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    unsupported (adj.) — updraft (n.)

    unsupported (adj.)

    early 15c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of support (v.).ETD unsupported (adj.).2

    unsure (adj.)

    c. 1400, "not safe against attack," also "lacking certainty," from un- (1) "not" + sure (adj.).ETD unsure (adj.).2

    unsurmountable (adj.)

    "incapable of being overcome," 1701, from un- (1) "not" + surmountable.ETD unsurmountable (adj.).2

    unsurpassable (adj.)

    1610s, from un- (1) "not" + surpassable (see surpass (v.)).ETD unsurpassable (adj.).2

    unsurpassed (adj.)

    1775, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of surpass (v.).ETD unsurpassed (adj.).2

    unsuspecting (adj.)

    "not holding suspicion, not given to suspicion," 1590s, from un- (1) "not" + present participle of suspect (v.). Suspectless in the sense of "unsuspecting" is attested from 1590s, but it also meant "unsuspected" (c. 1600).ETD unsuspecting (adj.).2

    unsuspected (adj.)

    1520s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of suspect (v.).ETD unsuspected (adj.).2

    unsustainable (adj.)

    1670s, from un- (1) "not" + sustainable (adj.).ETD unsustainable (adj.).2

    unswayed (adj.)

    1590s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of sway (v.).ETD unswayed (adj.).2

    unsweetened (n.)

    1775, "not having been sweetened," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of sweeten (v.); or else, if the sense is "with sweetness removed," from unsweeten (v.), which is attested from 1610s.ETD unsweetened (n.).2

    unswerving (adj.)

    1690s, from un- (1) "not" + present participle of swerve (v.).ETD unswerving (adj.).2

    unsympathetic (adj.)

    1785, from un- (1) "not" + sympathetic (adj.).ETD unsympathetic (adj.).2

    unsystematic (adj.)

    1770, from un- (1) "not" + systematic (adj.).ETD unsystematic (adj.).2

    untainted (adj.)

    1580s, in the moral sense; c. 1600 in the physical sense; from un- (1) "not" + past participle of taint (v.). Earlier was untained (mid-15c.), from a Middle English variant of taint (v.).ETD untainted (adj.).2

    untamed (adj.)

    mid-14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of tame (v.). Similar formation in Old English untemed, Old Norse utamdr, Old High German ungizamot.ETD untamed (adj.).2

    untangible (adj.)

    1775, from un- (1) "not" + tangible (adj.).ETD untangible (adj.).2

    untangle (v.)

    1540s, from un- (2) "reverse, opposite of" + tangle (v.). Related: Untangled; untangling.ETD untangle (v.).2

    untapped (adj.)

    1775, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of tap (v.). Figurative use from c. 1890.ETD untapped (adj.).2

    untaught (adj.)

    mid-14c., "not instructed or educated," from un- (1) "not" + taught. Hence "spontaneous, natural" (mid-15c.).ETD untaught (adj.).2

    untempered (adj.)

    mid-15c., "not properly mixed, undiluted," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of temper (v.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ongetempert, Middle High German ungetempert. Earlier as "unrestrained" (late 14c.), also, of a musical instrument, "not properly tuned;" meaning "unhardened" is from 1820.ETD untempered (adj.).2

    untenable (adj.)

    1640s, "indefensible, incapable of being held against attack," from un- (1) "not" + tenable (adj.). Figurative sense is recorded from 1690s.ETD untenable (adj.).2

    untenanted (adj.)

    1670s, from un- (1) "not" + tenanted (see tenant (n.)).ETD untenanted (adj.).2

    untether (v.)

    1775, from un- (2) "reverse, opposite of" + tether (v.). Related: Untethered; untethering.ETD untether (v.).2

    untethered (adj.)

    1775, past-participle adjective from untether (v.).ETD untethered (adj.).2

    unthaw (v.)

    1590s, "to thaw," from un- (2) "opposite of" + thaw (v.). Related: Unthawed; unthawing. Unthawed also sometimes is used with a sense "frozen" (1610s.).ETD unthaw (v.).2

    unthinkable (adj.)

    early 15c., "too large to be conceived, unimaginable," from un- (1) "not" + think (v.) + -able. Meaning "incapable of being framed by thought" is recorded from mid-15c.ETD unthinkable (adj.).2

    unthinking (adj.)

    1670s, "unreflecting;" 1680s, "heedless," from un- (1) "not" + present participle of think (v.).ETD unthinking (adj.).2

    unthrifty (adj.)

    late 14c., "unprofitable, useless," from un- (1) "not" + thrifty (adj.), or else from Middle English noun unthrift "profligacy," late 14c., earlier "evil practice, wicked act" (c. 1300).ETD unthrifty (adj.).2

    untie (v.)

    Old English untigan "loosen, unchain," from un- (2) "opposite of" + tie (v.). Related: Untied; untying.ETD untie (v.).2

    untidy (adj.)

    early 13c., "untimely, unseasonable, unsuitable," from un- (1) "not" + tidy (adj.). Similar formation in West Frisian ontidich, Middle Dutch ontidich, Dutch ontijdig, Old High German unzitich, German unzeitig, Norwegian utidig "untimely, unseasonable, unfavorable." Meaning "poorly cared for, not neat" is recorded from mid-14c.ETD untidy (adj.).2

    untidy (v.)

    "make untidy," 1891, from untidy (adj.). Related: Untidied; untidying.ETD untidy (v.).2

    until (prep.)

    c. 1200, from till (prep.). The first element is un- "as far as, up to" (also in unto), from Old Norse *und "as far as, up to," from Proto-Germanic *und- (source also of Old English "up to, as far as," Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Gothic und), from PIE *nti-, from root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before."ETD until (prep.).2

    The two syllables have the same meaning. Originally also used of persons and places. As a conjunction from c. 1300. Similar formation in Swedish intill, Danish indtil (northern English and Scottish formerly also had intill/intil "into, in"). The Modern German equivalent, bis (Old High German biaz), is a similar compound, of Old High German bi "by, at, to" and zu "to."ETD until (prep.).3

    untilled (adj.)

    late 13c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of till (v.).ETD untilled (adj.).2

    untimely (adj.)

    1530s, "coming before the proper or usual time," from un- (1) "not" + timely (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Danish utimelig, of weather, etc. Old English had untidlic "unseasonable." Related: Untimeliness.ETD untimely (adj.).2

    untitled (adj.)

    1610s, "unnamed," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of title (v.). Meaning "having no right" is from 1660s; that of "undistinguished by an aristocratic title" is from 1798.ETD untitled (adj.).2

    unto (prep.)

    mid-13c., perhaps a modification of until, with southern to in place of northern equivalent till. Or perhaps a contraction of native *und to, formed on the model of until from Old English *un- "up to, as far as," cognate of the first element in until. "Very rare in standard writers of the 18th c.," according to OED, and since then chiefly in dignified, archaic, or Biblical styles.ETD unto (prep.).2

    untold (adj.)

    Old English unteald, "not counted or reckoned," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of tell (v.) in its original numerical sense. Similar formation in Middle Dutch ongetellet, German ungezahlt, Old Norse utaliðr. Meaning "not related or recounted" is recorded from late 14c.ETD untold (adj.).2

    untouchable (adj.)

    1560s, "immaterial," from un- (1) "not" + touchable (see touch (v.)). Meaning "that legally cannot be interfered with" is recorded from 1734. Meaning "too loathsome or defiling to be touched" is recorded from 1873. The noun, in reference to a hereditary low caste of India, is attested from 1909; the term and the restrictions were made illegal in India in 1947.ETD untouchable (adj.).2

    untouched (adj.)

    late 14c., "not been physically contacted," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of touch (v.). Meaning "unharmed, uninjured" is from c. 1400; that of "not used at all" is from 1530s; sense of "unmoved emotionally" is from 1610s.ETD untouched (adj.).2

    untoward (adj.)

    1520s, "not having inclination" (to or for something), also "difficult to manage, unruly," from un- (1) "not" + toward (adj.).ETD untoward (adj.).2

    untrained (adj.)

    1540s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of train (v.).ETD untrained (adj.).2

    untrammeled (adj.)

    also untrammelled, 1795, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of trammel (v.).ETD untrammeled (adj.).2

    untreatable (adj.)

    late 14c., "unmanageable," from un- (1) "not" + treatable (see treat (v.)). In medicine, of diseases, conditions, etc., by 1865.ETD untreatable (adj.).2

    untried (adj.)

    1510s, "not proven or tested," from un- (1) "not" + tried.ETD untried (adj.).2

    untrodden (adj.)

    c. 1300, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of tread (v.).ETD untrodden (adj.).2

    untroubled (adj.)

    late 15c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of trouble (v.).ETD untroubled (adj.).2

    untrue (adj.)

    Old English untreowe "unfaithful" (of persons), from un- (1) "not" + true (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ongetrouwe, Middle Low German ungetruwe, Old High German ungitriuwi, Old Norse utryggr. Meaning "contrary to facts" is attested from c. 1300.ETD untrue (adj.).2

    untrustworthy (adj.)

    1846, from un- (1) "not" + trustworthy. Related: Untrustworthiness.ETD untrustworthy (adj.).2

    untruth (n.)

    Old English untreowþ "unfaithfulness, treachery," from un- (1) "not" + truth (n.). Similar formation in Old Norse utrygð. Meaning "falsehood" is attested from mid-15c., as is that of "a lie." Related: Untruthful.ETD untruth (n.).2

    unturned (adj.)

    1540s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of turn (v.).ETD unturned (adj.).2

    untwist (v.)

    1530s, from un- (2) "reverse, opposite of" + twist (v.). Related: Untwisted; untwisting.ETD untwist (v.).2

    unused (adj.)

    c. 1300, "unaccustomed," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of use (v.). Meaning "not employed" is recorded from late 14c.ETD unused (adj.).2

    unusable (adj.)

    1825, from un- (1) "not" + usable (adj.).ETD unusable (adj.).2

    unusual (adj.)

    1580s, from un- (1) "not" + usual (adj.). Related: Unusually.ETD unusual (adj.).2

    unutterable (adj.)

    1580s, from un- (1) "not" + utterable (see utter (v.)). As a noun, from 1788; unutterables as a euphemism for "trousers" is recorded by 1826 (see inexpressible).ETD unutterable (adj.).2

    unvanquished (adj.)

    late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of vanquish (v.).ETD unvanquished (adj.).2

    unvarying (adj.)

    1680s, from un- (1) "not" + present participle of vary (v.).ETD unvarying (adj.).2

    unvarnished (adj.)

    c. 1600, of statements, "not embellished," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of varnish (v.). Literal sense of "not covered in varnish" is recorded from 1758.ETD unvarnished (adj.).2

    unveil (v.)

    1590s, in reference to sight, "to make clear," from un- (2) "opposite of" + veil (v.). Sense of "to display or reveal" (something) is from 1650s. Related: Unveiled; unveiling.ETD unveil (v.).2

    unwed (adj.)

    1510s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of wed (v.). Unwedded "unmarried; celibate" is from c. 1200.ETD unwed (adj.).2

    unwanted (adj.)

    1690s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of want (v.).ETD unwanted (adj.).2

    unwary (adj.)

    by 1570s, possibly late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + wary (adj.). Old English had unwær "incautious," unwærlic. Related: Unwarily.ETD unwary (adj.).2

    unwarranted (adj.)

    1570s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of warrant (v.).ETD unwarranted (adj.).2

    unwashed (adj.)

    late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of wash (v.). Replaced Middle English unwashen, from Old English unwæscen. Noun sense of "the lower class" is attested from 1830.ETD unwashed (adj.).2

    unwavering (adj.)

    1560s, from un- (1) "not" + present participle of waver (v.).ETD unwavering (adj.).2

    unwearied (adj.)

    mid-13c., from Old English ungewerigod, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of weary (v.).ETD unwearied (adj.).2

    unwell (adj.)

    mid-15c., "somewhat ill," from un- (1) "not" + well (adj.). Similar formation in North Frisian unwel, German unwohl.ETD unwell (adj.).2

    unwelcome (adj.)

    early 14c., from un- (1) "not" + welcome (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onwillecome, German unwillkommen.ETD unwelcome (adj.).2

    unwholesome (adj.)

    c. 1200, from un- (1) "not" + wholesome (adj.). Similar formation in Flemish onheylsaem, German unheilsam, Old Norse uheilsamr.ETD unwholesome (adj.).2

    unwieldy (adj.)

    late 14c., "lacking strength, powerless," from un- (1) "not" + obsolete wieldy, from Old English wielde "active, vigorous," from Proto-Germanic *walth- "have power" (see wield (v.)). Meaning "moving ungracefully" is recorded from 1520s; in reference to weapons, "difficult to handle, awkward by virtue of size or shape" it is attested from 1540s. Related: Unwieldiness.ETD unwieldy (adj.).2

    unwilling (adj.)

    early 15c., altered from or re-formed to replace Middle English unwilland, from Old English unwillende; see un- (1) "not" + willing (adj.). Also see -ing (2). Related: Unwillingly; unwillingness.ETD unwilling (adj.).2

    unwind (v.)

    early 14c., "to undo" (a bandage, wrapping, etc.), from un- (2) "opposite of" + wind (v.1). Similar formation in Old English unwindan "unveil, uncover," Dutch ontwinden, Old High German intwindan. Reflexive sense is recorded from 1740; figurative sense of "to release oneself from tensions, to relax" is by 1938. Related: Unwound; unwinding.ETD unwind (v.).2

    unwise (adj.)

    Old English unwis, from un- (1) "not" + wise (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onwijs, Old High German unwis, German unweise, Old Norse uviss, Gothic unweis.ETD unwise (adj.).2

    unwisely (adv.)

    Old English unwislice "foolishly;" see unwise + -ly (2).ETD unwisely (adv.).2

    unwitting (adj.)

    late 14c., altered from or re-formed to replace unwitand, from Old English unwitende "ignorant," from un- (1) "not" + witting (adj.); see -ing (2). Similar formation in Old High German unwizzanti, German unwissend, Old Norse uvitandi, Gothic unwitands. Rare after c. 1600; revived c. 1800. Related: Unwittingly.ETD unwitting (adj.).2

    unwonted (adj.)

    "not usual," 1550s, from un- (1) "not" + wonted. Earlier (and more correctly) unwont (c. 1400).ETD unwonted (adj.).2

    unworkable (adj.)

    1784, from un- (1) "not" + workable (adj.).ETD unworkable (adj.).2

    unworldly (adj.)

    1707, from un- (1) "not" + worldly (adj.). Related: Unworldliness.ETD unworldly (adj.).2

    unworthy (adj.)

    mid-13c., unwurði, from un- (1) "not" + worthy (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onwerdich, Dutch onwaardig, Middle Low German unwerdich, Old High German unwirdig, Old Norse uverðugr. Old English had unweorðlic. Related: Unworthiness.ETD unworthy (adj.).2

    unwound (adj.)

    "no longer wound," 1707, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of wind (v.1).ETD unwound (adj.).2

    unwrap (v.)

    late 14c., from un- (2) "opposite of" + wrap (v.). Related: Unwrapped; unwrapping.ETD unwrap (v.).2

    unwritten (adj.)

    mid-14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of write (v.). Similar formation in Old English unwriten, Old Norse uritinn.ETD unwritten (adj.).2

    unyielding (adj.)

    1590s of persons; 1650s, of substances; from un- (1) "not" + yielding (see yield (v.)).ETD unyielding (adj.).2

    unzip (v.)

    1939, from un- (2) "opposite of" + zip (v.). Related: Unzipped; unzipping.ETD unzip (v.).2

    up (adv.)

    Old English up, uppe, from Proto-Germanic *upp- "up" (source also of Old Frisian, Old Saxon up "up, upward," Old Norse upp; Danish, Dutch op; Old High German uf, German auf "up"; Gothic iup "up, upward," uf "on, upon, under;" Old High German oba, German ob "over, above, on, upon"), from PIE root *upo "under," also "up from under," hence also "over."ETD up (adv.).2

    As a preposition, "to a higher place" from c. 1500; also "along, through" (1510s), "toward" (1590s). Often used elliptically for go up, come up, rise up, etc. Up the river "in jail" first recorded 1891, originally in reference to Sing Sing, which is up the Hudson from New York City. To drive someone up the wall (1951) is from the notion of the behavior of lunatics or caged animals. Insulting retort up yours (scil. ass) is attested by late 19c.ETD up (adv.).3


    prefix with various senses, from Old English up (adv.), corresponding to similar prefixes in other Germanic languages.ETD up-.2

    up (v.)

    1550s, "to drive and catch (swans)," from up (adv.). Intransitive meaning "get up, rise to one's feet" (as in up and leave) is recorded from 1640s. Sense of "to move upward" is recorded from 1737. Meaning "increase" (as in up the price of oil) is attested from 1915. Compare Old English verb uppian "to rise up, swell." Related: Upped; upping. Upping block, used for mounting or dismounting horses, carriages, etc., is attested from 1796 (earlier was horsing-block, 1660s).ETD up (v.).2

    up (adj.)

    c. 1300, "dwelling inland or upland," from up (adv.). Meaning "going up" is from 1784. From 1815 as "excited, exhilarated, happy," hence "enthusiastic, optimistic." Up-and-coming "promising" is from 1848. Musical up-tempo (adj.) is recorded from 1948.ETD up (adj.).2

    up (n.)

    "that which is up," 1530s, from up (adv.). Phrase on the up-(and-up) "honest, straightforward" first attested 1863, American English.ETD up (n.).2

    upas (n.)

    legendary poisonous tree of Java, 1783, via Dutch, from Malay (Austronesian) upas "poison," in pohun upas "poison tree." As the name of an actual tree (Antiaris toxicaria) yielding poisonous sap, from 1814.ETD upas (n.).2

    up-and-down (adj.)

    1610s, from adverbial phrase up and down (c. 1200); see up (adv.) + down (adv.).ETD up-and-down (adj.).2

    Upanishad (n.)

    one of a class of speculative treatises in Sanskrit literature, 1805, from Sanskrit upa-nishad, literally "a sitting down beside." From upa "near to" (from PIE root *upo "under," also "up from under," hence also "over") + ni-shad "to sit or lie down," from ni "downward" (from PIE *ni-, see nether) + -sad "sitting," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."ETD Upanishad (n.).2

    upbeat (adj.)

    "with a positive mood," 1947, apparently from on the upbeat "improving, getting better," attested from 1934 and a favorite of Billboard magazine headline-writers in the early 1940s, from the musical noun upbeat (1869), referring to the beat of a bar at which the conductor's baton is in a raised position; from up (adv.) + beat (n.). The "optimistic" sense apparently for no other reason than that it sounds like a happy word (the musical upbeat is no more inherently "positive" than any other beat).ETD upbeat (adj.).2

    upbraid (v.)

    Old English upbregdan "bring forth as a ground for censure," from up (adv.) + bregdan "move quickly, intertwine" (see braid (v.)). Similar formation in Middle Swedish upbrygdha. Meaning "scold" is first attested late 13c. Related: Upbraided; upbraiding.ETD upbraid (v.).2

    upbringing (n.)

    1510s, "act of rearing a young person," from up (adv.) + bringing (see bring (v.)). Mainly in Scottish in 16c.; in general use from c. 1870, according to OED. A verb upbring (past participle upbrought) was in Middle English in a sense "raise, rear, bring up, nurture" (c. 1300), but in Middle English upbringing is attested only as "act of introducing" (c. 1400).ETD upbringing (n.).2

    upchuck (v.)

    "to vomit," 1936, American English slang, from up (adv.) + chuck (v.) "to throw."ETD upchuck (v.).2

    upcoming (adj.)

    1848, "rising;" 1949, "about to happen, forthcoming," from up (adv.) + present-participle adjective from come (v.)). It was a noun from Middle English, meaning "action of ascending" (mid-14c.), also "attack, onslaught" (c. 1300), and the noun sense "act or process of coming up" is the only sense in Century Dictionary (1895).ETD upcoming (adj.).2

    up-country (n.)

    "interior regions," 1680s, from up- + country (n.). As an adjective from 1810; as an adverb from 1864.ETD up-country (n.).2

    up-current (adj.)

    1909, from up- + current (n.).ETD up-current (adj.).2

    update (v.)

    1944, in reference to information, 1952 in reference to persons, from up (adv.) + date (v.1). Related: Updated; updating. The noun is attested from 1967.ETD update (v.).2

    updraft (n.)

    also updraught, "rising air current," 1909, from up (adj.) + draft (n.).ETD updraft (n.).2

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