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    Triscuit (n.) — true (adj.)

    Triscuit (n.)

    proprietary name for a type of cracker, 1906, curiously from tri- + biscuit.ETD Triscuit (n.).2

    trisect (v.)

    1690s, from tri- "three" + Latin sectus "cut," past participle of secare "to cut" (from PIE root *sek- "to cut"). Probably patterned on bisect. Related: Trisected; trisecting; trisection (1660s).ETD trisect (v.).2

    trisexual (adj.)

    by 1986, from tri- + sexual.ETD trisexual (adj.).2

    triskaidekaphobia (n.)

    "fear of the number 13," 1908, also triskaidecaphobia, from Greek treiskaideka, triskaideka "thirteen" (from treis "three" + deka "ten") + -phobia "fear."ETD triskaidekaphobia (n.).2

    triskelion (n.)

    "figure consisting of three branches radiating from a center," 1880, earlier triskelos (1857), from Greek triskeles "three-legged," from tri- "three" (see tri-) + skelos "leg" (see scoliosis).ETD triskelion (n.).2

    trismus (n.)

    "lockjaw," 1690s, Modern Latin, from Greek trismos "a scream; a grinding, rasping," akin to trizein "to chirp, gnash," imitative.ETD trismus (n.).2

    trisomy (n.)

    1930, from trisome (from tri- + ending from chromosome) + -y (4).ETD trisomy (n.).2

    trist (adj.)

    "sorrowful," early 15c., from French triste "sad, sadness" (10c.), from Latin tristis "sad, mournful, sorrowful, gloomy." Re-borrowed late 18c. (as "dull, uninteresting") as a French word in English and often spelled triste.ETD trist (adj.).2


    masc. proper name, name of a medieval hero, from Welsh Drystan, influenced by French triste "sad" (see trist). The German form is Tristan.ETD Tristram.2

    trite (adj.)

    "used till so common as to have lost its novelty and interest," 1540s, from Latin tritus "worn, oft-trodden," of language "much-used, familiar, commonplace," past-participle adjective from terere "to rub, wear down" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). Related: Tritely; triteness.ETD trite (adj.).2

    triticale (n.)

    hybrid cereal grass, 1952, with (Se)cale "rye" + Modern Latin Triti(cum) "wheat," literally "grain for threshing," from tritus, past participle of terere "to rub, thresh, grind" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn").ETD triticale (n.).2

    tritium (n.)

    1933, Modern Latin, from Greek tritos "third" (see third) + chemical suffix -ium.ETD tritium (n.).2


    minor sea god, son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, from Latin Triton, from Greek Triton, cognate with Old Irish triath (genitive trethan) "sea."ETD Triton.2

    trituration (n.)

    1640s, from Late Latin triturationem (nominative trituratio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin triturare "to grind" (see triturate).ETD trituration (n.).2

    triturate (v.)

    "grind into powder," 1755, from Late Latin trituratus, past participle of triturare "to thresh, to grind," from Latin tritura "a rubbing, a threshing," from past participle stem of terere "to rub" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). Related: Triturated; triturating.ETD triturate (v.).2

    triumph (v.)

    mid-15c., from Old French triumpher (13c.), from Latin triumphare, from triumphus (see triumph (n.)). Related: Triumphed; triumphing.ETD triumph (v.).2

    triumph (n.)

    late 14c., "success in battle, conquest," also "spiritual victory" and "a procession celebrating victory in war," from Old French triumphe (12c., Modern French triomphe), from Latin triumphus "an achievement, a success; celebratory procession for a victorious general or admiral," from Old Latin triumpus, probably via Etruscan from Greek thriambos "hymn to Dionysus," a loan-word from a pre-Hellenic language.ETD triumph (n.).2

    triumphal (adj.)

    early 15c., from Latin triumphalis, from triumphus (see triumph (n.)). Related: Triumphally.ETD triumphal (adj.).2

    triumphant (adj.)

    early 15c., from Latin triumphantem (nominative triumphans), present participle of triumphare (see triumph (n.)). Related: Triumphantly.ETD triumphant (adj.).2

    triumvir (n.)

    "one of three men in the same office or of the same authority," mid-15c., from Latin triumvir, from Old Latin phrase trium virum, genitive plural of tres viri "three men," from tres "three" (see three) + viri, plural of vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man"). The Latin plural was triumviri.ETD triumvir (n.).2

    triumvirate (n.)

    1580s, from Latin triumviratus, from triumvir, from Old Latin phrase trium virum, genitive plural of tres viri "three men," from tres "three" (see three) + viri, plural of vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man").ETD triumvirate (n.).2

    triune (adj.)

    "three in one," 1630s, from tri- + Latin unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique"). Related: Triunity.ETD triune (adj.).2

    trivet (n.)

    three-legged iron stand, 12c., trefet, probably from a noun use of Latin tripedem (nominative tripes) "three-footed," from tri- "three" (see three) + pes "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot").ETD trivet (n.).2

    trivia (n.)

    "trivialities, bits of information of little consequence," by 1932, from the title of a popular book by U.S.-born British aphorist Logan Pearsall Smith (1865-1946) first published in 1902 but popularized in 1918 (with "More Trivia" following in 1921 and a collected edition including both in 1933), containing short essays often tied to observation of small things and commonplace moments. Trivia is Latin, plural of trivium "place where three roads meet;" in transferred use, "an open place, a public place." The adjectival form of this, trivialis, meant "public," hence "common, commonplace" (see trivial).ETD trivia (n.).2

    The Romans also had trivius dea, the "goddess of three ways," another name for Hecate, perhaps originally in her triple aspect (Selene/Diana/Proserpine), but also as the especial divinity of crossroads (Virgil has "Nocturnisque hecate triviis ululata per urbes"). John Gay took this arbitrarily as the name of a goddess of streets and roads for his mock Georgic "Trivia: Or, the Art of Walking the Streets of London" (1716); Smith writes in his autobiography that he got the title from Gay.ETD trivia (n.).3

    Then noted c. 1965 as an informal fad game among college students wherein one asked questions about useless bits of information from popular culture ("What was Donald Duck's address?") and others vied to answer first.ETD trivia (n.).4

    The board game Trivial Pursuit was released 1982 and was a craze in U.S. for several years thereafter.ETD trivia (n.).5

    trivial (adj.)

    "ordinary" (1580s); "insignificant, trifling" (1590s), from Latin trivialis "common, commonplace, vulgar," literally "of or belonging to the crossroads," from trivium "place where three roads meet," in transferred use, "an open place, a public place," from tri- "three" (see three) + via "road" (see via). The sense connection is "public," hence "common, commonplace."ETD trivial (adj.).2

    The earliest use of the word in English was early 15c., a separate borrowing in the academic sense "of the trivium" (the first three liberal arts — grammar, rhetoric, and logic); from Medieval Latin use of trivialis in the sense "of the first three liberal arts," from trivium, neuter of the Latin adjective trivius "of three roads, of the crossroads." Related: Trivially. For sense evolution to "pertaining to useless information," see trivia.ETD trivial (adj.).3

    triviality (n.)

    1590s, "quality of being trivial," from French trivialite or else from trivial + -ity. Meaning "a trivial thing or affair" is from 1610s. Related: Trivialities.ETD triviality (n.).2

    trivialize (v.)

    1836, from trivial + -ize. Related: Trivialized; trivializing.ETD trivialize (v.).2

    trivium (n.)

    by 1751, from Medieval Latin trivium (9c.) "grammar, rhetoric, and logic," the first three of the seven liberal arts, considered initiatory and foundational to the other four (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). From Latin trivium, in classical Latin "place where three roads meet; a frequented place; public street, highway," from tri- "three" (see three) + via "road" (see via). Compare trivia and also see quadrivium.ETD trivium (n.).2


    fem. agential suffix, from Latin, corresponding to masc. -tor (see -or).ETD -trix.2

    trochaic (adj.)

    "composed of trochees," 1580s, from French trochaïque (1540s) or directly from Latin trochaicus, from Greek trokhaikos "pertaining to or consisting of trochees," from trokhaios (see trochee).ETD trochaic (adj.).2

    trochanter (n.)

    1610s as a part of the thigh-bone, from French trochanter (16c.), from Greek trokhanter (Galen), from trekhein "to run" (see truckle (n.)). From 1816 as the second joint of an insect leg.ETD trochanter (n.).2

    trochee (n.)

    metrical foot consisting of a long followed by a short syllable, or an accented followed by an unaccented one, 1580s, from French trochée, from Latin trochaeus "a trochee," from Greek trokhaios (pous), literally "a running (foot)," from trekhein "to run" (see truckle (n.)). Its rapid movement rendered it a fit accompaniment to dances.ETD trochee (n.).2


    past tense of tread (v.).ETD trod.2

    trodden (adj.)

    "that has been stepped on," 1540s, past-participle adjective from tread (v.). The past participle was altered from Middle English treden under influence of Middle English past participles such as stolen from steal.ETD trodden (adj.).2

    trog (n.)

    "obnoxious person, boor, lout," 1956, short for troglodyte.ETD trog (n.).2

    troglodyte (n.)

    "cave-dweller," 1550s, from French troglodyte and directly from Latin troglodytae (plural), from Greek troglodytes "cave-dweller, cave-man" (in reference to tribes identified as living in various places by ancient writers; by Herodotus on the African coast of the Red Sea), literally "one who creeps into holes," from trogle "hole, mouse-hole" (from trogein "to gnaw, nibble, munch;" see trout) + dyein "go in, dive in" (see ecdysiast). Related: Troglodytic.ETD troglodyte (n.).2


    late 14c., standard system of weights for gems and precious metals, from Troyes, city in France (Roman (Civitas) Tricassium, capital of the Tricasses, a Celtic people whose name was said to mean "those with three tresses"), former site of an important fair at which this weight is said to have been used. Many medieval towns had their own standard weights. The pound troy contains 5,760 grains and is divided into 12 ounces.ETD troy.2

    troika (n.)

    1842, "carriage drawn by three horses abreast," from Russian troika "three-horse team, any group of three," from collective numeral troje "group of three" (from PIE *tro-yo-, suffixed form of *trei-, see three) + diminutive suffix -ka. Sense of "any group of three administrators, triumvirate" is first recorded 1945.ETD troika (n.).2

    Trojan (adj.)

    Old English Troian "of or pertaining to ancient Troy," from Latin Trojanus, from Troia, Troja "Troy," from the Greek name for the city, said to be from Tros, name of a king of Phrygia, the mythical founder of Troy. Trojan horse was figurative of ambush-from-within in Roman times (equus Troianus); attested in English from 1570s; the computer virus sense is attested by 1982.ETD Trojan (adj.).2

    As a noun from mid-14c., "inhabitant of ancient Troy;" in early modern English, the noun could mean "a determined fellow, one who fights or works hard," from the Trojans' long resistance to the Greeks in the Trojan War, but also in 17c., it was a colloquial term for "person of dissolute life, carousing companion." The trade name for a brand of prophylactic contraceptive was registered 1927 in U.S.ETD Trojan (adj.).3

    troll (v.)

    late 14c., "to go about, stroll," later (early 15c.) "roll from side to side, trundle," probably from Old French troller, a hunting term, "wander, to go in quest of game without purpose" (Modern French trôler), from a Germanic source (compare Old High German trollen "to walk with short steps"), from Proto-Germanic *truzlanan.ETD troll (v.).2

    Sense of "sing in a full, rolling voice" (first attested 1570s) and that of "fish with a moving line" (c. 1600) both are extended technical uses from the general sense of "roll, trundle," the former from "sing in the manner of a catch or round," the latter perhaps confused with trail or trawl. Figurative sense of "to lure on as with a moving bait, entice, allure" is from 1560s. Meaning "to cruise in search of sexual encounters" is recorded from 1967, originally in homosexual slang.ETD troll (v.).3

    The internet sense (everyone seems to have his own definition of it) seems to date to the late 1980s or early 1990s and the Newsgroups era, and the verbal use is perhaps older than the noun. It seems to combine troll (v.) in the "fish with a moving line" sense (itself confused with trawl) and troll (n.1) "troublesome imp supposed to live underground."ETD troll (v.).4

    troll (n.2)

    "act of going round, repetition," 1705, from troll (v.). Meaning "song sung in a round" is from 1820.ETD troll (n.2).2

    troll (n.1)

    supernatural being in Scandinavian mythology and folklore, 1610s (with an isolated use mid-14c.), from Old Norse troll "giant being not of the human race, evil spirit, monster." Some speculate that it originally meant "creature that walks clumsily," and derives from Proto-Germanic *truzlan, from *truzlanan (see troll (v.)). But it seems to have been a general supernatural word, such as Swedish trolla "to charm, bewitch;" Old Norse trolldomr "witchcraft."ETD troll (n.1).2

    The old sagas tell of the troll-bull, a supernatural being in the form of a bull, as well as boar-trolls. There were troll-maidens, troll-wives, and troll-women; the trollman, a magician or wizard, and the troll-drum, used in Lappish magic rites. The word was popularized in literary English by 19c. antiquarians, but it has been current in the Shetlands and Orkneys since Viking times. The first record of the word in modern English is from a court document from the Shetlands, regarding a certain Catherine, who, among other things, was accused of "airt and pairt of witchcraft and sorcerie, in hanting and seeing the Trollis ryse out of the kyrk yeard of Hildiswick."ETD troll (n.1).3

    Originally conceived as a race of malevolent giants, they have suffered the same fate as the Celtic Danann and by 19c. were regarded by peasants in in Denmark and Sweden as dwarfs and imps supposed to live in caves or under the ground.ETD troll (n.1).4

    trolley (n.)

    1823, in Suffolk dialect, "a cart," especially one with wheels flanged for running on a track (1858), probably from troll (v.) in the sense of "to roll." Sense transferred to "device used to transmit electric current to streetcars, consisting of a trolley wheel which makes contact with the overhead wires" (1888), then "streetcar drawing power by a trolley" (1891), which probably is short for trolley-car, attested from 1889.ETD trolley (n.).2


    1610s, "slovenly woman," often with implications of moral looseness, probably from troll (v.) in sense of "roll about, wallow."ETD trollop.2

    trombone (n.)

    brass wind instrument, 1724, from Italian trombone, augmentative form of tromba "trumpet," from a Germanic source (compare Old High German trumba "trumpet;" see trumpet (n.)). German Posaune "trombone" is from Old French buisine, from Latin buccina, bucina "a (crooked) trumpet."ETD trombone (n.).2

    tromp (v.)

    1892, variant of tramp (v.); mainly American English. Related: Tromped; tromping.ETD tromp (v.).2

    trompe l'oeil

    1889, French, literally "deceives the eye," from tromper "to deceive," a verb of uncertain origin and the subject of many theories (see trump (v.2)).ETD trompe l'oeil.2


    word-forming element in compounds coined in physics, "having to do with electrons or subatomic particles," 1939, abstracted unetymologically from electron (Greek -tron was an instrumentive suffix).ETD -tron.2

    troop (v.)

    1560s, "to assemble," from troop (n.). Meaning "to march" is recorded from 1590s; that of "to go in great numbers, to flock" is from c. 1600. Related: Trooped; trooping.ETD troop (v.).2

    troop (n.)

    1540s, "body of soldiers," 1540s, from French troupe, from Old French trope "band of people, company, troop, crowd" (13c.), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from Frankish *throp "assembly, gathering of people" or another Germanic source, perhaps related to Old English ðorp, Old Norse thorp "village" (see thorp). OED derives the French word from Latin troppus "flock," which is of unknown origin but also might be from the proposed Germanic source. Of groups of animals from 1580s. Specifically as "a subdivision of a cavalry force" from 1580s; of Boy Scouts from 1908. Troops "armed forces" is from 1590s.ETD troop (n.).2

    trooper (n.)

    1630s, "soldier in a cavalry troop," from troop (n.) + -er (1). Extended to "mounted policeman" (1858, in Australia) then to "state policeman" (U.S.) by 1911.ETD trooper (n.).2

    trope (n.)

    1530s, from Latin tropus "a figure of speech," from Greek tropos "a turn, direction, course, way; manner, fashion," in rhetoric, "turn or figure of speech," related to trope "a turning" and trepein "to turn," from PIE root *trep- "to turn." Technically, in rhetoric, "a figure of speech which consists in the use of a word or phrase in a sense other than that which is proper to it" [OED], "as when we call a stupid fellow an ass, or a shrewd man a fox" [Century Dictionary].ETD trope (n.).2


    word-forming element meaning "that which turns," from Greek tropos "a turn, direction, course, way," from PIE root *trep- "to turn."ETD -trope.2


    word-forming element meaning "food, nourishment," from Greek -trophia, from trophe "food, nourishment," related to trephein "make thrive, nourish, rear; to make solid, congeal, thicken."ETD -trophy.2

    trophy (n.)

    early 15c., trophe, "an overwhelming victory;" 1510s, "a spoil or prize of war," from Old French trophée (15c.) from Latin trophaeum "a sign of victory, monument," originally tropaeum, from Greek tropaion "monument of an enemy's defeat," noun use of neuter of adjective tropaios "of defeat, causing a rout," from trope "a rout," originally "a turning" (of the enemy); from PIE root *trep- "to turn."ETD trophy (n.).2

    In ancient Greece, spoils or arms taken in battle and set up on the field and dedicated to a god. Figurative extension to any token or memorial of victory is first recorded 1560s. As "a symbolic representation of a classical trophy" from 1630s.ETD trophy (n.).3

    Trophy wife "a second, attractive and generally younger, wife of a successful man who acquires her as a status symbol" was a trending phrase in media from 1988 ("Fortune" magazine did a cover story on it in 1989), but is older in isolated instances.ETD trophy (n.).4

    The excerpt distinguishes the trophy wife from the "showcase wife," "chosen for her pulchritude and constantly displayed in public places, dripping mink and dangling diamonds," which seems more to suit the later use of trophy wife.ETD trophy (n.).5

    trophic (adj.)

    "of or pertaining to nutrition, food, or nourishment," 1856, from Greek trophikos, from trophe "nourishment, food" (see -trophy).ETD trophic (adj.).2


    before vowels, troph-, word-forming element meaning "nourishment, food," from Greek trophe "nourishment" (see -trophy).ETD tropho-.2

    tropical (adj.)

    1520s, "pertaining to the celestial tropics," from tropic + -al (1). In reference to the torrid zones of the earth, from 1690s. Meaning "hot and lush like the climate of the tropics" is first attested 1834.ETD tropical (adj.).2

    tropic (n.)

    late 14c., "either of the two circles in the celestial sphere which describe the northernmost and southernmost points of the ecliptic," from Late Latin tropicus "of or pertaining to the solstice" (as a noun, "one of the tropics"), from Latin tropicus "pertaining to a turn," from Greek tropikos "of or pertaining to a turn or change; of or pertaining to the solstice" (as a noun, "the solstice," short for tropikos kyklos), from trope "a turning" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn").ETD tropic (n.).2

    The notion is of the point at which the sun "turns back" after reaching its northernmost or southernmost point in the sky. Extended 1520s to the corresponding latitudes on the earth's surface (23 degrees 28 minutes north and south); meaning "region between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn" is from 1837.ETD tropic (n.).3

    tropism (n.)

    1899, "tendency of an animal or plant to turn or move in response to a stimulus," 1899, abstracted from geotropism or heliotropism, with the second element taken in an absolute sense; ultimately from Greek tropos "a turning" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn").ETD tropism (n.).2

    troposphere (n.)

    1914, from French troposphère, literally "sphere of change," coined by French meteorologist Philippe Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913) from Greek tropos "a turn, change" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn") + sphaira "sphere" (see sphere). Related: Tropopause.ETD troposphere (n.).2

    trot (v.)

    "go at a quick, steady pace," late 14c., from Old French troter "to trot, to go," from Frankish *trotton (see trot (n.)). Italian trottare, Spanish trotar also are borrowed from Germanic. To trot (something) out originally (1838) was in reference to horses; figurative sense of "produce and display for admiration" is slang first recorded 1845. Related: Trotted; trotting.ETD trot (v.).2

    trot (n.)

    "a gait faster than a walk and slower than a run," c. 1300, originally of horses, from Old French trot "a trot, trotting" (12c.), from troter "to trot, to go," from Frankish *trotton, from Proto-Germanic *trott- (source also of Old High German trotton "to tread"), derivative of *tred- (see tread (v.)). The trots "diarrhea" is recorded from 1808 (compare the runs).ETD trot (n.).2

    troth (n.)

    "truth, verity," late 12c., from a phonetic variant of Old English treowð "faithfulness, veracity, truth;" see truth, which is a doublet of this word. Restricted to Midlands and Northern England dialect after 16c., and to certain archaic phrases (such as plight one's troth). Also see betroth.ETD troth (n.).2

    Trotskyite (n.)

    1919, from Leon Trotsky, assumed name of Russian revolutionary leader Lev Davidovich Bronstein (1879-1940) + -ite (1).ETD Trotskyite (n.).2

    trotter (n.)

    late 14c. as a type of horse; agent noun from trot (v.). Meaning "foot of a quadruped" is from 1520s. Related: Trotters.ETD trotter (n.).2

    troubadour (n.)

    1727, from French troubadour (16c.) "one of a class of lyric poets in southern France, eastern Spain, and northern Italy 11c.-13c.," from Old Provençal trobador, from trobar "to find," earlier "invent a song, compose in verse," perhaps from Vulgar Latin *tropare "compose, sing," especially in the form of tropes, from Latin tropus "a song" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). The alternative theory among French etymologists derives the Old Provençal word from a metathesis of Latin turbare "to disturb," via a sense of "to turn up." Meanwhile, Arabists posit an origin in Arabic taraba "to sing." General sense of "one who composes or sings verses or ballads" first recorded 1826.ETD troubadour (n.).2

    trouble (v.)

    c. 1200, from Old French trubler, metathesis of turbler, torbler "to trouble, disturb; make cloudy, stir up, mix" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *turbulare, from Late Latin turbidare "to trouble, make turbid," from Latin turbidus (see turbid). Related: Troubled; troubling.ETD trouble (v.).2

    troubled (adj.)

    of persons, minds, etc., early 14c.; past-participle adjective from trouble (v.). In reference to waters, etc., late 14c.ETD troubled (adj.).2

    trouble (n.)

    c. 1200, "agitation of the mind, emotional turmoil," from Old French truble, torble "trouble, disturbance" (12c.), from trubler/torbler (see trouble (v.)). From early 15c. as "a concern, a cause for worry;" 1590s as "something that causes trouble." Meaning "unpleasant relations with the authorities" is from 1550s. Related: Troubles (1510s). Trouble and strife as rhyming slang for "wife" is recorded from 1908.ETD trouble (n.).2

    troublemaker (n.)

    also trouble-maker, 1843, from trouble (n.) + maker.ETD troublemaker (n.).2

    troubleshoot (v.)

    also trouble-shoot, 1918 (implied in troubleshooting), probably a back-formation from troubleshooter.ETD troubleshoot (v.).2

    troubleshooter (n.)

    also trouble-shooter, 1898, originally one who works on telegraph or telephone lines. From trouble (n.) + agent noun from shoot (v.).ETD troubleshooter (n.).2

    troublesome (n.)

    1540s, from trouble (n.) + -some (1). Troublesomeness.ETD troublesome (n.).2

    troublous (adj.)

    early 15c., from Old French troblos, torblos, from truble/torble (see trouble (n.)). Also compare troublesome, troubled. Hoccleve complains of this troubly world.ETD troublous (adj.).2

    trough (n.)

    Old English trog "wooden vessel, tray, hollow vessel, canoe," from Proto-Germanic *trugaz (source also of Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Old Norse trog, Middle Dutch troch, Dutch trog, Old High German troc, German trog), from PIE *dru-ko-, from root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. Originally pronounced in English with a hard -gh- (as in Scottish loch); pronunciation shifted to "-ff," but spelling remained.ETD trough (n.).2

    trounce (v.)

    1550s, "to trouble, afflict, harass," later "to beat, thrash" (1560s), of uncertain origin. Perhaps related to French troncer "to cut, cut off a piece from," from tronce "piece of timber," from Old French tronc (see trunk (n.1)). Related: Trounced; trouncing.ETD trounce (v.).2

    troupe (n.)

    1825, "company, band," especially of performers, actors, dancers, etc., from French troupe "company" (see troop (n.)).ETD troupe (n.).2

    trouper (n.)

    1890, "actor or performer in a troupe," from troupe (n.) + -er (1). Transferred sense of "reliable, uncomplaining person" [OED] is attested by 1942, American English.ETD trouper (n.).2

    trousers (n.)

    "garment for men, covering the lower body and each leg separately," 1610s, earlier trouzes (1580s), extended from trouse (1570s), with plural ending typical of things in pairs, from Gaelic or Middle Irish triubhas "close-fitting shorts," of uncertain origin. Early recorded use of the word indicates the garment was regarded as Celtic: "A jellous wife was like an Irish trouze, alwayes close to a mans tayle" [1630]. The unexplained, unetymological second -r- is perhaps by influence of drawers or other words in pairs ending in -ers.ETD trousers (n.).2

    trousseau (n.)

    "a bride's clothing, etc., brought from her former home," 1817, from French trousseau, originally "a bundle," diminutive of Old French trousse "bundle" (see truss (n.)). Italicized as foreign at first, nativized by 1833. The Old French word was borrowed into Middle English early 13c. as "a bundle of keys," but it fell from use.ETD trousseau (n.).2

    trout (n.)

    Old English truht "trout," in part from Old French truite, both from Late Latin tructa, perhaps from Greek troktes "a kind of sea fish," literally "nibbler," from trogein "to gnaw," from PIE *tro-, from root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn." In late 17c. slang, trusty trout was used in a sense of "confidential friend."ETD trout (n.).2

    trove (n.)

    1888, from treasure trove (c. 1550), from Anglo-French tresor trové (late 12c.), translating Latin thesaurus inventus, literally "treasure found." Originally any precious metal object one finds hidden whose owner is unknown. As this usually meant ancient hoards, the term came to mean "treasure hoard" in popular use. Rendered treasure found from mid-15c. French trove is past participle of trover "to find," from Old French trover, torver, of unknown origin, perhaps from Latin turbare "to move" (hence "to seek for") or Medieval Latin *tropare "to compose, sing."ETD trove (n.).2

    trow (v.)

    Old English treowan "to trust in, believe, hope, be confident; persuade, suggest; make true; be faithful (to), confederate with," from treow "faith, belief," from Proto-Germanic *treuwaz "having or characterized by good faith" (source also of Old Saxon truon, Old Frisian trouwa, Dutch vertrouwen "trust," Old High German triuwen, German trauen "hope, believe, trust"), "having or characterized by good faith," from PIE *drew-o-, a suffixed form of the root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast."ETD trow (v.).2

    trowel (n.)

    mid-14c., "tool for spreading plaster or mortar," from Old French truele "trowel" (13c.), from Late Latin truella "small ladle, dipper" (mid-12c.), diminutive of Latin trua "a stirring spoon, ladle, skimmer." The gardening tool was so called since 1796.ETD trowel (n.).2

    truancy (n.)

    1754, from truant + abstract noun suffix -cy.ETD truancy (n.).2

    truant (n.)

    c. 1200, "beggar, vagabond," from Old French truant "beggar, rogue" (12c.), as an adjective, "wretched, miserable, of low caste," from Gaulish *trougant- (compare Breton *truan, later truant "vagabond," Welsh truan "wretch," Gaelic truaghan "wretched"), of uncertain origin. Compare Spanish truhan "buffoon," from same source. Meaning "one who wanders from an appointed place," especially "a child who stays away from school without leave" is first attested mid-15c.ETD truant (n.).2

    truant (adj.)

    "idle, loitering, given to shirking duty or business," 1540s, from truant (n.).ETD truant (adj.).2

    truce (n.)

    "mutually agreed-upon temporary intermission of hostilities," early 13c., triws, variant of trewes, originally plural of trewe "faith, assurance of faith, covenant, treaty," from Old English treow "faith, truth, fidelity; pledge, promise, agreement, treaty," from Proto-Germanic *treuwo- (source also of Old Frisian triuwe, Middle Dutch trouwe, Dutch trouw, Old High German triuwa, German treue, Gothic triggwa "faith, faithfulness"), from PIE root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast." Related to true (adj.). The Germanic word was borrowed into Late Latin as tregua, hence French trève, Italian tregua.ETD truce (n.).2

    trucial (adj.)

    1876, from truce + -ial. Trucial States, the pre-1971 name of the United Arab Emirates, is attested from 1891, in reference to the 1835 maritime truce between Britain and the Arab sheiks of Oman.ETD trucial (adj.).2

    truck (v.1)

    "to exchange, barter," early 13c., from Old North French troquer "to barter, exchange," from Medieval Latin trocare "barter," a word of unknown origin. Rare before 16c. The sense of "have dealings with" is attested by 1610s. The noun is attested by 1550s, "act or practice of barter." The sense of "vegetables raised for market" is from 1784, preserved in truck farm (1866).ETD truck (v.1).2

    truck (v.2)

    "to convey on a truck," 1809, from truck (n.). Verbal meaning "dance, move in a cool way," first attested 1935, from popular dance of that name in U.S., supposedly introduced at Cotton Club, 1933. Related: Trucked; trucking.ETD truck (v.2).2

    truck (n.2)

    1530s, "act or practice of barter, trading by exchange," from French troque, from troquer (see truck (v.1)). Sense of "dealings" is from 1620s. "Exchange of commodities, barter," then "commodities for barter and exchange." In this sense the word was given a wide use in 19c. American English: "Truck at first meant market-garden produce; then it came to mean stuff in general, including 'doctor-stuff.' SPUN TRUCK is knitting work" [Thornton, "American Glossary," 1912]. Sense of "vegetables raised for market" is from 1784, preserved in truck farm (1866).ETD truck (n.2).2

    truck (n.1)

    "vehicle," 1610s, originally "small wheel" (especially one on which the carriages of a ship's guns were mounted), probably from Latin trochus "iron hoop," from Greek trokhos "wheel," from trekhein "to run" (see truckle (n.)). Sense extended to "cart for carrying heavy loads" (1774), then in American English to "motor vehicle for carrying heavy loads" (1913), a shortened form of motor truck in this sense (1901).ETD truck (n.1).2

    Truck stop is attested from 1956.ETD truck (n.1).3

    trucker (n.)

    1853, "worker who moves loads using a cart;" agent noun from truck (v.2). Meaning "person who drives a motorized truck" is by 1935, a shortening of truck driver (1907).ETD trucker (n.).2

    truckle (v.)

    "give up or submit tamely," 1610s, originally "sleep in a truckle bed" (see truckle (n.)). Meaning "give precedence, assume a submissive position" (1650s, implied in truckling) is perhaps in reference to that type of bed being used by servants and inferiors or simply occupying the lower position. Related: Truckled; truckling.ETD truckle (v.).2

    truckle (n.)

    "small wheel or roller," late 14c., from Anglo-French trocle, from Latin trochlea "a small wheel, sheaf of a pulley," from Greek trokhileia "a system of pulleys," from trokhos "wheel," from trekhein "to run," from PIE root *dhregh- "to run" (source also of Old Irish droch "wheel," Lithuanian drožti "to run fast"). Truckle bed "small bed on wheels that can be stowed under a larger bed" is from mid-15c.ETD truckle (n.).2

    truculent (adj.)

    1530s, from Latin truculentus "fierce, savage, stern, harsh, cruel," from trux (genitive trucis) "fierce, rough, savage, wild," perhaps from a suffixed form of PIE root *tere- (2) "cross over, pass through, overcome." Related: Truculently.ETD truculent (adj.).2

    truculence (n.)

    1727, from Latin truculentia "savageness, cruelty," from truculentus (see truculent). Related: Truculency (1560s).ETD truculence (n.).2

    trudge (v.)

    "to walk laboriously," 1540s, of unknown origin. Related: Trudged; trudging. The noun meaning "an act of trudging" is attested from 1835.ETD trudge (v.).2

    true (adj.)

    Middle English treu, from Old English triewe (West Saxon), treowe (Mercian) "faithful, trustworthy, honest, steady in adhering to promises, friends, etc.," from Proto-Germanic *treuwaz "having or characterized by good faith" (source also of Old Frisian triuwi, Dutch getrouw, Old High German gatriuwu, German treu, Old Norse tryggr, Danish tryg, Gothic triggws "faithful, trusty"), from PIE *drew-o-, a suffixed form of the root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast."ETD true (adj.).2

    The sense of "consistent with fact" is recorded from c. 1200; that of "real, genuine, not counterfeit" is from late 14c.; that of "conformable to a certain standard" (as true north) is from c. 1550. Of artifacts, "accurately fitted or shaped" it is recorded from late 15c. Of aim, etc. "straight to the target, accurate," by 1801, probably from the notion of "sure, unerring."ETD true (adj.).3

    True-love (n.) is Old English treowlufu. True-born (adj.) is attested from 1590s. True-false (adj.) as a type of test question is recorded from 1923. To come true (of dreams, etc.) is from 1819.ETD true (adj.).4

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