETD dystopia (n.).2

    dystrophy (n.)

    also distrophy, "defective nutrition," 1858, from Modern Latin dystrophia, distrophia, from Greek dys- "hard, bad, ill" (see dys-) + trophe "nourishment" (see -trophy). Related: Dystrophic.ETD dystrophy (n.).2

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