Larger font
Smaller font
Etymology dictionary - Contents
  • Results
  • Related
  • Featured
No results found for: "".
  • Weighted Relevancy
  • Content Sequence
  • Relevancy
  • Earliest First
  • Latest First
    Larger font
    Smaller font

    dismember (v.) — dissident (n.)

    dismember (v.)

    c. 1300, dismembren, "to cut off the limbs of," also figuratively "to scatter, disperse, divide into parts or sections so as to destroy the integrity," from Old French desmembrer (11c., Modern French démembrer), from Medieval Latin dismembrare "tear limb from limb; castrate," from Latin de "take away" (see de-) + membrum "limb" (see member). Related: Dismembered; dismembering.ETD dismember (v.).2

    dismemberment (n.)

    "act of dismembering, state of being dismembered," 1751, from dismember + -ment. Earlier noun was dismembration (1590s), also dismembering (late 14c.).ETD dismemberment (n.).2

    dismiss (v.)

    early 15c., dismissen, "release from court restraint or legal charges;" late 15c., "remove from office, service, or employment," apparently from Latin dimissus, past participle of dimittere "send away, send different ways; break up, discharge; renounce, abandon," from dis- "apart, away" (see dis-) + mittere "send, let go" (see mission). Meaning "send away, order or give permission to depart" is from 1540s.ETD dismiss (v.).2

    The prefix was altered by analogy with many dis- verbs. Middle English also had dismit, in the same sense (late 14c.), with altered prefix but directly from the Latin verb, and dimit. Related: Dismissed; dismissing.ETD dismiss (v.).3

    dismissal (n.)

    "act of dismissing; state or fact of being dismissed," by 1795, formed on model of refusal, etc., from dismiss + -al (2); replacing earlier dismission (1540s); dismissing (late 15c.).ETD dismissal (n.).2

    dismissive (adj.)

    1640s, "characterized by or appropriate to dismissal;" from dismiss + -ive. Meaning "contemptuous, tending to reject as insignificant" is recorded by 1922 (implied in dismissively). Related: Dismissiveness.ETD dismissive (adj.).2

    dismount (v.)

    1540s, "to remove or throw down cannons from their mountings," from dis- + mount (v.). Meaning "get off from a horse or other ridden animal" is from 1580s; transitive sense of "throw or bring down from a horse" is from 1610s. Meaning "remove (a gem, picture, etc.) from a frame, setting, or other mount" is by 1879. Related: Dismounted; dismounting.ETD dismount (v.).2


    surname attested from mid-12c. (William de Ysini), from Isigny in the Calvados region of Normandy. Disneyesque, in reference to the cartooning style of U.S. animator and producer Walt Disney (1901-1966), is attested by 1939.ETD Disney.2

    Disneyland (n.)

    in figurative sense of "land of make-believe" attested by 1956, from U.S. entertainment park (opened in 1955) created by animator and producer Walter E. Disney (1901-1966).ETD Disneyland (n.).2

    disobedient (adj.)

    "neglecting or refusing to obey, refractory, not submitting to the rules or regulations prescribed by authority," early 15c., dysobedyent, from Old French desobedient, from Vulgar Latin *disobedientem (replacing Latin inobedientem) from Latin dis- (see dis-) + oboedientem (nominative oboediens), present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey). Related: Disobediently. Earlier in the same sense was disobeissant (late 14c.), from Old French desobeissant, and inobedient (early 14c.).ETD disobedient (adj.).2

    disobedience (n.)

    "neglect or refusal to obey," c. 1400, from Old French desobedience, from Vulgar Latin *disobedientia (replacing Latin inobedientia) from Latin dis- (see dis-) + oboedientia "obedience," abstract noun from oboedientem (nominative oboediens), present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey). The English word replaced earlier desobeissance in this sense, and inobedience (c. 1200).ETD disobedience (n.).2

    disobey (v.)

    late 14c., disobeien, "neglect or refuse to obey," from Old French desobeir (13c.) "disobey; refuse service or homage," from Vulgar Latin *disoboedire, reformed with dis- (see dis-) from Late Latin inobedire, a back-formation from inobediens "not obeying," from Latin in- "not" + present participle of obedire (see obey). Related: Disobeyed; disobeying.ETD disobey (v.).2

    disoblige (v.)

    c. 1600, "to free from obligation;" 1630s, "to refuse or neglect to oblige," from French désobliger (c. 1300), from des- (see dis-) + obliger, from Latin obligare "to bind, bind up, bandage," figuratively "put under obligation," from ob "to" (see ob-) + ligare "to bind," from PIE root *leig- "to tie, bind."ETD disoblige (v.).2

    Colloquial sense of "put to inconvenience" is from 1650s (implied in disobligingness). Related: Disobliged; disobliging; disobligingly.ETD disoblige (v.).3

    disorder (n.)

    1520s, "lack of regular arrangement;" 1530s, "tumult, disturbance of the peace;" from disorder (v.). Meaning "an ailment, a disturbance of the body or mind" is by 1704.ETD disorder (n.).2

    disorder (v.)

    late 15c. (Caxton), "destroy or derange the order of, throw into confusion," from dis- "not" (see dis-) + order (v.). Replaced earlier disordeine (mid-14c.), from Old French desordainer, from Medieval Latin disordinare "throw into disorder," from Latin dis- + ordinare "to order, regulate," from ordo (genitive ordinis) "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). Related: Disordered; disordering.ETD disorder (v.).2

    disorderly (adj.)

    1580s, "opposed to moral order, disposed to violate the restraints of public morality;" also "opposed to legal authority, disposed to violate law;" see disorder (n.) + -ly (1). The meaning "untidy, being out of proper order" is attested from 1630s; the older senses are those in disorderly house, disorderly conduct, etc.ETD disorderly (adj.).2


    "disruption or destruction of order, a breaking up of order or system, absence of orderly arrangement," 1790, noun of action or state from disorganize.ETD disorganization.2

    disorganize (v.)

    "destroy the systematic arrangement or orderly connection of the parts of," 1793, from French désorganiser (18c.), from dés- "not, opposite of" (see dis-) + organiser "organize" (see organize). This word and related forms were introduced in English in reference to the French Revolution. Related: Disorganized; disorganizing.ETD disorganize (v.).2

    disorient (v.)

    "confuse as to direction," 1650s, from French désorienter "to cause to lose one's bearings," literally "to turn from the east," from dés- (see dis-) + orienter (see orient (v.)). Related: Disoriented; disorienting.ETD disorient (v.).2

    disorientation (n.)

    1846, "deviation from an east-facing position;" 1882, "confusion as to direction;" see dis- + orientation. Perhaps its immediate origin in some cases is as a noun of action or state from disorientate (1704).ETD disorientation (n.).2

    disown (v.)

    1620s; see dis- + own (v.) in the sense "be responsible for, have legal authority over (and thus legal liability for)." Related: Disowned; disowning.ETD disown (v.).2

    disownment (n.)

    1806, in the language of the Society of Friends; see disown + -ment.ETD disownment (n.).2

    disparity (n.)

    1550s, "state or character of being essentially different;" 1590s, "quality of being unequal in rank, condition, etc.;" from French disparité (16c.), from Medieval Latin disparitatem (nominative disparitas) "inequality," from dis- "not" (see dis-) + paritas "parity," from Latin adjective par (genitive paris) "equal" (see par (n.)). Related: Disparities.ETD disparity (n.).2

    disparate (adj.)

    c. 1600, "unlike in kind, essentially different, having no common ground," from Latin disparatus, past participle of disparare "divide, separate," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + parare "get ready, prepare" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").ETD disparate (adj.).2

    The meaning seems to have been influenced in Latin by dispar "unequal, unlike" (from apparently unrelated Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched"). Related: Disparately; disparateness. As a noun, "one of two or more things or characters so unlike that they cannot be compared with each other," 1580s.ETD disparate (adj.).3

    disparage (v.)

    late 14c., "degrade socially" (for marrying below rank or without proper ceremony), from Anglo-French and Old French desparagier (Modern French déparager) "reduce in rank, degrade, devalue, depreciate," originally "to marry unequally, marry to one of inferior condition or rank," and thus, by extension, to bring on oneself or one's family the disgrace or dishonor involved in this, from des- "away" (see dis-) + parage "rank, lineage" (see peer (n.)).ETD disparage (v.).2

    Also from late 14c. as "injure or dishonor by a comparison," especially by treating as equal or inferior to what is of less dignity, importance, or value. Sense of "belittle, undervalue, criticize or censure unjustly" is by 1530s. Related: Disparaged; disparaging; disparagingly.ETD disparage (v.).3

    disparagement (n.)

    late 15c., "a matching to one of inferior rank or condition," from Old French desparagement, from desparagier (see disparage). The older noun was simply disparage (mid-14c.), from Old French desparage. From 1590s as "injury by union or comparison with something of inferior excellence, act of depreciating, a lowering of the estimation or character" of a person or thing.ETD disparagement (n.).2

    dispassionate (adj.)

    1590s, of persons, "free from passions, calm, disposed;" 1640s, "not dictated by passion, impartial;" from dis- "the opposite of" + passionate. Related: Dispassionately.ETD dispassionate (adj.).2

    dispatcher (n.)

    "one who dispatches," mid-16c., agent noun from dispatch (v.).ETD dispatcher (n.).2

    dispatch (v.)

    1510s, "to send off, send to a destination," usually implying urgent importance or haste, from Spanish despachar "expedite, hasten" or cognate Italian dispacciare "to dispatch." For first element, see dis-.ETD dispatch (v.).2

    The second element apparently has been confused or corrupted, and its exact source and meaning is uncertain. One proposal is that it is Vulgar Latin *pactare "to fasten, fix" or *pactiare. Another says it is Latin -pedicare "to entrap" (from Latin pedica "shackle;" see impeach), and the Spanish and Italian words seem to be related to (perhaps opposites of) Old Provençal empachar "impede." See OED for full discussion.ETD dispatch (v.).3

    Meaning "get rid of promptly by killing" is attested from 1520s; that of "attend to, finish, bring to an end, accomplish" is from 1530s. Related: Dispatched; dispatching.ETD dispatch (v.).4

    dispatch (n.)

    1540s, "dismissal after settlement of business," from dispatch (v.). Meaning "speed, haste" is from 1570s. Sense of "a written message sent speedily" is first attested 1580s; that of "a sending off or away" is from c. 1600.ETD dispatch (n.).2

    dispel (v.)

    c. 1400, dispellen, "drive off or away," from Latin dispellere "drive apart," from dis- "away" (see dis-) + pellere "to drive, push" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). Since the meaning is "to drive away in different directions" it should not have as an object a single, indivisible thing (you can dispel suspicion, but not an accusation). Related: Dispelled; dispelling.ETD dispel (v.).2

    dispensable (adj.)

    1530s, "subject to (ecclesiastical) dispensation, excusable, pardonable," from Medieval Latin dispensabilis, from Latin dispensare "disburse, administer, distribute (by weight)" (see dispense).ETD dispensable (adj.).2

    Meaning "that can be done without" is from 1640s; that of "capable of being administered" is from 1670s. Later senses in some cases might be directly from dispense. Related: Dispensability.ETD dispensable (adj.).3

    dispenser (n.)

    c. 1400, dispensour (mid-12c. as a surname), "one who administers" (a household, etc.), "one in charge of the distribution of goods and services," from Anglo-French dispensour, Old French despenseor, from Latin dispensator, agent noun from dispensare "disburse, administer, distribute (by weight);" see dispense. Meaning "a container that dispenses in fixed measure" is from 1918.ETD dispenser (n.).2

    dispense (v.)

    mid-14c., dispensen, "to dispose of, deal or divide out," from Old French dispenser "give out" (13c.), from Latin dispensare "disburse, administer, distribute (by weight)," frequentative of dispendere "pay out," from dis- "out" (see dis-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").ETD dispense (v.).2

    In Medieval Latin, dispendere was used in the ecclesiastical sense of "grant licence to do what is forbidden or omit what is required" (a power of popes, bishops, etc.), and thus acquired a sense of "grant remission from punishment or exemption from law," hence the use of the English verb in the senses "to do away with" (1570s), "do without" (c. 1600). The older sense is preserved in dispensary. Related: Dispensed; dispensing.ETD dispense (v.).3

    dispensation (n.)

    late 14c., dispensacioun, "power to dispose of," also "act of dispensing or dealing out," also "a relaxation of the law in some particular case," from Old French despensacion (12c., Modern French dispensation) and directly from Latin dispensationem (nominative dispensatio) "management, charge," noun of action from past-participle stem of dispensare "disburse, administer, distribute (by weight)" (see dispense). Related: Dispensational.ETD dispensation (n.).2

    Theological sense "method or scheme by which God has developed his purposes and revealed himself to man" (late 14c.) is from the use of the Latin word to translate Greek oikonomoia "office, method of administration" (see economy). Hence "particular period during which a religious system has prevailed" (1640s), with Patriarchal, Mosaic, Christian, etc. Also "a particular distribution (for good or ill) by divine providence" (1650s).ETD dispensation (n.).3

    dispensary (n.)

    "place for weighing out medicines, room or shop in which medicines are dispensed," 1690s, from Medieval Latin dispensarius, as a noun, "one who dispenses," from Latin dispensare "disburse, administer, distribute (by weight);" frequentative of dispendere "pay out," from dis- "out" (see dis-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Especially "public institution, primarily intended for the poor, where medical advice is given and medicines dispensed for free or for a small charge."ETD dispensary (n.).2

    disperse (v.)

    late 14c., dispersen, "to scatter, separate and send off or drive in different directions," from Latin dispersus, past participle of dispergere "to scatter," from dis- "apart, in every direction" (see dis-) + spargere "to scatter" (see sparse). The Latin word is glossed in Old English by tostregdan. Intransitive sense of "to separate and move apart in different directions without regularity" is from 1520s. Of clouds, fears, etc., "to dissipate," 1560s (transitive), 1590s (intransitive). Related: Dispersed; dispersing.ETD disperse (v.).2

    dispersion (n.)

    late 14c., dispersioun, "the Jewish diaspora," from Old French dispersion (13c.), from Latin dispersionem (nominative dispersio) "a scattering," noun of action from past-participle stem of dispergere "to scatter," from dis- "apart, in every direction" (see dis-) + spargere "to scatter" (see sparse). Meaning "act of scattering, state of being dispersed" is from early 15c.ETD dispersion (n.).2

    dispersal (n.)

    "dispersion," 1798; see disperse + -al (2).ETD dispersal (n.).2

    dispirit (v.)

    "depress the spirits of, deprive of courage," 1640s; see dis- + spirit. Related: Dispirited; dispiritedly; dispiriting.ETD dispirit (v.).2

    displacement (n.)

    1610s, "removal from office;" see displace + -ment. As "quantity of a liquid displaced by a solid body put into it," 1809. Physics sense "amount by which anything is displaced" is from 1837.ETD displacement (n.).2

    displace (v.)

    1550s, "remove to a different place, put out of the usual place; remove from any position, office, or dignity," from Old French desplacer (15c., Modern French déplacer), from des- (see dis-) + placer "to place," from place "place, spot" (see place (n.)). Related: Displaced; displacing. Displaced person "refugee" is from 1944.ETD displace (v.).2

    display (v.)

    c. 1300, "unfold, spread out, unfurl" (a banner, etc.), from Old French desploiir (Modern French déployer) "unfold, unfasten, spread out" (of knots, sealed letters, etc.), from Latin displicare "to scatter," in Medieval Latin "to unfold," from dis- "un-, apart" (see dis-) + plicare "to fold" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait").ETD display (v.).2

    Properly of sails or flags (and unconnected to play); meaning "reveal, exhibit, expose to view" is late 14c.; sense of "reveal unintentionally, allow to be seen" is from c. 1600. Related: Displayed; displaying.ETD display (v.).3

    display (n.)

    1580s, "description," a sense now obsolete, from display (v.). Meaning "exhibition, a spreading of anything to the view," commonly with a suggestion of ostentation or striving for effect, is from 1680s. Meaning "presentation of electronic signals on a screen" is from 1945 in reference to radar, by 1960 of computers. Display-window is attested by 1893.ETD display (n.).2

    displease (v.)

    late 14c., displesen, "fail to please, be disagreeable to," from Old French desplais-, present-tense stem of desplaisir "to displease" (13c., Modern French déplaire), from Latin displicere "displease," from dis- "not" (see dis-) + placere "to please" (see please (v.)). Related: Displeased; displeasing.ETD displease (v.).2

    displeasure (n.)

    early 15c., displesir, "a more or less intense or indignant disapproval," from Old French desplaisir, infinitive used as a noun (see displease, and compare waiver). Earlier in same sense was displesaunce (late 14c.).ETD displeasure (n.).2

    disport (n.)

    c. 1300, "activity that offers amusement, pleasure, or recreation," from Anglo-French disport, Old French desport, from disporter/desporter "divert, amuse" (see disport (v.)). From late 14c. as "a sport or game; the game of love, flirtation."ETD disport (n.).2

    disport (v.)

    late 14c., disporten, "to divert (from sadness or ennui), cheer, amuse gaily," from Anglo-French disporter "divert, amuse," Old French desporter "to seek amusement," literally "carry away" (the mind from serious matters), from des- "away" (see dis-) + porter "to carry," from Latin portare "to carry" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over").ETD disport (v.).2

    Compare disporter "a minstrel or jester" (early 15c.), also Latin deportare "to carry away, transport," in Medieval Latin also "divert, amuse." For a similar sense evolution, compare distract, divert, transport (v.). Intransitive sense of "to play, sport" is from late 14c.ETD disport (v.).3

    dispose (v.)

    late 14c., disposen, "set in order, place in a particular order; give direction or tendency to; incline the mind or heart of," from Old French disposer (13c.) "arrange, order, control, regulate" (influenced in form by poser "to place"), from Latin disponere "put in order, arrange, distribute," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). Related: Disposed; disposing.ETD dispose (v.).2

    disposable (adj.)

    1640s, "that may be done without;" see dispose + -able. Sense of "free to be used as the occasion may require, available" is from 1650s. Meaning "designed to be discarded after one use" is from 1943, originally of diapers, soon of everything; replaced throw-away (1928) in this sense. First recorded use of disposable income (which preserves the older sense) is from 1766.ETD disposable (adj.).2

    disposal (n.)

    1620s, "power to make use of, right to dispose of or control;" see dispose + -al (2). Meaning "a disposing" (of a daughter by marriage, of money by a will, of an estate by sale, etc.) is from 1650s; of waste material, from c. 1960, originally in medical use.ETD disposal (n.).2

    disposed (adj.)

    late 14c., "inclined, in the mood, having a mind (to do something)," past-participle adjective from dispose. Meaning "having a particular turn of mind or mental tendency" (with well-, ill-, etc.) is from early 15c.ETD disposed (adj.).2

    disposition (n.)

    late 14c., disposicioun, "ordering, management, a setting in order, arrangement," also "tendency of mind, aptitude, inclination," from Old French disposicion (12c.) "arrangement, order; mood, state of mind" and directly from Latin dispositionem (nominative dispositio) "arrangement, management," noun of action from past-participle stem of disponere "to put in order, arrange" (see dispose).ETD disposition (n.).2

    Meaning "frame of mind, attitude, inclination; temperament, natural tendency or constitution of the mind" (late 14c.) are from astrological use of the word for "position of a planet as a determining influence" (late 14c.). Related: Dispositional.ETD disposition (n.).3

    dispossession (n.)

    "act of putting out of possession," 1570s, noun of action from dispossess.ETD dispossession (n.).2

    dispossess (v.)

    "put out of possession, deprive of occupancy," late 15c., from Old French despossesser "to dispossess," from des- (see dis-) + possesser "to have and hold, take, be in possession of" (see possess). Related: Dispossessed; dispossessing. Modern French déposséder is a 16c. re-formation from Medieval Latin dispossidere.ETD dispossess (v.).2

    disprivilege (v.)

    "deprive (someone) of privilege," 1610s; see dis- + privilege. Related: Disprivileged.ETD disprivilege (v.).2

    disproof (n.)

    "proof to the contrary, confutation, refutation," 1530s, after disprove; see dis- + proof (n.). Earlier was dispreve (c. 1400), from dispreven (late 14c.), from Old French tonic stem of desprover.ETD disproof (n.).2

    disproportion (n.)

    "want of proportion of one thing to another, lack of symmetry," 1550s; see dis- + proportion. Perhaps from or based on French disproportion (16c.). As a verb from 1590s. Related: Disproportioned.ETD disproportion (n.).2

    disproportionate (adj.)

    "out of proportion, unsymmetrical, lacking due proportion," 1550s; see dis- "not" + proportionate. Improportionate in same sense is from late 14c. Related: Disproportionately.ETD disproportionate (adj.).2

    disprove (v.)

    "prove to be false or erroneous," late 14c., from Old French desprover "refute, contradict," from des- (see dis-) + prover "show; convince; put to the test" (see prove). Related: Disproved; disproving; disprovable. Middle English had also dispreven, from Old French desprover, with substitution of prefix.ETD disprove (v.).2

    disputant (n.)

    "one who argues in opposition to another," 1610s, from noun use of Latin disputantem (nominative disputans), present participle of disputare "weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)).ETD disputant (n.).2

    dispute (n.)

    c. 1300, "argumentative contention," from dispute (v.). Rare before c. 1600 (disputacioun in that sense is from late 14c.). Meaning "contention, strife, quarrel" is from 1610s.ETD dispute (n.).2

    disputation (n.)

    late 14c., disputacioun, "formal debate or discussion before an audience or official body regarding the truth of something," from Old French desputasion and directly from Latin disputationem (nominative disputatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of disputare "weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)). Earlier was desputeison (c. 1300), from Old French desputaison.ETD disputation (n.).2

    dispute (v.)

    c. 1300, "engage in argumentation or discussion," from Old French desputer (12c.) "dispute, fight over, contend for, discuss" and directly from Latin disputare "weigh, examine, discuss, argue, explain," from dis- "separately, apart" (see dis-) + putare "to count, consider," originally "to prune, make clean, clear up" (from PIE root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp").ETD dispute (v.).2

    The Latin word was used in Vulgate in sense of "to argue, contend with words." In English, transitive sense of "argue against, attempt to disprove, deny" is from 1510s. Related: Disputable; disputed; disputing.ETD dispute (v.).3

    disputable (adj.)

    "liable to be contested or called into question; controvertible," 1540s, from French disputable (16c.) or directly from Latin disputabilis, from disputare "weigh; examine; discuss, argue, explain" (see dispute (v.)). Related: Disputably.ETD disputable (adj.).2

    disputatious (adj.)

    "pertaining to or characterized by dispute; inclined to disputing," 1650s; see disputation + -ous. Related: Disputatiously. In the sense "inclined to disputation," earlier words were disputative (1570s), disputeful (1630s); Shakespeare used disputable (c. 1600).ETD disputatious (adj.).2

    disqualification (n.)

    1710s, "that which disqualifies;" 1770, "act of disqualifying; state of being disqualified;" noun of action or state from disqualify.ETD disqualification (n.).2

    disqualify (v.)

    "deprive of necessary disqualifications," 1718 (implied in disqualified), from dis- + qualify. Related: Disqualifying.ETD disqualify (v.).2

    disquiet (v.)

    "deprive of peace, rest, or tranquility," 1520s, from dis- + quiet (v.). Related: Disquieted; disquieting. As a noun, "want of quiet, rest, or peace," 1580s.ETD disquiet (v.).2

    disquietude (n.)

    "uneasy or disturbed state of mind," 1709; from disquiet on model of quietude. Disquietness is from 1530s.ETD disquietude (n.).2

    disquisition (n.)

    c. 1600, "subject for investigation" (a sense now obsolete), also "systematic search, formal inquiry into some problem or topic," from Latin disquisitionem (nominative disquisitio) "an inquiry, investigation," noun of action from past-participle stem of disquirere "inquire," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + quaerere "seek, ask" (see query (n.)). Sense of "a long speech, a formal dissertation" first recorded 1640s. Related: Disquisitional.ETD disquisition (n.).2

    disregard (v.)

    "treat as unworthy of regard or notice," 1640s, from dis- + regard. Related: Disregarded; disregarding. As a noun, "failure to regard or notice," from 1660s. Related: Disregardful.ETD disregard (v.).2

    disrelish (v.)

    c. 1600, "dislike the taste of," from dis- "opposite of" + relish (v.). From 1620s as "dislike for any reason." Related: Disrelished; disrelishing. As a noun, 1620s, "distaste, dislike, aversion, failure to regard or notice."ETD disrelish (v.).2

    disremember (v.)

    "forget, not remember," 1805, a colloquialism, from dis- "opposite of" + remember. Related: Disremembered; disremembering.ETD disremember (v.).2

    disrepair (n.)

    "state of being in bad condition or needing repair," by 1736, from dis- + repair (n.).ETD disrepair (n.).2

    disreputable (adj.)

    "having a bad reputation; dishonorable," 1690s; see dis- + reputable. Related: Disreputably; disreputableness.ETD disreputable (adj.).2

    disrepute (n.)

    "loss or want of reputation, disesteem," 1650s, from dis- + repute (n.).ETD disrepute (n.).2

    disrespect (v.)

    "have or show no respect for," 1610s, from dis- + respect. "Now chiefly colloq." [Century Dictionary, 1895]. Related: Disrespected; disrespecting.ETD disrespect (v.).2

    disrespect (n.)

    "want of respect or reverence, incivility," 1630s, from dis- + respect (n.).ETD disrespect (n.).2

    disrespectful (adj.)

    "showing disrespect, wanting in respect; irreverent, uncivil," 1670s; see dis- + respectful. Related: Disrespectfully; disrespectfulness.ETD disrespectful (adj.).2

    disrobe (v.)

    "to undress (oneself);" also, transitive, "divest of a robe or garments, denude;" 1580s; see dis- + robe. Perhaps from or based on Old French desrober (Modern French dérober). Related: Disrobed; disrobing.ETD disrobe (v.).2

    disrupt (v.)

    "break or burst asunder, separate forcibly." 1650s, but rare before c. 1820, from Latin disruptus, past participle of disrumpere "break apart, split, shatter, break to pieces," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + rumpere "to break" (from PIE root *runp- "to break;" see corrupt (adj.)). Or perhaps a back-formation from disruption. Earlier was disrump (1580s). Related: Disrupted; disrupting.ETD disrupt (v.).2

    disruptive (adj.)

    "causing or tending to cause disruption," 1862; see disrupt + -ive. From 1840 in reference to electrical discharges (in this sense probably from French). By 1876 as "produced by disruption." Related: Disruptively; disruptiveness.ETD disruptive (adj.).2

    disruption (n.)

    "a rending asunder, a bursting apart, forcible separation into parts," early 15c., originally medical, "laceration of tissue," general sense from 1640s, from Medieval Latin disruptionem (nominative disruptio) "a breaking asunder," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin disrumpere "break apart, split, shatter, break to pieces," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + rumpere "to break," from PIE root *runp- "to break" (see corrupt (adj.)).ETD disruption (n.).2

    dissatisfaction (n.)

    "lack of pleasure or contentment, uneasiness proceeding from disappointment or want of gratification," 1630s; see dis- + satisfaction.ETD dissatisfaction (n.).2

    dissatisfy (v.)

    "render discontented, fall short of one's wishes or expectations," 1660s; see dis- + satisfy. Related: Dissatisfied; dissatisfying.ETD dissatisfy (v.).2

    dissection (n.)

    1580s, "operation of cutting open or separating into parts," from French dissection (16c.) or directly from Medieval Latin dissectionem (nominative dissectio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin dissecare "cut in pieces," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + secare "to cut" (from PIE root *sek- "to cut"). Meaning "process of cutting open an animal or plant for examination of organs and tissues" is from c. 1600. Transferred sense of "act of separating anything into distinct parts for critical examination" is from 1640s.ETD dissection (n.).2

    dissect (v.)

    c. 1600, "cut in pieces," from Latin dissectus, past participle of dissecare"cut in pieces," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + secare "to cut" (from PIE root *sek- "to cut"). Or perhaps a back-formation from dissection. Specifically as "separate the distinct parts of an animal or plant for the purpose of studying its organization and functions or its morbid affections" from 1610s. Transferred sense of "examine part by part or point by point" is from 1630s. Related: Dissected; dissecting.ETD dissect (v.).2

    dissemble (v.)

    early 15c., dissemblen, "assume a false seeming; conceal real facts, motives, intentions, etc.; mask the truth about oneself," from Old French dessembler, from Latin dissimulare "make unlike, conceal, disguise," from dis- "completely" (see dis-) + simulare "to make like, imitate, copy, represent," from stem of similis "like, resembling, of the same kind" (see similar). Related: Dissembled; dissembling.ETD dissemble (v.).2

    Form altered apparently by influence of resemble, Old French resembler. Earlier was Middle English dissimule, from Old French dissimuler. Transitive meaning "make unlike, disguise" is from c. 1500; that of "give a false impression of" is from 1510s.ETD dissemble (v.).3

    dissembler (n.)

    "one who conceals his opinions, character, etc., under a false appearance, one who pretends that a thing which is is not," 1520s, agent noun from dissemble. "A dissembler is one who tries to conceal what he is; a hypocrite, one who tries to make himself appear to be what he is not, especially to seem better than he is." [Century Dictionary]ETD dissembler (n.).2

    dissembling (n.)

    "dissimulation, a concealing of opinions, character, etc., under false appearance," c. 1500, verbal noun from dissemble. Related: Dissemblingly.ETD dissembling (n.).2

    dissemination (n.)

    1640s, "a spreading abroad (opinion, information, etc.) for acceptance," from Latin disseminationem (nominative disseminatio) "a scattering of seed, a sowing," noun of action from past-participle stem of disseminare (see disseminate). Or perhaps a native noun formation from disseminate. The figurative sense in English is earlier than the literal one of "act of sowing or scattering seed for propagation."ETD dissemination (n.).2

    disseminate (v.)

    c. 1600, "to scatter or sow for propagation," from Latin disseminatus, past participle of disseminare "to spread abroad, disseminate," from dis- "in every direction" (see dis-) + seminare "to plant, propagate," from semen (genitive seminis) "seed" (from PIE root *sē- "to sow"). Figurative sense of "to spread by diffusion (teaching, opinion, error, etc.) with reference to some intended result" is by 1640s. Related: Disseminated; disseminates; disseminating. Middle English had dissemen "to scatter" (early 15c.).ETD disseminate (v.).2

    dissension (n.)

    early 14c., dissencioun, "disagreement in opinion," especially strong disagreement which produces heated debate, from Old French dissension (12c.) and directly from Latin dissensionem (nominative dissensio) "disagreement, difference of opinion, discord, strife," noun of action from past participle stem of dissentire "disagree," from dis- "differently" (see dis-) + sentire "to feel, think" (see sense (n.)).ETD dissension (n.).2

    dissent (v.)

    mid-15c., dissenten, "express a different or contrary opinion or feeling, withhold approval or consent," from Old French dissentir (15c.) and directly from Latin dissentire "differ in sentiments, disagree, be at odds, contradict, quarrel," from dis- "differently" (see dis-) + sentire "to feel, think" (see sense (n.)). Ecclesiastical sense of "refuse to be bound by the doctrines or rules of an established church" is from 1550s. Related: Dissented; dissenting.ETD dissent (v.).2

    The noun is 1580s, "difference of opinion with regard to religious doctrine or worship," from the verb. From 1650s as "the act of dissenting, refusal to be bound by what is contrary to one's own judgment" (the opposite of consent). From 1660s as "a declaration of disagreement." By 1772 in the specific sense of "refusal to conform to an established church."ETD dissent (v.).3

    dissenter (n.)

    "one who differs in opinion or declares disagreement," 1630s, agent noun from dissent. In 17c. England and Scotland especially "one who refuses to accept the authority or doctrines, or conform to the rituals of the established church" (with a capital D- from 1670s).ETD dissenter (n.).2

    dissertation (n.)

    1610s, "discussion, debate" (a sense now obsolete), from Late Latin dissertationem (nominative dissertatio) "discourse," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin dissertare "debate, argue, examine, harangue," frequentative of disserere "discuss, examine," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + serere "to join together, put in a row, arrange (words)," from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up."ETD dissertation (n.).2

    Sense of "formal, written treatise" is from 1650s. Meaning "research paper required as a final project for a Ph.D or other doctoral degree" is attested by 1877 in reference to continental universities; it was in use in the U.S. by 1890. Related: Dissertational. There is no regular verb to go with it: Dissert (1620s, from French disserter, from Latin dissertare) is obsolete, and dissertate (1766) is marked "Unusual" in OED.ETD dissertation (n.).3

    disservice (n.)

    "service resulting in harm rather than benefit, intentional or not," 1590s; see dis- + service (n.). Perhaps formed on analogy of French desservice (16c.).ETD disservice (n.).2

    dissever (v.)

    late 13c., disseveren, "divide asunder, separate," from Anglo-French deseverer, Old French dessevrer (10c.), from des- "apart" (see dis-) + sevrer "to separate" (see sever). Intransitive sense of "to part" is from early 15c. Related: Dissevered; dissevering; disseverment; disseveration.ETD dissever (v.).2

    disseverance (n.)

    late 14c., "separation, parting," from Old French desevrance, from dessevrer (see dissever).ETD disseverance (n.).2

    dissident (adj.)

    1530s, "different, at variance, disagreeing," from Latin dissidentem (nominative dissidens), present participle of dissidere "to be remote; disagree, be removed from," literally "to sit apart," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."ETD dissident (adj.).2

    Meaning "dissenting, not conforming" is from 1837, originally in reference to an established church. Meaning "disagreeing in political matters" is by 1943.ETD dissident (adj.).3

    dissident (n.)

    "one who differs or dissents from others," 1766, in reference to Protestants and other non-Catholics in Poland, from dissident (adj.). General sense of "an opponent or non-conformist with regard to a prevailing opinion, method, etc." is by 1790, at first especially with reference to religion. In the political sense it is used by 1940, coinciding with the rise of 20c. totalitarian systems, especially with reference to the Soviet Union.ETD dissident (n.).2

    Larger font
    Smaller font