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    subdue (v.) — substantive (adj.)

    subdue (v.)

    late 14c., subduen, "to conquer (an army, a people, a land) and reduce to subjection," from Old French souduire (but this meant "deceive, seduce"), from Latin subducere "draw away, lead away, carry off; withdraw" (see subduce; also compare subduct).ETD subdue (v.).2

    The primary sense in English seems to have been taken in Anglo-French from Latin subdere "place, set, or lay under; bring under, subject, subdue," and attached to this word. Related: Subdued; subduing.ETD subdue (v.).3

    The meaning "bring (a person) to mental or spiritual subjection, prevail over, render submissive" is from c. 1500.ETD subdue (v.).4

    As an associated noun, subdual is attested from 1670s as "act of subduing" (subduction having acquired other senses).ETD subdue (v.).5

    subdued (adj.)

    c. 1600, "subjugated, rendered submissive," past-participle adjective from subdue. The meaning "calmed down, reduced in intensity," of color, sound, etc., is by 1822 (implied in Coleridge's subduedness).ETD subdued (adj.).2

    subduce (v.)

    mid-15c., subducen, "delete;" 1540s, "withdraw oneself" (from a place, allegiance, etc.), from Latin subducere "draw away, withdraw, remove," from sub "under, below" (see sub-) + ducere "to lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead"). Related: Subduced; subducing.ETD subduce (v.).2

    subduction (n.)

    early 15c., subducioun, "withdrawal, removal, action of taking away" (originally of noxious substances from the body), from Latin subductionem (nominative subductio) "a withdrawal, drawing up, hauling ashore," noun of action from past-participle stem of subducere "to draw away, take away" (see subduce).ETD subduction (n.).2

    From 1660s as "act of subduing; fact of being subdued." The geological sense, in reference to the edge of a plate dipping under a neighboring plate, is attested by 1970, from French (1951).ETD subduction (n.).3

    subduct (v.)

    1570s, "subtract," from Latin subductus, past participle of subducere "to draw away, take away" (see subduce). Geological sense is from 1971, of a plate, "to move under another," a back-formation from subduction. Related: Subducted; subducting.ETD subduct (v.).2

    subfamily (n.)

    also sub-family, 1833, in natural history, "first subdivision of a family," from sub- + family.ETD subfamily (n.).2

    subfusc (adj.)

    "moderately dark, brownish, of a dusky and somber hue," 1710 (used as a noun), from Latin subfuscus, suffuscus, from sub "close to" or "partial" (see sub-) + fuscus "dark, dusky" (see obfuscate). Related: Subfuscous "dusky."ETD subfusc (adj.).2

    Latin used sub- to form many adjectives of color (subalbidus, subviridis) and many of these were carried into Middle English (subrubicund "somewhat red;" subcitrin "pale yellow, yellowish," subpale "very pale;" subnigre "somewhat black, blackish," subrufe "pale red," etc.). All are obsolete; this word seems to have survived in the universities.ETD subfusc (adj.).3

    subgiant (n.)

    also sub-giant, in astronomy, in reference to stars above the H-R diagram's "main sequence" but less luminous than a typical giant star of the same spectral class; 1937, from sub- "smaller" + giant (n.).ETD subgiant (n.).2

    subgroup (n.)

    also sub-group, "subordinate group in classification; subdivision of a group," 1825, from sub- + group (n.).ETD subgroup (n.).2

    subhead (n.)

    also sub-head, "smaller, subordinate heading or title in a book, chapter, newspaper, etc.," 1875, from sub- + head (n.) in the sense of "heading, headline." From 1580s as "subordinate official in a school." The general meaning "subordinate section or division" of a subject is from 1670s.ETD subhead (n.).2

    subhuman (adj.)

    also sub-human, 1790, "not quite human, less than human, next below human," from sub- + human (adj.). The noun is attested by 1957.ETD subhuman (adj.).2

    subitize (v.)

    also subitise, 1949, coined in an article in American Journal of Psychology, which describes it as "the discrimination of stimulus-numbers of 6 and below" and credits the suggestion of the word to Dr. Cornelia C. Coulter, the Department of Classical Languages and Literature, Mount Holyoke College. It is -ize + Latin subitus, past participle of subire "come or go stealthily" (see sudden).ETD subitize (v.).2

    subjacent (adj.)

    "lying below, situated underneath," 1590s, from Latin subiacentem (nominative subiacens) "lying beneath," present participle of subiacere "to lie underneath, lie near, adjoin," from sub "under," also "close to" (see sub-) + iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). It can mean "being in a lower position without being directly beneath."ETD subjacent (adj.).2

    subject (v.)

    late 14c., subjecten, "make (a person or nation) subject to another by force," also "render submissive or dependent," from Medieval Latin subiectare "place beneath," frequentative of Latin subicere "make subject, to subordinate" (see subject (n.)).ETD subject (v.).2

    The meaning "lay open or expose" to some force or occurrence is by early 15c. (implied in subjected). Related: Subjecting.ETD subject (v.).3

    subjectivity (n.)

    1803, "absence of objective reality," from subjective + -ity. Popularized in Kantian terminology; compare French subjectivité, German subjektivität. It is attested by 1854 in the more general sense of "quality of existing in the mind only; the viewing of things through the private and limited element of self."ETD subjectivity (n.).2

    subjective (adj.)

    c. 1500, "characteristic of one who is submissive or obedient," from Late Latin subiectivus "of the subject, subjective," from subiectus "lying under, below, near bordering on," figuratively "subjected, subdued"(see subject (n.)).ETD subjective (adj.).2

    In early Modern English "relating to or of the nature of a subject as opposed to an object," hence "existing, real" (which was the common later meaning of objective (adj.)).ETD subjective (adj.).3

    The more restricted meaning "existing in the mind" (the mind considered as "the thinking subject") is attested from 1707 and was popularized by Kant and his contemporaries. Thus, in art and literature, "personal, idiosyncratic, characterized by prominence given to individual mental operations" (1767). Related: Subjectively (mid-15c. in philosophy); subjectiveness.ETD subjective (adj.).4

    subject (adj.)

    early 14c., subget, "obedient, submissive, compliant;" late 14c., "subjugated, being under the power or dominion of another; enslaved; obliged to give allegiance," from Old French suget, subget, subject (Anglo-French suget, sugette; Modern French sujet), from Latin subiectus "lying underneath; subjected, subdued" (see subject (n.)).ETD subject (adj.).2

    Forms in -j- are occasional in Middle English. Also from late 14c. as "under the jurisdiction of" (a county, city, etc.). Also late 14c. in philosophy, "receptive to imposition of form," as in subject matter "that upon which an agent works." A literal sense of "placed or situated under or beneath" is attested from early 15c. in English but is archaic.ETD subject (adj.).3

    subject (n.)

    early 14c., subget, "person under control or dominion of another," especially one who owes allegiance to a government or ruler; from Old French sogit, suget, subget "a subject person or thing" (12c., Modern French sujet), from noun use of Latin subiectus "lying under, below, near bordering on," figuratively "subjected, subdued," past participle of subicere, subiicere "to place under, throw under, bind under; to make subject, subordinate," from sub "under" (from PIE root *upo "under") + combining form of iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel").ETD subject (n.).2

    In 14c., sugges, sogetis, subgit, sugette; the form was re-Latinized in English 16c. The general meaning "person or thing regarded as recipient of action, one that may be acted upon" is from 1590s.ETD subject (n.).3

    The grammatical sense "nominative of a verb" is recorded from 1630s, from Latin subjectum "grammatical subject," noun use of the neuter of the Latin past participle.ETD subject (n.).4

    Likewise some restricted uses in logic and philosophy are borrowed directly from Latin subjectum as "foundation or subject of a proposition," a loan-translation of Aristotle's to hypokeimenon. In logic, "that about which a judgment is made, that term of a proposition of which the other is affirmed or denied" (1550s).ETD subject (n.).5

    The meaning "subject matter of an art or science" is attested from 1540s, probably short for subject matter (late 14c.), which is from Medieval Latin subjecta materia, a loan translation of Greek hypokeimene hylē (Aristotle), literally "that which lies beneath."ETD subject (n.).6

    By 1580s as "theme of a literary composition." By 1833 as "person present for medical or surgical treatment."ETD subject (n.).7

    subjection (n.)

    late 14c., subjeccioun, "obedience, submission; servitude, bondage, state of being under the dominion of another; act of subjecting or subduing;" from Anglo-French subjectioun, Old French subjection "submission; subjugation; inferior condition; captivity" (12c., Modern French sujétion), from Latin subjectionem (nominative subjectio) "a putting under," noun of action from past-participle stem of subicere (see subject (n.)).ETD subjection (n.).2

    subjectification (n.)

    1880, noun of action from subjectify "make subjective."ETD subjectification (n.).2

    subjectify (v.)

    1858, "identify with the subject," from subject (n.) in philosophical sense + -ify. Related: Subjectified; subjectifying. Subjectivize is by 1868 as "render subject, bring into the perceptive mind."ETD subjectify (v.).2

    subjectivism (n.)

    1845, in philosophy and theology, "the doctrine that we can immediately know only only what is present to the consciousness," thus the view that no knowledge can be proven to be absolute, that all is subjective and relative. See subjective + -ism. The word is recorded earlier in German (and Swedish). It also is sometimes extended to what is properly relativism. Related: Subjectivist.ETD subjectivism (n.).2

    subjoin (v.)

    "add to the end of" (transitive), 1570s, from French subjoin-, past-participle stem of subjoindre (Old French), from Latin subiungere "to append, add at the end, place under," from sub "under" (see sub-) + iungere "to join together" (from nasalized form of PIE root *yeug- "to join"). Related: Subjoined; subjoining; subjoinder.ETD subjoin (v.).2

    sub judice

    "before a judge," Latin, literally "under a judge," from sub "under" (see sub-) + ablative singular of iudex "judge," from iudicare "to judge" (see judge (v.)). "Under judicial consideration," hence "not yet decided."ETD sub judice.2

    subjugation (n.)

    late 14c., subjugacion, "position of something under someone," from Late Latin subiugationem (nominative subiugatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin subiugare "to subdue," literally "bring under the yoke," from sub "under" (see sub-) + iugum "yoke" (from PIE root *yeug- "to join").ETD subjugation (n.).2

    By mid-15c. as "act of subjugating, conquest;" 1650s as "condition of being subjugated."ETD subjugation (n.).3

    subjugal (adj.)

    "owing obedience, subject," from Latin subiugalis, "accustomed to the yoke," from subiugare "bring under the yoke" (also figurative; see subjugate (v.)). In modern use, "situated below the jugal bone."ETD subjugal (adj.).2

    subjugable (adj.)

    "capable of being subdued, conquered, or brought under cultivation," 1850, from the stem of Latin subiugare "to subdue" (see subjugation) + -able.ETD subjugable (adj.).2

    subjugator (n.)

    "a conqueror," 1795, agent noun in Latin form from subjugate, or else from Late Latin subjugator.ETD subjugator (n.).2

    subjugate (v.)

    early 15c., subjugaten, "conquer (a country), subdue," a back-formation from subjugation or else from Latin subiugatus, past participle of subiugare "to subjugate, subdue," literally "bring under the yoke," from sub "under" (see sub-) + iugum "yoke" (from PIE root *yeug- "to join"). Related: Subjugated; subjugating.ETD subjugate (v.).2

    subjunctive (n.)

    in grammar, "the mood of a verb employed to denote an action or state as conceived and not as a fact," 1620s, from an earlier adjective subjunctive (1520s). This is from Late Latin subiunctivus "serving to join, connecting," from subiunct-, past-participle stem of Latin subiungere "append, add at the end, place under," from sub "under" (see sub-) + iungere "to join together" (from PIE root *yeug- "to join").ETD subjunctive (n.).2

    The Latin modus subiunctivus probably is a loan-translation by Roman grammarians of Greek hypotaktikē enklisis "subordinated," so called because the Greek subjunctive mood is used almost exclusively in subordinate or subjoined clauses. This is generally true in English as well ("If that be, then we cannot want").ETD subjunctive (n.).3

    sublease (n.)

    also sub-lease, "an under-lease, a lease granted by one himself a tenant," 1826, from sub- + lease (n.). As a verb from 1830s. Related: Subleased; subleasing; sublessor; sublessee.ETD sublease (n.).2

    sublet (v.)

    also sub-let, "underlet, let to another person (by one himself a lessee or tenant)," 1766, from sub- + let (v.).ETD sublet (v.).2

    sublime (adj.)

    1580s, of language, style, etc., "expressing lofty ideas in an elevated manner," from French sublime (15c.), or directly from Latin sublimis "uplifted, high, borne aloft, lofty, exalted, eminent, distinguished," possibly originally "sloping up to the lintel," from sub "up to" (see sub-) + limen "lintel, threshold, sill" (see limit (n.)).ETD sublime (adj.).2

    Of ideas, subjects, "striking the mind with a sense of grandeur or power," 1630s. Of persons, "high in excellence, exalted by lofty or noble traits," 1640s; of things in nature or art, by 1700. The sublime (n.) "the sublime part of anything, that which is stately or imposing" is from 1670s. It also was a verb in alchemy in Middle English (late 14c.).ETD sublime (adj.).3

    For Sublime Porte, former title of the Ottoman government, see Porte.ETD sublime (adj.).4

    sublimity (n.)

    early 15c., sublimite, "loftiness, exaltation, worthiness, nobility, glory," from Latin sublimitatem (nominative sublimitas) "loftiness, exaltation," from sublimis "uplifted, exalted, distinguished" (see sublime). The meaning "quality that awakens awe, respect, lofty emotions, etc." is by 1779.ETD sublimity (n.).2

    sublimation (n.)

    late 14c., sublimacioun, in alchemy, "process of purifying a solid substance by vaporizing it in a closed container then allowing it to cool," from Medieval Latin sublimationem (nominative sublimatio) "refinement, deliverance," literally "a lifting up," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin sublimare "to raise, elevate," from sublimis "lofty, high, exalted; eminent, distinguished" (see sublime).ETD sublimation (n.).2

    sublimate (v.)

    1590s, "raise to a high place," back-formation from sublimation or else from Medieval Latin sublimatus, past participle of sublimare "to lift up." The word was used in English from 1560s as a past-participle adjective meaning "purified, refined by sublimation." Chemical/alchemical sense of "heat a solid into vapor and allow it to cool again" as a way of extracting a pure substance from dross is from c. 1600. Related: Sublimated; sublimating. As a noun from 1620s.ETD sublimate (v.).2

    subliminal (adj.)

    "below the threshold" (of consciousness or sensation), 1873, formed from the source of sublime (Latin sublimis, from limen, genitive liminis) + -al (1)).ETD subliminal (adj.).2

    Apparently it is a loan-translation of German unter der Schwelle (des Bewusstseins) "beneath the threshold (of consciousness)," from Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), author of a textbook on psychology published in 1824. The scare over subliminal messages in advertising came in 1957. Related: Subliminally.ETD subliminal (adj.).3

    sublingual (adj.)

    also sub-lingual, "placed or situated under the tongue, hypoglossal," 1660s; see sub- "under, beneath"+ lingual. Compare French sublingual (15c.). Related: Sublingually.ETD sublingual (adj.).2

    sublunar (adj.)

    also sub-lunar, "situated under the moon," c. 1600; from sub- "under, beneath" + lunar (adj.).ETD sublunar (adj.).2

    sublunary (adj.)

    1590s, "situated under the moon," hence "earthly, mundane" (old cosmology), from Modern Latin sublunaris, from sub "under, beneath" (see sub-) + lunaris "of the moon" (see lunar). It owes its special sense to the old cosmology of heavenly spheres and ultimately to Aristotle:ETD sublunary (adj.).2

    subluxation (n.)

    "partial dislocation," 1680s, from Modern Latin subluxationem (nominative subluxatio), from sub "partial" (see sub-) + Late Latin luxationem (nominative luxatio) "a dislocation" (see luxation).ETD subluxation (n.).2

    sub-machine-gun (n.)

    "light, portable machine gun," 1926, from sub- + machine-gun (n.).ETD sub-machine-gun (n.).2

    submarine (adj.)

    also sub-marine, "situated, acting, or living under the sea," 1640s, from sub- "under, beneath" + marine (adj.).ETD submarine (adj.).2

    submarine (n.)

    "vessel that can remain underwater and be propelled when entirely submerged," 1899, short for earlier submarine boat (1640s, as a possibility), submarine vessel (1732), from submarine (adj.). Earlier as a noun it meant "a creature living under the sea" (1703, of coral).ETD submarine (n.).2

    The short form sub is attested from 1917. Submarine sandwich is attested by 1931 as an Italian-American food, presumably so called from the shape of the roll. Related: Submariner.ETD submarine (n.).3

    submerge (v.)

    c. 1600 (transitive), "cover with water, inundate" (implied in submerged); 1610s as "put under water, plunge;" from French submerger (14c.) or directly from Latin submergere "to plunge under, sink, overwhelm," from sub "under" (see sub-) + mergere "to plunge, immerse" (see merge).ETD submerge (v.).2

    The intransitive meaning "sink under water, sink out of sight" is from 1650s; it became common 20c. in reference to submarines. Related: Submerging; submergence.ETD submerge (v.).3

    submersion (n.)

    early 15c., submersioun, "suffocation by being plunged into water," from Late Latin submersionem (nominative submersio) "a sinking, submerging," noun of action from past-participle stem of submergere "to sink" (see submerge). The general sense of "act of submerging; state of being submerged" is from 1610s.ETD submersion (n.).2

    submersible (adj.)

    "that may be plunged in or remain under water," 1862, with -ible + submerse or Latin submers-, past-participle stem of submergere "plunge under." As a noun, from 1900, "a submersible craft." Alternative adjective submergible is attested from 1820, from submerge.ETD submersible (adj.).2

    submerse (v.)

    early 15c., submersen, "to submerge, plunge, put under water" (transitive), from Latin submersus, summersus, past participle of submergere (see submerge). A rare word; modern use (1727) might be a back-formation from submersion. Related: Submersed; submersing.ETD submerse (v.).2

    submicroscopic (adj.)

    also sub-microscopic, "too small to be seen, even with the aid of a microscope," 1881, from sub- "smaller (than)" + microscopic. Earliest scientific use is in reference to germs.ETD submicroscopic (adj.).2

    submissive (adj.)

    1580s, "inclined to submit, yielding to power or authority," from Latin submiss-, past-participle stem of submittere (see submission) + -ive.ETD submissive (adj.).2

    The psychological-erotic sense is attested by 1969. As a noun in this sense, by 1985. Submissionist (n.) in various political contexts is recorded by 1828. Related: Submissively; submissiveness.ETD submissive (adj.).3

    English in 16c.-17c. also had an adjective submiss "humble, submissive" (1560s), from Old French submis, from Latin submissus.ETD submissive (adj.).4

    submission (n.)

    late 14c., submissioun, "act of referring to a third party for judgment or decision," from Old French submission or directly from Latin submissionem (nominative submissio) "a lowering, letting down; sinking," noun of action from past-participle stem of submittere "to let down, put down, lower, reduce, yield" (see submit).ETD submission (n.).2

    The sense of "humble obedience" is attested by mid-15c. By mid-15c. broadly as "act of submitting, act of yielding, entire surrender of control." Compare submittal (n.).ETD submission (n.).3

    French submission has been replaced by doublet soumission.ETD submission (n.).4

    submit (v.)

    late 14c., submitten, "place (oneself) under the control of another, yield oneself, become submissive" (intransitive), from Latin submittere "to yield, lower, let down, put under, reduce," from sub "under" (see sub-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission).ETD submit (v.).2

    The transitive sense of "refer to the discretion or judgment of another" is from early 15c.; especially for criticism or opinion (1550s); hence "propose, declare as one's opinion" (1818). Related: Submitted; submitting.ETD submit (v.).3

    submittal (n.)

    "act or process of submitting," 1866, from submit (v.) + -ance. Marked "rare" in Century Dictionary and OED. Submittance (c. 1600), submitting (n.), late 15c., also are used.ETD submittal (n.).2

    submontane (adj.)

    also sub-montane, 1819, "passing under mountains," from sub- "under, beneath" + montane (see ultramontane). By 1830 as "at the foot of the mountains."ETD submontane (adj.).2

    subnormal (adj.)

    also sub-normal, "less than normal, abnormal by defect or deficiency," 1875, from sub- "under" + normal. The noun is from 1710 in geometry, from a special use of normal in conic sections; by 1916 in psychology and education in reference to persons and intelligence. Related: Subnormality.ETD subnormal (adj.).2

    suboptimal (adj.)

    also sub-optimal, "somewhat below what is most favorable," 1901, from sub- "next below" + optimal. Related: Suboptimally.ETD suboptimal (adj.).2

    suborbital (adj.)

    also sub-orbital, 1803, "situated below the orbit of the eye;" 1959 of rocket flights, etc., "not making a complete orbit of the planet," from sub- "below" + orbital (adj.). Related: Suborbitally.ETD suborbital (adj.).2

    suborder (n.)

    also sub-order, 1807 in biology, "a group subordinate to an order, a superfamily;" 1834 in architecture, "an order introduced chiefly for decoration;" from sub- + order (n.). Related: Subordinal.ETD suborder (n.).2

    subordinate (adj.)

    mid-15c., subordinat, "having an inferior rank, arranged so that it is dependent on another," from Medieval Latin subordinatus "placed in a lower order, made subject," past participle of subordinare "place in a lower order," from Latin sub "under" (see sub-) + ordinare "arrange, set in order," from ordo (genitive ordinis) "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). Related: Subordinance; subordinant; subordinately.ETD subordinate (adj.).2

    For "of or pertaining to the classificatory rank of a suborder," subordinal (1842) is used.ETD subordinate (adj.).3

    subordinate (v.)

    "bring into a subordinate position (to something else), place in an order or rank below something else, make of less value, make auxiliary or dependent," 1590s, from Medieval Latin subordinatus (see subordinate (adj.)). Related: Subordinated; subordinating; subordinacy.ETD subordinate (v.).2

    subordinate (n.)

    "one who ranks below another; one inferior in power, rank, office, etc.," 1630s, from subordinate (adj.). In grammatical use, "word or clause dependent on another."ETD subordinate (n.).2

    subordination (n.)

    mid-15c., subordinacioun "hierarchical arrangement; act of placing in a lower rank or position," from Medieval Latin subordinationem (nominative subordinatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of subordinare "place in a lower order" (see subordinate (adj.)).ETD subordination (n.).2

    The meaning "condition of being duly submissive," the usual modern sense, is from 1736. Alternative subordinateness (1630s) is marked "rare" in OED.ETD subordination (n.).3

    suborn (v.)

    "procure unlawfully, bribe to accomplish a wicked purpose," especially to induce a witness to perjury; also more generally, "lure (someone) to commit a crime;" 1530s, from French suborner "seduce, instigate, bribe" (13c.) and directly from Latin subornare "provide, furnish, equip, adorn;" also, with the notion in the sub- predominant, "instigate, incite secretly; employ as a secret agent;" from sub "under; secretly" (see sub-) + ornare "equip," which is related to ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). Related: Suborned; suborner; suborning. Middle English had an adjective, subornate.ETD suborn (v.).2

    subornation (n.)

    "act of bribing or persuading one to a bad or criminal act," especially "the procuring of witnesses to commit perjury;" 1520s, from Latin subornationem (nominative subornatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of subornare "to provide, furnish, equip, adorn;" also, with the notion in the sub- predominant, "instigate, incite secretly" (see suborn).ETD subornation (n.).2

    subpar (adj.)

    also sub-par, "below the average level," 1896, from sub- "under" + par.ETD subpar (adj.).2

    subplot (n.)

    also sub-plot, 1812, in literature, "a subordinate plot in a story" from sub- "subordinate" + plot (n.).ETD subplot (n.).2

    subpoena (n.)

    "legal writ or process commanding appearance in a court of justice, under threat of punishment, of the person on whom it is served," early 15c., sub pena, from Medieval Latin sub poena "under penalty," the first words of the writ commanding the presence of someone under penalty of failure, from Latin sub "under" (see sub-) + poena, ablative of poena "penalty" (see penal).ETD subpoena (n.).2

    The verb is attested from 1630s, "serve with a writ of subpoena." Related: Subpoenaed; subpoenaing; subpoenal.ETD subpoena (n.).3

    subprime (adj.)

    also sub-prime, in reference to loans with more onerous conditions, offered to borrowers with poor credit history, by 1978, in frequent use from 1996, from sub- "below" + prime (adj.) "of the first quality."ETD subprime (adj.).2

    subregion (n.)

    also sub-region, "subdivision of a region," 1830, from sub- + region (n.). Related: Subregional.ETD subregion (n.).2

    subreption (n.)

    "act of obtaining a favor by concealment or fraudulent suppression of facts," c. 1600, from Latin subreptionem (nominative subreptio), noun of action from past-participle stem of subripere, surripere "seize secretly, take away, steal, plagiarize" (see surreptitious). Related: Subreptitious; supreptive.ETD subreption (n.).2

    subrogation (n.)

    early 15c., subrogacioun, "substitution," from Old French subrogation and directly from Latin subrogationem (nominative subrogatio) "substitution," noun of action from past-participle stem of subrogare (see subrogate). The legal sense of "irregular or unlawful placement of someone in an office" is by 1710.ETD subrogation (n.).2

    subrogate (v.)

    "to substitute, put (something) in place of (something else)," early 15c., subrogaten, from Latin subrogatus/surrogatus, past participle of subrogare/surrogare "put in another's place, substitute, cause to be chosen in place of another," from sub "in the place of, under" (see sub-) + rogare "to ask, propose," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line" (compare surrogate). Rare after 17c., and surviving largely in legal passages. Related: Subrogated; subrogating.ETD subrogate (v.).2

    sub rosa (adv.)

    "privately, secretly," Latin, literally "under the rose," which was regarded as a symbol of secrecy or silence.ETD sub rosa (adv.).2

    sub-Saharan (adj.)

    in reference to the region of Africa below the Sahara desert, 1955, from sub- "next below" + Saharan (see Sahara).ETD sub-Saharan (adj.).2

    subscribe (v.)

    early 15c., subscriben, "to sign at the bottom of a document" (a sense now rare); mid-15c., "give one's consent, bind oneself" (by subscribing one's name); from Latin subscribere "write, write underneath, sign one's name; register," also figuratively "assent, agree to, approve," from sub "underneath" (see sub-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut").ETD subscribe (v.).2

    The sense of "give one's assent" (to) an opinion, theory, etc., is by 1540s. The meaning "promise to contribute money to" is by 1630s; and that of "become a regular buyer of (a publication)" 1711; both originally literal. Related: Subscribed; subscribing.ETD subscribe (v.).3

    subscriber (n.)

    "one who subscribes," in any sense, 1590s, agent noun from subscribe. Used by Bell Telephone Company by 1878 in reference to customers who paid for a telephone line. Echoing letters to the editor, The Subscriber formerly was colloquial for one speaking or writing.ETD subscriber (n.).2

    subscription (n.)

    c. 1400, subscripcioun, "piece of writing at the end of a document," especially one's name or mark to attest to its authenticity, from Anglo-French subscripcion, Old French subscription (Modern French souscription) and directly from Latin subscriptionem (nominative subscriptio) "anything written underneath, a signature," noun of action from past-participle stem of subscribere (see subscribe).ETD subscription (n.).2

    The sense of "act of subscribing" is by late 15c., originally literal, "sign at the end." The meaning "act of subscribing money, formal agreement to make payments" is from 1640s; that of "a sum of money contributed for a particular purpose" is by 1670s.ETD subscription (n.).3

    subscript (n.)

    1704, "that which is written underneath" (rare), from Latin subscriptus, past participle of subscribere "write underneath" (see subscribe). As an adjective, "written beneath," by 1871. Related: Subscriptive.ETD subscript (n.).2

    subsection (n.)

    also sub-section, "part or division of a section," 1620s, from sub- + section (n.).ETD subsection (n.).2

    subsequent (adj.)

    "following next in order or time, later," mid-15c., from Old French subsequent (14c.) and directly from Latin subsequentem (nominative subsequens), present participle of subsequi "come after in time, follow closely," figuratively "imitate, conform to," from sub "closely, up to" (see sub-) + sequi "follow" (from PIE root *sekw- (1) "to follow"). Related: Subsequently; subsequential.ETD subsequent (adj.).2

    subsequence (n.)

    c. 1500, "that which is subsequent; 1660s, "state or act of following;" from Late Latin subsequentia "act of following, succession," from Latin subsequens (see subsequent). Related: Subsequency.ETD subsequence (n.).2

    subserve (v.)

    1610s, intransitive, "serve in a subordinate capacity;" 1670s, transitive, "be a useful instrument to," from Latin subservus, past participle of subservire "assist, come to the help of" (see subservient).ETD subserve (v.).2

    subservient (adj.)

    1630s, "useful as an instrument or means, serviceable," from Latin subservientem (nominative subserviens), present participle of subservire "assist, serve, come to the help of, lend support," from sub "under" (see sub-) + servire "serve" (see serve (v.)).ETD subservient (adj.).2

    The meaning "slavishly obedient, disposed to serve in an inferior capacity" is recorded by 1794. Related: Subserviently.ETD subservient (adj.).3

    subservience (n.)

    "state or character of being subservient," 1670s; see subservient + -ence. Related: Subserviency (1620s).ETD subservience (n.).2

    subset (n.)

    also sub-set, "subordinate set," 1897, originally in mathematics, from sub- + set (n.1).ETD subset (n.).2

    subsidize (v.)

    1755, "secure the services of (mercenaries, foreign troops, etc.) by payment of a subsidy," from subsidy + -ize. Also of nations, "to buy neutrality or alliance."ETD subsidize (v.).2

    A sense of "secure the services of by bribery" is from 1815. The meaning "support by grants of (often government) money" is from 1828. Related: Subsidized; subsidizing.ETD subsidize (v.).3

    subside (v.)

    1680s, of objects, "to sink to the bottom," from Latin subsidere "sit down, settle, sink, fall; remain; crouch down, squat," from sub "under, beneath" (see sub-) + sidere "to settle," related to sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").ETD subside (v.).2

    In reference to feelings, excitement, etc., "cease from action, become less violent or agitated, become calm or tranquil," c. 1700. By 1721 of winds. Of liquid surfaces, "to sink to a lower level, be reduced" from 1706. Related: Subsided; subsiding.ETD subside (v.).3

    subsidence (n.)

    1650s, "a settling to the bottom," from subside (v.) + -ence, or else from Latin subsidentia "a settling down," from subsidens, from subsidere.ETD subsidence (n.).2

    subsidy (n.)

    late 14c., subsidie, "help, aid, assistance, relief," especially "aid in money, pecuniary aid," from Anglo-French subsidie, Old French subside "help, aid, assistance, contribution," from Latin subsidium "a help, aid, assistance, (military) reinforcements, troops in reserve," from subsidere "to settle down, stay, remain" (see subside). The meaning "direct pecuniary aid to private industry" is by 1867.ETD subsidy (n.).2

    subsidiarity (n.)

    "quality of being subsidiary," 1936, from German Subsidiarität, paraphrasing the Latin of Pius XI in his Quadragesimo Anno of 1931; see subsidiary + -ity.ETD subsidiarity (n.).2

    subsidiary (adj.)

    "held in reserve, held ready to furnish assistance," 1540s, from Latin subsidiarius "belonging to a reserve, of a reserve, reserved; serving to assist or supplement," from subsidium "a help, aid, relief, troops in reserve" (see subsidy).ETD subsidiary (adj.).2

    As a noun, c. 1600, "subsidiary thing, one who or that which contributes aid or additional support." The Latin adjective also was used in Latin as a noun meaning "the reserve."ETD subsidiary (adj.).3

    subsidise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of subsidize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Subsidised; subsidising.ETD subsidise (v.).2

    subsist (v.)

    1540s, "to exist, have reality;" c. 1600, "to remain, continue, retain the existing state," from French subsister and directly from Latin subsistere "to stand still or firm, take a stand, take position; abide, stay, remain, hold out," from sub "under, up to" (see sub-) + sistere "to assume a standing position, stand still, remain; set, place, cause to stand still" (from reduplicated form of PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm").ETD subsist (v.).2

    By 1630s in philosophy and theology, "inhere, have existence by means of something else." The meaning "support oneself" (in a certain way) is from 1640s. Also transitive, "provide sustenance or provisions for" (1680s). Related: Subsisted; subsisting.ETD subsist (v.).3

    subsistent (adj.)

    1520s, "continuing to exist," also "inherent, residing in" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin subsistentem (nominative subsistens), present participle of subsistere "stand still or firm" (see subsistence). Related: Subsistential.ETD subsistent (adj.).2

    subsistence (n.)

    early 15c., "actual existence, real being," from Late Latin subsistentia "substance, reality," in Medieval Latin also "stability," from Latin subsistens, present participle of subsistere "stand still or firm" (see subsist). Related: Subsistency.ETD subsistence (n.).2

    Latin subsistentia is a loan-translation of Greek hypostasis "foundation, substance, real nature, subject matter;" also "that which settles at the bottom, sediment," literally "anything set under."ETD subsistence (n.).3

    In the English word, the meaning "act or process of support for physical life" is from 1640s. The sense of "state of being (no more than) subsistent" is by 1680s; subsistence diet is by 1865, popularized, if not coined, by Lyon Playfair, professor of chemistry at University of Edinburgh, in a lecture delivered at the Royal Society on April 3, 1865, and published as "On the Food of Man in Relation to His Useful Work."ETD subsistence (n.).4

    subsoil (n.)

    "under-soil, the layer or bed of less organic earthy matter immediately below the surface soil," 1799, from sub- "under, beneath" + soil (n.).ETD subsoil (n.).2

    subsonic (adj.)

    also sub-sonic, "being below the speed of sound" 1937, from sub- "below" + sonic (adj.). Compare supersonic. As a noun, short for subsonic aircraft, 1970.ETD subsonic (adj.).2

    subspecies (n.)

    "variety of a species; a set of similar plants or animals recognizably different from the species, but not specific enough to be its own," 1690s, from sub- + species. Exact definitions were much debated. Related: Subspecific.ETD subspecies (n.).2

    substance (n.)

    c. 1300, substaunce, "divine part or essence" common to the persons of the Trinity;" mid-14c. in philosophy and theology, "that which exists by itself; essential nature; type or kind of thing; real or essential part;" from Old French sustance, substance "goods, possessions; nature, composition" (12c.), from Latin substantia "being, essence, material." This is from substans, present participle of substare "stand firm, stand or be under, be present," from sub "up to, under" (see sub-) + stare "to stand" (from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm").ETD substance (n.).2

    Latin substantia translates Greek ousia "that which is one's own, one's substance or property; the being, essence, or nature of anything."ETD substance (n.).3

    The figurative and general meaning "any kind of corporeal matter, stuff," is attested from mid-14c. As "material wealth, property, goods," late 14c.ETD substance (n.).4

    The sense of "the matter of a study, discourse, etc.; content of a speech or literary work" is recorded late 14c. That of "meaning expressed by a speech or writing," as distinguished from style, form, performance, is by 1780.ETD substance (n.).5

    sub-standard (adj.)

    also substandard, "below a set or specified level of attainment," 1909, from sub- "below, beneath" + standard (adj.).ETD sub-standard (adj.).2

    substantive (adj.)

    late 14c., substantif, in grammar, "denoting a person, place, or thing" (in noun substantif); "signifying the existence of an object" (verb substantif), from Old French substantif and directly from Late Latin substantivus "of substance or being, self-existent," from Latin substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance).ETD substantive (adj.).2

    For sense evolution, see substantive (n.). It is attested by c. 1400 in a non-grammatical sense, "standing by itself, independent." Related: Substantival; substantively.ETD substantive (adj.).3

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