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    Erasmus — eschatology (n.)


    masc. proper name, Latin, literally "beloved;" related to Greek erasmios "lovely, pleasant," from eran "to love" (see Eros). Related: Erasmian.ETD Erasmus.2


    masc. proper name, Latin, literally "beloved," from Greek erastos, verbal adjective of eran "to love" (see Eros).ETD Erastus.2

    erasure (n.)

    "an erasing, an obliterating," 1734, from erase + -ure. Rasure "act of scraping or erasing" is from c. 1400.ETD erasure (n.).2


    muse who presided over lyric poetry, literally "the Lovely," from Greek Eratо̄, from erastos "loved, beloved; lovely, charming," verbal adjective of eran "to love, to be in love with" (see Eros).ETD Erato.2

    erbium (n.)

    1843, coined in Modern Latin with metallic element name -ium + erbia, name given by Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander (1797-1858), who discovered it, from second element in Ytterby, name of a town in Sweden where mineral containing it was found (see Ytterbium).ETD erbium (n.).2


    in Homer, etc., the place of darkness between Earth and Hades, from Latin Erebus, from Greek Erebos, which is of unknown origin, perhaps from Semitic (compare Hebrew erebh "sunset, evening"), or from PIE *regw-es- "darkness" (source also of Sanskrit rajas "the atmosphere, thick air, mist, darkness;" Gothic rikwis "darkness"). Used figuratively of darkness from 1590s.ETD Erebus.2


    legendary first king and founder of Athens, from Latin Erechtheus, from Greek Erekhtheos, literally "render, shaker" (of the earth), from erekhthein "to rend, break, shatter, shake." Hence Erechtheum, the name of a temple on the Athenian acropolis.ETD Erechtheus.2

    erect (adj.)

    late 14c., "upright, not bending," from Latin erectus "upright, elevated, lofty; eager, alert, aroused; resolute; arrogant," past participle of erigere "raise or set up," from e- "up, out of" + regere "to direct, keep straight, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule").ETD erect (adj.).2

    erection (n.)

    mid-15c., ereccioun, "establishment; advancement," from Late Latin erectionem (nominative erectio) "a setting up," also "pride, insolence," noun of action from past-participle stem of erigere "to set up, erect" (see erect (adj.)). The meaning "the putting up" (of a building, etc.) is by 1590s.ETD erection (n.).2

    The sense of "stiffening of the penis" (also sometimes of the turgidity and rigidity of the clitoris) is attested from early 15c. in medical writing. Priapismus (early 15c.) also was used; in non-medical writing, pride, etc.ETD erection (n.).3

    erect (v.)

    c. 1400, a back-formation from erect (adj.) or else from Latin erectus. Related: Erected; erecting.ETD erect (v.).2

    erectile (adj.)

    1822, "pertaining to muscular erection," from French érectile, from Latin erect-, past participle stem of erigere "to raise or set up" (see erect (adj.)).ETD erectile (adj.).2

    erector (n.)

    1530s, "one who builds," agent noun in Latin form from erect (v.). In reference to muscles from 1831. The children's building kit Erector (commonly known as an Erector set) was sold from 1913.ETD erector (n.).2

    eremite (n.)

    c. 1200, learned form of hermit (q.v.) based on Church Latin eremita. Since mid-17c. in poetic or rhetorical use only, except in reference to specific persons in early Church history. Related: Eremitic; eremitical.ETD eremite (n.).2

    Erewhon (n.)

    "utopia," from title of a book published 1872 by British author Samuel Butler, a partial reversal of nowhere.ETD Erewhon (n.).2

    erg (n.1)

    unit of energy in the C.G.S. system, coined 1873 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, from Greek ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").ETD erg (n.1).2

    erg (n.2)

    "region of drifting sand dunes," 1875, from French erg (1854), from North African Arabic 'irj, from a Berber word.ETD erg (n.2).2

    ergative (adj.)

    1943, in reference to grammatical case used for the subjects of transitive verbs (in Eskimo, Basque, Caucasian languages), from Greek ergatēs "workman," from combining form of ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do") + -ive.ETD ergative (adj.).2

    ergo (conj.)

    c. 1400, from Latin ergo "therefore, in consequence of," possibly contracted from *e rogo "from the direction of," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + noun from regere "to direct, to guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). Used in logic to introduce the conclusion of a complete and necessary syllogism.ETD ergo (conj.).2

    ergonomics (n.)

    "scientific study of the efficiency of people in the workplace," coined 1950 from Greek ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do") + second element of economics.ETD ergonomics (n.).2

    ergophobia (n.)

    "fear of work," 1905, coined by British medical man Dr. William Dunnett Spanton, from Greek ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do") + -phobia "fear."ETD ergophobia (n.).2

    ergot (n.)

    fungal disease of rye and other grasses, 1680s, from French ergot "ergot," also "a spur, the extremity of a dead branch," from Old French argot "cock's spur" (12c.), which is of unknown origin. The blight so called from the shape the fungus forms on the diseased grain. Related: Ergotic. An alkaloid from the fungus, ergotamine (1921) is used to treat migraines.ETD ergot (n.).2

    ergotism (n.)

    "disease caused by eating ergot-infected breadstuffs," 1816; see ergot + -ism.ETD ergotism (n.).2


    one of the Great Lakes, named for a native Iroquoian people who lived nearby, from French Erie, shortening of Rhiienhonons, said to mean "raccoon nation," perhaps in reference to a totemic animal. Related: Erian.ETD Erie.2


    goddess of discord in Greek mythology, from Greek eris "strife, discord," which is of uncertain origin. Watkins suggests PIE root *ere- (3) "to separate, adjoin." Related: Eristic.ETD Eris.2


    word-forming element making nouns meaning "place for, art of, condition of, quantity of," from Middle English -erie, from Latin -arius (see -ary). Also sometimes in modern colloquial use "the collectivity of" or "an example of."ETD -ery.2


    masc. proper name, from Old Norse Eirikr, literally "honored ruler," from Proto-Germanic *aiza- "honor" + *rik- "ruler" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). The German form is Erich.ETD Eric.2


    fem. proper name, feminine form of Eric. The plant genus is Modern Latin, from Greek ereike "tree heather," which resembles words for "heather" in Celtic and Balto-Slavic, all of which were perhaps borrowed from a common source (see brier (n.2)).ETD Erica.2

    erigible (adj.)

    "capable of being erected," 1785, from stem of Latin erigere "to raise or set up" (see erect (adj.)).ETD erigible (adj.).2


    ancient name of Ireland, from Old English Erinn, dative of Eriu "Ireland" (see Irish (n.)). As a girl's name in U.S., rare before 1954, popular 1976-1985.ETD Erin.2

    Erinys (n.)

    (plural Erinyes), one of the three avenging spirits (Alecto, Tisiphone, Megaera) in Greek religion, identified with the Furies, of unknown origin, perhaps "the angry spirit" (compare Arcadian erinein "to be angry," Greek orinein "to raise, stir, excite," eris "strife, discord"). Related: Erinnic; Erinnical (1610s).ETD Erinys (n.).2


    named 1890 when it was an Italian colony, ultimately from Mare Erythreum, Roman name of the Red Sea, from Greek Erythre Thalassa, literally "Red Sea" (which to the Greeks also included the Gulf of Arabia and the Indian Ocean), from erythros "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").ETD Eritrea.2

    Erl-king (n.)

    1797, in Scott's translation of Goethe, from German Erl-könig, fiend who haunts the depths of forests in German and Scandinavian poetic mythology, literally "alder-king;" according to OED, Herder's erroneous translation of Danish ellerkonge "king of the elves." Compare German Eller, Erle "alder" (see alder).ETD Erl-king (n.).2


    fem. proper name, from Old High German Ermentrudis, from ermin "whole, universal" + trut "beloved, dear."ETD Ermentrude.2

    ermine (n.)

    "a stoat," especially in its white winter coat, late 12c., from Old French ermine (12c., Modern French hermine), used in reference to both the animal and the fur. Apparently the word is a convergence of Latin (mus) Armenius "Armenian (mouse)" -- ermines being abundant in Asia Minor -- and an unrelated Germanic word for "weasel" (represented by Old High German harmo "ermine, stoat, weasel," adj. harmin; Old Saxon harmo, Old English hearma "shrew," etc.) that happened to sound like it. OED splits the difference between competing theories. The fur, especially with the black of the tail inserted at regular intervals in the pure white of the winter coat, was used for the lining of official and ceremonial garments, in England especially judicial robes, hence figurative use from 18c. for "the judiciary." Related: Ermined.ETD ermine (n.).2

    erne (n.)

    "sea eagle," from Old English earn "eagle," from Proto-Germanic *aron-, *arnuz "eagle" (source also of Old High German arn, German Aar, Middle Dutch arent, Old Norse örn, Gothic ara "eagle"), from PIE root *or- "great bird" (source also of Greek ornis "bird," Old Church Slavonic orilu, Lithuanian erelis, Welsh eryr "eagle"). The Germanic word also survives in the first element of names such as Arnold and Arthur.ETD erne (n.).2


    masc. proper name, from French Ernest, which is of German origin (compare Old High German Ernust, German Ernst), literally "earnestness" (see earnest (adj.)). Among the top 50 names for boys born in U.S. from 1880 through 1933.ETD Ernest.2


    fem. form of Ernest. As an adjective, in German history, "pertaining to the elder branch of the Saxon house," who descend from Ernest, Elector of Saxony 15c.ETD Ernestine.2

    Eros (n.)

    god of love, late 14c., from Greek eros (plural erotes), "god or personification of love; (carnal) love," from eran, eramai, erasthai "to desire," which is of uncertain origin. Beekes suggests it is from Pre-Greek.ETD Eros (n.).2

    The Freudian sense of "urge to self-preservation and sexual pleasure" is from 1922. Ancient Greek distinguished four ways of love: erao "to be in love with, to desire passionately or sexually;" phileo "have affection for;" agapao "have regard for, be contented with;" and stergo, used especially of the love of parents and children or a ruler and his subjects.ETD Eros (n.).3

    erode (v.)

    1610s, "gnaw or eat away" (transitive), a back-formation from erosion, or else from French éroder, from Latin erodere "to gnaw away, consume," from assimilated form of ex "away" (see ex-) + rodere "to gnaw" (see rodent). Intransitive sense "become worn away" is by 1905. Related: Eroded; eroding. Originally of acids, ulcers, etc.; geological sense is from 1830.ETD erode (v.).2

    erogenous (adj.)

    "inducing erotic sensation or sexual desire," 1889, from Greek eros "sexual love" (see Eros) + -genous "producing." A slightly earlier variant was erogenic (1887), from French érogénique. Both, as OED laments, are improperly formed. Erogenous zone attested by 1905.ETD erogenous (adj.).2


    "factitious slang suffix" (OED), sometimes affectionate, forming nouns indicating "a humorous or remarkable instance" of what is indicated, in use by 1940s (e.g. smasheroo "spectacular success," by 1948), perhaps from buckaroo. An earlier suffix in a similar sense is -erino (after 1900), apparently from -er + Italian suffix -ino.ETD -eroo.2

    erosion (n.)

    1540s, from French erosion (16c.), from Latin erosionem (nominative erosio) "a gnawing away," noun of action from past-participle stem of erodere "to gnaw away, consume," from assimilated form of ex "away" (see ex-) + rodere "to gnaw" (see rodent). Related: Erosional.ETD erosion (n.).2

    erose (adj.)

    of a leaf, an insect wing, etc., "with indented edges that appear as if gnawed," 1793, from Latin erosus, past participle of erodere "gnaw away" (see erode).ETD erose (adj.).2

    erosive (adj.)

    1725, of tumors, etc.; 1827 in geology, from eros-, past participle stem of Latin erodere "gnaw away" (see erode) + -ive.ETD erosive (adj.).2

    erotic (adj.)

    1650s, from French érotique (16c.), from Greek erotikos "caused by passionate love, referring to love," from eros (genitive erotos) "sexual love" (see Eros). Earlier form was erotical (1620s).ETD erotic (adj.).2

    eroticism (n.)

    1853, from erotic + -ism.ETD eroticism (n.).2

    eroticize (v.)

    1914, from erotic + -ize. Related: Eroticized; eroticizing.ETD eroticize (v.).2

    erotica (n.)

    1820, noun use of neuter plural of Greek erotikos "amatory" (see erotic); originally a booksellers' catalogue heading.ETD erotica (n.).2

    erotomania (n.)

    1813, defined then as "Desperate love; sentimentalism producing morbid feelings," from combining form of erotic + mania.ETD erotomania (n.).2

    erotomaniac (n.)

    "one driven mad by passionate love" (sometimes also used in the sense of "nymphomaniac"), 1858, from erotomania.ETD erotomaniac (n.).2

    err (v.)

    c. 1300, from Old French errer "go astray, lose one's way; make a mistake; transgress," from Latin errare "wander, go astray," figuratively "be in error," from PIE root *ers- (1) "be in motion, wander around" (source also of Sanskrit arsati "flows;" Old English ierre "angry; straying;" Old Frisian ire "angry;" Old High German irri "angry," irron "astray;" Gothic airziþa "error; deception;" the Germanic words reflecting the notion of anger as a "straying" from normal composure). Related: Erred; erring.ETD err (v.).2

    errancy (n.)

    1620s, from errant + -ancy.ETD errancy (n.).2

    errand (n.)

    Old English ærende "message, mission; answer, news, tidings," from Proto-Germanic *airundija- "message, errand" (source also of Old Saxon arundi, Old Norse erendi, Danish ærinde, Swedish ärende, Old Frisian erende, Old High German arunti "message"), which is of uncertain origin. Compare Old English ar "messenger, servant, herald." Originally of important missions; meaning "short, simple journey and task" is attested by 1640s. Related: Errands. In Old English, ærendgast was "angel," ærendraca was "ambassador."ETD errand (n.).2

    errant (adj.)

    mid-14c., "traveling, roving," from Anglo-French erraunt, from two Old French words that were confused even before they reached English: 1. Old French errant, present participle of errer "to travel or wander," from Late Latin iterare, from Latin iter "journey, way," from root of ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go"); 2. Old French errant, past participle of errer (see err). The senses fused in English 14c., but much of the sense of the latter since has gone with arrant.ETD errant (adj.).2

    erratic (adj.)

    late 14c., "wandering, moving," from Old French erratique "wandering, vagrant" (13c.) and directly from Latin erraticus "wandering, straying, roving," from erratum "an error, mistake, fault," past participle of errare "to wander; to err" (see err). Sense of "irregular, eccentric" is attested by 1841. The noun is from 1620s, of persons; 1849, of boulders. Related: Erratically.ETD erratic (adj.).2

    errata (n.)

    "list of corrections attached to a printed book," 1580s, plural of erratum (q.v.).ETD errata (n.).2

    erratum (n.)

    "an error in writing or printing," 1580s, from Latin erratum (plural errata), neuter past participle of errare "to wander; to err" (see err).ETD erratum (n.).2

    erroneous (adj.)

    late 14c., from Old French erroneus and directly from Latin erroneus "vagrant, wandering" (in Late Latin "erroneous"), from erronem (nominative erro) "a wanderer, vagabond," from past participle stem of errare "to wander; to err" (see err). Related: Erroneously.ETD erroneous (adj.).2

    error (n.)

    also, through 18c., errour; c. 1300, "a deviation from truth made through ignorance or inadvertence, a mistake," also "offense against morality or justice; transgression, wrong-doing, sin;" from Old French error "mistake, flaw, defect, heresy," from Latin errorem (nominative error) "a wandering, straying, a going astray; meandering; doubt, uncertainty;" also "a figurative going astray, mistake," from errare "to wander; to err" (see err). From early 14c. as "state of believing or practicing what is false or heretical; false opinion or belief, heresy." From late 14c. as "deviation from what is normal; abnormality, aberration." From 1726 as "difference between observed value and true value."ETD error (n.).2

    Words for "error" in most Indo-European languages originally meant "wander, go astray" (for example Greek plane in the New Testament, Old Norse villa, Lithuanian klaida, Sanskrit bhrama-), but Irish has dearmad "error," from dermat "a forgetting."ETD error (n.).3

    errorless (adj.)

    1823, from error + -less.ETD errorless (adj.).2


    "of or pertaining to the Celts of Ireland and Scotland," late 14c., an early Scottish variant of Old English Irisc or Old Norse Irskr "Irish" (for which see Irish (n.)). It was applied by Lowland Scots to the Gaelic speech of the Highlanders (which originally is from Ireland); the sense shifted 19c. from "Highlanders" to "Irish."ETD Erse.2

    ersatz (adj.)

    1875, from German Ersatz "units of the army reserve," literally "compensation, replacement, substitute," from ersetzen "to replace," from Old High German irsezzen, from ir-, unaccented variant of ur- (see ur-) + setzen "to set," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." As a noun, from 1892.ETD ersatz (adj.).2

    erstwhile (adv.)

    1560s, "formerly," from erst "first, at first; once, long ago; till now" (13c.), earlier erest from Old English ærest "soonest, earliest," superlative of ær (see ere) + while (adv.). As an adjective, "former," from 1903. Cognate with Old Saxon and Old High German erist, German erst.ETD erstwhile (adv.).2

    eructation (n.)

    "belching," 1530s, from Latin eructationem (nominative eructatio) "a belching forth," noun of action from past participle stem of eructare "to belch forth, vomit," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + ructare "to belch," from PIE *reug- "to belch" (source also of Lithuanian rūgti "to belch," Greek eryge, Armenian orcam), which is probably imitative. Related: Eruct.ETD eructation (n.).2

    eructate (v.)

    1630s, from Latin eructatus, past participle of eructare "to belch forth" (see eructation). Related: Eructated; eructating.ETD eructate (v.).2

    erudite (adj.)

    early 15c., "learned, well-instructed," from Latin eruditus "learned, accomplished, well-informed," past participle of erudire "to educate, teach, instruct, polish," literally "to bring out of the rough," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + rudis "unskilled, rough, unlearned" (see rude). Related: Eruditely.ETD erudite (adj.).2

    erudition (n.)

    c. 1400, "instruction, education," from Latin eruditionem (nominative eruditio) "an instructing, instruction, learning," noun of action from past participle stem of erudire "to educate, instruct, polish" (see erudite). Meaning "learning, scholarship" is from 1520s.ETD erudition (n.).2

    erupt (v.)

    1650s, of diseases, etc., from Latin eruptus, past participle of erumpere "to break out, burst," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + rumpere "to break, rupture" (see rupture (n.)). Of volcanoes, from 1770 (the Latin word was used in reference to Mount Etna). Related: Erupted; erupting.ETD erupt (v.).2

    eruptive (adj.)

    1640s; see erupt + -ive. Perhaps from French éruptif.ETD eruptive (adj.).2

    eruption (n.)

    early 15c., erupcioun, from Old French éruption (14c.) and directly from Latin eruptionem (nominative eruptio) "a breaking out," noun of action from past-participle stem of erumpere "break out, burst forth," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + rumpere "to break, rupture" (see rupture (n.)).ETD eruption (n.).2

    erysipelas (n.)

    late 14c., skin disease also known as St. Anthony's Fire or ignis sacer, from Greek erysipelas, perhaps from erythros "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy") + pella "skin" (from PIE root *pel- (3) "skin, hide"). Related: Erysipelatous.ETD erysipelas (n.).2

    erythema (n.)

    medical Latin, from Greek erythema "a redness on the skin; a blush; redness," from erythainein "to become red," from erythros "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy"). Related: Erythematous.ETD erythema (n.).2


    before vowels, erythr-, word-forming element meaning "red," from Greek erythros "red" (in Homer, also the color of copper and gold); from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy."ETD erythro-.2


    German, literally "ore mountains."ETD Erzgebirge.2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be."ETD *es-.2

    It forms all or part of: absence; absent; am; Bodhisattva; entity; essence; essential; essive; eu-; eucalyptus; Eucharist; Euclidean; Eudora; Eugene; eugenics; eulogy; Eunice; euphemism; euphoria; euthanasia; homoiousian; improve; interest; is; onto-; Parousia; present (adj.) "existing at the time;" present (n.2) "what is offered or given as a gift;" proud; quintessence; represent; satyagraha; sin; sooth; soothe; suttee; swastika; yes.ETD *es-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit asmi, Hittite eimi, Greek esti-, Latin est, Old Church Slavonic jesmi, Lithuanian esmi, Gothic imi, Old English eom, German ist.ETD *es-.4


    word-forming element, from Old French -eis (Modern French -ois, -ais), from Vulgar Latin, from Latin -ensem, -ensis "belonging to" or "originating in."ETD -ese.2


    1966 in reference to an alternative philosophy and human potential movement, from Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California, U.S., from Esselen, name of an extinct Native American people of the California coast, for which Bright gives no etymology.ETD Esalen.2


    biblical son of Isaac and Rebecca, elder twin who sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for "a mess of pottage" (Genesis xxv), hence "used symbolically for: one who prefers present advantage to permanent rights or interests" [OED].ETD Esau.2

    escadrille (n.)

    1893, from French escadrille, from Spanish escuadrilla, diminutive of escuadra "square, squad, squadron," from Vulgar Latin *exquadrare, from Latin quadrare "to make square," related to quadrus "a square," quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four").ETD escadrille (n.).2

    escalator (n.)

    1900, American English, trade name of an Otis Elevator Co. moving staircase, coined from escalade + -ator in elevator. Figurative use is from 1927 (in advertising).ETD escalator (n.).2

    escalation (n.)

    1938, derived noun from escalate; the figurative sense is earliest, originally in reference to the battleship arms race among global military powers.ETD escalation (n.).2

    escalate (v.)

    1922, "to use an escalator," back-formation from escalator, replacing earlier verb escalade (1801), from the noun escalade. Escalate came into general use with a figurative sense of "raise" from 1959 (intrans.), originally in reference to scenarios for possible nuclear war. Related: Escalated; escalating. Transitive figurative sense is by 1962.ETD escalate (v.).2

    escalade (n.)

    1590s, "action of using ladders to scale the walls of a fortified place," from French escalade (16c.) "an assault with ladders on a fortification," from Italian scalata, fem. past participle of scalare "to climb by means of a ladder," from scala "ladder," related to Latin scandere "to climb" (see scan). For initial e-, see e-. Also in early use in English in Spanish form escalada, later corrupted to escalado. As the name of a brand of luxury SUV by Cadillac, from 1999.ETD escalade (n.).2

    escalatory (adj.)

    1965, from escalate + -ory.ETD escalatory (adj.).2

    escallop (n.)

    "scallop shell," also "edge or border cut in the shape of scallops," late 15c., in plural, escalloppys, from Old French escalope, eschalope "shell (of a nut), carapace," from a Germanic source (see scallop). For initial e-, see e-. As a verb from c. 1600 in escalloped "having the border or edge cut out in scallops."ETD escallop (n.).2

    escapement (n.)

    in watch- and clock-making, 1779 (from 1755 as scapement), based on French échappement (1716 in this sense); see escape (v.) + -ment.ETD escapement (n.).2

    escape (n.)

    c. 1400, "an act of escaping, action of escaping," also "a possibility of escape," from escape (v.) or from Old French eschap; earlier eschap (c. 1300). Mental/emotional sense is from 1853. From 1810 as "a means of escape." The contractual escape clause recorded by 1939.ETD escape (n.).2

    escapable (adj.)

    1864, from escape (v.) + -able.ETD escapable (adj.).2

    escape (v.)

    c. 1300, transitive and intransitive, "free oneself from confinement; extricate oneself from trouble; get away safely by flight (from battle, an enemy, etc.)," from Old North French escaper, Old French eschaper (12c., Modern French échapper), from Vulgar Latin *excappare, literally "get out of one's cape, leave a pursuer with just one's cape," from Latin ex- "out of" (see ex-) + Late Latin cappa "mantle" (see cap (n.)). Mid-14c., of things, "get or keep out of a person's grasp, elude (notice, perception, attention, etc.);" late 14c. as "avoid experiencing or suffering (something), avoid physical contact with; avoid (a consequence)." Formerly sometimes partly Englished as outscape (c. 1500). Related: Escaped; escaping.ETD escape (v.).2

    escapism (n.)

    1933, American English, from escape (n.) in the mental/emotional sense + -ism.ETD escapism (n.).2

    escapade (n.)

    1650s, "an escape from confinement," from French escapade (16c.) "a prank or trick," from Spanish escapada "a prank, flight, an escape," noun use of fem. past participle of escapar "to escape," from Vulgar Latin *excappare (see escape (v.)). Or perhaps the French word is via Italian scappata, from scappare, from the same Vulgar Latin source. Figurative sense (1814) implies a "breaking loose" from rules or restraints on behavior.ETD escapade (n.).2

    escapee (n.)

    "escaped prisoner or convict," 1865, American English, from escape (v.) + -ee.ETD escapee (n.).2

    escapist (adj.)

    in the figurative sense, 1870, from escape + -ist. As a noun, by 1933 in the figurative, 1881 in the literal sense.ETD escapist (adj.).2

    escapologist (n.)

    performer who specializes in getting out of confinement, 1926; see escape + -ologist. Related: Escapology.ETD escapologist (n.).2

    escargot (n.)

    "edible snail," 1892, from French escargot, from Old French escargol "snail" (14c.), from Provençal escaragol, ultimately from Vulgar Latin *coculium, from classical Latin conchylium "edible shellfish, oyster" (see cockle (n.1)). The form of the word in Provençal and French seems to have been influenced by words related to scarab.ETD escargot (n.).2

    escarole (n.)

    "lettuce-like salad vegetable" (a type of endive), 1897, from French escarole (13c., scariole), from Italian scariola, from Medieval Latin escariola "something edible," ultimately from Latin edere "to eat" (from PIE root *ed- "to eat").ETD escarole (n.).2

    escarp (n.)

    "steep slope," especially as part of a fortification, 1680s, from French escarpe (16c.), from Italian scarpa (see scarp).ETD escarp (n.).2

    escarpment (n.)

    1802, from French escarpment, from escarper "make into a steep slope," from escarpe "slope," from Italian scarpa (see scarp). Earlier in same sense was escarp.ETD escarpment (n.).2


    word-forming element meaning "process or state of being," from Latin -escentia, from -escentem (see -escent).ETD -escence.2


    word-forming element meaning "beginning, becoming, tending to be," from Latin -escentem (nominative -escens), ending of present participles of verbs in -escere.ETD -escent.2

    eschatology (n.)

    1834, from Latinized form of Greek eskhatos "last, furthest, uttermost, extreme, most remote" in time, space, degree (from PIE *eghs-ko-, suffixed form of *eghs "out;" see ex-) + -ology. In theology, the study of the four last things (death, judgment, heaven, hell). Related: Eschatological; eschatologically.ETD eschatology (n.).2

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