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    emphasize (v.) — encroachment (n.)

    emphasize (v.)

    "to utter or pronounce with emphasis, lay stress upon; bring out clearly or distinctly," 1765, from emphasis + -ize. Related: Emphasized; emphasizing.ETD emphasize (v.).2

    emphasis (n.)

    1570s, "intensity of expression," from Latin emphasis, from Greek emphasis "an appearing in, outward appearance;" in rhetoric, "significance, indirect meaning," from emphainein "to present, exhibit, display, let (a thing) be seen; be reflected (in a mirror), become visible," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + phainein "to show" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine").ETD emphasis (n.).2

    In Greek and Latin, originally a figure of expression implying, in context, more than would ordinarily be meant by the words. Hence "the mode of delivery appropriate to suggestive expression, rhetorical stress," and thence, in general, extra stress or force of voice given to the utterance of a word, phrase, or part of a word in speech as a clue that it implies something more than literal meaning. In pure Latin, significatio.ETD emphasis (n.).3

    emphasise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of emphasize; for spelling, see -ize. Related: Emphasised; emphasising.ETD emphasise (v.).2

    emphatic (adj.)

    "uttered, or to be uttered, with emphasis of stress or voice," 1708, from Latinized form of Greek emphatikos, variant of emphantikos, from stem of emphainein (see emphasis). Emphatical is earlier (1550s in rhetorical sense, 1570s as "strongly expressive"). Related: Emphatically (1580s).ETD emphatic (adj.).2

    emphysema (n.)

    1660s, "distention with air or other gasses," from Modern Latin, from Greek emphysema "swelling, inflation" (of the bowels, etc.), from emphysan "to blow in, inflate; to play the flute," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + physan "to blow," from physa "breath, blast" (see pustule). Related: Emphysematous (adj.).ETD emphysema (n.).2

    empire (n.)

    mid-14c., "territory subject to an emperor's rule;" in general "realm, dominion;" late 14c. as "authority of an emperor, supreme power in governing; imperial power," in Middle English generally of the Roman Empire.ETD empire (n.).2

    From Old French empire "rule, authority, kingdom, imperial rule" (11c.), from Latin imperium "a rule, a command; authority, control, power; supreme power, sole dominion; military authority; a dominion, realm," from imperare "to command," from assimilated form of in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + parare "to order, prepare" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").ETD empire (n.).3

    Not etymologically restricted to "territory ruled by an emperor," but used that way. The Empire, meaning "the British Empire," first recorded 1772 (it officially devolved into "The Commonwealth" in 1931); before that it meant the Holy Roman Empire (1670s).ETD empire (n.).4

    Empire as the name of a style (especially in reference to a style of dresses with high waistlines) is by 1860, in reference to the affected classicism prevailing in France during the reign of Napoleon I (1804-15). Second Empire is in reference to the rule of Napoleon III of France (1852-70). New York has been called the Empire State since 1834.ETD empire (n.).5

    empirical (adj.)

    1560s, originally in medicine, "pertaining to or derived from experience or experiments," from Latin empiricus (n.) "a physician guided by experience," from Greek empeirikos "experienced," from empeiria "experience; mere experience or practice without knowledge," especially in medicine, from empeiros "experienced (in a thing), proven by use," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + peira "trial, experiment," from PIE *per-ya-, suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to try, risk." With -al (1). In a general sense of "guided by mere experience" from 1757. Related: Empirically (1640s as "by means of observation and experiment").ETD empirical (adj.).2

    empiric (adj.)

    "pertaining to or derived from experience or experiments," c. 1600, from Latin empiricus (n.) "a physician guided by experience," from Greek empeirikos "experienced," from empeiria "experience; mere experience or practice without knowledge," especially in medicine, from empeiros "experienced (in a thing), proven by use," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + peira "trial, experiment," from PIE *per-ya-, suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to try, risk." Originally a school of ancient physicians who based their practice on experience rather than theory. Earlier in English as a noun (1540s) in reference to the sect, and earliest (1520s) in a sense "quack doctor" which was in frequent use 16c.-19c.ETD empiric (adj.).2

    empiricism (n.)

    "reliance on direct experience and observation rather than on theory;" 1650s, originally in a medical sense, from empiric + -ism. The original medical sense was depreciative: "quackery; the pretension of an ignorant person to medical skill." The depreciative quality carried over later into the general sense of "reliance on direct observation rather than theory," especially an undue reliance on mere individual experience. In reference to a philosophical doctrine which regards experience as the only source of knowledge from 1796.ETD empiricism (n.).2

    empiricist (n.)

    "one who believes in philosophical empiricism," c. 1700, from empiric + -ist.ETD empiricist (n.).2

    emplacement (n.)

    "a putting or fixing in place; a place or site," 1742, formerly also implacement; from French emplacement "place, situation," from verb emplacer, from assimilated form of en- "in" (see en- (1)) + placer "to place" from place "place, spot" (see place (n.)). Military sense of "the space within a fortification allotted for the position and service of a gun or battery" is attested from 1811.ETD emplacement (n.).2

    emplace (v.)

    "to place, locate," 1832, in modern use a back-formation from emplacement. Marked "Rare" in Century Dictionary in 1895. Related: Emplaced.ETD emplace (v.).2

    emplane (v.)

    "to go or put on board an airplane," 1923, from em- (1) + plane (n.2).ETD emplane (v.).2

    employ (v.)

    early 15c., "apply or devote (something to some purpose); expend or spend," from Old French emploiier (12c.) "make use of, apply; increase; entangle; devote," from Latin implicare "enfold, involve, be connected with, unite, associate," from assimilated form of in- (from PIE root *en "in") + plicare "to fold" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait").ETD employ (v.).2

    Imply, which is the same word, retains more of the original sense. Sense of "hire, engage" first recorded in English 1580s, from meaning "involve in a particular purpose," which arose in Late Latin. Related: Employed; employing; employable.ETD employ (v.).3

    employ (n.)

    1660s, "action of employing," from French emploi, from verb employer (see employ (v.)). From 1709 as "state of being employed."ETD employ (n.).2

    emplore (v.)

    variant of implore. Related: Emplored; emploring.ETD emplore (v.).2

    employer (n.)

    1590s, agent noun from employ.ETD employer (n.).2

    employment (n.)

    mid-15c., "the spending of money," from Middle English emploien (see employ) + -ment. From 1590s as "an errand or commission;" 1640s as "a person's regular occupation or business."ETD employment (n.).2

    employe (n.)

    "person employed," 1834, from French employé (fem. employée), noun use of past participle of employer (see employ).ETD employe (n.).2

    employee (n.)

    "person employed," 1850, mainly in U.S. use, from employ + -ee. Formed on model of French employé.ETD employee (n.).2

    emporium (n.)

    1580s, "place of trade, mart," from Latin emporium, from Greek emporion "trading place, market," from emporos "merchant," originally "traveler," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + poros "passage, voyage," related to peirein "to pass through," from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over."ETD emporium (n.).2

    Greek emporos in the "merchant" sense meant especially "one who trades on a large scale, usually but not necessarily by sea" [Buck], as opposed to kapelos "local retail dealer, shopkeeper." Properly, a town which serves as the commercial hub of a region, but by 1830s American English "Grandiloquently applied to a shop or store" [Craigie]. Glossed in Old English by ceapstow (see cheap), which has hardly the same dignity.ETD emporium (n.).3

    empower (v.)

    "to give power or authority to, authorize as by law," 1650s, also impower, from assimilated form of en- (1) + power (n.). Used by Milton, Beaumont, Pope, Jefferson, Macaulay, but the modern popularity dates from 1980s (see empowerment). Related: Empowered; empowering.ETD empower (v.).2

    empowerment (n.)

    "act or fact of being given power or authority; authorization, as by law;" 1814, from empower + -ment.ETD empowerment (n.).2

    In 19c. often in reference to authority for legal action; in early 20c. often in a spiritual sense. In social and political contexts, especially in reference to women or minorities, "a taking control of one's economic opportunities and claiming of one's due rights," by 1967 in discussions of the meaning of Black Power movement.ETD empowerment (n.).3

    empress (n.)

    "woman who rules over an empire," mid-12c., emperice, from Old French emperesse, fem. of emperere (see emperor). Queen Victoria in 1876 became one as "Empress of India."ETD empress (n.).2

    emprise (n.)

    c. 1300, "chivalrous endeavor," from Old French emprise (12c.) "enterprise, venture, adventure, undertaking," from Vulgar Latin *imprensa (source of Provenal empreza, Spanish empresa, Italian impresa), from *imprendere "to undertake," from in- (from PIE root *en "in") + prehendere "to take" (from prae- "before," see pre-, + -hendere, from PIE root *ghend- "to seize, take"). Archaic in English; in French now with a literal sense "a hold, a grip."ETD emprise (n.).2

    empty (v.)

    1520s, from empty (adj.); replacing Middle English empten, from Old English geæmtigian. Related: Emptied; emptying.ETD empty (v.).2

    empty (adj.)

    c. 1200, from Old English æmettig, of persons, "at leisure, not occupied; unmarried" (senses now obsolete), also, of receptacles, "containing nothing," of places, "unoccupied," from æmetta "leisure."ETD empty (adj.).2

    Watkins explains it as from Proto-Germanic *e-mot-ja-, with a prefix of uncertain meaning + Germanic *mot- "ability, leisure," possibly from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." A sense evolution from "at leisure" to "containing nothing, unoccupied" is found in several languages, such as Modern Greek adeios "empty," originally "freedom from fear," from deios "fear." "The adj. adeios must have been applied first to persons who enjoyed freedom from duties, leisure, and so were unoccupied, whence it was extended to objects that were unoccupied" [Buck].ETD empty (adj.).3

    The -p- is a euphonic insertion. Of words, etc., "destitute of force or effect," mid-14c. Related: Emptier. The figurative sense of empty-nester is attested by 1960.ETD empty (adj.).4

    emptiness (n.)

    "the state of containing nothing," 1530s, from empty + -ness.ETD emptiness (n.).2

    empty (n.)

    "an empty thing" that was or is expected to be full, 1865, from empty (adj.). At first of barges, freight cars, mail pouches.ETD empty (n.).2

    emption (n.)

    late 15c., "purchase," from Latin emptionem (nominative emptio) "a buying, purchasing; thing bought," noun of action from emptus, past-participle of emere "to buy" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").ETD emption (n.).2

    empty-handed (adj.)

    "bringing nothing," 1610, from empty (adj.) + -handed.ETD empty-handed (adj.).2

    empyreal (adj.)

    late 15c., "pertaining to the highest heaven," from Medieval Latin empyreus, from Greek empyros "fiery," from assimilated form of en (see en- (2)) + pyr "fire" (from PIE root *paewr- "fire") + -al (1). Confused by early writers with imperial.ETD empyreal (adj.).2

    empyrean (n.)

    "empyreal," mid-14c. (as empyre), probably via Medieval Latin empyreus, from Greek empyros "fiery," from assimilated form of en (see en- (2)) + pyr "fire" (from PIE root *paewr- "fire"). As an adjective in English from early 15c. The etymological sense is "formed of pure fire or light." In ancient Greek cosmology, the highest heaven, the sphere of pure fire; later baptized with a Christian sense of "abode of God and the angels."ETD empyrean (n.).2

    emu (n.)

    large Australian three-toed bird, 1610s, probably from Portuguese ema "crane, ostrich" (which is of unknown origin), perhaps based on a folk-etymology of a native name.ETD emu (n.).2

    emulate (v.)

    "to strive to equal or excel in qualities or actions," 1580s, a back-formation from emulation, or else from Latin aemulatus, past participle of aemulari "to rival." Related: Emulated; emulating; emulable; emulative.ETD emulate (v.).2

    emulous (adj.)

    "desirous of equaling or excelling," late 14c., from Latin aemulus "striving, rivaling," in a bad sense "envious, jealous," from aemulari "to rival" (see emulation). Related: Emulously.ETD emulous (adj.).2

    emulator (n.)

    1580s, "rival, competitor," from Latin aemulator "a zealous imitator, imitative rival," agent noun from aemulari "to rival" (see emulation). The meaning "imitative rival" in English is from 1650s.ETD emulator (n.).2

    emulation (n.)

    "effort to equal or excel in qualities or actions that one admires in another or others; imitative rivalry," 1550s, from French émulation (13c.) and directly from Latin aemulationem (nominative aemulatio) "rivalry, emulation, competition," noun of action from past-participle stem of aemulari "to rival, strive to excel," from aemulus "striving, rivaling" (also as a noun, "a rival," fem. aemula), from Proto-Italic *aimo-, from PIE *aim-olo, suffixed form of root *aim- "copy" (from PIE root *aim- "to copy").ETD emulation (n.).2


    1570s (adj.), "draining out;" 1610s (n.), in anatomy, "an emulgent vessel," from Latin emulgentem (nominative emulgens), present participle of emulgere "to milk out, drain out, exhaust," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + mulgere "to milk" (from PIE root *melg- "to rub off; to milk"). Related: Emulgence.ETD emulgent.2

    emulsion (n.)

    "a mixture of liquids insoluble in one another, where one is suspended in the other in the form of minute globules," 1610s, from French émulsion (16c.), from Modern Latin emulsionem (nominative emulsio), noun of action from past participle stem of emulgere "to milk out," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + mulgere "to milk" (from PIE root *melg- "to rub off; to milk"). The fat (butter) in milk is the classic example of an emulsion, drops of one liquid dispersed throughout another. Sense in photography is by 1840.ETD emulsion (n.).2

    emulsification (n.)

    "act of emulsifying; state of being emulsified," 1858, noun of action from emulsify.ETD emulsification (n.).2

    emulsifier (n.)

    "an emulsifying agent or apparatus," 1872, agent noun from emulsify.ETD emulsifier (n.).2

    emulsify (v.)

    "make or form into an emulsion," 1853, from Latin emuls-, past-participle stem of emulgere "to milk out" (from assimilated form of ex "out;" see ex-; + mulgere "to milk," from PIE root *melg- "to rub off; to milk") + -fy. Related: emulsified.ETD emulsify (v.).2

    en- (1)

    word-forming element meaning "in; into," from French and Old French en-, from Latin in- "in, into" (from PIE root *en "in"). Typically assimilated before -p-, -b-, -m-, -l-, and -r-. Latin in- became en- in French, Spanish, Portuguese, but remained in- in Italian.ETD en- (1).2

    Also used with native and imported elements to form verbs from nouns and adjectives, with a sense "put in or on" (encircle), also "cause to be, make into" (endear), and used as an intensive (enclose). Spelling variants in French that were brought over into Middle English account for parallels such as ensure/insure, and most en- words in English had at one time or another a variant in in-, and vice versa.ETD en- (1).3

    en (n.)

    name of the letter "N;" in printing (1793), a space half as wide as an em.ETD en (n.).2

    -en (2)

    suffix added to nouns to produce adjectives meaning "made of, of the nature of" (such as golden, oaken, woolen), corresponding to Latin -anus, -inus, Greek -inos; from Proto-Germanic *-ina- (from PIE *-no-, adjectival suffix).ETD -en (2).2

    Common in Old, Middle, and early Modern English: e.g. fyren "on fire; made of fire," rosen "made or consisting of roses," hunden "of dogs, canine," beanen "of beans," baken "baked," breaden "of bread;" Wycliffe has reeden made of or consisting of reeds." The few surviving instances are largely discarded in everyday use, and the simple form of the noun doubles as adjective (gold ring, wool sweater). Some are used in special contexts (brazen, wooden).ETD -en (2).3


    hydrocarbon suffix, from Greek name-forming element -ene. It has no real meaning in itself; in chemistry terminology probably abstracted from methylene (1834). Put in systematic use by Hofmann (1865).ETD -ene.2

    en (prep.)

    French, "in; as," from Latin in (see in).ETD en (prep.).2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "in."ETD *en.2

    It forms all or part of: and; atoll; dysentery; embargo; embarrass; embryo; empire; employ; en- (1) "in; into;" en- (2) "near, at, in, on, within;" enclave; endo-; enema; engine; enoptomancy; enter; enteric; enteritis; entero-; entice; ento-; entrails; envoy; envy; episode; esoteric; imbroglio; immolate; immure; impede; impend; impetus; important; impostor; impresario; impromptu; in; in- (2) "into, in, on, upon;" inchoate; incite; increase; inculcate; incumbent; industry; indigence; inflict; ingenuous; ingest; inly; inmost; inn; innate; inner; innuendo; inoculate; insignia; instant; intaglio; inter-; interim; interior; intern; internal; intestine; intimate (adj.) "closely acquainted, very familiar;" intra-; intricate; intrinsic; intro-; introduce; introduction; introit; introspect; invert; mesentery.ETD *en.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit antara- "interior;" Greek en "in," eis "into," endon "within;" Latin in "in, into," intro "inward," intra "inside, within;" Old Irish in, Welsh yn, Old Church Slavonic on-, Old English in "in, into," inne "within, inside."ETD *en.4

    -en (1)

    word-forming element making verbs (such as darken, weaken) from adjectives or nouns, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inojan (also source of Old Norse -na), from PIE adjectival suffix *-no-. Most active in Middle English and early modern English, hence most verbs in -en are comparatively recent.ETD -en (1).2

    en- (2)

    word-forming element meaning "near, at, in, on, within," from Greek en "in," cognate with Latin in (from PIE root *en "in"), and thus with en- (1). Typically assimilated to em- before -p-, -b-, -m-, -l-, and -r-.ETD en- (2).2

    enable (v.)

    early 15c., "to make fit;" mid-15c., "to make able to," from en- (1) "make, put in" + able. Related: Enabled; enabling. An enabling act (1684) is so called because it empowers a body or person to take certain action.ETD enable (v.).2

    enabler (n.)

    "one who or that which enables another," in any sense, 1610s, agent noun from enable.ETD enabler (n.).2

    enactment (n.)

    1766, "passing of a bill into law," from enact + -ment. Meaning "a law, statute" is by 1783. Earlier was enaction 1620s.ETD enactment (n.).2

    enact (v.)

    early 15c., "act the part of, represent in performance," from en- (1) "make, put in" + act (v.). Meaning "decree, establish, sanction into law" is from mid-15c. Related: Enacted; enacting.ETD enact (v.).2

    enamel (n.)

    early 15c., in ceramics, "a vitrified substance, either transparent or opaque, applied as a coating to pottery and porcelain," from enamel (v.). As "hardest part of a tooth," 1718, from a use in French émail.ETD enamel (n.).2

    enamel (v.)

    "to lay enamel upon, cover or decorate with enamel," early 14c., from Anglo-French enamailler (early 14c.), from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + amailler "to enamel," variant of Old French esmailler, from esmal "enamel," from Frankish *smalt, from Proto-Germanic *smaltjan "to smelt" (see smelt (v.)). Related: Enameled; enameler; enameling.ETD enamel (v.).2

    enamored (adj.)

    "inflamed with love, charmed, captivated," 1630s, past-participle adjective from enamor.ETD enamored (adj.).2

    enamor (v.)

    "to inflame with love, charm, captivate," c. 1300, from Old French enamorer "to fall in love with; to inspire love" (12c., Modern French enamourer), from en- "in, into" (see en- (1)) + amor "love," from amare "to love" (see Amy). Since earliest appearance in English, it has been used chiefly in the past participle (enamored) and with of or with. An equivalent formation to Provençal, Spanish, Portuguese enamorar, Italian innamorare.ETD enamor (v.).2

    enamour (v.)

    chiefly British English form of enamor, but also common in America and given preference of spelling in some American dictionaries; for spelling, see -or. Related: Enamoured.ETD enamour (v.).2

    en bloc

    French, "in a block" (see bloc).ETD en bloc.2


    see -ance.ETD -ence.2

    encamp (v.)

    1560s, "go into camp, settle in temporary quarters," from en- (1) "make, put in" + camp (n.). Related: Encamped; encamping.ETD encamp (v.).2

    encampment (n.)

    1590s, "place where a camp is formed," from encamp + -ment. From 1680s as "act of forming a camp."ETD encampment (n.).2

    encapsulation (n.)

    1859, "act of surrounding with a capsule," noun of action from encapsulate. Figurative use by 1934.ETD encapsulation (n.).2

    encapsulate (v.)

    1842 (implied in encapsulated), "enclose in a capsule," from en- (1) "make, put in" + capsule + -ate (2). Figurative use by 1939. Related: Encapsulating.ETD encapsulate (v.).2

    encase (v.)

    "to enclose in a case," 1630s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + case (n.2). Related: Encased; encasing.ETD encase (v.).2


    c. 1600 (n.), "art of encaustic painting;" 1650s (adj.) "produced by burning in," from Greek enkaustikos, from enkaiein "to burn in" from en (see en- (2)) + kaiein "to burn" (see caustic). "Strictly applicable only to painting executed or finished by the agency of heat" [Century Dictionary].ETD encaustic.2

    enceinte (adj.)

    "pregnant, with child," c. 1600, insente, from French enceinte "pregnant" (12c.), from Late Latin incincta (source of Italian incinta), explained by Isidore of Seville (7c.) as "ungirt," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)), + cincta, fem. of cinctus, past participle of cingere "to gird" (see cinch). But the Late Latin word is more likely from Latin inciens "pregnant," from in- (2) "in, into" + second element from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole." Modern form is from 18c., perhaps a reborrowing from French.ETD enceinte (adj.).2

    encephalitis (n.)

    "inflammation of the brain," 1843, from encephalo- "the brain" + -itis "inflammation." Related: Encephalitic.ETD encephalitis (n.).2


    before vowels encephal-, word-forming element meaning "brain, of the brain," from combining form of medical Latin encephalon, from Greek enkephalos "the brain," literally "within the head," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + kephalē "head" (see cephalo-).ETD encephalo-.2

    enchain (v.)

    late 14c., "become linked together;" mid-15c., "to secure with a chain," from Old French enchainer, from Medieval Latin incatenare "enchain," from in (see in) + catenare, from catena "a chain" (see chain (n.)). Related: Enchained; enchaining.ETD enchain (v.).2

    enchant (v.)

    late 14c., literal ("practice sorcery or witchcraft on") and figurative ("delight in a high degree, charm, fascinate"), from Old French enchanter "bewitch, charm, cast a spell" (12c.), from Latin incantare "to enchant, fix a spell upon," from in- "upon, into" (from PIE root *en "in") + cantare "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"). Or perhaps a back-formation from enchantment.ETD enchant (v.).2

    enchanter (n.)

    "one who enchants or practices enchantment, a sorcerer or magician;" also "one who charms or delights," c. 1300, enchauntour, agent noun from enchant, or from Old French enchanteor "magician; singer; mountebank," from Latin incantator.ETD enchanter (n.).2

    enchanted (adj.)

    "delighted," 1590s, past-participle adjective from enchant (v.).ETD enchanted (adj.).2

    enchantment (n.)

    c. 1300, enchauntement, "act of magic or witchcraft; use of magic; magic power," from Old French encantement "magical spell; song, concert, chorus," from enchanter "bewitch, charm," from Latin incantare "enchant, cast a (magic) spell upon," from in- "upon, into" (from PIE root *en "in") + cantare "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"). Figurative sense of "allurement" is from 1670s. Compare Old English galdor "song," also "spell, enchantment," from galan "to sing," which also is the source of the second element in nightingale.ETD enchantment (n.).2

    enchanting (adj.)

    1590s, "having magical power," present-participle adjective from enchant (v.). Meaning "delightful to the mind or sense" is from 1712. Related: Enchantingly.ETD enchanting (adj.).2

    enchantress (n.)

    late 14c., "witch," from enchanter + -ess. Meaning "charming woman" is from 1713.ETD enchantress (n.).2

    encharge (v.)

    late 14c., "impose (something) as a duty or obligation," from Old French enchargier, from Medieval Latin incaricare "load, charge," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + caricare "to load," from Vulgar Latin *carricare "to load a wagon or cart," from Latin carrus "two-wheeled wagon" (see car).ETD encharge (v.).2

    enchilada (n.)

    Mexican dish made with a fried tortilla rolled around a filling and served with chili sauce, 1876, American English, from Mexican Spanish enchilada, fem. past participle of enchilar "season with chili," from en- "in" + chile "chili" (see chili).ETD enchilada (n.).2

    enchiridion (n.)

    1540s, "a handbook," from Late Latin, from Greek enkheiridion, neuter of enkheiridios "that which is held in the hand," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + diminutive suffix -idion.ETD enchiridion (n.).2


    word-forming element denoting quality or state, from Latin -entia. Derivatively identical with -ence; also see -ancy. The slight difference of sense is that -ence can and -ency cannot mean "an act of ____."ETD -ency.2

    encircle (v.)

    "form a circle round, enclose or surround circularly," c. 1400, from en- (1) "make, put in" + circle (n.). Related: Encircled; encircling.ETD encircle (v.).2

    encirclement (n.)

    "state of being encircled; act of encircling," 1809, from encircle + -ment.ETD encirclement (n.).2

    enclave (n.)

    "small portion of one country which is entirely surrounded by the territory of another," 1868, from French enclave, from Old French enclaver "enclose, comprise, include" (13c.), from Late Latin inclavare "shut in, lock up," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + clavis "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook"). Enclaved "surrounded by land owned by another" is attested in English from mid-15c., from Old French enclaver.ETD enclave (n.).2


    1650s (adj.), in grammar, "subjoined and accentually dependent," said of a word or particle which in regard to accent forms a part of a preceding word and is treated as if one with it; 1660s (n.), "a word accentually connected with a preceding word;" from Late Latin encliticus, from Greek enklitikos "throwing its accent back," literally "leaning on," from verbal adjectival stem of enklinein "to bend, lean on," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + klinein "to lean," from PIE root *klei- "to lean."ETD enclitic.2

    enclose (v.)

    enclosen, "to surround (a plot of ground, a town, a building, etc.) with walls, fences, or other barriers," early 14c., from en- (1) + close (v.), and partially from Old French enclos, past participle of enclore "surround; confine; contain." Specific sense of "to fence in waste or common ground" for the purpose of cultivation or to give it to private owners is from c. 1500. Meaning "place a document with a letter for transmission" is from 1707. Related: Enclosed; enclosing.ETD enclose (v.).2

    enclosure (n.)

    mid-15c., "action of enclosing," from enclose + -ure. Meaning "that which is enclosed" is from 1550s.ETD enclosure (n.).2

    encode (v.)

    1917, from en- (1) "make, put in" + code (n.). Computing sense is from 1955, usually shortened colloquially or for clarity to code. Related: Encoded; encoding.ETD encode (v.).2

    encomiast (n.)

    "one who praises another, one who utters or writes commendations," c. 1600, from Greek enkomiastes "one who praises," from enkomiazein, from enkomion (see encomium). Related: Encomiastic (1590s).ETD encomiast (n.).2

    encomienda (n.)

    "estate granted to a Spaniard in America with powers to tax the Indians," 1810, from Spanish, literally "commission," from or related to encomendar "to commit, charge," from assimilated form of Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + Medieval Latin commendam, from Latin commendare "commit to one's care, commend" (see commend).ETD encomienda (n.).2

    encomium (n.)

    "discriminating expression of approval, formal praise or laudation of a person or thing," 1580s, from Late Latin encomium, from Greek enkōmion (epos) "laudatory (ode) to a conqueror or eulogy or panegyric on a living person," neuter of enkōmios "belonging to the praise or reward of a conqueror; proper to the Bacchic revel, in which the victor was led home in procession with music, dancing, and merriment," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + komos "banquet, procession, merrymaking" (see comedy).ETD encomium (n.).2

    encompass (v.)

    "form a circle about, encircle," 1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + compass (n.). Related: Encompassed; encompasses; encompassing.ETD encompass (v.).2

    encore (interj.)

    1712, from French encore "still, yet, again, also, furthermore" (12c.), generally explained as being from Vulgar Latin phrase *hinc ad horam "from then to this hour," or (in) hanc horam "(to) this hour" (Italian ancora "again, still, yet" is said to be a French loan-word). As a noun, from 1763; as a verb, from 1748. Related: Encored.ETD encore (interj.).2

    encounter (v.)

    c. 1300, "to meet as an adversary," from Old French encontrer "meet, come across; confront, fight, oppose," from encontre "a meeting; a fight; opportunity" (12c.), noun use of preposition/adverb encontre "against, counter to" from Late Latin incontra "in front of," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + contra "against" (see contra). Weakened sense of "meet casually or unexpectedly" first recorded in English early 16c. Related: Encountered; encountering.ETD encounter (v.).2

    encounter (n.)

    c. 1300, "meeting of adversaries, confrontation," from Old French encontre "meeting; fight; opportunity" (12c.), noun use of preposition/adverb encontre "against, counter to" from Late Latin incontra "in front of," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + contra "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)). Modern use of the word in psychology is from 1967, from the work of U.S. psychologist Carl Rogers. Encounter group attested from 1967.ETD encounter (n.).2

    encourage (v.)

    early 15c., from Old French encoragier "make strong, hearten," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + corage "courage, heart" (see courage). Related: Encouraged; encouraging; encouragingly.ETD encourage (v.).2

    encouragement (n.)

    1560s, from encourage + -ment, or from French encoragement.ETD encouragement (n.).2


    obsolete or archaic form of increase.ETD encrease.2

    encroach (v.)

    late 14c., "acquire, get," from Old French encrochier "seize, fasten on, hang on (to), cling (to); hang up, suspend," literally "to catch with a hook," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + croc "hook," from Old Norse krokr "hook" (see crook (n.)). Sense extended to "seize wrongfully" (c. 1400), then "trespass" (1530s). Related: Encroached; encroaches; encroaching.ETD encroach (v.).2

    encroachment (n.)

    mid-15c., "obtruding structure," from encroach + -ment, or an equivalent Old French compound.ETD encroachment (n.).2

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