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    transport (n.) — *trep-

    transport (n.)

    mid-15c., originally "mental exaltation;" sense of "means of transportation, carriage, conveyance" is recorded from 1690s; from transport (v.).ETD transport (n.).2

    transport (v.)

    late 14c., transporten, "convey from one place to another," from Old French transporter "carry or convey across; overwhelm (emotionally)" (14c.) or directly from Latin transportare "carry over, take across, convey, remove," from trans "beyond, across" (see trans-) + portare "to carry" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over"). The sense of "carry away with strong feelings" is recorded by c. 1500. The meaning "carry away into banishment" is recorded from 1660s.ETD transport (v.).2

    transportable (adj.)

    1580s, from transport (v.) + -able.ETD transportable (adj.).2

    transpose (v.)

    late 14c., from Old French transposer "transfer, remove; present, render symbolically" (14c.), from Latin transponere (past participle transpositus) "to place over, set over," from trans "across, beyond; over" (see trans-) + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). Form altered in French on model of poser "to put, place." Sense of "put music in a different key" is from c. 1600. Related: Transposed; transposing.ETD transpose (v.).2

    transposition (n.)

    1530s, from French transposition or directly from Medieval Latin transpositionem (nominative transpositio), noun of action from past-participle stem of transponere "to place over, set over" (see transpose).ETD transposition (n.).2

    transsexualism (n.)

    "intense desire to change one's sexual status, including the anatomical structure," 1953, coined by U.S. physician Harry Benjamin (1885-1986) from trans- + sexual. Transsexuality is recorded from 1941, but was used at first to mean "homosexuality" or "bisexuality." In the current sense from 1955.ETD transsexualism (n.).2


    1957 (adj. and n.), from trans- + sexual, and compare transsexualism.ETD transsexual.2

    transubstantiation (n.)

    late 14c., "change of one substance to another," from Medieval Latin trans(s)ubstantiationem (nominative trans(s)ubstantio), noun of action from past participle stem of trans(s)ubstantiare "to change from one substance into another," from Latin trans "across, beyond" (see trans-) + substantiare "to substantiate," from substania "substance" (see substance). Ecclesiastical sense in reference to the Eucharist first recorded 1530s.ETD transubstantiation (n.).2

    transverse (adj.)

    "lying across," early 15c. (earlier transversary, c. 1400), from Latin transversus "turned or directed across," past participle of transvertere "turn across," from trans "across" (see trans-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). The verb transvert is recorded from late 14c.ETD transverse (adj.).2

    transversal (adj.)

    "running or lying across," mid-15c., from Medieval Latin transversalis (13c.), from transvers-, stem of transvertere (see transverse). Earlier in the same sense was transversary (c. 1400). As a noun, from 1590s. Related: Transversally.ETD transversal (adj.).2

    transvestite (n.)

    "person with a strong desire to dress in clothing of the opposite sex," 1922, from German Transvestit (1910), coined from Latin trans "across, beyond" (see trans-) + vestire "to dress, to clothe" (from PIE *wes- (2) "to clothe," extended form of root *eu- "to dress").ETD transvestite (n.).2

    As an adjective from 1925. Transvestism is first attested 1928. Also see travesty, which is the same word, older, and passed through French and Italian; it generally has a figurative use in English, but has been used in the literal sense of "wearing of the clothes of the opposite sex" (often as a means of concealment or disguise) at least since 1823, and travestiment "wearing of the dress of the opposite sex" is recorded by 1832. Among the older clinical words for it was Eonism "transvestism, especially of a man" (1913), from Chevalier Charles d'Eon, French adventurer and diplomat (1728-1810) who was anatomically male but later in life lived and dressed as a woman (and claimed to be one).ETD transvestite (n.).3


    literally "beyond the forest," from Medieval Latin, from trans "beyond" (see trans-) + sylva (see sylvan). So called in reference to the wooded mountains that surround it.ETD Transylvania.2

    traps (n.1)

    "expanse of dark igneous rock," 1794, from Swedish trapp (Torbern Bergman, 1766), from trappa "stair," related to Middle Low German trappe "staircase" (see trap (n.)). So called from the step-like appearance of the rock.ETD traps (n.1).2

    trappings (n.)

    late 14c., "horse-cloth," from Middle English trappe "ornamental cloth for a horse" (c. 1300), later "personal effects" (mid-15c.), from Anglo-French trape, an alteration of Old French drap "cloth" (see drape (n.)).ETD trappings (n.).2

    trap (v.)

    late 14c., "ensnare (an animal), catch in a trap; encircle; capture," from trap (n.) or from Old English betræppan. Figurative use is slightly earlier (late 14c.). Related: Trapped; trapping.ETD trap (v.).2

    trap (n.)

    "contrivance for catching unawares," late Old English træppe, treppe "snare, trap," from Proto-Germanic *trep- (source also of Middle Dutch trappe "trap, snare"), related to Germanic words for "stair, step, tread" (Middle Dutch, Middle Low German trappe, treppe, German Treppe "step, stair," English tread (v.)).ETD trap (n.).2

    This is probably literally "that on or into which one steps," from PIE *dreb-, an extended form of a root *der- (1), base of words meaning "to run, walk, step." The English word is probably akin to Old French trape, Spanish trampa "trap, pit, snare," but the exact relationship is uncertain.ETD trap (n.).3

    The sense of "deceitful practice, device or contrivance to betray one" is recorded from c. 1400. The meaning "U-shaped section of a drain pipe" is from 1833. Slang meaning "mouth" is from 1776. Speed trap is by 1908. Trap-door "door in a floor or ceiling" (often hidden and leading to a passageway or secret place) is attested from late 14c. (trappe-dore).ETD trap (n.).4

    traps (n.2)

    "drums, cymbals, bells, etc.," 1925, from earlier trap drummer (1903) "street musician who plays a drum and several other instruments at once," perhaps from traps "belongings" (1813), shortened form of trappings.ETD traps (n.2).2

    trapeze (n.)

    swing with a cross-bar, used for feats of strength and agility, 1861, from French trapèze, from Late Latin trapezium (see trapezium), probably because the crossbar, the ropes and the ceiling formed a trapezium.ETD trapeze (n.).2

    trapezius (n.)

    muscle over the back of the neck, 1704, from Modern Latin trapezius (musculus), masc. adjective from trapezium (see trapezium). So called from the shape they form.ETD trapezius (n.).2

    trapezium (n.)

    1560s, from Late Latin trapezium, from Greek trapezion "irregular quadrilateral," literally "a little table," diminutive of trapeza "table, dining table," from tra- "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four") + peza "foot, edge," related to pous, from PIE root *ped- "foot." Before 1540s, Latin editions of Euclid used the Arabic-derived word helmuariphe, helmuaripha. As the name of a bone in the wrist, it is recorded from 1840.ETD trapezium (n.).2

    trapezoid (n.)

    1706, "a trapezium," from Modern Latin trapezoides, from Late Greek trapezoeides, noun use by Euclid of Greek trapezoeides "trapezium-shaped," from trapeza, literally "table" (see trapezium), + -oeides "shaped" (see -oid). Technically, a plane four-sided figure with no two sides parallel. But in English since c. 1800, often confused with trapezium in its sense of "a quadrilateral figure having only sides parallel and two not."ETD trapezoid (n.).2

    trapezoidal (adj.)

    1796, from trapezoid + -al (1).ETD trapezoidal (adj.).2

    trapper (n.)

    "one who traps animals" (for fur, etc.), 1768, agent noun from trap (v.).ETD trapper (n.).2

    Trappist (n.)

    1814, from French trappiste, Cistercian monk of reformed order established 1664 by Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé (1626-1700) of La Trappe in Normandy.ETD Trappist (n.).2

    trash (n.)

    late 14c., "thing of little use or value, waste, refuse, dross," perhaps from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Norse tros "rubbish, fallen leaves and twigs," Norwegian dialectal trask "lumber, trash, baggage," Swedish trasa "rags, tatters"), of unknown origin. Applied to ill-bred persons or groups from 1604 ("Othello"), and especially of poor whites in the U.S. South by 1831. Applied to domestic refuse or garbage from 1906 (American English). Trash-can is attested from 1914. To trash-talk someone or something is by 1989.ETD trash (n.).2

    trash (v.)

    "to discard as worthless," 1859, from trash (n.); in the sense of "destroy, vandalize" it is attested from 1970; extended to "criticize severely" in 1975. Related: Trashed; trashing.ETD trash (v.).2

    trashy (adj.)

    "worthless, resembling trash," 1610s, from trash (n.) + -y (2). Related: Trashiness.ETD trashy (adj.).2

    trattoria (n.)

    "Italian restaurant," 1832, from Italian trattoria, from trattore "host, keeper of an eating house," from trattare "to treat," from Latin tractare, frequentative of trahere (past participle tractus) "to draw" (see tract (n.1)).ETD trattoria (n.).2

    trauma (n.)

    1690s, "physical wound," medical Latin, from Greek trauma "a wound, a hurt; a defeat," from PIE *trau-, extended form of root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn," with derivatives referring to twisting, piercing, etc. Sense of "psychic wound, unpleasant experience which causes abnormal stress" is from 1894.ETD trauma (n.).2

    traumatic (adj.)

    1650s, from French traumatique and directly from Late Latin traumaticus, from Greek traumatikos "pertaining to a wound," from trauma (genitive traumatos; see trauma). Psychological sense is from 1889. Related: Traumatically.ETD traumatic (adj.).2

    traumatize (v.)

    1893, in reference to physical wounds; 1949 in the psychological sense, from Greek traumat-, stem of trauma (see trauma).ETD traumatize (v.).2

    traumatise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of traumatize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Traumatised; traumatising.ETD traumatise (v.).2

    travail (n.)

    "labor, toil," mid-13c., from Old French travail "work, labor, toil, suffering or painful effort, trouble; arduous journey" (12c.), from travailler "to toil, labor," originally "to trouble, torture, torment," from Vulgar Latin *tripaliare "to torture," from *tripalium (in Late Latin trepalium) "instrument of torture," probably from Latin tripalis "having three stakes" (from tria "three;" see three + palus "stake" (from PIE *pakslo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten"), which sounds ominous, but the exact notion is obscure. The verb is recorded from late 13c. in English, from the verb in Old French.ETD travail (n.).2

    trave (n.)

    late 14c., from Old French traf "crossbeam," from Latin trabem (nominative trabs) "beam," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).ETD trave (n.).2

    traveler (n.)

    also traveller, late 14c., agent noun from travel (v.). Traveler's check is from 1891.ETD traveler (n.).2

    travel (v.)

    late 14c., "to journey," from travailen (1300) "to make a journey," originally "to toil, labor" (see travail). The semantic development may have been via the notion of "go on a difficult journey," but it also may reflect the difficulty of any journey in the Middle Ages. Replaced Old English faran. Related: Traveled; traveling. Traveled (adj.) "having made journeys, experienced in travel" is from early 15c. Traveling salesman is attested from 1885.ETD travel (v.).2

    travel (n.)

    late 14c., "action of traveling," from travel (v.). Travels "accounts of journeys" is recorded from 1590s. Travel-agent is from 1925.ETD travel (n.).2

    travelogue (n.)

    "a talk on travel," 1903, a hybrid word coined by U.S. traveler Burton Holmes (1870-1958) from travel + Greek-derived -logue, abstracted from monologue.ETD travelogue (n.).2

    traverse (v.)

    early 14c., "pass across, over, or through," from Old French traverser "to cross, place across" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *traversare, from Latin transversare "to cross, throw across," from Latin transversus "turn across" (see transverse). As an adjective from early 15c. Related: Traversed; traversing.ETD traverse (v.).2

    traverse (n.)

    "act of passing through a gate, crossing a bridge, etc.," mid-14c., from Old French travers, from traverser (see traverse (v.)). Meaning "a passage by which one may traverse" is recorded from 1670s. Military fortification sense of "barrier, barricade" is recorded from 1590s.ETD traverse (n.).2

    travertine (n.)

    1797, from Italian travertino "a kind of building stone," from Latin tiburtinus, from Tiburs, adjective from Tibur (modern Tivoli), in Latium.ETD travertine (n.).2

    travesty (n.)

    1670s, "literary burlesque of a serious work," from adjective meaning "dressed so as to be made ridiculous, parodied, burlesqued" (1660s), from French travesti "dressed in disguise," past participle of travestir "to disguise" (1590s), from Italian travestire "to disguise," from Latin trans "across, beyond; over" (see trans-) + vestire "to clothe" (from PIE *wes- (2) "to clothe," extended form of root *eu- "to dress").ETD travesty (n.).2


    masc. proper name, also a surname (late 12c.), from an Old French word meaning "to cross over," related to traverse (v.). Probably a name for a gatekeeper or the toll collector of a bridge.ETD Travis.2

    Traviata, La

    title of an opera by Verdi, Italian, literally "the woman led astray," from traviata literally "to lead beyond the way," from tra- "across, beyond" (from Latin trans; see trans-) + via "way" (see via).ETD Traviata, La.2

    travois (n.)

    type of American Indian transport, 1847, said to be ultimately from a Canadian Indian pronunciation of travail.ETD travois (n.).2

    trawl (v.)

    1560s, from Dutch tragelen, from Middle Dutch traghelen "to drag," from traghel "dragnet," probably from Latin tragula "dragnet." Related: Trawled; trawling.ETD trawl (v.).2

    trawler (n.)

    1590s, agent noun from trawl.ETD trawler (n.).2

    tres (adv.)

    "very," 1815, from French très, from Old French tres "right, precisely, completely, very," from Latin trans "beyond" (see trans-), later "very" (compare Old Italian trafreddo "very cold").ETD tres (adv.).2

    treacherous (adj.)

    early 14c., from Old French trecheros, tricheros "deceitful" (12c.), from trecheor, tricheor "cheat, deceiver, liar, impostor, trickster," agent noun from trechier, trichier "to cheat, trick" (see trick (n.)). Figuratively, of things, from c. 1600. Related: Treacherously; treacherousness. Middle English had treacher "deceiver, cheat, traitor."ETD treacherous (adj.).2

    treachery (n.)

    "treasonable or perfidious conduct," c. 1200, from Old French trecherie, tricherie "deceit, cheating, trickery, lies" (12c.), from trechier "to cheat, deceive" (see trick (n.)).ETD treachery (n.).2

    treacle (n.)

    mid-14c., "medicinal compound, antidote for poison," from Old French triacle "antidote, cure for snake-bite" (c. 1200), from Vulgar Latin *triacula, from Latin theriaca, from Greek thēriakē (antidotos) "antidote for poisonous wild animals," from fem. of thēriakos "of a wild animal," from thērion "wild animal," diminutive of thēr (genitive thēros) "wild animal," from PIE root *ghwer- "wild beast."ETD treacle (n.).2

    The sense of "molasses" is recorded from 1690s (the connection may be from the use of molasses as a laxative, or its use to disguise the bad taste of medicine); that of "anything too sweet or sentimental" is from 1771. Related: Treacly.ETD treacle (n.).3

    tread (v.)

    Old English tredan "to tread, step on, trample; traverse, pass over" (class V strong verb; past tense træd, past participle treden), from Proto-Germanic *tred- (source also of Old Saxon tredan, Old Frisian treda, Middle Dutch treden, Old High German tretan, German treten, Gothic trudan, Old Norse troða), from PIE *der- (1) "assumed base of roots meaning 'to run, walk, step'" [Watkins]. Related: Trod; treading. To tread water in swimming, "to move the feet and hands regularly up and down while keeping the body in an erect position in order to keep the head above the water" is attested by 1764.ETD tread (v.).2

    tread (n.)

    early 13c., "a step or stepping, pressure with the foot," from tread (v.); in reference to automobile tires, it is recorded from 1906.ETD tread (n.).2

    treadle (n.)

    "lever worked by foot," c. 1400, from Old English tredel "step, stair, sole of the foot," from tredan "to tread" (see tread (v.)) + instrumental suffix -el (1). Compare handle (n.).ETD treadle (n.).2

    treadmill (n.)

    invented (and named) 1822; originally an instrument of prison discipline; from tread (v.) + mill (n.1). Treadwheel as a similar method of driving machinery is from 1570s.ETD treadmill (n.).2

    By later generations regarded as a path to physical fitness.ETD treadmill (n.).3

    treason (n.)

    c. 1200, "betraying; betrayal of trust; breach of faith," from Anglo-French treson, from Old French traison "treason, treachery" (11c.; Modern French trahison), from Latin traditionem (nominative traditio) "delivery, surrender, a handing down, a giving up," noun of action from past-participle stem of tradere "deliver, hand over," from trans- "over" (see trans-) + dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). A doublet of tradition. The Old French form was influenced by the verb trair "betray."ETD treason (n.).2

    In old English law, high treason (c. 1400) is violation by a subject of his allegiance to his sovereign or to the state (the sense of high here is "grave, serious"); distinguished from petit treason, treason against a subject, such as murder of a master by his servant. Constructive treason was a judicial fiction whereby actions carried out without treasonable intent, but found to have the effect of treason, were punished as though they were treason itself. The protection against this accounts for the careful wording of the definition of treason in the U.S. Constitution.ETD treason (n.).3

    Trahison des clercs "self-compromised integrity of intellectuals, betrayal or corruption by academics, moralists, journalists, etc., of their vocation," is the title of a 1927 French work by Julien Benda, translated into English in 1928.ETD treason (n.).4

    treasonous (adj.)

    mid-15c., from treason + -ous. Related: Treasonously.ETD treasonous (adj.).2

    treasonable (adj.)

    "of or pertaining to treason," late 14c., from treason + -able. Related: Treasonably.ETD treasonable (adj.).2

    treasure (n.)

    mid-12c., tresor, from Old French tresor "treasury, hoard, treasure" (11c., Modern French trésor), from Gallo-Roman *tresaurus, from Latin thesaurus "treasury, treasure" (source also of Spanish, Italian tesoro), from Greek thēsauros "store, treasure, treasure house," related to tithenai "to put, to place," from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put." In Middle English also thresur, etc.; modern spelling is from 16c. Replaced Old English goldhord, maðm. General sense of "anything valued" is recorded from c. 1200. Treasure hunt is first recorded 1913. For treasure trove, see trove.ETD treasure (n.).2

    treasurer (n.)

    late 13c., from Old North French, Anglo-French tresorer, Old French tresorier, from tresor (see treasure (n.)). Treasury bill attested from 1797.ETD treasurer (n.).2

    treasure (v.)

    late 14c., "to amass treasure; to store up for the future," also figurative, "regard as precious, retain carefully in the mind," from treasure (n.). Related: Treasured; treasuring.ETD treasure (v.).2

    treasury (n.)

    c. 1300, "room for treasure," from Old French tresorie "treasury" (11c.), from tresor (see treasure (n.)). Meaning "department of state that controls public revenue" is recorded from late 14c. An Old English word for "room for treasure" was maðm-hus and for "treasury," feo-hus (see fee).ETD treasury (n.).2

    treat (v.)

    c. 1300, "negotiate, bargain, deal with," from Old French traitier "deal with, act toward; set forth (in speech or writing)" (12c.), from Latin tractare "manage, handle, deal with, conduct oneself toward," originally "drag about, tug, haul, pull violently," frequentative of trahere (past participle tractus) "to pull, draw" (see tract (n.1)).ETD treat (v.).2

    Meaning "to entertain with food and drink without expense to the recipient by way of compliment or kindness (or bribery)" is recorded from c. 1500. Sense of "deal with, handle, or develop in speech or writing" (early 14c.) led to the use in medicine "to attempt to heal or cure, to manage in the application of remedies" (1781). Related: Treated; treating.ETD treat (v.).3

    treat (n.)

    late 14c., "action of discussing terms," from treat (v.). Sense of "a treating with food and drink, an entertainment given as a compliment or expression of regard" (1650s) was extended by 1770 to "anything that affords much pleasure."ETD treat (n.).2

    treatable (adj.)

    c. 1300, "amenable to reason," from Anglo-French tretable, Old French traitable, and in part from treat (v.) + -able. Of wounds, diseases, etc., "receptive to treatment," early 15c.ETD treatable (adj.).2

    treaty (n.)

    late 14c., "treatment, discussion," from Anglo-French treté, Old French traitié "assembly, agreement, dealings," from Latin tractatus "discussion, handling, management," from tractare "to handle, manage" (see treat (v.)). The sense of "contract or league between nations or sovereigns" is attested by early 15c.ETD treaty (n.).2

    treatise (n.)

    early 14c., from Anglo-French tretiz (mid-13c.), contracted from Old French traitis "treatise, account," from traitier "deal with; set forth in speech or writing" (see treat (v.)).ETD treatise (n.).2

    treatment (n.)

    1560s, "conduct or behavior toward someone or something," from treat (v.) + -ment. In the medical sense, it is first recorded 1744.ETD treatment (n.).2

    treble (adj.)

    "three times, triple," c. 1300, from Old French treble (12c.), from Latin triplus "threefold" (see triple). Related: Trebly.ETD treble (adj.).2

    treble (v.)

    "to multiply by three," early 14c., from Old French trebler, from treble "triple" (see treble (adj.)). Related: Trebled; trebling.ETD treble (v.).2

    treble (n.)

    "highest part in music, soprano," mid-14c., from Anglo-French treble, Old French treble "a third part," noun use of adjective (see treble (adj.)). In early contrapuntal music, the chief melody was in the tenor, and the treble was the "third" part above it (after the alto).ETD treble (n.).2

    trebuchet (n.)

    "medieval stone-throwing engine of war," c. 1300 (in Anglo-Latin from early 13c.), from Old French trebuchet (12c.) "stone-throwing siege engine," from trabuchier "to overturn, fall to the ground, overthrow" (11c.), from tra- (from Latin trans-, here expressing "displacement") + Old French buc "trunk, bulk," from Frankish *buk- "trunk of the body," from Proto-Germanic *bheu-, variant of *beu-, used in forming words loosely associated with swelling (such as German bauch "belly;" see bull (n.2)).ETD trebuchet (n.).2

    tree (v.)

    "to chase up a tree," 1700, from tree (n.). Meaning "take a tree-like form" is from 1884. Related: Treed; treeing.ETD tree (v.).2

    tree (n.)

    Old English treo, treow "tree" (also "timber, wood, beam, log, stake"), from Proto-Germanic *trewam (source also of Old Frisian tre, Old Saxon trio, Old Norse tre, Gothic triu "tree"), from PIE *drew-o-, suffixed variant form of root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.ETD tree (n.).2

    In Old English and Middle English also "thing made of wood," especially the cross of the Crucifixion and a gallows (such as Tyburn tree, famous gallows outside London). Middle English also had plural treen, adjective treen (Old English treowen "of a tree, wooden"). For Dutch boom, German Baum, the usual words for "tree," see beam (n.).ETD tree (n.).3

    The meaning "framework of a saddle" is from 1530s. The meaning "representation of familial relationships in the form of a tree" is from c. 1300. Tree-hugger, contemptuous for "environmentalist" is attested by 1989.ETD tree (n.).4

    tree-frog (n.)

    1738, from tree (n.) + frog (n.1).ETD tree-frog (n.).2

    tree-house (n.)

    1867, from tree (n.) + house (n.).ETD tree-house (n.).2

    treeless (adj.)

    1742, from tree (n.) + -less.ETD treeless (adj.).2

    tree-top (n.)

    1520s, from tree (n.) + top (n.).ETD tree-top (n.).2

    tref (n.)

    Welsh, literally "hamlet, home, town," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).ETD tref (n.).2

    trefoil (n.)

    late 14c., type of clover, from Anglo-French trifoil (13c.), Old French trefueil "clover, clover-leaf," from Latin trifolium "three-leaved plant," from tri- "three" (see tri-) + folium "leaf" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom"). As a type of ornamental figure in medieval architecture, early 15c.ETD trefoil (n.).2

    trey (n.)

    late 14c., "card, die, or domino with three spots," from Anglo-French, Old French treis (Modern French trois), oblique case of treie "three," from Latin tria (neuter) "three" (see three). In slang use for "three (of anything)" from 1887.ETD trey (n.).2


    1849 (n.) "a stage of a journey by ox wagon;" 1850 (v.), "to travel or migrate by ox wagon," from Afrikaans trek, from Dutch trekken "to march, journey," originally "to draw, pull," from Middle Dutch trecken (cognate with Middle Low German trecken, Old High German trechan "to draw"). Especially in reference to the Groot Trek (1835 and after) of more than 10,000 Boers, who, discontented with the English colonial authorities, left Cape Colony and went north and north-east. In general use as a noun by 1941. Related: Trekked; trekking.ETD trek.2

    trekker (n.)

    "one who treks," 1851, agent noun from trek (v.).ETD trekker (n.).2

    trekkie (n.)

    1888, South African, "party of trekkers" (see trek). Meaning "fan of the television program 'Star Trek' " attested by 1976.ETD trekkie (n.).2

    trellis (n.)

    late 14c., "lattice, grating," from Old French trelis, trellis "trellis, fence," originally "sackcloth," from Vulgar Latin *trilicius, from Latin trilicis, genitive of trilix "having three threads, triple-twilled," from tri- (see tri-) + licium "thread," a word of unknown etymology.ETD trellis (n.).2

    Sense extended in Old French to things "woven" of iron, etc., which brought on influence of Old French treille "vine trellis," perhaps from Latin trichila "bower, arbor," which is apparently from Latin triclinium "couch extending round three sides of a table" (for reclining on at meals; from PIE root *klei- "to lean"). Meaning "lattice used to support growing vines" is from 1510s. As a verb, c. 1400. Related: Trellised.ETD trellis (n.).3

    tremble (v.)

    c. 1300, "shake from fear, cold, etc.," from Old French trembler "tremble, fear" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *tremulare (source also of Italian tremolare, Spanish temblar), from Latin tremulus "trembling, shaking, quaking," from tremere "to tremble, shiver, quake," from PIE *trem- "to tremble" (source also of Greek tremein "to shiver, tremble, to quake, to fear," Lithuanian tremiu, tremti "to chase away," Old Church Slavonic treso "to shake," Gothic þramstei "grasshopper"). A native word for this was Old English bifian. Related: Trembled; trembling. The noun is recorded from c. 1600.ETD tremble (v.).2

    tremblor (n.)

    "earthquake," 1913, alteration of temblor, by influence of trembler, agent noun of tremble (v.).ETD tremblor (n.).2

    tremendous (adj.)

    1630s, "awful, dreadful, terrible," from Latin tremendus "fearful, to be dreaded, terrible," literally "to be trembled at," gerundive form of tremere "to tremble" (see tremble (v.)). Hyperbolic or intensive sense of "extraordinarily great or good, immense" is attested from 1812, paralleling semantic changes in terrific, terrible, dreadful, awful, etc. Related: Tremendously.ETD tremendous (adj.).2

    tremolo (n.)

    "tremulous effect in music," 1801, from Italian tremolo, from Latin tremulus "trembling" (see tremulous).ETD tremolo (n.).2

    tremor (n.)

    late 14c., "terror," from Old French tremor "fear, terror, quaking" (13c.), from Latin tremorem (nominative tremor) "a trembling, terror," from tremere (see tremble (v.)). The sense of "an involuntary shaking" is attested by 1610s and probably represents a re-introduction from Latin.ETD tremor (n.).2

    tremulous (adj.)

    1610s, from Latin tremulus "shaking, quivering," from tremere "to shake, quake, quiver" (see tremble (v.)). Related: Tremulously; tremulousness.ETD tremulous (adj.).2

    trench (n.)

    late 14c., "track cut through a wood," later "long, narrow ditch" (late 15c.), from Old French trenche "a slice, cut, gash, slash; defensive ditch" (13c., Modern French tranche), from trenchier "to cut, carve, slice," possibly from Vulgar Latin *trincare, from Latin truncare "to maim, mutilate, cut off," from truncus "maimed, mutilated," also "trunk of a tree, trunk of the body," of uncertain origin, probably originally "mutilated, cut off," and perhaps from PIE root *tere- (2) "cross over, pass through, overcome."ETD trench (n.).2

    Trenches for military protection are first so called c. 1500. Trench warfare first attested 1918. Trench-coat first recorded 1916, a type of coat worn by British officers in the trenches during World War I.ETD trench (n.).3

    trenchant (adj.)

    early 14c., "cutting, sharp," from Old French trenchant "cutting, sharp" (literal and figurative), present participle of trenchier "to cut" (see trench). Figurative sense in English is from c. 1600.ETD trenchant (adj.).2

    trencher (n.)

    "wooden platter on which to cut meat," c. 1300, from Anglo-French trenchour, Old North French trencheor "a trencher," literally "a cutting place," from Old French trenchier "to cut, carve, slice" (see trench).ETD trencher (n.).2

    trend (v.)

    1590s, "to run or bend in a certain direction" (of rivers, coasts, etc.), from Middle English trenden "to roll about, turn, revolve," from Old English trendan "turn round, revolve, roll," from Proto-Germanic *trandijan (source also of Old English trinde "round lump, ball," Old Frisian trind, Middle Low German trint "round," Middle Low German trent "ring, boundary," Dutch trent "circumference," Danish trind "round"); origin and connections outside Germanic uncertain. Sense of "have a general tendency" (used of events, opinions, etc.) is first recorded 1863, from the nautical sense. Related: Trended; trending.ETD trend (v.).2

    trend (n.)

    "the way something bends" (coastline, mountain range, etc.), 1777, earlier "round bend of a stream" (1620s), from trend (v.); sense of "general course or direction" is from 1884. Sense of "a prevailing new tendency in popular fashion or culture" is from c. 1950.ETD trend (n.).2

    trendy (adj.)

    1962, from trend (n.) + -y (2). Related: Trendily; trendiness.ETD trendy (adj.).2

    trendsetter (n.)

    also trend-setter, 1950, from trend (n.) + agent noun from set (v.). Related: Trend-setting.ETD trendsetter (n.).2


    river in England, a Celtic name, perhaps "great wanderer," in reference to its flooding. The city in Italy (Italian Trento) is Roman Tridentum, in reference to the triple-peaked mountain nearby. The great ecumenical council there was held from 1543-63.ETD Trent.2


    city in New Jersey, U.S., originally Trent's Town, from William Trent, Philadelphia merchant who laid it out in 1714.ETD Trenton.2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn."ETD *trep-.2

    It forms all or part of: apotropaic; atropine; Atropos; contrive; entropy; heliotrope; isotropic; psychotropic; retrieve; trope; -trope; trophy; tropic; tropical; tropism; troposphere; troubadour; zoetrope.ETD *trep-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit trapate "is ashamed, confused," properly "turns away in shame;" Greek trepein "to turn," tropos "a turn, direction, course," trope "a turning;" Latin trepit "he turns."ETD *trep-.4

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