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    capitalist (n.) — card (n.2)

    capitalist (n.)

    1791, "man of money, one who has large property employed in business," from French capitaliste, a coinage of the Revolution and a term of reproach; see capital (n.2) + -ist; also compare capitalism.ETD capitalist (n.).2

    capitalistic (adj.)

    "of or pertaining to capital or capitalists," 1870; see capitalist + -ic.ETD capitalistic (adj.).2

    capital letter (n.)

    late 14c.; see capital (adj.). So called because it is at the "head" of a sentence or word.ETD capital letter (n.).2

    Capitol (n.)

    "building in Washington, D.C., where U.S. Congress meets," 1793 (in writings of Thomas Jefferson), from Latin Capitolium, name of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, protector of the city, on the Capitoline Hill in ancient Rome. Used earlier of Virginia state houses (1699). Its use in American public architecture deliberately evokes Roman republican imagery. With reference to the Roman citadel, Capitol is recorded in English from late 14c., via Old North French capitolie. Relationship of Capitoline to capital (adj.) is likely but not certain.ETD Capitol (n.).2

    capitulation (n.)

    1530s, "an agreement on specified terms;" 1570s, "articles of agreement;" from French capitulation, noun of action from capituler "agree on specified terms," from Medieval Latin capitulare "to draw up in heads or chapters," hence "arrange conditions," from capitulum "chapter," in classical Latin "heading," literally "a little head," diminutive of caput (genitive capitis) "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). From 1640s in narrowed sense "the making of terms of surrender; a yielding to an enemy upon stipulated terms."ETD capitulation (n.).2

    capitulate (v.)

    1590s, "to draw up a writing in chapters or articles" (i.e., under "headings"), in part a back-formation from capitulation (q.v.), in part from Medieval Latin capitulatus, past participle of capitulare "to draw up in heads or chapters," hence "arrange conditions," from capitulum "chapter," in classical Latin "heading," literally "a little head," diminutive of caput (genitive capitis) "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").ETD capitulate (v.).2

    The word often was used in reference to terms of surrender, and thus it came to be associated with them and to mean "yield to an enemy on stipulated terms" (a sense attested from 1680s). Related: Capitulated; capitulating. Compare chapter; also compare recapitulate.ETD capitulate (v.).3

    capitulum (n.)

    used from 18c. in various senses in English in anatomy and biology, from Latin capitulum, literally "little head," diminutive of caput "head," also "leader, guide, chief person; summit; capital city; origin, source, spring," figuratively "life, physical life;" in writing "a division, paragraph;" of money, "the principal sum" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").ETD capitulum (n.).2

    capnography (n.)

    also (and originally) kapnography, "the art of drawing by means of smoke" (or carbon deposited by a flame), 1871, from Greek kapnos "smoke" (see capnomancy) + -graphy. Related: Capnographic; kapnographic.ETD capnography (n.).2

    capnomancy (n.)

    "divination by smoke," c. 1600, with -mancy "divination by means of" + Latinized form of Greek kapnos "smoke," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps a non-Indo-European substrate word that also produced Lithuanian kvapas "breath, smell," kvepiu, kvėpti "to gasp, breathe," Latvian kvept "to smoke, smell," and perhaps Latin vapor.ETD capnomancy (n.).2

    capo (n.2)

    "pitch-altering device for a stringed instrument," 1946, short for capo tasto (1876), from Italian, literally "head stop," from Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head") + tasto "key; touch."ETD capo (n.2).2

    capo (n.1)

    "leader of a Mafia 'family,' " 1952, Italian, literally "head," from Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").ETD capo (n.1).2

    capoeira (n.)

    Brazilian dance-based martial arts form, by 1922, from Brazilian Portuguese. Said to be from Tupi ka'a "forest" + pau "round," referring to the scrubby areas in the Brazilian interior where fugitive slaves would hide.ETD capoeira (n.).2

    capon (n.)

    "a castrated cock," late Old English capun, from Latin caponem (nominative capo) "castrated cock" (also source of French chapon, Spanish capon, Italian cappone), perhaps from a verb meaning "to strike off," from PIE root *(s)kep- "to cut" (see hatchet (n.)). Probably reinforced in Middle English by cognate Old North French capon.ETD capon (n.).2

    capote (n.)

    "large cloak with a hood," 1812, from French capote, fem. of capot (17c.), diminutive of cape (see cape (n.1)).ETD capote (n.).2

    Cappadocia (n.)

    ancient name of a province and kingdom of Asia Minor, roughly corresponding to modern Turkey, from Greek Kappadokía, perhaps ultimately from Persian Hvaspadakhim "land of fine horses." In ancient Athens, Cappadocians were notorious as knaves and cowards, but the region's horses were celebrated.ETD Cappadocia (n.).2


    see a cappella.ETD cappella.2

    cappuccino (n.)

    "espresso coffee with steamed milk foam," 1948, from Italian cappuccino, from Capuchin in reference to the beverage's color, which supposedly resembles to that of the brown hoods of the Friars Minor Capuchins (see Capuchin).ETD cappuccino (n.).2

    capris (n.)

    "Capri pants," 1963, see Capri pants.ETD capris (n.).2


    island in the Bay of Naples, a name of unknown origin: Latin capra "she-goat," Greek kapros "boar," Etruscan capra "burial place" all have been suggested. As a type of wine, 1877; as a type of pants, 1956 (said to have been designed c. 1948); so called perhaps because they were first popular in Capri, which was emerging as a European holiday destination about this time (compare Bermuda shorts). Related: capris "capri pants" (1966).ETD Capri.2

    caprice (n.)

    "sudden change or start of the mind without apparent motive," 1660s, from French caprice "whim" (16c.), from Italian capriccio "whim," originally "a shivering," a word of uncertain origin. Some guesses from 19c. are that it is from capro "goat," with reference to frisking, from Latin capreolus "wild goat," or that the Italian word is connected with capo "head" + riccio "curl, frizzled," literally "hedgehog" (from Latin ericius). The notion in this case would be of the hair standing on end, hence a person shivering in fear.ETD caprice (n.).2

    capriccio (n.)

    1690s as a term in music for a kind of free composition, from Italian capriccio "sudden start or motion" (see caprice). Earlier it meant "a prank, a trick" (1660s); "a caprice" (c. 1600).ETD capriccio (n.).2

    capricious (adj.)

    1590s, "humorous;" c. 1600, "apt to change the mind suddenly, fickle," from French capricieux "whimsical" (16c.), from Italian capriccioso, from capriccio (see caprice). Related: Capriciously; capriciousness.ETD capricious (adj.).2


    zodiac sign represented as a goat, or half-goat half-fish, late Old English, from Latin Capricornus, literally "horned like a goat," from caper (genitive capri) "goat" (see cab) + cornu "horn" (from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head"). A loan-translation of Greek Aigokherōs, the name of the constellation. Extended 1894 to persons born under the sign.ETD Capricorn.2

    caprine (adj.)

    "goat-like," c. 1600, from Latin caprinus, from caper "goat" (see cab) + adjectival suffix -inus (see -ine (1)).ETD caprine (adj.).2

    Capri pants

    1956 (said to have been designed c. 1948), from Capri, Italian island; so called perhaps because they were first popular in Capri, which was emerging as a European holiday destination about this time (compare Bermuda shorts).ETD Capri pants.2


    active component of chili peppers, 1851, from capsicum, the genus name of the plants from which it is extracted, + chemical suffixes. Capsicine (1816) was an earlier name of an impure form of it.ETD capsaicin.2

    capsicum (n.)

    name given to the genus of pepper plants, a word of unknown origin. Perhaps it is irregularly formed from Latin capsa "box" (see case (n.2)) based on the shape of the fruit. It was adopted as a genus name through the writings of French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708), but he did not explain the word.ETD capsicum (n.).2

    capsid (adj.)

    1889 in biology, "pertaining to capsidae," a type of insect, from Latin capsa "box" (see case (n.2)).ETD capsid (adj.).2

    capsize (v.)

    1758, intransitive, "to tip or turn over;" 1769, transitive, "to turn (a vessel) over, cause to overturn, turn (anything) topsy-turvy;" a nautical word of obscure origin, perhaps (as Skeat suggests) from Spanish capuzar "to sink by the head," from cabo "head," from Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). For sense, compare French chavirer "to capsize, upset," faire capot "capsize;" Provençal cap virar "to turn the head." Related: Capsized; capsizing.ETD capsize (v.).2

    capstan (n.)

    "upright apparatus on a ship, worked by levers, used for raising weights or applying power," late 14c., from Old French cabestant, from Old Provençal cabestan, from capestre "pulley cord," from Latin capistrum "halter," from capere "to hold, take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").ETD capstan (n.).2

    capstone (n.)

    also cap-stone, topmost or finishing stone in a construction, 1680s, from cap + stone (n.). Earliest use is figurative.ETD capstone (n.).2

    capsule (n.)

    "small case, natural or artificial," 1650s, from French capsule "a membranous sac" (16c.), from Latin capsula "small box or chest," diminutive of capsa "box, case, chest" (see case (n.2)). The medicinal sense is by 1875; its shortened form cap is attested from 1942. The sense in space capsule is recorded by 1954, perhaps from the earlier sense of "shell of a metallic cartridge" (1864). As an adjective from 1938. Related: Capsular.ETD capsule (n.).2

    capsulize (v.)

    of news, etc., "summarize in compact form," 1950, from capsule + -ize. Related: Capsulized; capsulizing.ETD capsulize (v.).2

    capsulise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of capsulize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Capsulised; capsulising.ETD capsulise (v.).2

    captain (n.)

    late 14c., capitayn, "a leader, chief, one who stands at the head of others," from Old French capitaine "captain, leader," from Late Latin capitaneus "chief," noun use of adjective capitaneus "prominent, chief," from Latin caput (genitive capitis) "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").ETD captain (n.).2

    The military sense of "officer who commands a company" (the rank between major and lieutenant) is from 1560s; the naval sense of "officer who commands a man-of-war" is from 1550s, extended to "master or commander of a vessel of any kind" by 1704. Sporting sense "leader of the players on a team" is recorded by 1823. The words inb other Germanic languages are also from French.ETD captain (n.).3

    captain (v.)

    "act as leader to, command," 1590s, from captain (n.). Related: Captained; captaining.ETD captain (v.).2

    captaincy (n.)

    "rank or commission of a captain," 1818, from captain (n.) on the model of lieutenancy or some similar word where the -c- is etymologically justified. Earlier words in the same sense were captainry (1520s), captainship (mid-15c.).ETD captaincy (n.).2

    captation (n.)

    "act or practice of gaining favor by flattery," 1520s, from French captation, from Latin captationem (nominative captatio) "a reaching after, a catching at," noun of action from past-participle stem of captare "take hold" (see catch (v.)).ETD captation (n.).2

    caption (n.)

    late 14c., "a taking, seizure," from Old French capcion "arrest, capture, imprisonment," or directly from Latin captionem (nominative capito) "a catching, seizing, holding, taking," noun of action from past-participle stem of capere "to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").ETD caption (n.).2

    It was used from mid-17c. in the wording at the head of legal documents involving seizure, deposition, etc. ("Certificate of caption"). Thus the sense was extended to "the beginning of any document," and further to "heading of a chapter or section of an article" (1789), and, especially in U.S., "description or title below an illustration" (1919).ETD caption (n.).3

    caption (v.)

    "write a caption for, affix a caption on or to," by 1901, from caption (n.). Related: Captioned; captioning.ETD caption (v.).2

    captious (adj.)

    "apt to notice and make much of unimportant faults or flaws," c. 1400, capcyus, from Latin captiosus "fallacious," from captionem (nominative captio) "a deceiving, fallacious argument," literally "a taking (in)," from captus, past participle of capere "to take, catch" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp"). Related: Captiously; captiousness.ETD captious (adj.).2

    captivate (v.)

    1520s, "to enthrall with charm, overpower and hold by excellence or beauty," from Late Latin captivatus, past participle of captivare "to take, capture," from captivus "caught, taken prisoner," from captus, past participle of capere "to take, hold, seize" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").ETD captivate (v.).2

    The classical literal sense of "seize by force" (1550s) is rare or obsolete in English, which uses capture (q.v.) for that. Latin captare "to take, hold" also had a transferred sense of "to entice, entrap, allure." Related: Captivated; captivating. An earlier verb in English was captive (v.), late 15c., from Old French captiver or directly from Latin captivare.ETD captivate (v.).3

    captivating (adj.)

    "fascinating, bewitching, having power to hold the regard or affections," 1670s, present-participle adjective from captivate (v.). Related: Captivatingly.ETD captivating (adj.).2

    captivation (n.)

    "state or condition of being enthralled by excellence or beauty," c. 1600, from Latin captivationem (nominative captivatio) "a subjugation, enslavement," noun of state from past-participle stem of captivare "to take, capture" (see captivate).ETD captivation (n.).2

    captivity (n.)

    late 14c., "state of being a prisoner," Old French *captivite or directly from Latin captivitatem (nominative captivitas), from captivus "caught, taken prisoner," from captus, past participle of capere "to take, hold, seize" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp"). An Old English cognate word for it was gehæftnes (see haft). The figurative sense of "subjection, bondage, servitude" is from 1530s.ETD captivity (n.).2

    captive (adj.)

    late 14c., "made prisoner, enslaved," from Latin captivus "caught, taken prisoner," from captus, past participle of capere "to take, hold, seize" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp"). Captive audience "person or group of people who cannot leave and must stay and listen" is by 1816.ETD captive (adj.).2

    captive (n.)

    "one who is taken and kept in confinement; one who is completely in the power of another," c. 1400, from noun use of Latin captivus "caught, taken prisoner" (see captive (adj.)). An Old English noun was hæftling, from hæft "taken, seized" (see haft (n.)), which is from the same root.ETD captive (n.).2

    captor (n.)

    1680s, "one who takes (another) by force or stratagem," from Latin captor "a catcher," agent noun from captus, past participle of capere "to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp"). Earlier it meant "censor" (1640s). Fem. form captress recorded from 1867.ETD captor (n.).2

    capture (v.)

    "take or seize by force or stratagem," 1779, from capture (n.); in chess, checkers, etc., "win by ingenuity or skill," 1819. Related: Captured; capturing. The earlier verb in this sense was captive (early 15c.).ETD capture (v.).2

    capture (n.)

    "act of taking or seizing," 1540s, from French capture "a taking," from Latin captura "a taking" (especially of animals), from captus, past participle of capere "to take, hold, seize" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").ETD capture (n.).2

    Capuchin (n.)

    "Friar of the Order of St. Francis, under the rule of 1528," 1590s, from French capuchin (16c., Modern French capucin), from Italian capuccino, diminutive of capuccio "hood," augmentative of cappa (see cap (n.)). So called from the long, pointed hoods on their cloaks. As a type of South American monkey, 1785, from the shape of the hair on its head, which was thought to resemble a cowl.ETD Capuchin (n.).2

    caput (n.)

    a word or element meaning "head," in various senses in anatomy, etc., from Latin caput "head," also "leader, guide, chief person; summit; capital city; origin, source, spring," figuratively "life, physical life;" in writing "a division, paragraph;" of money, "the principal sum" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").ETD caput (n.).2

    capybara (n.)

    also capibara, large South American rodent, 1774, from the Tupi (Brazilian) native name.ETD capybara (n.).2

    car (n.)

    c. 1300, "wheeled vehicle," from Anglo-French carre, Old North French carre, from Vulgar Latin *carra, related to Latin carrum, carrus (plural carra), originally "two-wheeled Celtic war chariot," from Gaulish karros, a Celtic word (compare Old Irish and Welsh carr "cart, wagon," Breton karr "chariot"), from PIE *krsos, from root *kers- "to run." The Celtic-Latin word also made it into Greek, as karron "wagon with four wheels."ETD car (n.).2

    "From 16th to 19th c. chiefly poetic, with associations of dignity, solemnity, or splendour ..." [OED]. Used in U.S. by 1826 of railway freight carriages and of passenger coaches on a railway by 1830; by 1862 of streetcars or tramway cars. The extension to "automobile" is by 1896, but between 1831 to the first decade of 20c. the cars meant "railroad train." Car bomb is attested from 1972, in a Northern Ireland context. The Latin word also is the source of Italian and Spanish carro, French char.ETD car (n.).3

    carabineer (n.)

    also carbineer, "mounted soldier armed with a carbine," 1670s, from French carabinier (17c.), from carabine "carbine" (see carbine). Italian carabinieri "soldiers serving as a police force" is the same word.ETD carabineer (n.).2

    carabinieri (n.)

    "Italian police" (plural), 1847, from Italian carabinieri, plural of carabiniere, from French carabinier "soldier armed with a carbine," from carabine (see carbine).ETD carabinieri (n.).2


    Venezuelan capital, founded 1567 by the Spaniards on the site of a razed village of the Caracas people, whose name is of unknown origin, and named for them.ETD Caracas.2

    carafe (n.)

    "glass water-bottle or decanter," 1786, from French carafe (17c.), from Italian caraffa (or Spanish garrafa), probably from Arabic gharraf "drinking cup," or Persian qarabah "a large flagon."ETD carafe (n.).2


    exclamation of dismay or surprise, 1835, from Spanish, said to be a euphemism for carajo "penis," from Vulgar Latin *caraculum "little arrow."ETD caramba.2

    caramelize (v.)

    "convert into caramel," 1837, from caramel + -ize. Earlier was past-participle adjective carameled (1727). Related: Caramelized; caramelizing.ETD caramelize (v.).2

    caramel (n.)

    1725, "burnt sugar," from French caramel "burnt sugar" (17c.), from Old Spanish caramel (modern caramelo), which is of uncertain origin, probably ultimately from Medieval Latin cannamellis, which is traditionally from Latin canna (see cane (n.)) + mellis, genitive of mel "honey" (from PIE root *melit- "honey"). But some give the Medieval Latin word an Arabic origin, or trace it to Latin calamus "reed, cane."ETD caramel (n.).2

    The word was being used by 1884 of a dark-colored creamy candy and by 1909 as a color-name.ETD caramel (n.).3

    carapace (n.)

    "upper shell of a turtle or tortoise; shell of an insect, crustacean, etc.," 1836, from French carapace "tortoise shell" (18c.), from Spanish carapacho or Portuguese carapaça, which is of uncertain origin, perhaps somehow from Latin capa (see cape (n.1)). Related: Carapacial.ETD carapace (n.).2

    carat (n.)

    also karat, late 15c., "a measure of the fineness of gold," from Old French carat "measure of the fineness of gold" (14c.), from Italian carato or Medieval Latin carratus, both from Arabic qirat "fruit of the carob tree," also "weight of 4 grains," from Greek keration "carob seed," also the name of a small weight of measure, literally "little horn" diminutive of keras "horn of an animal" (from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head").ETD carat (n.).2

    Carob beans were a standard in the ancient world for weighing small quantities. The Greek measure was the equivalent of the Roman siliqua, which was one-twenty-fourth of a golden solidus of Constantine; hence karat took on a sense of "a proportion of one twenty-fourth, a twenty-fourth part," especially in expressing the fineness of gold when used as jewelry, and thus it became a measure of gold purity (1550s): 18-carat gold is eighteen parts gold, six parts alloy; 14-carat gold is 10/24ths alloy, etc.ETD carat (n.).3

    As a measure of weight for diamonds or other precious stones, carat is attested from 1570s in English. In U.S., karat is used for "proportion of fine gold in an alloy" and carat for "measure of weight of a precious stone."ETD carat (n.).4

    caravan (n.)

    1590s, in reference to in North Africa or western Asia, "company of travelers, pilgrims, merchants, etc., going together for security," from French caravane, from Old French carvane, carevane "caravan" (13c.), or Medieval Latin caravana, words picked up during the Crusades, via Arabic qairawan from Persian karwan "group of desert travelers" (which Klein connects to Sanskrit karabhah "camel").ETD caravan (n.).2

    Used in English for "any large number of persons traveling together with much baggage" (1660s), hence "a large covered carriage for conveying passengers" (1670s) or later for traveling shows or used as a house by Gypsies. In modern British use (from 1930s), often a rough equivalent of the U.S. camper or recreational vehicle.ETD caravan (n.).3

    caravansary (n.)

    alternative spelling of caravanserai.ETD caravansary (n.).2

    caravanserai (n.)

    1590s, carvanzara, "Eastern inn (with a large central court) catering to caravans," ultimately from Persian karwan-sarai, from karwan (see caravan) + sara'i "palace, mansion; inn," from Iranian base *thraya- "to protect" (from PIE root *tere- (2) "cross over, pass through, overcome").ETD caravanserai (n.).2

    caravel (n.)

    name given to several types of Mediterranean vessels; typically a small type of ship used by the Spanish and Portuguese in 15c. and 16c. for long voyages (Columbus's two smaller ships were caravels), 1520s, from French caravelle (15c.), from Spanish carabela or Portuguese caravela, diminutive of caravo "small vessel," from Late Latin carabus "small wicker boat covered with leather," from Greek karabos, literally "beetle, lobster" (see scarab). Earlier form carvel (early 15c.) survives in carvel-built (adj.).ETD caravel (n.).2

    caraway (n.)

    plant of southern Europe, the aromatic seeds of which are used in cooking and baking, late 13c., carewei, via Old French caroi from Old Italian or Medieval Latin carui, from Arabic al-karawiya, which is of unknown origin but suspected to be somehow from Greek karon "cumin." Also as Anglo-Latin carvi, Old French carvi. Old Spanish had alcarahuaya, alcaravea.ETD caraway (n.).2

    carb (n.)

    1942 as an abbreviation of carburetor; c. 2000 as short for carbohydrate.ETD carb (n.).2

    carbs (n.)

    see carb.ETD carbs (n.).2

    carbide (n.)

    compound formed by combination of carbon and another element, 1848, from carb-, combining form of carbon + chemical suffix -ide. The earlier word was carburet.ETD carbide (n.).2

    carbine (n.)

    short rifle (in 19c. especially one adapted for mounted troops), 1580s, from French carabine (Middle French carabin), used of light horsemen and also of the weapon they carried; it is of uncertain origin, perhaps from Medieval Latin Calabrinus "Calabrian" (i.e., "rifle made in Calabria"). A less-likely theory (Gamillscheg, etc.) connects it to Old French escarrabin "corpse-bearer during the plague," literally (probably) "carrion beetle," said to have been an epithet for archers from Flanders.ETD carbine (n.).2


    before vowels carb-, word-forming element meaning "carbon," abstracted 1810 from carbon.ETD carbo-.2

    carbohydrate (n.)

    general name for a group of organic compounds consisting of carbon atoms in multiples of 6 and hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of water, 1851, from carbo-, combining form of carbon, + hydrate (n.), denoting compound produced when certain substances combine with water, from Greek hydor "water" (from suffixed form of PIE root *wed- (1) "water; wet").ETD carbohydrate (n.).2

    carboy (n.)

    "large globular glass bottle covered with basketwork," 1753, probably ultimately from Persian qarabah "large flagon."ETD carboy (n.).2

    carbolic (adj.)

    "pertaining to or derived from carbon or coal," 1836, from carb-, combining form of carbon + -ol "oil" + -ic.ETD carbolic (adj.).2

    carbonation (n.)

    "act or process of causing combination with carbonic acid," 1869, from carbonic acid, an old name for carbon dioxide (q.v.), + -ation. Probably immediately from French carbonation (1856).ETD carbonation (n.).2

    carbonization (n.)

    "operation of converting wood or other organic substance into coal or charcoal," 1804, from carbon + -ization. Related: Carbonize; carbonized.ETD carbonization (n.).2

    carbonic (adj.)

    "of or pertaining to carbon," 1791, from carbon + -ic.ETD carbonic (adj.).2

    carbon (n.)

    non-metallic element occurring naturally as diamond, graphite, or charcoal, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from Latin carbonem (nominative carbo) "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," from PIE root *ker- (3) "heat, fire."ETD carbon (n.).2

    Carbon 14, the long-lived radioactive isotope used in dating organic deposits, is from 1936. Carbon-dating (using carbon 14) is recorded from 1958. Carbon cycle is attested from 1912; carbon footprint was in use by 2001. Carbon-paper "paper faced with carbon, used between two sheets for reproduction on the lower of what is drawn or written on the upper" is from 1855, earlier it was carbonic paper (1850).ETD carbon (n.).3

    carbonate (n.)

    "compound formed by the union of carbonic acid with a base," 1794, from French carbonate "salt of carbonic acid" (Lavoisier), from Modern Latin carbonatem "a carbonated (substance)," from Latin carbo (see carbon).ETD carbonate (n.).2

    carbonate (v.)

    1805, "form into a carbonate," from carbonate (n.) by influence of French carbonater "transform into a carbonate." The meaning "impregnate with carbonic acid gas (i.e. carbon dioxide)" is from 1850s. Related: Carbonated; carbonating.ETD carbonate (v.).2

    carbonated (adj.)

    "containing carbon dioxide," 1858, past-participle adjective from carbonate (v.).ETD carbonated (adj.).2

    carbonaceous (adj.)

    1791, "pertaining to or consisting of charcoal or coal;" 1794, "pertaining to or consisting of carbon;" see carbon + -aceous.ETD carbonaceous (adj.).2

    carbonara (n.)

    in cookery, a pasta dish served with a sauce made from eggs, olive oil, cream, cheese, and strips of bacon or ham, 1958, from Italian alla carbonara, which perhaps from carbonara "charcoal kiln," and meaning "cooked (as if) in a kiln, or from or influenced by carbonata "charcoal-grilled salt pork." Or it may be a reference somehow to the Carbonari, the 19c. secret society of Italian patriots.ETD carbonara (n.).2

    carbon-copy (n.)

    1895, from carbon (paper) + copy (n.). A copy on paper made using carbon-paper (paper faced with carbon, used between two sheets for reproduction on the lower of what is drawn or written on the upper). The figurative sense is from 1944. Also as a verb, "send a carbon copy (of something)," and as such often abbreviated c.c.ETD carbon-copy (n.).2

    carbon dioxide (n.)

    1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. The chemical was known since mid-18c. under the name fixed air; later as carbonic acid gas (1791). "The term dioxide for an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen came into use in the middle of the 19th century." [Flood].ETD carbon dioxide (n.).2

    carboniferous (adj.)

    1799, "coal-bearing, containing or yielding carbon or coal," from Latin carbo (genitive carbonis) "coal" (see carbon) + -ferous "producing, containing, bearing," from ferre "to bear" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children").ETD carboniferous (adj.).2

    It was used in designating the rocks which formed the great coal-beds of England, France, Germany and the United States; from 1832 with reference to the geological period when these were laid down. As a stand-alone noun (short for Carboniferous Period) by 1907.ETD carboniferous (adj.).3

    carbon monoxide (n.)

    1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom (as opposed to carbon dioxide, which has two of the latter). An older name for it was carbonic oxide gas.ETD carbon monoxide (n.).2

    Carborundum (n.)

    silicon carbide used as an abrasive, (reg. trademark U.S. June 21, 1892, by Carborundum Co. of Monongahela City, Pa.), from carbon + corundum.ETD Carborundum (n.).2

    carbuncle (n.)

    early 13c., "fiery jewel, gem of a deep red color, ruby," also the name of a semi-mythical gem from the East Indies formerly believed to be capable of shining in the dark, from Old North French carbuncle (Old French charbocle, charboncle) "carbuncle-stone," also "carbuncle, boil," from Latin carbunculus "red gem," also "red, inflamed spot," literally "a little coal," from carbo (genitive carbonis) "coal" (see carbon).ETD carbuncle (n.).2

    Originally of rubies, garnets, and other red jewels. In English the word was used of red, eruptive subcutaneous inflammations and tumors from late 14c. Also "red spot on the nose or face caused by intemperance" (1680s).ETD carbuncle (n.).3

    carbuncular (adj.)

    "of, pertaining to, or resembling a carbuncle; red, inflamed," 1737, from Latin carbunculus (see carbuncle) + -ar.ETD carbuncular (adj.).2

    carburetor (n.)

    also carburator, carburettor, device to enhance a gas flame by adding volatile hydrocarbons, 1866, from carburet "compound of carbon and another substance" (1795, now displaced by carbide), also used as a verb, "to combine with carbon" (1802); from carb-, combining form of carbon, + -uret, an archaic suffix from Modern Latin -uretum, used in English to parallel French words in -ure. Motor vehicle sense "apparatus for injecting fuel in fine particles into air to prepare it for the cylinder" is from 1896.ETD carburetor (n.).2

    carcass (n.)

    "dead body of an animal," late 13c., from Anglo-French carcois, from or influenced by Old French charcois (Modern French carcasse) "trunk of a body, chest, carcass," and Anglo-Latin carcosium "dead body," all of unknown origin; original form uncertain. It may have been assimilated to Latin caro "flesh." Not used of humans after c. 1750, except contemptuously. Italian carcassa probably is a French loan-word.ETD carcass (n.).2

    carceral (adj.)

    "pertaining to prisons or a prison," 1570s, from Latin carceralis, from carcer "prison, jail; starting place in a race course, enclosed space," from Proto-Italic *kar-kr(o)-, which is of uncertain origin (see incarceration).ETD carceral (adj.).2

    carcinogenic (adj.)

    "cancer-causing," 1926, from carcinogen + -ic.ETD carcinogenic (adj.).2

    carcinogen (n.)

    "cancer-causing substance," 1853, from carcinoma "malignant tumor, cancer" + -gen.ETD carcinogen (n.).2

    carcinoma (n.)

    "a propagating malignant tumor," 1721, from Latin carcinoma, from Greek karkinoma "a cancer," from karkinos "a cancer," literally "a crab" (see cancer) + -oma. Related: Carcinomatous. The classical plural is carcinomata.ETD carcinoma (n.).2

    card (n.1)

    early 15c., "a playing card," from Old French carte (14c.), from Medieval Latin carta/charta "a card, paper; a writing, a charter," from Latin charta "leaf of paper, a writing, tablet," from Greek khartēs "layer of papyrus," which is probably from Egyptian. The form has been influenced by Italian cognate carta "paper, leaf of paper." Compare chart (n.). The shift in English from -t to -d is unexplained.ETD card (n.1).2

    The sense of "playing cards" also is the oldest of the French word. The sense in English was extended by 1590s to similar small, flat, stiff pieces of paper. As "small piece of cardboard upon which is written or printed the name, address, etc. of the person presenting it," from 1795: visiting-cards for social calls, business-cards announcing one's profession. The meaning "printed ornamental greetings for special occasions" is from 1862.ETD card (n.1).3

    Application to clever or original persons (1836, originally with an adjective, as in smart card) is from the playing-card sense, via expressions such as sure card "an expedient certain to attain an object" (c. 1560).ETD card (n.1).4

    Card-sharper "professional cheat at cards" is from 1859. House of cards in the figurative sense "any insecure or flimsy scheme" is from 1640s, first attested in Milton, from children's play. To (figuratively) have a card up (one's) sleeve is from 1898. To play the _______ card (for political advantage) is from 1886, originally the Orange card, meaning "appeal to Northern Irish Protestant sentiment."ETD card (n.1).5

    card (v.2)

    "to comb wool," late 14c., from card (n.2) or else from Old French carder, from Old Provençal cardar "to card," from Vulgar Latin *caritare, from Latin carrere "to clean or comb with a card," perhaps from PIE root *kars- "to scrape" (see harsh). Related: Carded; carding.ETD card (v.2).2

    card (n.2)

    "implement or machine for combing, brush with wire teeth used in disentangling fibers for spinning," late 14c. (mid-14c. in surname Cardmaker), from Old French carde "card, teasel," from Old Provençal cardo or some other Romanic source (compare Spanish and Italian carda "thistle, tease, card," back-formation from cardar "to card" (see card (v.2)). The English word probably also comes via Anglo-Latin cardo, from Medieval Latin carda "a teasel," from Latin carduus.ETD card (n.2).2

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