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    entomophagous (adj.) — epigone (n.)

    entomophagous (adj.)

    "insectivorous," 1800, from entomo-, from Greek entomon "insect" (see entomology) + -phagous "eating."ETD entomophagous (adj.).2

    entoparasite (n.)

    1847; see ento- + parasite. Perhaps from German or French.ETD entoparasite (n.).2

    entourage (n.)

    1832, "surroundings, environment," picked up by De Quincey from French entourage, from entourer "to surround" (16c.), from Old French entour "that which surrounds" (10c.), from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + tour "a circuit" (see tour). Specific sense of "attendant persons, persons among whom as followers or companions one is accustomed to move" recorded in English by 1860.ETD entourage (n.).2


    in words from French, corresponds to English enter-, which is itself from French entre "between, among" (11c.), from Latin inter (see inter-).ETD entre-.2

    entrails (n.)

    "internal parts of animal bodies," c. 1300, from Old French entrailles (12c.), from Late Latin intralia "inward parts, intestines" (8c.), from altered form of Latin interanea, noun use of neuter plural of interaneus "internal, that which is within," from inter "between, among" (from PIE *enter "between, among," comparative of root *en "in").ETD entrails (n.).2

    Latin interanea yielded Late Latin intrania, hence Italian entrango, Spanish entrañas, Old French entraigne; the alternative form that led to the Modern English word evidently is from influence of the Latin neuter plural (collective) adjective suffix -alia (French -aille).ETD entrails (n.).3

    entrain (v.1)

    "to draw along," 1560s, a term in chemistry, from French entrainer (12c.), from en- "away" (see en- (1)) + trainer "to drag" (see train (n.)). Related: Entrained; entrainment.ETD entrain (v.1).2

    entrain (v.2)

    "get on board a locomotive train," 1860s, from en- (1) "in, into" + train (n.). Related: Entrained.ETD entrain (v.2).2

    entrammel (v.)

    "to entangle," 1590s, from en- (1) "in" + trammel (n.).ETD entrammel (v.).2

    entrance (n.)

    1520s, "act of entering," from French entrance, from entrer (see enter). The sense of "door, gate" attested in English by 1530s. The meaning "a coming of an actor upon the stage" is from c. 1600.ETD entrance (n.).2

    entrance (v.)

    "to throw into a trance," 1590s, from en- (1) "put in" + trance (n.). Meaning "to delight" also is 1590s. Related: Entranced; entrancing; entrancement.ETD entrance (v.).2

    entrant (n.)

    1630s, "one who enters, a beginner" (of professions, etc.); from French entrant, present participle of entrer (see enter). From 1838 with reference to one who enters a contest. As an adjective from 1630s.ETD entrant (n.).2

    entrapment (n.)

    1590s, from entrap + -ment. Criminal investigation sense attested by 1896.ETD entrapment (n.).2

    entrap (v.)

    "to catch, as in a trap," 1530s, intrappe, from Old French entraper "trap, catch in a trap;" see en- (1) + trap (n.). Related: Entrapped; entrapping.ETD entrap (v.).2

    entree (n.)

    1724, "opening piece of an opera or ballet," from French entrée, from Old French entree (see entry). Cookery sense is from 1759; originally the dish which was introductory to the main course. Meaning "entry, freedom of access" is from 1762. The word had been borrowed in Middle English as entre "act of entering."ETD entree (n.).2

    entreat (v.)

    c. 1400, "to enter into negotiations," especially "discuss or arrange peace terms;" also "to treat (someone) in a certain way," from Anglo-French entretier, Old French entraiter "to treat," from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + traiter "to treat" (see treat (v.)). Meaning "to beseech, implore, plead with (someone)" is from early 15c.; meaning "to plead for (someone)" is from mid-15c. Related: Entreated; entreating.ETD entreat (v.).2

    entreaty (n.)

    mid-15c., "treatment; negotiation;" see entreat + -y (1). Meaning "urgent solicitation, earnest request" is from 1570s. Related: Entreaties.ETD entreaty (n.).2

    entre nous

    "in private," French, literally "between ourselves."ETD entre nous.2

    entrenchment (n.)

    also intrenchment, 1580s, from entrench + -ment.ETD entrenchment (n.).2

    entrench (v.)

    also intrench, 1550s, implied in intrenched, from en- (1) "make, put in" + trench (n.). Figurative use is from 1590s. Related: Entrenched; entrenching.ETD entrench (v.).2

    entrepot (n.)

    "warehouse," 1758, from French entrepôt (16c.), from Latin interpositum "that which is placed between," neuter past participle of interponere "to place between" (see interposition).ETD entrepot (n.).2

    entrepreneur (n.)

    1828, "manager or promoter of a theatrical production," reborrowing of French entrepreneur "one who undertakes or manages," agent noun from Old French entreprendre "undertake" (see enterprise). The word first crossed the Channel late 15c. (Middle English entreprenour) but did not stay. Meaning "business manager" is from 1852. Related: Entrepreneurship.ETD entrepreneur (n.).2

    entrepreneurial (adj.)

    1915, from entrepreneur + -ial.ETD entrepreneurial (adj.).2

    entry (n.)

    c. 1300, "act or fact of physically entering; place of entrance, means of entering a building; opportunity or right of entering; initiation or beginning of an action;" from Old French entree "entry, entrance" (12c.), noun use of fem. past participle of entrer "to enter" (see enter). Meaning "that which is entered or set down (in a book, list, etc.)" is from c. 1500.ETD entry (n.).2

    entropy (n.)

    1868, from German Entropie "measure of the disorder of a system," coined 1865 (on analogy of Energie) by German physicist Rudolph Clausius (1822-1888), in his work on the laws of thermodynamics, from Greek entropia "a turning toward," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + trope "a turning, a transformation" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). The notion is supposed to be "transformation contents." Related: Entropic.ETD entropy (n.).2

    entrust (v.)

    also intrust, c. 1600, from en- (1) "make, put in" + trust (n.). Related: Entrusted; entrusting.ETD entrust (v.).2

    entryway (n.)

    "passage or space for ingress, an entry," 1735, from entry + way.ETD entryway (n.).2

    entwine (v.)

    also intwine, "to twist round," 1590s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + twine (n.). Related: Entwined; entwining; entwinement.ETD entwine (v.).2

    enucleation (n.)

    "the act of removing (a kernel, seed, tumor, etc.) from its cover or capsule," 1640s, noun of action from verb enucleate (1540s), from Latin enucleatus "pure, clean," past participle of enucleare "to lay open, explain in detail," literally "to remove the kernel from" (see ex- + nucleus). Mostly figurative in Latin (the notion is of getting at the "core" of some matter), and usually figurative in English until mid-19c. advances in science and medicine gave it a new literal sense.ETD enucleation (n.).2

    enumeration (n.)

    1550s, "action of enumerating," from French énumération, from Latin enumerationem (nominative enumeratio) "a counting up," noun of action from past-participle stem of enumerare "to reckon up, count over, enumerate," from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + numerare "to count, number," from numerus "number" (see number (n.)). Meaning "a list, catalogue" is from 1724.ETD enumeration (n.).2

    enumerate (v.)

    "to count; ascertain or tell over the number of;" hence, "mention in detail, recapitulate," 1640s, from or modeled on Latin enumeratus, past participle of enumerare "to reckon up, count over, enumerate," from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + numerare "to count, number," from numerus "number" (see number (n.)). Middle English had annumerate (early 15c.). Related: Enumerated; enumerating.ETD enumerate (v.).2

    enumerable (adj.)

    "capable of being enumerated," 1846; see enumerate + -able. Often an error for innumerable.ETD enumerable (adj.).2

    enunciation (n.)

    1550s, "a declaration," from Latin enuntiationem (nominative enuntiatio) "enunciation, declaration," noun of action from past participle stem of enuntiare "to speak out, say, express" (see enunciate). Meaning "articulation of words" is from 1750.ETD enunciation (n.).2

    enunciate (v.)

    1620s, "declare, express," from Latin enunciatus, properly enuntiatus, past participle of enuntiare "speak out, say, express, assert; divulge, disclose, reveal, betray," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + nuntiare "to announce," from nuntius "messenger" (from PIE root *neu- "to shout"). Or perhaps a back-formation from enunciation. Meaning "to articulate, pronounce" is from 1759. Related: Enunciated; enunciating.ETD enunciate (v.).2

    enunciative (adj.)

    "declarative, declaring something as true," 1530s, from Latin enunciatus, properly enuntiativus, from past participle stem of enuntiare "to speak out, say, express" (see enunciate).ETD enunciative (adj.).2

    enuresis (n.)

    minor urinary incontinence, 1800, medical Latin, from Greek enourein "to urinate in," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + ourein "to urinate," from ouron (see urine).ETD enuresis (n.).2

    envelop (v.)

    late 14c., envolupen, "be involved" (in sin, crime, etc.), from Old French envoleper, envoluper "envelop, cover; fold up, wrap up" (10c., Modern French envelopper), from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + voloper "wrap up," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps Celtic (see Gamillscheg, Diez) or Germanic ("Century Dictionary"). Literal sense is from 1580s. Related: Enveloped; enveloping.ETD envelop (v.).2

    envelopment (n.)

    1751, from envelop (v.) + -ment.ETD envelopment (n.).2

    envelope (n.)

    "a wrapper, an enclosing cover," specifically a prepared wrapper for a letter or other paper, 1705, from French enveloppe (13c.), a back-formation from envelopper "to envelop" (see envelop).ETD envelope (n.).2

    envenom (v.)

    c. 1300, envenymen, from Old French envenimer (12c.) "to poison, taint;" from en- (see en- (1)) + venim (see venom). Figurative use is from late 14c. Related: Envenomed; envenoming.ETD envenom (v.).2

    envy (n.)

    late 13c., from Old French envie "envy, jealousy, rivalry" (10c.), from Latin invidia "envy, jealousy" (source also of Spanish envidia, Portuguese inveja), from invidus "envious, having hatred or ill-will," from invidere "to envy, hate," earlier "look at (with malice), cast an evil eye upon," from in- "upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see").ETD envy (n.).2

    Similar formations in Avestan nipashnaka "envious," also "look at;" Old Church Slavonic zavideti "to envy," from videti "to see;" Lithuanian pavydėti "to envy," related to veizdėti "to see, to look at."ETD envy (n.).3

    envy (v.)

    late 14c., from Old French envier "envy, be envious of," from envie (see envy (n.)). Related: Envied; envying.ETD envy (v.).2

    enviable (adj.)

    c. 1600, from envy + -able or from French enviable. Related: Enviably.ETD enviable (adj.).2

    envious (adj.)

    c. 1300, from Anglo-French envious, Old French envieus (13c.), earlier envidius "envious, jealous" (12c., Modern French envieux), from Latin invidiosus "full of envy" (source of Spanish envidioso, Italian invidioso, Portuguese invejoso), from invidia (see envy). Related: Enviously; enviousness.ETD envious (adj.).2

    environment (n.)

    c. 1600, "state of being environed" (see environ (v.) + -ment); sense of "the aggregate of the conditions in which a person or thing lives" is by 1827 (used by Carlyle to render German Umgebung); specialized ecology sense first recorded 1956.ETD environment (n.).2

    environs (n.)

    "outskirts," 1660s, from French environs, plural of Old French environ "compass, circuit," from environ (adv.) "around, round about" (see environ).ETD environs (n.).2

    environ (v.)

    late 14c. (implied in environing), "to surround, encircle, encompass," from Old French environer "to surround, enclose, encircle," from environ "round about," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + viron "a circle, circuit," also used as an adverb, from virer "to turn" (see veer). Related: Environed.ETD environ (v.).2

    environmentalism (n.)

    1923, as a psychological theory (in the nature vs. nurture debate), from environmental + -ism. The ecological sense is from 1972. Related: Environmentalist (n.), 1916 in the psychological sense, 1970 in the ecological sense.ETD environmentalism (n.).2

    environmental (adj.)

    1887, "environing, surrounding," from environment + -al (1). Ecological sense by 1967. Related: Environmentally (1884).ETD environmental (adj.).2

    envision (v.)

    1914, from en- (1) "make, put in" + vision (n.). Related: Envisioned; envisioning. Earlier (1827) is envision'd in sense "endowed with vision."ETD envision (v.).2

    envisage (v.)

    1778, "look in the face of," from French envisager "look in the face of," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + visage "face" (see visage). Hence "to apprehend mentally, contemplate" (1837). Related: Envisaged; envisaging; envisagement.ETD envisage (v.).2

    envoy (n.)

    "messenger," 1660s, from French envoyé "messenger; a message; a sending; the postscript of a poem," literally "one sent" (12c.), noun use of past participle of envoyer "send," from Vulgar Latin *inviare "send on one's way," from Latin in "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + via "road" (see via (adv.)). The same French word was borrowed in Middle English as envoi in the sense "stanza of a poem 'sending it off' to find readers" (late 14c.).ETD envoy (n.).2

    enwind (v.)

    also inwind, 1590s (implied in inwinding), from en- (1) + wind (v.1). Related: Enwound; enwinding.ETD enwind (v.).2

    enwrap (v.)

    also inwrap, late 14c., from en- (1) "make, put in" + wrap (v.). Related: Enwrapped; enwrapping.ETD enwrap (v.).2

    enzyme (n.)

    1881, as a biochemical term, from German Enzym, coined 1878 by German physiologist Wilhelm Kühne (1837-1900), from Modern Greek enzymos "leavened," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + zymē "leaven" (see zymurgy). Related: Enzymotic.ETD enzyme (n.).2


    word-forming element, used from mid-19c. (first in Eocene) in compound words formed by earth-scientists, and meaning "characterized by the earliest appearance of," from Greek ēōs "dawn, morning, daybreak," also the name of the goddess of the morning, from PIE root *aus- (1) "to shine," especially of the dawn. Piltdown Man, before exposed as a fraud, was known as Eoanthropus.ETD eo-.2

    Eocene (adj.)

    in reference to the second epoch of the Tertiary Period, 1831, from eo- "earliest" + Latinized form of Greek kainos "new" (see -cene). Coined in English (along with Miocene and Pliocene) by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath, and meant as "the dawn of the recent." As a noun from 1851.ETD Eocene (adj.).2

    Eohippus (n.)

    oldest known genus of the horse family, about the size of a fox and first known from fossil remains found in New Mexico, 1879, Modern Latin, from eo- "earliest" + Greek hippos "horse" (from PIE root *ekwo- "horse").ETD Eohippus (n.).2

    eolian (adj.)

    see Aeolian.ETD eolian (adj.).2

    eolithic (adj.)

    "pertaining to the early Stone Age," 1890, from French éolithique (1883), from eo- "earliest" (see eo-) + French lithique, as in néolithique (see neolithic). Related: eolith (1890).ETD eolithic (adj.).2

    eon (n.)

    1640s, from Late Latin aeon, from Greek aiōn "age, vital force; a period of existence, a lifetime, a generation; a long space of time," in plural, "eternity," from PIE root *aiw- "vital force, life, long life, eternity." Related: Eonian; eonic.ETD eon (n.).2


    initialism (acronym) for Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. federal agency proposed by President Richard Nixon and created in December 1970.ETD EPA.2

    epact (n.)

    1550s, "a number attached to a year to show the number of days into the calendar moon on which the solar year begins;" 1580s, "number of days by which the solar year exceeds a lunar one of 12 moons;" from French épacte (12c.), from Late Latin epacta "an intercalary day," from Greek epakte (plural epaktai, in epaktai hemerai "intercalary days"), from fem. of epaktos "brought in, imported, alien," verbal adjective of epagein "to add, bring forward," also "intercalate," from epi "on" (see epi-) + agein "put in motion, move; push forward, advance," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move." Related: Epactal.ETD epact (n.).2

    epaulet (n.)

    also epaulette, "shoulder ornament on a uniform," 1783, from French épaulette "an epaulet" (16c.), diminutive of épaule "shoulder," from Old French espaule (12c.), from Latin spatula "flat piece of wood, splint," in Medieval Latin "shoulder blade," diminutive of spatha "broad wooden instrument, broad sword," from Greek spathē "a broad flat sword" (see spade (n.1)).ETD epaulet (n.).2

    epee (n.)

    1889, from French épée, literally "sword" from Old French espe (9c., spede) "spear, lance," from Latin spatha (see epaulet).ETD epee (n.).2

    epeiric (adj.)

    in reference to seas covering continental shelves, 1915, from Greek ēpeiros "mainland, land, continent" (as opposed to the sea and the islands), from PIE root *apero- "shore" (source also of Old English ofer "bank, rim, shore," Old Frisian over "bank") + -ic.ETD epeiric (adj.).2

    epexegesis (n.)

    "words added to convey more clearly the meaning intended," 1620s, from Modern Latin, from Greek epexegesis "a detailed account, explanation," from epi "in addition" (see epi-) + exegeisthai "to explain" (see exegesis). Related: Epexegetic; epexegetical.ETD epexegesis (n.).2

    ephah (n.)

    Hebrew dry measure, probably of Egyptian origin (compare Coptic epi "measure").ETD ephah (n.).2

    ephebe (n.)

    "young man," 1690s, from Greek ephebos (see ephebic).ETD ephebe (n.).2

    ephebic (adj.)

    1880, from Latinized form of Greek ephebikos "of or for an ephebe," from ephebos "one arrived at puberty, one of age 18-20," from epi "upon" (see epi-) + hēbē "early manhood," from PIE *yegw-a- "power, youth, strength." In classical Athens, a youth of 18 underwent his dokimasia, had his hair cut off, and was enrolled as a citizen. His chief occupation for the next two years was garrison duty.ETD ephebic (adj.).2

    ephedra (n.)

    genus of low, branchy desert shrubs, 1914, from Modern Latin (1737) from Greek ephedra, a name given by Pliny to the horsetail, literally "sitting upon," from fem. of ephedros "sitting or seated upon; sitting at or near," from epi "on" (see epi-) + hedra "seat, base, chair; face of a geometric solid," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." The reason for the name is not known.ETD ephedra (n.).2

    ephedrine (n.)

    1889, named 1887 by Japanese organic chemist Nagai Nagayoshi (1844-1929), from the plant ephedra, from which it was first extracted, + chemical suffix -ine (2).ETD ephedrine (n.).2

    ephemeral (adj.)

    1560s; see ephemera + -al (1). Originally of diseases and lifespans, "lasting but one day;" extended sense of "transitory" is from 1630s. Related: Ephemerally; ephemerality.ETD ephemeral (adj.).2

    ephemera (n.)

    late 14c., originally a medical term, from Medieval Latin ephemera (febris) "(fever) lasting a day," from fem. of ephemerus, from Greek ephemeros "daily, for the day," also "lasting or living only one day, short-lived," from epi "on" (see epi-) + hēmerai, dative of hēmera "day," from PIE *Hehmer "day." Sense extended 17c. to short-lived insects (Modern Latin ephemera musca) and flowers; general sense of "thing of transitory existence" is first attested 1751. Compare Greek ephemeroi "men," literally "creatures of a day."ETD ephemera (n.).2

    ephemeris (n.)

    table showing predicted positions of heavenly bodies, 1550s, Modern Latin, from Greek ephemeris "diary, journal, calendar," from ephemeros "daily" (see ephemera). The classical plural is ephemerides.ETD ephemeris (n.).2

    ephemeron (n.)

    "insect which lives for a very short time in its winged state," 1620s, from Greek (zōon) ephemeron, neuter of adjective ephemeros "living but a day" (see ephemera). Figurative use by 1771.ETD ephemeron (n.).2

    Ephesians (n.)

    New Testament epistle, late 14c., addressed to Christian residents of the Ionian Greek city of Ephesus, in what now is western Turkey.ETD Ephesians (n.).2


    Greek city in ancient Asia Minor, center of worship for Artemis, Latinized form of Greek Ephesos, traditionally derived from ephoros "overseer," in reference to its religious significance, but this might be folk etymology. Related: Ephesine.ETD Ephesus.2

    ephialtes (n.)

    nightmare or demon that causes nightmares, c. 1600, from Greek Ephialtes, name of a demon supposed to cause nightmares; the ancient explanation is that it was from ephallesthai "to leap upon," which suits the sense, but OED finds "considerable" phonological difficulties with this.ETD ephialtes (n.).2

    ephod (n.)

    Jewish priestly vestment, late 14c., from Hebrew ephod, from aphad "to put on."ETD ephod (n.).2

    ephor (n.)

    Spartan magistrate, 1580s, from Greek ephoros "overseer," from epi- "over" (see epi-) + horan "to see," which is possibly from PIE root *wer- (3) "perceive, watch out for."ETD ephor (n.).2


    masc. personal name, in Old Testament the younger son of Joseph, also the name of the tribe descended from him, and sometimes used figuratively for "Kingdom of Israel;" Greek form of Hebrew Ephrayim, a derivative of parah "was fruitful" (related to Aramaic pera "fruit").ETD Ephraim.2


    before vowels reduced to ep-, before aspirated vowels eph-, word-forming element meaning "on, upon, above," also "in addition to; toward, among," from Greek epi "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition," also "after," from PIE *epi, *opi "near, at, against" (source also of Sanskrit api "also, besides;" Avestan aipi "also, to, toward;" Armenian ev "also, and;" Latin ob "toward, against, in the way of;" Oscan op, Greek opi- "behind;" Hittite appizzis "younger;" Lithuanian ap- "about, near;" Old Church Slavonic ob "on"). A productive prefix in Greek; also used in modern scientific compounds (such as epicenter).ETD epi-.2

    epic (adj.)

    1580s, "pertaining to or constituting a lengthy heroic poem," via French épique or directly from Latin epicus, from Greek epikos, from epos "a word; a tale, story; promise, prophecy, proverb; poetry in heroic verse" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak").ETD epic (adj.).2

    Extended sense of "grand, heroic" is recorded in English by 1731. From 1706 as a noun in reference to an epic poem, "A long narrative told on a grand scale of time and place, featuring a larger-than-life protagonist and heroic actions" [Miller Williams, "Patterns of Poetry"]. Earlier as "an epic poet" (1630s).ETD epic (adj.).3

    epicene (adj.)

    "belonging to or including both sexes," mid-15c., epycen, originally a grammatical term for nouns that may denote either gender, from Latin epicoenus "common," from Greek epikoinos "common to many, promiscuous," from epi "on" (see epi-) + koinos "common" (see coeno-). English has no need of it in its grammatical sense. Extended sense of "characteristic of both sexes" first recorded in English c. 1600; that of "effeminate" is from 1630s.ETD epicene (adj.).2

    epicenter (n.)

    1885 in seismology, "point on the earth's surface directly above the center or focus of an earthquake," from Modern Latin epicentrum (1879 in geological use); see epi- + center (n.). Related: Epicentral (1866).ETD epicenter (n.).2

    epicentre (n.)

    chiefly British English spelling of epicenter; for spelling, see -re.ETD epicentre (n.).2

    epicure (n.)

    late 14c., "follower of Epicurus," a Latinized form of Greek Epicouros (341-270 B.C.E.), Athenian philosopher who taught that pleasure is the highest good and identified virtue as the greatest pleasure; the first lesson recalled, the second forgotten, and the name used pejoratively for "one who gives himself up to sensual pleasure" (1560s), especially "glutton, sybarite" (1774).ETD epicure (n.).2

    Epicurus's school was opposed by the stoics, who first gave his name a reproachful sense. The non-pejorative meaning "one who cultivates refined taste in food and drink" is from 1580s.ETD epicure (n.).3

    But to Dante he is among the arch-heretics in Hell "who make the soul die with the body."ETD epicure (n.).4

    epicureous (adj.)

    also epicurious, "epicurean," 1550s, an obsolete word from 16c.-17c., from Latin epicureus, from Greek epikoureios, from epikouros (see epicure).ETD epicureous (adj.).2

    epicurean (n.)

    late 14c., "follower of the philosophical system of Epicurus," from Old French Epicurien, or from epicure + -ian. From 1570s as "one devoted to pleasure." As an adjective, attested from 1580s in the philosophical sense and 1640s with the meaning "pleasure-loving."ETD epicurean (n.).2

    epicureanism (n.)

    1751, with reference to the philosophical system of Epicurus; 1847 in a general sense "attachment to or indulgence in luxurious habits," from epicurean + -ism. Earlier was epicurism (1570s).ETD epicureanism (n.).2

    epicycle (n.)

    "small circle moving on or around another circle," late 14c., from Late Latin epicyclus, from Greek epikyklos, from epi (see epi-) + kyklos "circle, wheel, circular motion, cycle of events" (from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round"). Related: Epicyclic.ETD epicycle (n.).2

    epidemic (adj.)

    c. 1600, "common to or affecting a whole people," originally and usually, though not etymologically, in reference to diseases, from French épidémique, from épidemié "an epidemic disease," from Medieval Latin epidemia, from Greek epidēmia "a stay in a place; prevalence of an epidemic disease" (especially the plague), from epi "among, upon" (see epi-) + dēmos "people, district" (see demotic). Also see -ic.ETD epidemic (adj.).2

    epidemic (n.)

    1757, "an epidemic disease, a temporary prevalence of a disease throughout a community," from epidemic (adj.); earlier epideme (see epidemy). An Old English noun for this (persisting in Middle English) was man-cwealm.ETD epidemic (n.).2

    epidemy (n.)

    "an epidemic disease," especially the plague, late 15c., ipedemye, impedyme, from Old French ypidime (12c., Modern French épidémie), from Late Latin epidemia (see epidemic (adj.)).ETD epidemy (n.).2

    epidemiology (n.)

    "study of epidemics, science of epidemic diseases," 1850, from Greek epidemios, literally "among the people, of one's countrymen at home" (see epidemic) + -logy. Related: Epidemiological; epidemiologist.ETD epidemiology (n.).2

    epidermis (n.)

    1620s, from Late Latin epidermis, from Greek epidermis "the outer skin," from epi "on" (see epi-) + derma "skin" (from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel," with derivatives referring to skin and leather). Related: Epidermal; epidermic.ETD epidermis (n.).2

    epididymis (n.)

    c. 1600, "fleshy mass at the back of the testicles," Modern Latin, literally "that which is on the testicles," from Greek epididymis, a word probably coined by Greek anatomist Herophilus (c. 353-280 B.C.E.) from epi "on" (see epi-) + didymos "testicle," literally "double, twofold" (adj.), from PIE root *dwo- "two." An acceptable Englishing of it is in Richard Brome's "The Court Beggar" (1652):ETD epididymis (n.).2

    Related: Epididymal.ETD epididymis (n.).3

    epidural (adj.)

    1873, "situated on or affecting the dura mater," from epi- "on" + dura mater + -al (1). The noun meaning "injection into the epidural region" (usually given during childbirth) is attested by 1966.ETD epidural (adj.).2

    epigastrium (n.)

    1680s, Modern Latin, from Greek epigastrion "region of the abdomen from the breasts to the navel," neuter of epigastrios "over the belly," from epi "on, above" (see epi-) + gastēr "stomach" (see gastric). The region below the navel is the hypogastrium.ETD epigastrium (n.).2

    epiglottis (n.)

    1610s, from Late Latin epiglottis, from Greek epiglottis, literally "(that which is) upon the tongue," from epi "on" (see epi-) + glōttis, from glōtta, variant of glōssa "tongue" (see gloss (n.2)). An earlier form was epiglote (early 15c.), from Old French epiglotte. Related: Epiglottic.ETD epiglottis (n.).2

    epigone (n.)

    also epigon, "undistinguished scion of mighty ancestors," (sometimes in Latin plural form epigoni), 1865, from Greek epigonoi, in classical use with reference to the sons of the Seven who warred against Thebes; plural of epigonos "offspring, successor, posterity," noun use of adjective meaning "born afterward," from epi "close upon" (in time), see epi-, + -gonos "birth, offspring," from root of gignesthai "to be born" related to genos "race, birth, descent" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups).ETD epigone (n.).2

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