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    Hanafi — -happy


    Sunni school or sect in Islam, from Arabic, from the name of founder Abu Hanifah of Kufa (c. 700-770).ETD Hanafi.2


    Sunni school or sect in Islam, from Arabic, from the name of founder Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855).ETD Hanbali.2

    hand (v.)

    c. 1400, "take charge of, seize," from hand (n.). Earlier verbs were hend (Old English gehendan), handle. The meaning "to pass (something to someone)" is from 1640s. To hand it to (someone) "acknowledge someone's ability or superiority" is slang from 1906, the it perhaps meant to suggest a trophy cup, award, etc. Related: Handed; handing.ETD hand (v.).2

    handful (n.)

    Old English handful "as much as can be held in the open hand;" see hand (n.) + -ful. Also a linear measurement of four inches, a handbreadth (early 15c.). Meaning "a small portion or part" is from mid-15c. Figurative meaning "as much as one can manage" is from 1755; figurative expression have (one's) hands full "have enough to do" is from late 15c. Plural handfulls. Similar formation in German handvoll, Danish haanfuld.ETD handful (n.).2


    in compounds, "having hands" (of a certain type), mid-14c., from hand (n.). Related: -handedness; -handedly.ETD -handed.2

    hand (n.)

    Old English hond, hand "the human hand;" also "side, part, direction" (in defining position, to either right or left); also "power, control, possession" (on the notion of the hand's grip or hold), from Proto-Germanic *handuz (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Dutch, German hand, Old Norse hönd, Gothic handus), which is of uncertain origin. The original Old English plural handa was superseded in Middle English by handen, later hands.ETD hand (n.).2

    Indo-European "hand" words tend to be from roots meaning "seize, take, collect" or are extended from words originally meaning only a part of the hand (such as Irish lam, Welsh llaw, cognate with Latin palma and originally meaning "palm of the hand"). One ancient root (*man- (2)), represented by Latin manus is the source of Old English mund "hand," but more usually meaning "protection, guardianship; a protector, guardian."ETD hand (n.).3

    The meaning "manual worker, person who does something with his hands" is from 1580s, hence "hired workman" (1630s) and "sailor in a ship's crew" (1660s). The meaning "agency, part in doing something" is from 1590s.ETD hand (n.).4

    The clock and watch sense is from 1570s. The meaning "round of applause" is from 1838. The linear measure of 4 inches (originally 3) is from 1560s, now used only in giving the height of horses. The meaning "playing cards held in one player's hand" is from 1620s; that of "a round at a card game" is from 1620s.ETD hand (n.).5

    The meaning "handwriting" is from late 14c.; also "one's style of penmanship" (early 15c.). The word in reference to the various uses of hands in making a pledge is by c. 1200; specifically "one's pledge of marriage" by late 14c.ETD hand (n.).6

    First hand, second hand, etc. (mid-15c.) are from the notion of something being passed from hand to hand. At hand is from c. 1200 as "near in time," c. 1300 as "within reach." Out of hand (1590s) is opposite of in hand "under control" (c. 1200). Adverbial phrase hand-over-fist (1803) is nautical, suggestive of hauling or climbing by passing the hands one before the other alternately.ETD hand (n.).7

    Phrase on the one hand ... on the other hand is recorded from 1630s, a figurative use of the physical sense of hand in reference to position on one side or the other side of the body (as in the lefthand side), which goes back to Old English Hands up! as a command from a policeman, robber, etc., is from 1863, from the image of holding up one's hands as a token of submission or non-resistance.ETD hand (n.).8

    Hand-to-hand "in close contact," of fighting, is from c. 1400. Hand-to-mouth "said of a person who spends his money as fast as he gets it, who earns just enough to live on from day to day" [Bartlett] is from c. 1500. Hand-in-hand attested from c. 1500 as "with hands clasped;" figurative sense of "concurrently" recorded from 1570s.ETD hand (n.).9

    handbag (n.)

    also hand-bag, "bag for small articles, carried in the hand," 1854, from hand (n.) + bag (n.).ETD handbag (n.).2

    handball (n.)

    also hand-ball, mid-15c., "small ball, thrown or batted by hand," also the name of a game, from hand (n.) + ball (n.1). Originally a throwing and catching game popular before the use of bats or rackets. The modern sport of that name seems to be so called by 1885.ETD handball (n.).2

    hand-basket (n.)

    also handbasket, late 15c., from hand (n.) + basket (n.). Expression hell in a handbasket is attested by 1867, in a context implying use from a few years before, and the notion of going to Heaven in a handbasket is from 1853, implying "easy passage" to the destination.ETD hand-basket (n.).2

    handbell (n.)

    one rung by hand rather than by rope, etc., Old English handbelle; see hand (n.) + bell (n.).ETD handbell (n.).2

    handbill (n.)

    loose paper circulated by hand to make a public announcement, 1753, from hand (n.) + bill (n.1). Also applied to posted bills.ETD handbill (n.).2

    handbook (n.)

    Old English handboc "handbook, manual;" see hand (n.) + book (n.). It translates Latin manualis, and was displaced in Middle English by manual (from French), and later in part by enchiridion (from Greek). Reintroduced 1814 in imitation of German Handbuch, but execrated through much of 19c. as "that very ugly and very unnecessary word" [Richard Chenevix Trench, "English Past and Present," 1905].ETD handbook (n.).2

    hand-car (n.)

    1846 in railroading sense, from hand (n.) + car.ETD hand-car (n.).2

    hand-cloth (n.)

    Old English hand-claþe; see hand (n.) + cloth (n.).ETD hand-cloth (n.).2

    handcraft (n.)

    Old English handcræft "manual skill, power of the hand; handicraft;" see hand (n.) + craft (n.).ETD handcraft (n.).2

    handcuff (n.)

    1640s as a decorative addition to a sleeve; 1690s as a type of restraining device, from hand (n.) + cuff (n.) in the "fetter for the wrist" sense (attested from 1660s). Old English had hondcops "a pair of hand cuffs," but the modern word is a re-invention. Related: Handcuffs. The verb is first attested 1720. Related: Handcuffed; handcuffing.ETD handcuff (n.).2

    handfast (v.)

    "betroth (two people), bind in wedlock; pledge oneself to," early 12c., from Old English handfæsten and cognate Old Norse handfesta "to pledge, betroth; strike a bargain by shaking hands;" for first element see hand (n.); second element is from Proto-Germanic causative verb *fastjan "to make firm," from PIE *past- "solid, firm" (see fast (adj.)). Related: Handfasted; handfasting. The noun in Old English was handfæstung.ETD handfast (v.).2

    hand-grenade (n.)

    "bomb thrown by hand," 1660s, from hand (n.) + grenade.ETD hand-grenade (n.).2

    handgrip (n.)

    also hand-grip, Old English handgripe "a grasp, a seizing with the hand;" see hand (n.) + grip (n.). Meaning "a handle" is from 1887.ETD handgrip (n.).2

    handgun (n.)

    mid-14c., of unmounted firearms, from hand (n.) + gun (n.). In modern use, "a pistol," from 1930s, American English.ETD handgun (n.).2

    handhold (n.)

    1640s, from hand (n.) + hold (n.1).ETD handhold (n.).2

    handy (adj.)

    c. 1300, "skilled with the hands" (implied in surnames), from hand (n.) + -y (2). Meaning "conveniently accessible" is from 1640s.ETD handy (adj.).2

    handicap (n.)

    1650s, from hand in cap, a game whereby two bettors would engage a neutral umpire to determine the odds in an unequal contest. The bettors would put their hands holding forfeit money into a hat or cap. The umpire would announce the odds and the bettors would withdraw their hands — hands full meaning that they accepted the odds and the bet was on, hands empty meaning they did not accept the bet and were willing to forfeit the money. If one forfeited, then the money went to the other. If both agreed either on forfeiting or going ahead with the wager, then the umpire kept the money as payment. The custom, though not the name, is attested from 14c. ("Piers Plowman").ETD handicap (n.).2

    Reference to horse racing is 1754 (Handy-Cap Match), where the umpire decrees the superior horse should carry extra weight as a "handicap;" this led to sense of "encumbrance, disability" first recorded 1890. The main modern sense, "a mental or physical disability," is the last to develop, early 20c.ETD handicap (n.).3

    handicapped (adj.)

    "disabled," 1915, past-participle adjective from handicap (v.). Originally especially of children. Meaning "handicapped persons generally" is attested by 1958.ETD handicapped (adj.).2

    handicap (v.)

    "equalize chances of competitors," 1852, but implied in the horse-race sense from mid-18c., from handicap (n.). Meaning "put at a disadvantage" is from 1864. Earliest verbal sense, now obsolete, was "to gain as in a wagering game" (1640s). Related: Handicapped; handicapping.ETD handicap (v.).2

    handicraft (n.)

    c. 1200, hændecraft, a corruption (perhaps from influence of handiwork) of Old English handcræft "skill of the hand," from hand (n.) + craft (n.).ETD handicraft (n.).2

    handily (adv.)

    "readily, easily;" also "by hand," c. 1400, handeli, from handy + -ly (2). Earlier it meant "done by hand" (late 14c.).ETD handily (adv.).2

    handiwork (n.)

    late 12c., from Old English handgeweorc "work of the hand, creation," from hand (n.) + geweorc, collective form of weorc "work" (see work (n.)). Old English collective prefix ge- regularly reduces to i- in Middle English, and the word probably came to be felt as handy + work.ETD handiwork (n.).2

    hand-jive (n.)

    1958, from hand (n.) + jive (n.).ETD hand-jive (n.).2

    hand job (n.)

    1940s, from hand (n.) + job (n.) "piece of work."ETD hand job (n.).2

    handkerchief (n.)

    1520s, from hand + kerchief, originally "cloth for covering the head," but since Middle English used generally as "piece of cloth used about the person." A curious confluence of words for "hand" and "head." By-form handkercher was in use 16c.-19c. A dropped handkerchief as a token of flirtation or courtship is attested by mid-18c.ETD handkerchief (n.).2

    handle (n.)

    Old English handle "a handle" (plural handla), formed from hand (n.) with instrumental suffix -el (1) indicating a tool in the way thimble was formed from thumb, spindle from spin, spindle from spin, ladle from lade, etc. The slang sense of "nickname" is first recorded 1870, originally U.S., from earlier expressions about adding a handle to (one's) name (1833), that is, a title such as Mister or Sir. To fly off the handle (1833) is a figurative reference to an ax head (to be off the handle "be excited" is recorded from 1825, American English). To get a handle on "get control of" is recorded by 1919.ETD handle (n.).2

    handle (v.)

    Middle English hondlen, handlen, "touch with the hands, hold in the hands, fondle, pet," also "to deal with, treat, manhandle," from Old English handlian "to touch or move with the hands," also "deal with, discuss;" formed from hand (n.), perhaps with a frequentative suffix, as fondle from fond. Cognate with Old Norse höndla "to seize, capture," Danish handle "to trade, deal," Old High German hantalon "feel, touch; manage," German handeln "to bargain, trade." Related: Handled; handling. Meaning "to act towards" (someone, in a certain manner, usually with hostility or roughness) is from c. 1200. The commercial sense "to trade or deal in" was weaker in English than in some other Germanic languages, but it strengthened in American English (by 1888) from the notion of something passing through one's hands, and see handler.ETD handle (v.).2

    handling (n.)

    Old English handlung "action of touching or feeling," from handlian (see handle (v.)). Meaning "way in which something handles" (especially a motor vehicle) is from 1962.ETD handling (n.).2

    handlebar (n.)

    also handle-bar, 1867 in reference to bicycles, from handle (n.) + bar (n.1). Handlebar mustache is from 1932, American English, from similarity of shape; the comparison, if not the phrase, dates to at least 1911.ETD handlebar (n.).2

    handler (n.)

    late 14c., "one who handles" anything, agent noun from handle (v.). Specific sense of "one engaged in trade" is from 1690s; that of "prizefighter's assistant" (1916) was earlier used in reference to dogfights and cockfights (1825).ETD handler (n.).2

    hand-loom (n.)

    1794, from hand (n.) + loom (n.).ETD hand-loom (n.).2

    hand-made (adj.)

    also handmade, 1610s, from hand (n.) + made. Old English had handworht "hand-wrought."ETD hand-made (adj.).2

    handmaid (n.)

    "female servant," c. 1300, from hand (n.) in the sense in close at hand + maid. Compare Old English handþegn "personal attendant" and the original sense of handsome.ETD handmaid (n.).2

    hand-me-down (adj.)

    1826, from the verbal phrase; see hand (v.). As a noun from 1874.ETD hand-me-down (adj.).2

    hand of glory (n.)

    1707, originally a piece of mandrake root, translation of French maindeglorie, from a corruption of Latin mandragora "mandrake" (see mandrake). The dead man's hand charm is described from mid-15c., but not by this name.ETD hand of glory (n.).2

    hand-out (n.)

    also handout, hand out, 1882, "alms or food given to a beggar," hobo slang, from the verbal phrase; see hand (v.) + out (adv.). Meaning "distributed printed informational matter" is from 1927.ETD hand-out (n.).2

    hand-rail (n.)

    1793, from hand (n.) + rail (n.1).ETD hand-rail (n.).2

    hands down (adv.)

    to win something hands down (1855) is from horse racing, from a jockey's gesture of letting the reins go loose in an easy victory.ETD hands down (adv.).2

    Ancient Greek had akoniti "without a struggle, easily," from akonitos (adj.), literally "without dust," specifically "without the dust of the arena."ETD hands down (adv.).3

    handshake (n.)

    also hand-shake, 1801, from hand (n.) + shake (n.). Hand-shaking is attested from 1805; to shake hands is from 16c.ETD handshake (n.).2

    hands-off (adj.)

    by 1895, from verbal phrase; see hand (n.) + off (adv.). Hands off! as a command to desist is by 1810.ETD hands-off (adj.).2

    handsomely (adv.)

    1540s, "conveniently," from handsome + -ly (2). Meaning "attractively" is from 1610s; "liberally, generously" from 1735.ETD handsomely (adv.).2

    handsome (adj.)

    c. 1400, handsom "easy to handle, ready at hand," from hand (n.) + -some (1). Sense extended to "fit, appropriate" (1550s, implied in handsomely), then "having fine form, good-looking, agreeable to the eye" (1580s). Meaning "generous, on a liberal scale" (of rewards, etc.) first recorded 1680s.ETD handsome (adj.).2

    Bartlett (1848) quotes Webster (the lexicographer) on this colloquial American use of handsome: "In general, when applied to things, it imports that the form is agreeable to the eye, or to the taste; and when applied to manner, it conveys the idea of suitableness or propriety with grace." Related: Handsomeness. For sense development, compare pretty (adj.), fair (adj.). Similar formation in Dutch handzaam "tractable, serviceable."ETD handsome (adj.).3

    hands-on (adj.)

    by 1969, originally in reference to the use of computers in education; see hand (n.) + on (adv.).ETD hands-on (adj.).2

    hand-spike (n.)

    also handspike, 1610s, from hand (n.) + spike (n.).ETD hand-spike (n.).2

    handstand (n.)

    also hand-stand, 1897 as an athletic feat, from hand (n.) + stand (n.).ETD handstand (n.).2

    handwork (n.)

    also hand-work, "work done by hand," Old English handweorc; see hand (n.) + work (n.).ETD handwork (n.).2

    handwriting (n.)

    also hand-writing, "writing with the hand; form of writing peculiar to a person," early 15c., from hand (n.) + writing, translating Latin manuscriptum and equivalent to Greek kheirographia. Earlier was simply hand (n.) "handwriting, style of writing;" and Old English had handgewrit "handwriting; a writing."ETD handwriting (n.).2

    hand-written (adj.)

    also handwritten, 1745, from hand (n.) + past participle of write (v.). As a verb, hand-write is recorded from 1878, probably a back-formation.ETD hand-written (adj.).2

    handy-dandy (adj.)

    late 14c., handi-dandi, "a bribe," a reduplicated form said to be from hand; the second element has been connected with dandle, but that word is not recorded until 16c.ETD handy-dandy (adj.).2

    In modern use it is often merely an emphatic reduplication of handy. By 1590s the meaning "handshake" is recorded. As the name of a children's game by 1570s (though this is perhaps implied in the Middle English uses), sometimes as handy-pandy.ETD handy-dandy (adj.).3

    handyman (n.)

    also handy-man, "man employed to do various types of work," by 1843, from handy + man (n.). Gradually developed from the sense of "man who is capable at all sorts of work."ETD handyman (n.).2

    hang (v.)

    a fusion of Old English hon "suspend" (transitive, class VII strong verb; past tense heng, past participle hangen), and Old English hangian "be suspended" (intransitive, weak, past tense hangode); also probably influenced by Old Norse hengja "suspend," and hanga "be suspended." All from Proto-Germanic *hanhan (transitive), *hanganan (intransitive) "to hang" (source also of Old Frisian hangia, Dutch hangen, German hängen), from PIE *konk- "to hang" (source also of Gothic hahan, Hittite gang- "to hang," Sanskrit sankate "wavers," Latin cunctari "to delay;" see also second element in Stonehenge).ETD hang (v.).2

    As a method of execution the word is attested in late Old English (but originally specifically of crucifixion). A Cincinnati source from 1838 describes it euphemistically as "encountering atmospheric suspension" ["Tales and Sketches of the Queen City"]. The meaning "to come to a standstill" (as especially in hung jury) is from 1848, American English. Hung emerged as past participle 16c. in northern England dialect, and hanged endured in legal language (which tends to be conservative) in reference to capital punishment and in metaphors extended from it (I'll be hanged).ETD hang (v.).3

    The teen slang sense of "spend time" is recorded by 1951; hang around "idle, loiter" is from 1828, American English; also compare hang out. To hang back "be reluctant to proceed" is from 1580s; the phrase hang an arse "hesitate, hold back" is from 1590s. The verbal phrase hang fire (1781) originally was of guns that were slow in communicating fire through the vent to the charge. To let it all hang out "be relaxed and uninhibited" is from 1967.ETD hang (v.).4

    hang (n.)

    late 15c., "a sling," from hang (v.). Meaning "a curtain" is from c. 1500; that of "the way in which a thing (especially cloth) hangs" is from 1797. To get the hang of (something) "become capable" is from 1834, American English, perhaps originally in reference to a certain tool or feat, but, if so, its origin has been forgotten. It doesn't seem to have been originally associated with drapery or any other special use of hang; the connecting notion might be "general bent or tendency."ETD hang (n.).2

    hanging (adj.)

    late 12c., present-participle adjective from hang (v.). Hanging gardens (of Babylon), one of the wonders of the world, is Latin pensiles horti, Greek kremastoi kepoi. Hanging judge first recorded 1848.ETD hanging (adj.).2

    hanged (adj.)

    "put to death by hanging," late 15c., past participle of hang (v.). As an expletive, from 1887.ETD hanged (adj.).2

    hanging (n.)

    c. 1300, "act of putting to death on the gallows," verbal noun from hang (v.). Meaning "piece of drapery on the wall of a room" is late 15c. Hangings "curtains, tapestry" is from 1640s.ETD hanging (n.).2

    hangar (n.)

    1852, "shed for carriages," from French hangar "shed," which is of uncertain origin. Probably from hanghart (14c.), which is perhaps an alteration of Middle Dutch *ham-gaerd "enclosure near a house" [Barnhart, Watkins], from a Proto-Germanic compound *haimgardaz of the elements that make home (n.) and yard (n.1). Or French hanghart might be from Medieval Latin angarium "shed in which horses are shod" [Gamillscheg, Klein]. Sense of "covered shed for airplanes" first recorded in English 1902, from French use in that sense.ETD hangar (n.).2

    hang-dog (adj.)

    also hangdog, 1670s, apparently "befitting a hang-dog," that is, a despicable, degraded fellow, so called either from being fit only to hang a dog (with construction as in cutthroat, daredevil) or of being a low person (i.e. dog) fit only for hanging. The noun, however, is attested only from 1680s.ETD hang-dog (adj.).2

    hanger (n.)

    early 15c., "one who hangs (something)," especially "executioner," later also "one who chooses pictures for an exhibition;" agent noun from hang (v.). Meaning "something that is suspended" is late 15c. Meaning "thing from which something is hung" is from 1690s. Meaning "loop or strap in a garment for hanging on a peg" is from 1680s; of wood or wire coat or dress hangers from 1873. Hanger-on is from 1540s.ETD hanger (n.).2

    hang-glider (n.)

    type of engineless flying machine, 1930, popular as a recreation from 1971; see hang (v.) + glider. Hang-gliding (n.) is from 1971; hang-glide (v.) is from 1986.ETD hang-glider (n.).2

    hang in (v.)

    "persist through adversity," 1969, usually with there; see hang (v.) + in (adv.).ETD hang in (v.).2

    hangman (n.)

    public executioner, mid-14c. (mid-13c. as a surname), from hang (v.) + man (n.). As the name of a spelling game, by 1951. Hangestere "female executioner" is found mid-15c.ETD hangman (n.).2

    hangnail (n.)

    also hang-nail, "sore strip of partially detached flesh at the side of a nail of the finger or toe," probably a 17c. or earlier folk etymology and sense alteration (as if from hang (v.) + (finger) nail) of Middle English agnail, angnail "a corn on the foot," from Old English agnail, angnail. The literal sense probably is "painful spike" (in the flesh). The first element would be Proto-Germanic *ang- "compressed, hard, painful" (from PIE root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful"). The second element is Old English nægl "spike" (see nail (n.)).ETD hangnail (n.).2

    Compare Old English angnes "anxiety, trouble, pain, fear;" angset "eruption, pustule." OED also compares Latin clavus, which "was both a nail (of iron, etc.) and a corn on the foot." Similar compounding in Old High German ungnagel, Frisian ongneil.ETD hangnail (n.).3

    hang on (v.)

    1860, "to remain clinging," 1860, especially "cling fondly to" (1871); see hang (v.) + on (adv.). As a command to be patient, wait a minute, from 1936, originally in telephone conversations.ETD hang on (v.).2

    hang out (v.)

    c. 1400, intransitive (as of the tongue, from the mouth); transitive use by 1560s; see hang (v.) + out (adv.). Colloquial meaning "to be found" is recorded from 1811, "in allusion to the custom of hanging out a sign or 'shingle' to indicate one's shop and business" [Century Dictionary]. As a noun (often hangout) "residence, lodging" attested from 1893; earlier "a feast" (1852, American English).ETD hang out (v.).2

    hangover (n.)

    also hang-over, 1894, "a survival, a thing left over from before," from hang (v.) + over. Meaning "after-effect of excessive drinking" is attested by 1902, American English, on notion of something left over from the night before. As an adjective, in reference to a person, overhung (1964) has been used but is rare; that word meaning generally "placed so as to project or jut out" (1708).ETD hangover (n.).2

    hang up (v.)

    c. 1300, "suspend (something) so that it is supported only from above;" see hang (v.) + up (adv.); telephone sense by 1911. The noun hang-up "psychological fixation" is first attested 1959, from notion of being suspended in one place.ETD hang up (v.).2

    hank (n.)

    late 13c., "a loop of rope" (in nautical use), probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse hönk "a hank, coil," hanki "a clasp (of a chest);" ultimately related to hang (v.). From 1550s as a length of yarn or thread.ETD hank (n.).2

    hanker (v.)

    c. 1600, "linger in expectation;" 1640s, "have a longing or craving for," of unknown origin. Probably from Flemish hankeren, related to Dutch hunkeren "to hanker, to long for," which is perhaps an intensive or frequentative of Middle Dutch hangen "to hang" (see hang (v.)). If so, the notion is of "lingering about" with longing or craving. Compare English hang (v.) in hang on (someone's) every word. Related: Hankered; hankering.ETD hanker (v.).2

    hankering (n.)

    "mental craving," 1660s, verbal noun from hanker.ETD hankering (n.).2

    hanky-panky (n.)

    also hanky panky, 1841, "trickery," British slang, possibly a variant of hoky-poky "deception, fraud," altered from hocus-pocus.ETD hanky-panky (n.).2


    fem. proper name, biblical mother of the prophet Samuel, from Hebrew, literally "graciousness," from stem of hanan "he was gracious, showed favor."ETD Hannah.2


    masc. proper name, name of the Carthaginian general (c. 247-183 B.C.E.) who hounded Rome in the 2nd Punic War, from Punic (Semitic) Hannibha'al, literally "my favor is with Baal;" first element related to Hebrew hanan "he was gracious, showed favor" (see Hannah); for second element see Baal.ETD Hannibal.2


    city in northern Vietnam, from Vietnamese Hà Nôi, literally "River Inside," from "river" + nôi "inside." So called in reference to its situation in a bend of the Red River. Known 18c. as Dong Kinh "Eastern Capital," which was corrupted by Europeans into Tonkin, Tonquin, and that name was used in the French colonial period to refer to the entire region and extended to the gulf to the east.ETD Hanoi.2

    Hanoverian (adj.)

    "pertaining to or connected with the former electorate of Hanover in northern Germany, from the German city of Hanover (German Hannover), literally "on the high ridge," from Middle Low German hoch "high" + over, cognate with Old English ofer "flat-topped ridge." The modern royal family of Great Britain is descended from Electoress Sophia of Hannover, grand-daughter of James I of England, whose heirs received the British crown in 1701 (nearer heirs being set aside as Roman Catholics). The first was George I. They were joint rulers of Britain and Hannover until the accession of Victoria (1837) who was excluded from Hannover by Salic Law. Hanover in English also was a euphemism for "Hell."ETD Hanoverian (adj.).2

    Hanse (n.)

    also Hansa, medieval merchants' guild, late 12c. in Anglo-Latin, via Old French hanse and Medieval Latin hansa, both from Middle Low German hanse "fellowship, merchants' guild," from Old High German hansa "military troop, band, company." This is related to Gothic hansa "troop, company, multitude," Old English hos "attendants, retinue." A member was a Hansard. Compare Hanseatic.ETD Hanse (n.).2

    Hanseatic (adj.)

    1610s, from Hanseatic League, medieval confederation of North German towns for the protection of commerce, from Medieval Latin Hanseaticus, from Middle Low German hanse "fellowship, merchants' guild" (see Hanse). Its origin traditionally is dated from the compact between Hamburg and Lübeck in 1241; the assembly last met in 1669. Compare hanshus "guild hall" (12c.).ETD Hanseatic (adj.).2

    Hansen's disease (n.)

    1938, named for Norwegian physician Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (1841-1912) who in 1871 discovered the bacillus that causes it.ETD Hansen's disease (n.).2

    hansom (n.)

    "two-wheeled, two-person, one-horse cab or carriage with the driver's seat above and behind," 1847, from James A. Hansom (1803-1882), English architect who designed such a vehicle c. 1834. The surname is from 17c., originally a nickname, handsome.ETD hansom (n.).2

    The fashionable form of the cab. The original design placed the driver at the side. The popular form was a type "with two big wheels, of very uncertain equilibrium and dangerous character, in which the driver was perched in a dicky placed high up at the back of the vehicle and took his instructions through a small trap-door in the roof. It was difficult to enter a hansom without soiling one's clothes." [Encyclopedia Britannica, 1929]ETD hansom (n.).3


    see Chanukah.ETD Hanukkah.2

    hap (n.)

    c. 1200, "chance, a person's luck, fortune, fate;" also "unforeseen occurrence," from Old Norse happ "chance, good luck," from Proto-Germanic *hap- (source of Old English gehæp "convenient, fit"), from PIE *kob- "to suit, fit, succeed" (source also of Sanskrit kob "good omen; congratulations, good wishes," Old Irish cob "victory," Norwegian heppa "lucky, favorable, propitious," Old Church Slavonic kobu "fate, foreboding, omen"). Meaning "good fortune" in English is from early 13c. Old Norse seems to have had the word only in positive senses.ETD hap (n.).2

    hap (v.)

    "to come to pass, be the case," c. 1300, from hap (n.) "chance, fortune, luck, fate," or from Old English hæppan.ETD hap (v.).2

    hapax legomenon (n.)

    (plural legomena), "word occurring only once," Greek, literally "once said," from hapax "once only" + legomenon, neuter passive present participle of legein "to say," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')."ETD hapax legomenon (n.).2

    haphazard (adj.)

    "characterized by randomness, chance, accidental," 1670s, from noun meaning "a chance, accident" (1570s), from hap (n.) "chance, luck" + hazard (n.) "risk, danger, peril." Related: Haphazardly.ETD haphazard (adj.).2

    hapless (adj.)

    "unfortunate, luckless," c. 1400, from hap (n.) in the sense "good luck" + -less. Related: Haplessly; haplessness.ETD hapless (adj.).2

    haply (adv.)

    "by chance; perhaps," late 14c., hapliche, from hap + -ly (2).ETD haply (adv.).2


    before vowels hapl-, word-forming element meaning "simple, single; simply, once," from Greek haploos, haplous "single, simple" (as opposed to "compound"); "natural, plain," from PIE compound *sm-plo-, from root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with" + *-plo- "-fold" (from PIE root *pel- (2) "to fold"). Compare simple, which represents the same compound in Latin.ETD haplo-.2

    haplography (n.)

    "scribal error of writing only once a letter that should have been written twice," 1884; see haplo- + -graphy.ETD haplography (n.).2

    haploid (adj.)

    "having a single set of unpaired chromosomes," 1908, from German haploid (Strasburger, 1905), from Greek haploos "single, simple" (see haplo-) + -oid.ETD haploid (adj.).2

    haplology (n.)

    "omission of one occurrence of a sound or syllable that is repeated in a word," 1893; see haplo- + -logy.ETD haplology (n.).2

    happening (n.)

    mid-15c., "chance, luck," verbal noun from happen (v.); meaning "an occurrence" is 1550s. Sense of "spontaneous event or display" is from 1959 in the argot of artists. Happenings "events" was noted by Fowler as a vogue word from c. 1905.ETD happening (n.).2

    happen (v.)

    late 14c., happenen, "to come to pass, occur, come about, be the case," literally "occur by hap, have the (good or bad) fortune (to do, be, etc.);" extension (with verb-formative -n) of the more common hap (v.). Old English used gelimpan, gesceon, and Middle English also had befall. In Middle English fel it hap meant "it happened." Related: Happened; happening. Phrase happens to be as an assertive way to say "is" is from 1707.ETD happen (v.).2

    happening (adj.)

    1520s, "occurring," present-participle adjective from happen (v.). Compare incident.ETD happening (adj.).2

    happenstance (n.)

    1855, from happening + ending from circumstance.ETD happenstance (n.).2

    happy (adj.)

    late 14c., "lucky, favored by fortune, being in advantageous circumstances, prosperous;" of events, "turning out well," from hap (n.) "chance, fortune" + -y (2). Sense of "very glad" first recorded late 14c. Meaning "greatly pleased and content" is from 1520s. Old English had eadig (from ead "wealth, riches") and gesælig, which has become silly. Old English bliðe "happy" survives as blithe. From Greek to Irish, a great majority of the European words for "happy" at first meant "lucky." An exception is Welsh, where the word used first meant "wise."ETD happy (adj.).2

    Happy medium "the golden mean" is from 1702. Happy ending in the literary sense recorded from 1756. Happy as a clam (1630s) was originally happy as a clam in the mud at high tide, when it can't be dug up and eaten. Happy hunting ground, the reputed Native American paradise, is attested from 1840, American English. Happy day for "wedding day" is by 1739; happy hour for "early evening period of discount drinks and free hors-d'oeuvres at a bar" is by 1961, said to be 1950s. Rock-happy (1945) was U.S. Pacific theater armed forces slang for "mentally unhinged after too much time on one island." Related: Happier; happiest.ETD happy (adj.).3


    word-forming element used in World War II armed forces slang and after, meaning "crazed or frazzled from stress due to" the thing specified (as in bomb-happy (1942), flak-happy (1943), trigger-happy (1942). The model might have been slap-happy in pugilism from 1936 as a slang variant of "punch-drunk."ETD -happy.2

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