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    hay fever (n.) — heating (n.)

    hay fever (n.)

    also hay-fever, 1825, from hay + fever. Also called summer catarrh (1828); not much noted before the 1820s, when it was sometimes derided as a "fashion" in disease.ETD hay fever (n.).2

    hayloft (n.)

    storing place for hay in a stable or barn, 1570s, from hay + loft (n.).ETD hayloft (n.).2

    haymaker (n.)

    mid-15c. as the name of an agricultural occupation, "one who cuts and dries grass" (hay-making is attested from c. 1400); 1910 in the sense of "very strong blow with the fist," from hay + agent noun of make; the punch probably so called for resemblance to the wide swinging stroke of a scythe. Haymaker punch attested from 1907.ETD haymaker (n.).2

    hayrick (n.)

    "haystack," late 14c., from hay + rick.ETD hayrick (n.).2

    hay-ride (n.)

    also hayride, "a ride in a hay cart for pleasure or entertainment," 1878, from hay (n.) + ride (n.).ETD hay-ride (n.).2

    hayseed (n.)

    also hay-seed, 1570s, "grass seed shaken out of hay," from hay + seed (n.). In U.S. slang sense of "comical rustic" it dates from 1875. To have hayseed in (one's) hair was a common mid-19c. way in U.S. to indicate a country person.ETD hayseed (n.).2

    haystack (n.)

    mid-15c., from hay + stack (n.).ETD haystack (n.).2


    proper name, from Old English hege-weard "guardian of the fence/hedge" (see hedge (n.) + ward (n.)). His original duties seem to have been protecting the fences around the Lammas lands, when enclosed, to prevent cattle from breaking in while the crops grew.ETD Hayward.2

    haywire (n.)

    "soft wire for binding bales of hay," by 1891, from hay + wire (n.). Adjective meaning "poorly equipped, makeshift" is 1905, American English, from the sense of something held together only with haywire, particularly said to be from use of the stuff in New England lumber camps for jury-rigging and makeshift purposes, so that hay wire outfit became the "contemptuous term for loggers with poor logging equipment" [Bryant, "Logging," 1913]. Its springy, uncontrollable quality led to the sense in go haywire (by 1915).ETD haywire (n.).2

    hazard (n.)

    c. 1300, name of a game at dice, from Old French hasard, hasart "game of chance played with dice," also "a throw of six in dice" (12c.), of uncertain origin. Possibly from Spanish azar "an unfortunate card or throw at dice," which is said to be from Arabic az-zahr (for al-zahr) "the die." But this is doubtful because of the absence of zahr in classical Arabic dictionaries. Klein suggests Arabic yasara "he played at dice;" Arabic -s- regularly becomes Spanish -z-. The -d was added in French through confusion with the native suffix -ard. Sense evolved in French to "chances in gambling," then "chances in life." In English, sense of "chance of loss or harm, risk" first recorded 1540s.ETD hazard (n.).2

    hazardous (adj.)

    1580s, "venturesome;" 1610s, "perilous," from hazard (n.) + -ous or from French hasardeux (16c.).ETD hazardous (adj.).2

    hazard (v.)

    "put something at stake in a game of chance," 1520s, from French hasarder "to play at gambling, throw dice" (15c.), from hasard (see hazard (n.)). Related: Hazarded; hazarding.ETD hazard (v.).2

    haze (v.)

    "subject (someone) to cruel horseplay," 1850, American English student slang, from earlier nautical sense of "harass with work, punish by keeping at unpleasant and unnecessary hard labor" (1840), perhaps from hawze "terrify, frighten, confound" (1670s), from French haser "irritate, annoy" (mid-15c.), which is of unknown origin. Related: Hazed; hazing.ETD haze (v.).2

    haze (n.)

    "opaqueness of the atmosphere," 1706, probably a back-formation of hazy (q.v.). Sense of "confusion, vagueness" is 1797. The differentiation of haze, mist, fog (and other dialectal words) is unmatched in other tongues, where the same word generally covers all three and often "cloud" as well; this may be an effect of the English climate on the English language.ETD haze (n.).2

    hazing (n.)

    "brutal initiation, act of abusing a newcomer," 1848, said to be a college word ("This word is used at Harvard College, to express the treatment which Freshmen sometimes receive from the higher classes, and especially from the Sophomores" -- "Collection of College Words and Customs," Boston, 1851), but perhaps originally nautical; see haze (v.).ETD hazing (n.).2

    The thing is older than the word. Compare pennalism "exceptional tyrannical hazing of college freshmen by older students at 17c. German Protestant universities," from German pennal (from Latin) "a pen-case;" also "a freshman," so called for the cases they dutifully carried to lectures.ETD hazing (n.).3

    hazel (n.)

    Old English hæsl, hæsel, from Proto-Germanic *hasalaz (source also of Old Norse hasl, Middle Dutch hasel, German hasel), from PIE *koselo- "hazel" (source also of Latin corulus, Old Irish coll "hazel"). Shakespeare ("Romeo and Juliet," 1592) was first to use it (in print) in the sense of "reddish-brown color of eyes" (in reference to the color of ripe hazel-nuts), when Mercutio accuses Benvolio:ETD hazel (n.).2

    hazelnut (n.)

    also hazel-nut, Old English hæselhnutu; see hazel + nut. Similar formation in Dutch hazelnoot, Old High German hasalnuz, German Haselnuss.ETD hazelnut (n.).2

    hazy (adj.)

    1620s, hawsey, nautical, of unknown origin. Some connect it with German hase "hare," an animal which plays an important part in Germanic folklore, with many supernatural and unlucky aspects in medieval times (among the superstitions: a dead hare should not be brought aboard a fishing ship, and the word hare should not be spoken at sea). Another suggestion is Old English hasu, haswe "gray." Related: Hazily; haziness.ETD hazy (adj.).2


    also HAZMAT, 1977, telescoped from hazardous material(s).ETD hazmat.2

    he (pron.)

    Old English he, pronoun of the third person (see paradigm of Old English third person pronoun below), from Proto-Germanic *hi- (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch he, hi, Dutch hy, Old High German he), from PIE *ki-, variant of root *ko-, the "this, here" (as opposed to "that, there") root, and thus the source of the third person pronouns in Old English. The feminine, hio, was replaced in early Middle English by forms from other stems (see she), while the h- wore off Old English neuter hit to make modern it. The Proto-Germanic root also is the source of the first element in German heute "today," literally "the day" (compare Old English heodæg).ETD he (pron.).2

    The paradigm in Old English was: MASCULINE SINGULAR: he (nominative), hine (accusative), his (genitive), him (dative); FEMININE SINGULAR: heo, hio (nom.), hie, hi (acc.), hire (gen. and dat.); NEUTER SINGULAR: hit (nom. and acc.), his (gen.), him (dat.); PLURAL: (all genders) hie, hi (nom. and acc.), hira, heora (gen.), him, heom (dat.).ETD he (pron.).3

    Pleonastic use with the noun ("Mistah Kurtz, he dead") is attested from late Old English. With animal words, meaning "male" (he-goat, etc.) from c. 1300.ETD he (pron.).4

    head (n.)

    Old English heafod "top of the body," also "upper end of a slope," also "chief person, leader, ruler; capital city," from Proto-Germanic *haubid (source also of Old Saxon hobid, Old Norse hofuð, Old Frisian haved, Middle Dutch hovet, Dutch hoofd, Old High German houbit, German Haupt, Gothic haubiþ "head"), from PIE root *kaput- "head."ETD head (n.).2

    Modern spelling is early 15c., representing what was then a long vowel (as in heat) and remained after pronunciation shifted. Of rounded tops of plants from late 14c. Meaning "origin of a river" is mid-14c. Meaning "obverse of a coin" (the side with the portrait) is from 1680s; meaning "foam on a mug of beer" is first attested 1540s; meaning "toilet" is from 1748, based on location of crew toilet in the bow (or head) of a ship.ETD head (n.).3

    Synechdochic use for "person" (as in head count) is first attested late 13c.; of cattle, etc., in this sense from 1510s. As a height measure of persons, from c. 1300. Meaning "drug addict" (usually in a compound with the preferred drug as the first element) is from 1911.ETD head (n.).4

    To be over (one's) head "beyond one's comprehension" is by 1620s. To give head "perform fellatio" is from 1950s. Phrase heads will roll "people will be punished" (1930) translates Adolf Hitler. Head case "eccentric or insane person" is from 1966. Head game "mental manipulation" attested by 1972.ETD head (n.).5

    heading (n.)

    c. 1300, "a beheading," from present participle of head (v.). Meaning "an advancing in a certain direction" is from c. 1600. Meaning "title at the head of a portion of text" is from 1849.ETD heading (n.).2

    head (v.)

    "to be at the head or in the lead," c. 1200, from head (n.). Meaning "to direct the head (toward)" is from c. 1600. Related: headed, heading. The earliest use of the word as a verb meant "behead" (Old English heafdian). Verbal phrase head up "supervise, direct" is attested by 1930.ETD head (v.).2


    "having a head" (of a specified kind); see head (n.).ETD -headed.2

    head (adj.)

    "most important, principal, leading," c. 1200, from head (n.). Old English heafod was used in this sense in compounds.ETD head (adj.).2


    word-forming element meaning "state or condition of being," Middle English -hede, from a variant of Old English -had, the source of -hood. The only surviving words with it are maidenhead and godhead.ETD -head.2

    headache (n.)

    Old English heafodece; see head (n.) + ache (n.). Colloquial sense of "troublesome problem" is attested by 1934. Related: Headachy (1705).ETD headache (n.).2

    headband (n.)

    also Related: head-band, 1530s, from head (n.) + band (n.1).ETD headband (n.).2

    headbanger (n.)

    "devotee of heavy metal music," 1984, from head (n.) + agent noun from bang (v.).ETD headbanger (n.).2

    head-butt (n.)

    also headbutt, 1935, from head (n.) + butt (n.5). As a verb, by 1946. Related: Head-butting (1917 as a noun).ETD head-butt (n.).2

    head-dress (n.)

    also headdress, 1703, from head (n.) + dress (n.) in the older, more general, sense.ETD head-dress (n.).2

    header (n.)

    "head-first dive or plunge," 1849, from head (n.); as a type of pass or shot with the head in soccer, by 1906. Earlier it meant "executioner, headsman" (mid-15c.).ETD header (n.).2

    head-gear (n.)

    1530s, from head (n.) + gear (n.).ETD head-gear (n.).2

    head-hunter (n.)

    also headhunter, 1800, "a savage who raids for the purpose of procuring human heads as trophies or for use in religious ceremonies," from head (n.) + hunter. Extended sense "person who finds and recruits desirable workers employed elsewhere to fill job positions" is suggested or in occasional use from 1918, frequent from 1961. Related: Head-hunting (1817).ETD head-hunter (n.).2

    heady (adj.)

    late 14c., "headstrong, hasty, impetuous," from head (n.) + adj. suffix -y (2). First recorded 1570s in sense of "apt to go to the head." Related: Headily; headiness.ETD heady (adj.).2

    headland (n.)

    Old English heafod lond "strip of land left unplowed at the edge of a field to leave room for the plow to turn," naturally identified with boundaries; see head (n.) + land (n.). Meaning "high cape, promontory" is from 1520s.ETD headland (n.).2

    headless (adj.)

    late Old English, heafedleas; see head (n.) + -less. Late 14c. as "rulerless, lacking a leader." Related: Headlessly; headlessness. Similar construction in Dutch hoofdeloos, German hauptlos, Danish hovedlös.ETD headless (adj.).2

    headlight (n.)

    large lamp and reflector carried in front to illuminate at night, 1861, originally of ships and locomotives, from head (n.) + light (n.). Related: Headlights, which, as slang for "a woman's breasts," is from 1940s.ETD headlight (n.).2

    headline (n.)

    1670s, from head (n.) in sense "heading of a book or chapter" (c. 1200) + line (n.). Originally a printers' term for the line at the top of a page containing the title and page number; used of the lines that form the title of a newspaper article from 1890, and transferred unthinkingly to broadcast media. Headlinese "language peculiar to headlines" is from 1927. Headlines "important news" is from 1908.ETD headline (n.).2

    headliner (n.)

    1891, "one who writes newspaper headlines;" 1896 as "one who stars in a performance;" from headline + -er (1).ETD headliner (n.).2

    headlong (adv.)

    late 14c., headling, also headlings, "headfirst (downward); headlong (forward); without thinking, hastily," from hed "head" (see head (n.)) + adverbial suffix -ling. Altered by c. 1400 to conform with sidelong, etc. Its true companions are now mostly obsolete: darkling, backling, flatling, etc.ETD headlong (adv.).2

    headman (n.)

    also head-man, "chief man, leader," Old English heafodman; see head (adj.) + man (n.). Cognate with German Hauptmann "captain."ETD headman (n.).2

    headmaster (n.)

    principal of a school or seminary, 1570s, from head (adj.) + master (n.).ETD headmaster (n.).2

    head-on (adv.)

    1840, from head (n.) + on.ETD head-on (adv.).2

    head over heels (adv.)

    1726, "a curious perversion" [Weekley] of Middle English heels over head (late 14c.) "somersault fashion," hence "recklessly." Head (n.) and heels long have been paired in alliterative phrases in English, and the whole image also was in classical Latin (per caput pedesque ire).ETD head over heels (adv.).2

    headphone (n.)

    1887, from head (n.) + second element extracted from telephone (n.). Related: Headphones.ETD headphone (n.).2

    head-piece (n.)

    1530s, from head (n.) + piece (n.1).ETD head-piece (n.).2

    headquarters (n.)

    "residence of a military commander," 1640s, from head (adj.) + quarters. Headquarter as a verb is recorded from 1838 (in Headquartered).ETD headquarters (n.).2

    head-rest (n.)

    1833, from head (n.) + rest (n.).ETD head-rest (n.).2

    headroom (n.)

    "space above the head," 1851, from head (n.) + room (n.).ETD headroom (n.).2

    head shop (n.)

    emporium for stoner gear, by 1969 (noted in 1966 as the name of a specific shop in New York City selling psychedelic stuff), from head (n.) in the drug sense.ETD head shop (n.).2

    head-shrinker (n.)

    also headshrinker, 1926 in literal sense, from head (n.) + agent noun from shrink (v.); as U.S. slang for "psychologist," by 1950.ETD head-shrinker (n.).2

    headsman (n.)

    "executioner," c. 1600, from genitive of head (n.) + man (n.). Used earlier in sense "chief, leader" (c. 1400).ETD headsman (n.).2

    headstone (n.)

    c. 1400, "cornerstone," from head (adj.) + stone (n.). Meaning "upright stone at the head of a grave" is 1775, from head (n.).ETD headstone (n.).2

    headstrong (adj.)

    "determined to have one's way," late 14c., from head (n.) + strong. Compare Old English heafodbald "impudent," literally "head-bold." Strongheaded is attested from c. 1600.ETD headstrong (adj.).2

    heads-up (adj.)

    "clever, alert," 1926, from warning cry "heads up!" (i.e. "look up!"). As a noun, "a notification, a warning," by 1988.ETD heads-up (adj.).2

    headway (n.)

    c. 1300, "main road, highway," from Old English heafodweg; see head (adj.) + way (n.). Sense of "motion forward" first attested 1748, short for ahead-way; ultimately nautical (compare leeway).ETD headway (n.).2

    headwaters (n.)

    attested 1530s, then not again until 1792 (in descriptions of Kentucky), so possibly the modern word is a re-formation; see head (n.) "origin of a river" + water (n.1).ETD headwaters (n.).2

    healing (n.)

    "restoration to health," Old English hæling, verbal noun from heal (v.). Figurative sense of "restoration of wholeness" is from early 13c.; meaning "touch that cures" is from 1670s.ETD healing (n.).2

    heal (v.)

    Old English hælan "cure; save; make whole, sound and well," from Proto-Germanic *hailjan (source also of Old Saxon helian, Old Norse heila, Old Frisian hela, Dutch helen, German heilen, Gothic ga-hailjan "to heal, cure"), literally "to make whole" (from PIE *kailo- "whole;" see health). Intransitive sense from late 14c. Related: Healed; healing.ETD heal (v.).2

    heal-all (n.)

    1570s, "universal remedy," from heal + all; applied since 1814 to various plants supposed to possess healing virtues. The native word for panacea. For the formation, compare save-all "means of preventing loss or waste" (by 1640s), at first general, used over time of various contrivances.ETD heal-all (n.).2

    healer (n.)

    late Old English, "one who heals," especially "savior, Jesus," agent noun from heal (v.). As "a curative medicine" from late 14c. The usual Old English noun for Jesus as savior was hæland (Middle English healend), a noun use of a present participle, being a rough translation of the name (see Joshua) or of Latin salvator.ETD healer (n.).2

    healthful (adj.)

    late 14c., "wholesome, curative, saving, serving to promote health," from health + -ful. Meaning "free from disease, healthy" is attested from 1540s but is rare. Related: Healthfully; healthfulness.ETD healthful (adj.).2

    health (n.)

    Old English hælþ "wholeness, a being whole, sound or well," from Proto-Germanic *hailitho, from PIE *kailo- "whole, uninjured, of good omen" (source also of Old English hal "hale, whole;" Old Norse heill "healthy;" Old English halig, Old Norse helge "holy, sacred;" Old English hælan "to heal"). With Proto-Germanic abstract noun suffix *-itho (see -th (2)).ETD health (n.).2

    Of physical health in Middle English, but also "prosperity, happiness, welfare; preservation, safety." An abstract noun to whole, not to heal. Meaning "a salutation" (in a toast, etc.) wishing one welfare or prosperity is from 1590s. Health food is from 1848.ETD health (n.).3

    health-care (n.)

    also healthcare, 1915, from health + care (n.).ETD health-care (n.).2

    healthy (adj.)

    1550s, "being in a sound state;" also "conducive to health," from health + -y (2). Earlier in the same sense was healthsome (1530s). Related: Healthily; healthiness.ETD healthy (adj.).2

    Healthsome is from 1530s in the sense "bestowing health."ETD healthy (adj.).3

    heap (n.)

    Old English heap "pile (of things); great number, crowd, multitude (of persons)," from West Germanic *haupaz (source also of Old Saxon hop, Old Frisian hap, Middle Low German hupe, Dutch hoop, German Haufe "heap"), of uncertain origin. The group is perhaps related to Old English heah "high" (see high), but OED suggests a common origin with Latin cubare "lie down," and Boutkan says it is probably not Indo-European at all.ETD heap (n.).2

    Slang meaning "old car" is attested from 1924. Earlier it meant "slovenly woman" (1806). As a characteristic word in American Indian English speech, "a lot, a great deal," by 1832.ETD heap (n.).3

    heap (v.)

    Old English heapian "collect, heap up, bring together;" from heap (n.). Related: Heaped; heaping. Compare Old High German houfon, German haufen "to heap," also a verb from a noun.ETD heap (v.).2

    hearing (n.)

    early 13c., "perception of sound by ear, action of listening," verbal noun from hear (v.). Meaning "a listening to evidence in a court of law" is from 1570s. Hearing-aid is from 1908.ETD hearing (n.).2

    hear (v.)

    Old English heran (Anglian), (ge)hieran, hyran (West Saxon) "to hear, perceive by the ear, listen (to), obey, follow; accede to, grant; judge," from Proto-Germanic *hausejanan (source also of Old Norse heyra, Old Frisian hera, hora, Dutch horen, German hören, Gothic hausjan "to hear"), from PIE root *kous- "to hear" (source also of Greek koein "to mark, perceive, hear;" see acoustic). The shift from *-s- to -r- is a regular feature in some Germanic languages. For the vowels, see head (n.).ETD hear (v.).2

    Spelling distinction between hear and here developed 1200-1550. Meaning "be told, learn by report" is from early 14c. Old English also had the excellent adjective hiersum "ready to hear, obedient," literally "hear-some" with suffix from handsome, etc. Hear, hear! (1680s) originally was imperative, an exclamation to call attention to a speaker's words ("hear him!"); now a general cheer of approval. To not hear of "have nothing to do with" is from 1754.ETD hear (v.).3


    past tense and past participle of hear, Old English herde. To have heard of "know about" is from 1907.ETD heard.2

    hearer (n.)

    mid-14c., agent noun from hear.ETD hearer (n.).2

    hearkening (n.)

    Old English heorcnung "a harkening, listening; power of hearing" (see hearken).ETD hearkening (n.).2

    hearken (v.)

    late Old English heorcnian "to give ear, listen" (intransitive); "hear with attention" (transitive), a suffixed form of *heorcian (root of hark); from Proto-Germanic *hausjan (see hear). Harken is the usual spelling in U.S. and probably is better justified by etymology; OED says preference for hearken in British use likely is from influence of hear.ETD hearken (v.).2

    hearse (n.)

    c. 1300 (late 13c. in Anglo-Latin), "flat framework for candles, hung over a coffin," from Old French herse, formerly herce "large rake for breaking up soil, harrow; portcullis," also "large chandelier in a church," from Medieval Latin hercia, from Latin hirpicem (nominative hirpex) "harrow," a rustic word, from Oscan hirpus "wolf," supposedly in allusion to its teeth. Or the Oscan word may be related to Latin hirsutus "shaggy, bristly."ETD hearse (n.).2

    The funeral display is so called because it resembled a harrow (hearse in its sense of "portcullis" is not attested in English before 15c.). Sense extended to other temporary frameworks built over dead people, then to "vehicle for carrying a dead person to the grave," a sense first recorded 1640s. For spelling, see head (n.).ETD hearse (n.).3

    hearsay (n.)

    "information communicated by another, gossip," mid-15c., from phrase to hear say (Middle English heren seien, Old English herdon secgan). The notion is "hear (some people) say;" from hear (v.) + say (v.). As an adjective from 1570s. Hearsay evidence (1670s) is that which the witness gives not from his own perception but what was told to him. Compare similar formation in Dutch hooren zeggen, German hörensagen.ETD hearsay (n.).2

    heart (n.)

    Old English heorte "heart (hollow muscular organ that circulates blood); breast, soul, spirit, will, desire; courage; mind, intellect," from Proto-Germanic *hertan- (source also of Old Saxon herta, Old Frisian herte, Old Norse hjarta, Dutch hart, Old High German herza, German Herz, Gothic hairto), from PIE root *kerd- "heart."ETD heart (n.).2

    Spelling with -ea- is c. 1500, reflecting what then was a long vowel, and the spelling remained when the pronunciation shifted. Most of the modern figurative senses were present in Old English, including "memory" (from the notion of the heart as the seat of all mental faculties, now only in by heart, which is from late 14c.), "seat of inmost feelings; will; seat of emotions, especially love and affection; seat of courage." Meaning "inner part of anything" is from early 14c. In reference to the conventional heart-shape in illustration, late 15c.; heart-shaped is from 1744.ETD heart (n.).3

    Heart attack attested from 1875; heart disease is from 1864. The card game hearts is so called from 1886. To have one's heart in the right place "mean well" is from 1774. Heart and soul "one's whole being" is from 1650s. To eat (one's own) heart "waste away with grief, resentment, etc." is from 1580s.ETD heart (n.).4


    figurative element in combinations, "at heart," also "having a heart" (of a specified kind), c. 1200, first attested in hard-hearted; see heart (n.). Related: -heartedly.ETD -hearted.2

    heartful (adj.)

    "devout, earnest," mid-14c., from heart (n.) + -ful. Related: Heartfully.ETD heartful (adj.).2

    heart (v.)

    Old English hiertan "give heart to," from heart (n.). Shakespeare used it as "take to heart" (c. 1600); 1866 of cabbages, "to form a heart." Meaning "to love" is by 1993, from the popular New York state tourism campaign that used the heart symbol in place of the word "love."ETD heart (v.).2

    heart-ache (n.)

    also heartache, late Old English heort ece "physical pain in or near the heart;" from heart (n.) + ache (n.). Sense of "anguish of mind" is from c. 1600; Old English did, however, have heartsarnes "grief," literally "heart-soreness;" Middle English had herte-smerte "sorrow, contrition."ETD heart-ache (n.).2

    heart-beat (n.)

    also heartbeat, 1850, "a pulsation of the heart," from heart (n.) + beat (n.). From its coinage used as a figure for "a very brief time."ETD heart-beat (n.).2

    heart-breaker (n.)

    also heartbreaker, 1660s, originally "a fetching lock of hair;" of persons, "one who breaks hearts," from 1863; agent noun formation; see heartbreak.ETD heart-breaker (n.).2

    heartbreak (n.)

    also heart-break, "overwhelming grief or sorrow," 1570s, from heart (n.) + break (n.). Expression break (someone's) heart is from c. 1400. Related: Heartbreaking.ETD heartbreak (n.).2

    heartbroken (adj.)

    also heart-broken, "deeply grieved," 1580s, past participle formation from heartbreak. Related: Heartbrokenly; heartbrokenness.ETD heartbroken (adj.).2

    heartburn (n.)

    mid-13c., herte-brine "lust," later "burning sensation in the esophagus, indigestion" (mid-15c.); see heart (n.) + burn (n.). Compare cardiac for confusion of "heart" and "stomach." A Middle English alternative was herte-brenning "anger, bitterness" (c. 1400), also "heartburn" (mid-15c.).ETD heartburn (n.).2

    hearten (v.)

    1520s, "put heart into" (transitive), from heart (n.) in the figurative sense + -en (1). Intransitive sense "to cheer up" is from 1708. Related: Heartened; heartening. Earlier verb was simply heart (Old English).ETD hearten (v.).2

    heart-felt (adj.)

    also heartfelt, "profoundly felt, deep, sincere," 1734, from heart (n.) + past tense of feel (v.).ETD heart-felt (adj.).2

    hearth (n.)

    Old English heorð "hearth, fireplace, part of a floor on which a fire is made," also in transferred use "house, home, fireside," from Proto-Germanic *hertha- "burning place" (source also of Old Saxon and Old Frisian herth, Middle Dutch hert, Dutch haard, German Herd "floor, ground, fireplace"), from PIE *kerta-, from root *ker- (3) "heat, fire." Hearth-rug is from 1824. Hearth-stone is from early 14c.ETD hearth (n.).2

    hearty (adj.)

    late 14c., "courageous; spirited, zealous, from the heart;" also "loyal, faithful; sagacious, wise," from heart (n.) in its broad figurative senses + -y (2). Meaning "affording abundant nourishment" is from 1610s. Related: Heartiness.ETD hearty (adj.).2

    heartily (adv.)

    c. 1300, from hearty + -ly (2).ETD heartily (adv.).2

    heartland (n.)

    also heart-land, 1904, first recorded in geo-political writings of English geographer H.J. MacKinder (1861-1947), from heart (n.) in figurative sense "center, core" + land (n.).ETD heartland (n.).2

    heartless (adj.)

    Old English heortleas "dispirited, dejected;" see heart (n.) + -less. In Middle English with expanded senses "lacking in courage; foolish; listless; half-hearted; sluggish." Sense of "callous, cruel, wanting in kindly feeling" is not certainly attested before Shelley used it thus in 1816. Literal meaning "lacking a heart, lifeless" (mid-15c.) is rare. Related: Heartlessly; heartlessness. Similar formation in Dutch harteloos, German herzlos.ETD heartless (adj.).2

    heart-rending (adj.)

    also heartrending, 1680s, from heart (n.) + present participle of rend (v.). Related: Heart-rendingly.ETD heart-rending (adj.).2

    heartsick (adj.)

    also heart-sick, "despondent," late 14c., from heart (n.) + sick (adj.). Old English heortseoc meant "ill from heart disease."ETD heartsick (adj.).2

    heart-strings (n.)

    also heartstrings, late 15c., in old anatomy, "the tendons and nerves that brace the heart;" from heart (n.) + string (n.). Transferred and figurative sense "strongest affections, most intense feelings" is from 1590s.ETD heart-strings (n.).2

    heart-throb (n.)

    also heartthrob, 1821, "passion, affection;" 1839 in literal sense, "a beat of the heart," from heart (n.) + throb (n.). Of persons who inspire romantic feelings, from 1928; used 1910s of a quality that appeals to sentiment or emotion in newspapers, advertising, etc..ETD heart-throb (n.).2

    heart-to-heart (adj.)

    1867; see heart (n.) in figurative sense of "inmost feelings."ETD heart-to-heart (adj.).2

    heart-warming (adj.)

    also heartwarming, 1620s, from heart (n.) + present participle of warm (v.).ETD heart-warming (adj.).2

    heart-wood (n.)

    also heartwood, 1801, from heart (n.) in the sense "central part of a tree" (c. 1400) + wood (n.).ETD heart-wood (n.).2

    heating (n.)

    "action of making hot," late 14c., verbal noun from heat (v.).ETD heating (n.).2

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