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    deracinate (n.) — desirable (adj.)

    deracinate (n.)

    1590s, "to pluck up by the roots," from French déraciner, from Old French desraciner "uproot, dig out, pull up by the roots," from des- (see dis-) + racine "root," from Late Latin radicina, diminutive of Latin radix "root" (from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root"). Related: Deracinated.ETD deracinate (n.).2

    The French past participle, déraciné, literally "uprooted," was used in English from 1921 in a sense of "uprooted from one's national or social environment."ETD deracinate (n.).3

    derailment (n.)

    "act of derailing or causing to leave the rails," 1850, from French déraillement, from dérailler "to go off the rails" (see derail).ETD derailment (n.).2

    derail (v.)

    1850 (Dionysius Lardner, "Railway Economy"), in both transitive and intransitive senses, "cause to leave the rails or run off the tracks; to run off the rails or tracks," from French dérailler "to go off the rails," from de- (see de-) + railler (see rail (n.1)). Related: Derailed; derailing.ETD derail (v.).2

    derailleur (n.)

    type of bicycle gear mechanism, 1930, from French dérailleur (1927), agent noun from dérailler "to go off the rails," from de- (see de-) + railler (see rail (n.1)).ETD derailleur (n.).2

    derangement (n.)

    1737, "disturbance of regular order," from French dérangement (17c.), from déranger (see derange). Mental sense "disturbance of the intellect or reason" is from 1800.ETD derangement (n.).2

    derange (v.)

    1776, "throw into confusion, disturb the regular order of," from French déranger, from Old French desrengier "disarrange, throw into disorder," from des- "do the opposite of" (see dis-) + Old French rengier (Modern French ranger) "to put into line," from reng "line, row," from Frankish *hring or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "circle, ring, something curved," from nasalized form of PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend." Mental sense "disorder or unsettle the mind of" is by c. 1790.ETD derange (v.).2

    deranged (adj.)

    c. 1790, of persons, "insane, disordered in the mind;" of things, "out of order," from 1796; past-participle adjective from derange (v.).ETD deranged (adj.).2

    derby (n.)

    town and county in England, Old English Deorby "deer village," from deor "deer" (see deer) + by "habitation, homestead," from a Scandinavian source (see first element in bylaw). the annual Derby horse race, the most important in England, was begun 1780 by the 12th Earl of Derby and run at Epsom, Surrey; the name was used for any major horse race after 1875. Hence Derby day (generally the Wednesday before Whitsuntide), etc.ETD derby (n.).2

    The type of stiff, felt hat with a rounded crown and more or less narrow brim was manufactured in U.S. by 1850 and called by that name by 1870; perhaps so called because it was worn in riding. It came in as a fashionable novelty in 1874.ETD derby (n.).3

    derecho (n.)

    1888 in reference to winds generated convectively from a downburst cluster, from American Spanish derecho "direct, straight ahead" (also "right, justice"), from Old Spanish diestro, from Latin directus "straight," past participle of dirigere "set straight," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + regere "to direct, to guide, keep straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line").ETD derecho (n.).2

    deregister (v.)

    "remove from a register," 1917, from de- + register. Related: Deregistered; deregistering.ETD deregister (v.).2

    deregulate (v.)

    "remove regulatory restrictions from," 1950, American English, in reference to railroads, from de- + regulate. Deregulation is attested from 1955. Related: Deregulated; deregulating; deregulatory.ETD deregulate (v.).2

    dereliction (n.)

    1590s, "abandonment, state of being forsaken or abandoned" (formerly with a wider range than in modern use, such as of the sea withdrawing from the land), from Latin derelictionem (nominative derelictio) "an abandoning; a disregarding, neglecting," noun of action from past-participle stem of derelinquere (see derelict).ETD dereliction (n.).2

    Sense of "act of leaving with an intention not to reclaim or reuse" is from 1610s. Meaning "failure, unfaithfulness, neglect" (with regard to duty, etc.) is by 1778. Phrase dereliction of duty attested from 1776.ETD dereliction (n.).3

    derelict (adj.)

    1640s, "left, abandoned by the owner or guardian," from Latin derelictus "solitary, deserted," past participle of dereliquere "to abandon, forsake, desert," from de- "entirely" (see de-) + relinquere "leave behind, forsake, abandon, give up," from re- "back" (see re-) + linquere "to leave," from PIE root *leikw- "to leave."ETD derelict (adj.).2

    Originally especially of vessels abandoned at sea or stranded on shore. Of persons, "unfaithful, neglectful of responsibility," by 1864. As a noun, "property which is abandoned," from 1660s. As "person abandoned or forsaken," 1728.ETD derelict (adj.).3

    deride (v.)

    "laugh at in contempt, mock, ridicule, scorn by laughter," 1520s, from French derider, from Latin deridere "to ridicule, laugh to scorn," from de "down" (see de-) + ridere "to laugh" (see risible). Related: Derided; deriding.ETD deride (v.).2

    de rigueur

    1849, French, literally "of strictness," thus "according to obligation of convention." See rigor.ETD de rigueur.2

    derisive (adj.)

    1620s, "expressing or characterized by derision," with -ive + Latin deris-, past participle stem of deridere "to ridicule," from de "down" (see de-) + ridere "to laugh" (see risible). Meaning "ridiculous, causing derision" is from 1896. Related: Derisively; derisiveness.ETD derisive (adj.).2

    derision (n.)

    "ridicule, mockery, subjection to ridicule or mockery," c. 1400, from Old French derision "derision, mockery" (13c.), from Latin derisionem (nominative derisio) "a laughing to scorn, mockery," noun of action from past-participle stem of deridere "ridicule," from de "down" (see de-) + ridere "to laugh" (see risible).ETD derision (n.).2

    derisory (adj.)

    "characterized by mocking or ridicule," 1610s, from Latin derisorius, from derisor "derider," agent noun from deridere "to ridicule," from de "down" (see de-) + ridere "to laugh" (see risible).ETD derisory (adj.).2

    derivate (adj.)

    "derived," late 15c., from Latin derivatus, past participle of derivare (see derive). From 1650s as a noun, "a word derived from another." Related: Derivately.ETD derivate (adj.).2

    derivate (v.)

    "drain off or convey," early 15c., from Latin derivatus, past participle of derivare (see derive). Related: Derivated; derivating.ETD derivate (v.).2

    derive (v.)

    late 14c., "descend from," from Old French deriver "to flow, pour out; derive, originate," from Latin derivare "to lead or draw off (a stream of water) from its source" (in Late Latin also "to derive"), from phrase de rivo (de "from" + rivus "stream," from PIE root *rei- "to run, flow").ETD derive (v.).2

    From c. 1500 as "obtain by a process of reasoning." In reference to words, "arise by a process of word-formation," 1550s; meaning "trace or show derivation" is from c. 1600. General sense of "get, gain, obtain" (as from a source or origin) is from 1560s; that of "arise, spring" (from) a source or origin is from 1660s. Related: Derived; deriving.ETD derive (v.).3

    derivative (adj.)

    early 15c., in a now-obsolete medical sense, "having the property of drawing off or away," from Old French derivatif (15c.) and directly from Late Latin derivativus, from derivat-, past-participle stem of Latin derivare "to lead or draw off" (see derive). Meaning "taken or having proceeded from another or others, secondary" is from 1520s. Related: Derivatively; derivativeness.ETD derivative (adj.).2

    derivational (adj.)

    "pertaining to or of the nature of derivation," by 1822, from derivation + -al (1). Related: Derivationally.ETD derivational (adj.).2

    derivative (n.)

    mid-15c., "a derived word or form, a word formed immediately or remotely from another or a root," from derivative (adj.). General sense of "that which is derived or deduced from another" is from 1590s. Mathematical sense, "a derivative function," is from 1670s. In chemistry, "compound that can be made from a parent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms," by 1855.ETD derivative (n.).2

    derivation (n.)

    early 15c., derivacioun, originally in a now-obsolete sense in medicine, "a drawing off or away, a turning aside," from Old French dérivation (14c.) and directly from Latin derivationem (nominative derivatio) "a leading off, turning away," also "derivation of a word, etymology," noun of action from past-participle stem of derivare "to lead or draw off" (see derive).ETD derivation (n.).2

    Grammatical sense, "drawing or tracing of a word in its development or formation from its more original root or stem, a statement of the origin or history of a word" in English is from mid-15c. The general meaning "origination, descent" is from c. 1600; that of "act or fact of drawing or receiving from a source" is from 1650s.ETD derivation (n.).3

    derm (n.)

    "the skin, the true skin, the derma," 1835, from Greek derma "skin, hide, leather," from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel," with derivatives referring to skin and leather.ETD derm (n.).2


    word-forming element meaning "skin," from Greek derma "skin, hide, leather," from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel," with derivatives referring to skin and leather.ETD -derm.2

    derma (n.)

    "the true skin, the skin beneath the epidermis," 1706, from Modern Latin derma, from Greek derma (genitive dermatos) "(flayed) skin, leather," from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel," with derivatives referring to skin and leather.ETD derma (n.).2

    dermabrasion (n.)

    "removing of superficial layers of skin (and their blemishes) by means of a tool," 1954; see derma + abrasion.ETD dermabrasion (n.).2

    dermal (adj.)

    "pertaining to the skin; consisting of skin," 1803; see derm + -al (1). A native formation; the Greek adjective was dermatikos, yielding dermatic (1847).ETD dermal (adj.).2

    dermatitis (n.)

    "inflammation of the skin," 1851; see dermat- + -itis "inflammation."ETD dermatitis (n.).2


    word-forming element meaning "of or pertaining to skin," from Greek dermat-, from derma "(flayed) skin, leather," from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel," with derivatives referring to skin and leather. The shortened form derm- was used from mid-19c. but is considered incorrect.ETD dermat-.2

    dermatology (n.)

    "the science of the skin and its diseases," 1819, from dermat- "skin" + -logy. Related: Dermatological.ETD dermatology (n.).2

    dermatologist (n.)

    "one versed in the skin and its diseases," 1833; see dermatology + -ist.ETD dermatologist (n.).2

    dermis (n.)

    "the true skin," 1830, apparently a Latinized form of Greek derma "skin, leather" (see derma); or perhaps a back-formation from epidermis.ETD dermis (n.).2

    dern (adj.)

    "secret, hidden," from Old English derne (West Saxon dierne) "concealed, secret, dark," from West Germanic *darnjaz (source also of Old Saxon derni, Old Frisian dern "concealed, dark," Old High German tarni "secret, concealed, veiled"), related to dark (adj.).ETD dern (adj.).2

    Archaic or poetic only after 16c., it was important and productive in Middle English, with extended senses of "secluded; profound, mysterious; stealthy, deceptive; private, confidential." Dern love was "secret or illicit love; a mistress."ETD dern (adj.).3

    As a verb, meaning "to conceal," it was from Old English diernan "to hide." Compare Old Saxon dernian, Old High German tarnjan "to conceal, hide;" German Tarnkappe, Tarnhelm "magical cap or helmet which turns the wearer invisible or allows him to assume any form." French ternir "to tarnish, to dull" apparently is from Germanic.ETD dern (adj.).4

    dern (interj.)

    an American English variant of darn (interj.), attested from 1830. Alternative form durn is attested by 1835. Related: Derned; durned.ETD dern (interj.).2

    dernier (adj.)

    "last, final," c. 1600, from French dernier, which is formed as if from Medieval Latin *deretranacius, from de "down" (see de-) + Latin retro "back" (see retro-).ETD dernier (adj.).2

    derogate (v.)

    early 15c., transitive, "impair (authority); disparage (reputation)," a sense now obsolete, from Latin derogatus, past participle of derogare "to take away, detract from, diminish," also "repeal partly, restrict, modify," from de "away" (see de-) + rogare "ask, question; propose," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line."ETD derogate (v.).2

    Intransitive sense of "take away a part, make an improper or injurious abatement" is from 1560s; that of "do something that tends to lessen one's honor or rank" is from 1610s.ETD derogate (v.).3

    derogative (adj.)

    "lessening, belittling, derogatory," late 15c., from French derogatif, from Latin *derogativus, from past-participle stem of derogare "take away, detrach from, diminish" (see derogatory). Related: Derogatively.ETD derogative (adj.).2

    derogation (n.)

    early 15c., derogacioun, "act of impairing an effect in whole or part," from Old French dérogacion (14c.) and directly from Latin derogationem (nominative derogatio) "a partial abrogation (of a law)," noun of action from past-participle stem of derogare "take away, detract from, diminish," from de "away" (see de-) + rogare "ask, question; propose," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line."ETD derogation (n.).2

    From mid-15c. as "detraction, disparagement;" from 1510s as "act of impairing in merit, reputation, or honor."ETD derogation (n.).3

    derogatory (adj.)

    c. 1500, "detracting or tending to lessen authority, rights, or standing by taking something away from," from Late Latin derogatorius, from Latin derogatus, past participle of derogare "to take away, detract from, diminish," also "repeal partly, restrict, modify," from de "away" (see de-) + rogare "ask, question; propose," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line." In reference to honor, esteem, or reputation, 1560s. Related: Derogatorily.ETD derogatory (adj.).2


    frequent element in Irish place-names, from Irish doire "an oak wood," from Old Irish daur "oak," from PIE root *deru- "tree," especially oak.ETD Derry.2

    derrick (n.)

    c. 1600, "a hangman," also "a gallows," from the surname of a hangman at London's Tyburn gallows, c. 1606-1608, who is often referred to in contemporary plays. The name represents a late borrowing from the Low Countries (compare Dutch Diederik) of Old High German Theodric (see Dietrich).ETD derrick (n.).2

    As "a hoisting apparatus for lifting and moving heavy weights," 1727. "It is similar to the crane, but differs from it in having the boom, which corresponds to the jib of the crane, pivoted at the lower end so that it may take different inclinations from the perpendicular" [Century Dictionary]. As the word for a structure over an oil well to support the drilling apparatus, 1861, American English.ETD derrick (n.).3

    derriere (n.)

    "backside, arse," colloquial, 1774, from French derrière "back part, rear," originally an adverb, "behind, behind the back" (12c.), from Late Latin deretro, from Latin de "from" (see de-) + retro "back" (see retro-). In italics until 20c.ETD derriere (n.).2

    derringer (n.)

    "short-barreled, large-caliber pistol," very effective at close range, 1850, for Henry Deringer (1786-1868), U.S. gunsmith who invented it in the 1840s. The prevailing misspelled form is how his name appeared on the many counterfeits and imitations.ETD derringer (n.).2

    derring-do (n.)

    "daring deeds, daring action," 1570s, originally (late 14c.) dorrying don, literally "daring (to) do," from durring "daring," present participle of Middle English durren "to dare" (see dare (v.)) + don, infinitive of do (v.). Chaucer used it in passages where the sense was "daring to do" (what is proper to a brave knight). Misspelled derrynge do in 1500s and mistaken for a noun by Spenser, who took it to mean "manhood and chevalrie;" picked up from him and passed on to Romantic poets as a pseudo-archaism by Sir Walter Scott.ETD derring-do (n.).2


    also *dreu-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood," "tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.ETD *deru-.2

    It forms all or part of: betroth; Dante; dendrite; dendro-; dendrochronology; dour; Druid; drupe; dryad; dura mater; durable; durance; duration; duress; during; durum; endure; hamadryad; indurate; obdurate; perdurable; philodendron; rhododendron; shelter; tar (n.1) "viscous liquid;" tray; tree; trig (adj.) "smart, trim;" trim; troth; trough; trow; truce; true; trust; truth; tryst.ETD *deru-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dru "tree, wood," daru "wood, log, timber;" Greek drys "oak," drymos "copse, thicket," doru "beam, shaft of a spear;" Old Church Slavonic drievo "tree, wood," Serbian drvo "tree," drva "wood," Russian drevo "tree, wood," Czech drva, Polish drwa "wood;" Lithuanian drūtas "firm," derva "pine, wood;" Welsh drud, Old Irish dron "strong," Welsh derw "true," Old Irish derb "sure," Old Irish daur, Welsh derwen "oak;" Albanian drusk "oak;" Old English treo, treow "tree," triewe "faithful, trustworthy, honest."ETD *deru-.4

    dervish (n.)

    "Islamic monk or friar who has taken a vow of poverty and austerity," 1580s, from Turkish dervish, from Persian darvesh, darvish "beggar, poor," hence "religious mendicant;" equivalent of Arabic faqir (see fakir). The "whirling dervishes" are one order among many. Originally dervis; modern spelling is from mid-19c.ETD dervish (n.).2

    desalination (n.)

    "removal of salt," 1943, from de- + salination. As a verb, desalt is recorded from 1909; desalinate is from 1949.ETD desalination (n.).2

    desaturate (v.)

    "to make less saturated," 1886 (implied in desaturating); see de- + saturate (v.). Related: Desaturated; desaturation.ETD desaturate (v.).2

    descant (v.)

    mid-15c., discanten, "to run a variety with the voice in harmony with a musical theme, sing in counterpoint," from descant (n.). Sense of "to comment at length, make copious and varied comments" is attested by 1640s.ETD descant (v.).2

    descant (n.)

    c. 1400, deschaunt, "a counterpoint added to a given melody," from Anglo-French deschaunt, Old French deschant, from Medieval Latin discantus "refrain, part-song," from Latin dis- "asunder, apart" (see dis-) + cantus "song, a singing; bird-song," from past participle stem of canere "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing").ETD descant (n.).2

    The English spelling was partly Latinized in 16c., but it is an exception for its retention of des- in English. It is attested from 1560s in the sense of "the art of composing part-music," also "the upper part or voice." It is attested from 1570s as "a warbled song, a song with various modulations." The transferred sense of "a continued discourse or series of comments on a subject" is recorded from 1590s.ETD descant (n.).3


    mid-15c. (adj.) "extending downward;" c. 1600 (n.) "an individual proceeding from an ancestor in any degree," from French descendant (13c.), present participle of descendre "to come down" (see descend).ETD descendant.2

    Despite a tendency to use descendent for the adjective and descendant for the noun, descendant seems to be prevailing in all uses and appears 5 times more often than its rival in books printed since 1900. Compare dependant. In astrology, "the western horizon or cusp of the seventh house," 1680s.ETD descendant.3


    see descendant.ETD descendent.2

    descend (v.)

    c. 1300, descenden, "move or pass from a higher to a lower place," from Old French descendre (10c.) "descend, dismount; fall into; originate in" and directly from Latin descendere "come down, descend, sink," from de "down" (see de-) + scandere "to climb," from PIE root *skand- "jump" (see scan (v.)).ETD descend (v.).2

    Sense of "originate, proceed from a source or original" is late 14c. in English, as is that of "have a downward slope." Meaning "come down in a hostile manner, invade" is from early 15c. Related: Descended; descending.ETD descend (v.).3

    descender (n.)

    1660s, "one who or that which descends," agent noun from descend. Specifically in typography, "part of a letter that extends below the body," 1802. Earlier in this sense was descendant (1670s).ETD descender (n.).2

    descension (n.)

    "act of going down or downward," late 14c., from Old French descension and directly from Latin descensionem (nominative descensio) "a going down, descending," noun of action from past-participle stem of descendere "to come down" (see descend). Related: Descensional.ETD descension (n.).2

    descent (n.)

    c. 1300, "genealogical extraction from an original or progenitor," from Old French descente "descent, descendance, lineage," formed from descendre "to come down" (see descend) on analogy of French nouns such as attente from attendre "to expect," vente "sale" from vendre "to sell," pente "slope" from pendre "to hang" (the etymological English word from Latin would be *descence).ETD descent (n.).2

    Meanings "action of descending" (on); "act of passing from a higher to a lower place" in any way are from late 14c.; that of "a downward slope" is from 1590s. From c. 1600 as "a sudden invasion or attack." Biological sense "evolution" is from 1859 in Darwin, though there are uses which suggest essentially the same thing going back to 1630s.ETD descent (n.).3

    deschooling (n.)

    "act or process of removing the function of education from conventional schools to non-institutional systems of learning," 1970, coined by Austrian-born U.S. anarchist philosopher Ivan Illich (1926-2002), from de- + schooling.ETD deschooling (n.).2

    descry (v.2)

    mid-14c., "to proclaim, announce, make known," a word now obsolete, from Old French descrier, from des- (see dis-) + crier, from Latin quiritare "to wail, shriek" (see cry (v.)).ETD descry (v.2).2

    descry (v.1)

    c. 1300, descriven, "to see, discern," probably from Old French descrier "publish, proclaim, announce" (Modern French décrier), from Latin describere "to write down, copy" (see describe). From mid-14c. as "detect, find out, discover" (something concealed), also "discover by vision, get sight of." Since early 15c. the word has been more or less confused with descry (v.2). Related: Descried; descrying.ETD descry (v.1).2

    describe (v.)

    mid-13c., descriven, "interpret, explain," a sense now obsolete; c. 1300, "represent orally or by writing," from Old French descrivre, descrire (13c.) and directly from Latin describere "to write down, copy; sketch, represent," from de "down" (see de-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut").ETD describe (v.).2

    From late 14c. as "form or trace by motion;" c. 1400 as "delineate or mark the form or figure of, outline." Reconstructed with Latin spelling from c. 1450. Related: Described, describes, describing.ETD describe (v.).3

    describable (adj.)

    "able to be described, capable of description," 1670s; see describe + -able.ETD describable (adj.).2

    descriptive (adj.)

    "serving or aiming to describe," 1751, from Late Latin descriptivus, from descript-, past-participle stem of describere "to write down, copy; sketch, represent," from de "down" (see de-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut"). Related: Descriptively; descriptiveness.ETD descriptive (adj.).2

    description (n.)

    late 14c., descripcioun, "act of delineating or depicting," from Old French description (12c.) and directly from Latin descriptionem (nominative descriptio) "representation, description, copy," noun of action from past-participle stem of describere "write down, transcribe, copy, sketch," from de "down" (see de-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut"). Via the notion of "qualities which represent a class or individual" comes the sense "type, sort, kind" (1781).ETD description (n.).2

    desecrate (v.)

    "divest of sacred character, treat with sacrilege," 1670s, from de- "do the opposite of" + stem of consecrate. Old French had dessacrer "to profane," and there is a similar formation in Italian; but Latin desecrare meant "to make holy," with de- in this case having a completive sense. Related: Desecrated; desecrating.ETD desecrate (v.).2

    desecration (n.)

    "sacrilegious treatment, act of diverting from a hallowed purpose or use," 1717, noun of action from desecrate (v.).ETD desecration (n.).2

    desegregate (v.)

    "abolish racial segregation" (in schools, etc.), 1948, back-formation from desegregation. Related: Desegregated; desegregating.ETD desegregate (v.).2

    desegregation (n.)

    "the abolition of racial segregation," 1935, American English, from de- "the opposite of" + segregation in the racial sense.ETD desegregation (n.).2

    desensitize (v.)

    1904; see de- "do the opposite of" + sensitize. Originally of photography development; psychological sense "free from a neurosis" is by 1935. Meaning "make or become insensitive" is by 1955. Related: Desensitized; desensitizing; desensitization.ETD desensitize (v.).2

    desert (n.2)

    c. 1300, "fact of deserving a certain treatment (for good or ill) for one's behavior," from Old French deserte "merit, recompense," noun use of past participle of deservir "be worthy to have," ultimately from Latin deservire "serve well," from de- "completely" (see de-) + servire "to serve" (see serve (v.)). Meaning "suitable reward or punishment, what one deserves" (now usually plural and with just), is from late 14c.ETD desert (n.2).2

    desert (n.1)

    c. 1200, "wasteland, wilderness, barren area," wooded or not, from Old French desert (12c.) "desert, wilderness, wasteland; destruction, ruin" and directly from Late Latin desertum (source of Italian diserto, Old Provençal dezert, Spanish desierto), literally "thing abandoned" (used in Vulgate to translate "wilderness"), noun use of neuter past participle of Latin deserere "forsake" (see desert (v.)).ETD desert (n.1).2

    Sense of "waterless, treeless region of considerable extent" was in Middle English and gradually became the main meaning. Classical Latin indicated this idea with deserta, plural of desertus. Commonly spelled desart in 18c., which is unetymological, but it avoids confusion with the two other senses of the word.ETD desert (n.1).3

    desertion (n.)

    "act of forsaking or abandoning," 1590s, from French désertion (early 15c.), from Late Latin desertionem (nominative desertio) "a forsaking, abandoning," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin deserere "to abandon, to leave, forsake, give up, leave in the lurch," from de "undo" (see de-) + serere "join together, put in a row" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). In law, "willful withdrawal of one of the married parties from the other without cause or justification." Earlier in astrology, "forsaking or withdrawal of a favorable influence" (mid-15c.).ETD desertion (n.).2

    desert (adj.)

    mid-13c., "deserted, uncultivated, waste, barren, unproductive," from Old French desert and Latin desertum (see desert (n.1)). Meaning "pertaining to or belonging to a desert" is from 1630s. Desert island, one that is uninhabited, is from c. 1600.ETD desert (adj.).2

    desert (v.)

    c. 1600, transitive, "to leave, abandon," either in a good or bad sense; 1640s, in reference to military service or duty, "leave without permission;" from French déserter "cause to leave," literally "undo or sever connection," from Late Latin desertare, frequentative of Latin deserere "to abandon, to leave, forsake, give up, leave in the lurch," from de "undo" (see de-) + serere "join together, put in a row" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). Intransitive sense of "quit (a service or post) without permission" is from 1680s. Related: Deserted; deserting.ETD desert (v.).2

    deserter (n.)

    "one who forsakes cause, duty, party, or friends," 1630s, agent noun from desert (v.). Especially "soldier or sailor who departs from position without leave and without intent to return" (1660s).ETD deserter (n.).2

    desertification (n.)

    "process of becoming or making into a desert," especially "the turning of fertile land into arid waste as a result of human activity," 1973, from desert (n.1) + -fication "a making or causing." In French, désertisation is attested from 1968.ETD desertification (n.).2

    deserve (v.)

    mid-13c., "to merit, be worthy of for qualities or actions," from Old French deservir (Modern French desservir) "deserve, be worthy of, earn, merit" and directly from Latin deservire "serve well, serve zealously," from de- "completely" (see de-) + servire "to serve" (see serve (v.)). The classical Latin sense evolved to "be entitled to because of good service" (a sense found in Late Latin), then in French "be worthy of."ETD deserve (v.).2

    deserved (adj.)

    "rightfully earned, merited," 1550s, past-participle adjective from deserve (v.). Related: Deservedly (1540s).ETD deserved (adj.).2

    deserving (adj.)

    "that deserves," 1570s, present-participle adjective from deserve (v.). Related: Deservingly (1550s). Phrase deserving poor, those in need and unable to work through no fault of their own (the old, the sick, the lame, etc.) is by 1801.ETD deserving (adj.).2

    desex (v.)

    1911, "castrate;" 1962, "remove distinct sexual qualities, minimize sex appeal;" see de- + sex. Related: Desexed; desexing.ETD desex (v.).2

    desexualize (v.)

    also desexualise, "deprive of sexual character or quality," 1873 (implied in de-sexualized); see de- + sexualize. Related: Desexualized; desexualizing; desexualization.ETD desexualize (v.).2

    desi (adj.)

    used loosely since at least 2008 for people, cultures, and products of the Indian subcontinent, especially those living or experienced outside it, literally "local, indigenous; unadulterated, pure," ultimately from Sanskrit desá "land, country." Also as a noun, "person of Indian, Pakistani, or Bangladeshi birth or descent who lives abroad."ETD desi (adj.).2

    desiccation (n.)

    early 15c., desiccacioun, "a drying out," from Late Latin desiccationem (nominative desiccatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin desiccare "to make very dry," from de- "thoroughly" (see de-) + siccare "to dry" (see siccative). From 1540s as "act of making dry; state of being dry."ETD desiccation (n.).2

    desiccated (adj.)

    "deprived of or freed from moisture, having dried up," 1670s, past-participle adjective from desiccate.ETD desiccated (adj.).2

    desiccant (n.)

    "a substance that dries the surface to which it is applied," 1670s, from Latin desiccantem (nominative desiccans), present-participle of desiccare "to make very dry," from de- "thoroughly" (see de-) + siccare "to dry" (see siccative).ETD desiccant (n.).2

    desiccate (v.)

    1570s, transitive, "to dry, deprive of moisture," from Latin desiccatus, past participle of desiccare "to make very dry," from de- "thoroughly" (see de-) + siccare "to dry" (see siccative). Intransitive sense of "become dry" is from 1670s. The Middle English translation of Chauliac (early 15c.) has a past-participle adjective desiccate "dried up." Related: Desiccated; desiccating.ETD desiccate (v.).2

    desiderative (adj.)

    1550s, in grammar, of a verb, "formed to signify the desire for the action or condition denoted by the simple verb;" see desiderata + -ive. As a noun, "a desiderative verb," from 1751.ETD desiderative (adj.).2

    desiderata (n.)

    "things desired or desirable, that which is lacking or required," 1650s, plural of desideratum, Latin, literally "something for which desire is felt," noun use of neuter past participle of desiderare "to long for" (see desire (v.)).ETD desiderata (n.).2

    A Latin word in English; other offshoots of the Latin verb were nativized in Middle English: desiderable "wished for, desired" (mid-14c.), also "worthy of being admired;" desideracioun "longing, yearning" (late 15c.); desiderantly "with ardent desire" (c. 1500). Also compare obsolete desiderate "feel a desire or longing for" (1640s).ETD desiderata (n.).3

    desideratum (n.)

    "something lacking," see desiderata.ETD desideratum (n.).2

    design (v.)

    late 14c., "to make, shape," ultimately from Latin designare "mark out, point out; devise; choose, designate, appoint," from de "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)).ETD design (v.).2

    The Italian verb disegnare in 16c. developed the senses "to contrive, plot, intend," and "to draw, paint, embroider, etc." French took both these senses from Italian, in different forms, and passed them on to English, which uses design in all senses.ETD design (v.).3

    From 1540s as "to plan or outline, form a scheme;" from 1703 as "to contrive for a purpose." Transitive sense of "draw the outline or figure of," especially of a proposed work, is from 1630s; the meaning "plan and execute, fashion with artistic skill" is from 1660s. The intransitive sense of "do original work in a graphic or plastic art" is by 1854. Also used in 17c. English with the meaning now attached to designate. Related: Designed; designing.ETD design (v.).4

    designate (adj.)

    early 15c., "marked out, indicated" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin designatus, past participle of designare "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint," from de "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)). Meaning "appointed or nominated but not yet installed" is from 1640s.ETD designate (adj.).2

    designer (n.)

    1640s, "one who schemes or plots;" agent noun from design (v.). In manufacturing or the fine arts, "one who makes an artistic design or a construction plan" is from 1660s. In fashion, as an adjective, "bearing the label of a famous clothing designer" (thus presumed to be expensive or prestigious), from 1966. Designer drug, one that mimics an illegal narcotic but has a different chemical composition so as to avoid legal restrictions, is attested by 1983.ETD designer (n.).2

    design (n.)

    1580s, "a scheme or plan in the mind," from French desseign, desseing "purpose, project, design," from the verb in French (see design (v.)). Especially "an intention to act in some particular way," often to do something harmful or illegal (1704); compare designing. Meaning "adoption of means to an end" is from 1660s.ETD design (n.).2

    In art, "a drawing, especially an outline," 1630s. The artistic sense was taken into French as dessin from Italian disegno, from disegnare "to mark out," from Latin designare "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint" (which is also ultimately the source of the English verb), from de "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)).ETD design (n.).3

    General (non-scheming) meaning "a plan our outline" is from 1590s. Meaning "the practical application of artistic principles" is from 1630s. Sense of "artistic details that go to make up an edifice, artistic creation, or decorative work" is from 1640s.ETD design (n.).4

    designated (adj.)

    1868, "appointed or nominated but not yet installed," past-participle adjective from designate (v.). The baseball designated hitter "substitute named before the start of a game to hit for the pitcher" was introduced in the American League in 1973; it soon gave wide figurative extension to designated, as in designated driver (by 1985).ETD designated (adj.).2

    designing (adj.)

    "scheming, artful, intriguing," 1670s, present-participle adjective from design (v.). Earlier "characterized by constructive forethought" (1650s).ETD designing (adj.).2

    designation (n.)

    late 14c., designacioun, "notation, representation, action of pointing or marking out," from Old French designacion or directly from Latin designationem (nominative designatio) "a marking out, specification," noun of action from past participle stem of designare "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint," from de "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)).ETD designation (n.).2

    Sense of "nomination, a selecting and appointing" is from c. 1600. Meaning "a descriptive name" which designates, originally especially an addition to a name of a title, profession, trade, or occupation, is from 1824.ETD designation (n.).3

    designate (v.)

    1791, "appoint or select for a particular purpose," from designate (adj.) or else a back-formation from designation, or formed from Latin designatus. Meaning "to mark out or indicate" is from 1801; that of "distinguish from others by a name, give a name to" is by 1818. Related: Designated; designating.ETD designate (v.).2

    desirability (n.)

    "state or condition of being worthy to be desired," 1824; see desirable + -ity.ETD desirability (n.).2

    desirable (adj.)

    "worthy to be desired, fit to excite a wish to possess," late 14c., from Old French desirable (12c.), from desirrer (see desire (v.)). In Middle English sometimes it meant "desired, hoped for, welcome." Related: Desirably.ETD desirable (adj.).2

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