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    enharmonic (adj.) — entomologist (n.)

    enharmonic (adj.)

    c. 1600, in reference to Greek music, from Late Latin enharmonicus, from Greek enharmonikos, from en (see en- (2)) + harmonikos (see harmonic). From 1794 in reference to a modern music note that can be indicated in different ways (G sharp/A flat).ETD enharmonic (adj.).2


    acronym from "electronic numeral integrator and computer," device built 1946 at University of Pennsylvania by John W. Mauchly Jr., J. Presper Eckert Jr., and J.G. Brainerd. It cost $400,000, used 18,000 radio tubes, and was housed in a 30-foot-by-50-foot room.ETD ENIAC.2


    fem. proper name, from Middle Welsh eneit, "purity," literally "soul," from PIE *ane-tyo-, suffixed form of root *ane- "to breathe."ETD Enid.2

    enigma (n.)

    1530s, "statement which conceals a hidden meaning or known thing under obscure words or forms," earlier enigmate (mid-15c.), from Latin aenigma "riddle," from Greek ainigma (plural ainigmata) "a dark saying, riddle," from ainissesthai "speak obscurely, speak in riddles," from ainos "tale, story; saying, proverb;" according to Liddell & Scott, a poetic and Ionic word, of unknown origin. General sense in English of "anything inexplicable to an observer" is from c. 1600.ETD enigma (n.).2

    enigmatic (adj.)

    1640s, from Late Latin aenigmaticus, from aenigmat-, stem of aenigma (see enigma). Enigmatical in the same sense is from 1570s. Related: Enigmatically.ETD enigmatic (adj.).2

    enisle (v.)

    c. 1600, from en- (1) "in, into" + isle (n.).ETD enisle (v.).2

    enjambment (n.)

    also enjambement, 1837, from French enjambement or from enjamb (c. 1600), from French enjamber "to stride over," from en- (see en- (1)) + jambe "leg" (see jamb).ETD enjambment (n.).2

    enjoy (v.)

    late 14c., "rejoice, be glad" (intransitive), from stem of Old French enjoir "to give joy, rejoice, take delight in," from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + joir "enjoy," from Latin gaudere "rejoice" (see joy); Sense of "have the use or benefit of" first recorded early 15c. (replacing Old English brucan, for which see brook (v.)).ETD enjoy (v.).2

    Transitive meaning "take pleasure in" is mid-15c. In modern use it has a tendency to lose its connection with pleasure: newspaper photo captions say someone enjoys an ice cream cone, etc., when all she is doing is eating it, and Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary" (1900) reports widespread use in north and west England of the phrase to enjoy bad health for one who has ailments. Meaning "have sexual relations with" (a woman) is from 1590s. Related: Enjoyed; enjoys; enjoying. To enjoy oneself "feel pleasure or satisfaction in one's mind" attested by 1708.ETD enjoy (v.).3

    enjoin (v.)

    c. 1200, engoinen, "to prescribe, impose" (penance, etc.), from stem of Old French enjoindre (12c.) "impose (on), inflict; subject to; assign (to)," from Latin iniungere "to join, fasten, attach;" figuratively "to inflict, to attack, impose," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + iungere "to join together" (from nasalized form of PIE root *yeug- "to join"). Related: Enjoined; enjoining.ETD enjoin (v.).2

    enjoyment (n.)

    1550s, "state of enjoying," from enjoy + -ment. As "that which gives pleasure" from 1732.ETD enjoyment (n.).2

    enjoyable (adj.)

    1640s, "capable of being enjoyed," from enjoy + -able. Meaning "affording pleasure" is from 1744. Related: Enjoyably; enjoyableness.ETD enjoyable (adj.).2

    enkindle (v.)

    1540s (literal), 1580s (figurative), from en- (1) + kindle. Related: Enkindled; enkindling.ETD enkindle (v.).2

    enlace (v.)

    late 14c., "connect, involve, entangle," from Old French enlacer "trap, ensnare, capture," from Late Latin *inlaciare, from in- (from PIE root *en "in") + *lacius, from Latin laqueus "noose" (see lace (n.)). Related: Enlaced; enlacing.ETD enlace (v.).2

    enlargement (n.)

    1530s, "a release from confinement," from enlarge in the secondary Middle English sense "release a prisoner" (mid-15c.) + -ment. Meaning "act of increasing in size" is from 1560s. Photographic sense "picture of a larger size than the negative from which it was made" is from 1866.ETD enlargement (n.).2

    enlarge (v.)

    mid-14c., "grow fat, increase" (intrans.); c. 1400, "make larger" (trans.), from Old French enlargier "to widen, increase, make larger," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + large (see large). Meaning "expand in words, speak at large" is from 1650s. There was a Middle English verb large "to extend, increase, make bigger," but it did not survive. Related: Enlarged; enlarging.ETD enlarge (v.).2

    enlightenment (n.)

    1660s, "action of enlightening," from enlighten + -ment. Used only in figurative sense, of spiritual enlightenment, etc. Attested from 1865 as a translation of German Aufklärung, a name for the spirit of independent thought and rationalistic system of 18c. Continental philosophers.ETD enlightenment (n.).2

    enlighten (v.)

    late 14c., "to remove the dimness or blindness" (usually figurative, from one's eyes or heart); see en- (1) + lighten (v.2). From 1660s as "supply with intellectual light." Literal senses are later and less common in English: "put light in" is from 1580s; "shed light upon" is from 1610s. Related: Enlightened; enlightening. Old English had inlihtan "to illuminate, enlighten."ETD enlighten (v.).2

    enlightened (adj.)

    1630s, "illuminated;" 1660s in the sense "well-informed;" past-participle adjective from enlighten.ETD enlightened (adj.).2

    enlistment (n.)

    1758, from enlist + -ment.ETD enlistment (n.).2

    enlist (v.)

    also inlist, 1690s (trans.), 1753 (intrans.), from en- (1) "make, put in" + list (n.1). Possibly suggested by Dutch inlijsten "to write on a list." Related: Enlisted; enlisting.ETD enlist (v.).2

    enliven (v.)

    1630s, "give life to," from en- (1) "make, put in" + live for life + -en (1). Meaning "make lively or cheerful" is from 1690s. Related: Enlivened; enlivening. Enlive in same sense is from 1590s. A noun, enlivement, is recorded from 1877.ETD enliven (v.).2

    en masse

    French, literally "in mass" (see mass (n.1)).ETD en masse.2

    enmesh (v.)

    c. 1600, from en- (1) "put in" + mesh (v.). Related: Enmeshed; enmeshing.ETD enmesh (v.).2

    enmity (n.)

    late 14c., "hostile feeling, rivalry, malice; internal conflict," from Old French enemite, variant of enemistié "enmity, hostile act, aversion" (Modern French inimité), from Vulgar Latin *inimicitatem (nominative *inimicitas), from Latin inimicitia "enmity, hostility," usually plural, from inimicus "enemy" (see enemy). Related: Enmities. Amity is basically the same word without the negative prefix.ETD enmity (n.).2

    ennead (n.)

    "group of nine things," 1650s, from Greek enneas (genitive enneados) "group of nine," from ennea "nine" (see nine). Especially in reference to the divisions of Porphyry's collection of the neo-Platonic doctrines of Plotinus. Related: enneadic.ETD ennead (n.).2

    ennoble (v.)

    late 15c., "refine, impart a higher character to" (implied in ennobled), from French ennoblir; see en- (1) + noble (adj.). Sense of "give noble rank to" is from 1590s. Related: Ennobler; ennobling.ETD ennoble (v.).2

    ennui (n.)

    1660s as a French word in English; nativized by 1758; from French ennui, from Old French enui "annoyance" (13c.), back-formation from enoiier, anuier (see annoy). Hence ennuyé (adj.) "afflicted with ennui," and thence ennuyée (n.) for a woman so afflicted.ETD ennui (n.).2


    masc. proper name, in Old Testament the son of Seth, from Greek Enos, from Hebrew Enosh, literally "man" (compare nashim "women," Arabic ins "men, people").ETD Enos.2


    masc. proper name, in Old Testament eldest son of Cain, father of Methuselah, from Latin Enoch, from Greek Enokh, from Hebrew Hanokh, literally "dedicated, consecrated," from hanakh "he dedicated," whence also Hanukkah. Related: Enochian.ETD Enoch.2

    enoptomancy (n.)

    divination by means of a mirror, 1855, from Greek enoptos, literally "seen in," from en- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + optos "seen, visible" (from PIE root *okw- "to see") + -mancy.ETD enoptomancy (n.).2

    enormity (n.)

    late 15c., "transgression, crime; irregularity," from Old French enormité "extravagance, atrocity, heinous sin," from Latin enormitatem (nominative enormitas) "hugeness, vastness; irregularity," from enormis "irregular, huge" (see enormous). Meaning "extreme wickedness" in English attested from 1560s. The notion is of that which surpasses the endurable limits of order, right, decency. Sense of "hugeness" (1765 in English) is etymological but to prevent misunderstanding probably best avoided in favor of enormousness, though this, too, originally meant "immeasurable wickedness" (1718) and didn't start to mean "hugeness" until c. 1800.ETD enormity (n.).2

    enormous (adj.)

    1530s, "abnormal" (usually in a bad sense), from Latin enormis "out of rule, irregular, shapeless; extraordinary, very large," from assimilated form of ex "out of" (see ex-) + norma "rule, norm" (see norm), with English -ous substituted for Latin -is. Meaning "extraordinary in size" is attested from 1540s; original sense of "outrageous" is more clearly preserved in enormity. Earlier was enormyous (mid-15c.) "exceedingly great, monstrous." Related: Enormously; enormousness.ETD enormous (adj.).2

    enormious (adj.)

    see enormous.ETD enormious (adj.).2

    enough (adj.)

    c. 1300, from Old English genog "sufficient in quantity or number," from Proto-Germanic compound *ganog "sufficient" (source also of Old Saxon ginog, Old Frisian enoch, Dutch genoeg, Old High German ginuog, German genug, Old Norse gnogr, Gothic ganohs).ETD enough (adj.).2

    First element is Old English ge- "with, together" (also a participial, collective, intensive, or perfective prefix), making this word the most prominent surviving example of the Old English prefix, the equivalent of Latin com- and Modern German ge- (from PIE *kom- "beside, near, by, with;" see com-). The second element is from PIE *nok-, from root *nek- (2) "to reach, attain" (source also of Sanskrit asnoti "to reach," Hittite ninikzi "lifts, raises," Lithuanian nešti "to bear, carry," Latin nancisci "to obtain").ETD enough (adj.).3

    As an adverb, "sufficiently for the purpose," in Old English; meaning "moderately, fairly, tolerably" (good enough) was in Middle English. Understated sense, as in have had enough "have had too much" was in Old English (which relied heavily on double negatives and understatement). As a noun in Old English, "a quantity or number sufficient for the purpose." As an interjection, "that is enough," from c. 1600. Colloquial 'nough said, implying the end of discussion, is attested from 1839, American English, representing a casual or colloquial pronunciation.ETD enough (adj.).4

    enow (adj., n.)

    Old English genoge (plural adjective), from genog (see enough). By Johnson, regarded as the plural of enough.ETD enow (adj., n.).2

    en passant

    French, literally "in passing," from present participle of passer "to pass" (see pass (v.)). In reference to chess, first attested 1818.ETD en passant.2

    enquire (v.)

    alternative form of inquire, according to OED mainly used in sense of "to ask a question." Related: enquired; enquiring.ETD enquire (v.).2

    enquiry (n.)

    alternative spelling of inquiry. Also see enquire. Related: Enquiries.ETD enquiry (n.).2

    enrage (v.)

    late 14c., "make furious or mad" (implied in enraged), from Old French enragier "go wild, go mad, lose one's senses," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + rage "rabies, rage" (see rage (n.)). Related: Enraging. Intransitive only in Old French; but the transitive sense is oldest and predominant in English.ETD enrage (v.).2

    enrapt (adj.)

    c. 1600, "carried away by (prophetic) ecstasy," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + rapt.ETD enrapt (adj.).2

    enrapture (v.)

    1740, from en- (1) "put in" + rapture (n.). Related: Enraptured.ETD enrapture (v.).2

    enrichment (n.)

    1620s, from enrich + -ment.ETD enrichment (n.).2

    enrich (v.)

    late 14c., "to make wealthy," from Old French enrichir "enrich, enlarge," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + riche "rich" (see rich). Figurative sense "supply with abundance of something desirable" is from 1590s. Meaning "to fertilize" is from c. 1600. Scientific sense of "to increase the abundance of a particular isotope in some material" is first attested 1945. Related: Enriched; enriching.ETD enrich (v.).2

    enrobe (v.)

    1590s, from en- (1) "in" + robe (n.). Related: Enrobed; enrobing.ETD enrobe (v.).2

    enroll (v.)

    mid-14c. (transitive), from Old French enroller "record in a register, write in a roll" (13c., Modern French enrôler), from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + rolle (see roll (n.)). Related: Enrolled; enrolling.ETD enroll (v.).2

    enrol (v.)

    alternative spelling of enroll. Related: Enroled; enroling.ETD enrol (v.).2

    enrollment (n.)

    also enrolment, mid-15c., "act of enrolling, official copy or record of a statute," from Anglo-French enrollement, from Old French enroller "record in a register" (see enroll). Meaning "total number enrolled" is from 1859, American English.ETD enrollment (n.).2

    en route

    1779, French, literally "on the way" (see route (n.)).ETD en route.2

    ensample (n.)

    "precedent to be followed, illustrative instance; a pattern, model," c. 1300, variant of asaumple, from Old French essample "example" (see example). The survival of this variant form is due to its use in New Testament in KJV (1 Peter v.3). Tyndale (1526) there has insample.ETD ensample (n.).2

    ensconce (v.)

    1580s, "to cover with a fort," from en- (1) "make, put in" + sconce "small fortification, shelter," perhaps via French, probably from Dutch schans "earthwork" (compare Middle High German schanze "bundle of sticks"), which is of uncertain origin. Hence, "to fix firmly, settle" (1590s). Related: Ensconced.ETD ensconce (v.).2

    ensemble (n.)

    1703, "union of parts, parts of a thing taken together," from French ensemblée "all the parts of a thing considered together," from Late Latin insimul "at the same time," from in- intensive prefix + simul "at the same time," related to similis "like, resembling, of the same kind" (see similar). Musical sense of "union of all parts in a performance" in English first attested 1844. Of women's dress and accessories, from 1927. Earlier in English as an adverb (mid-15c.), "together, at the same time."ETD ensemble (n.).2

    enshrine (v.)

    in early use also inshrine, "enclose in or as in a shrine; deposit for safe-keeping," 1580s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + shrine (n.). Related: Enshrined; enshrining.ETD enshrine (v.).2

    enshroud (v.)

    "cover with or as with a shroud," 1580s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + shroud (n.). Related: Enshrouded; enshrouding.ETD enshroud (v.).2

    ensign (n.)

    early 15c., "a token, sign, symbol; badge of office, mark or insignia of authority or rank;" also "battle flag, flag or banner of a ship or troop of soldiers," via Scottish, from Old French enseigne (12c.) "mark, symbol, signal; flag, standard, pennant," from Latin insignia (plural); see insignia, which is a doublet of this word. As the word for the soldier who carries the flag, 1510s. U.S. Navy sense of "commissioned officer of the lowest rank" is from 1862. French navy had rank of enseigne de vaisseau at least since early 18c. Until 1871 one of the lowest grades of commissioned officers in a British army infantry regiment, also a rank in the American Revolutionary army.ETD ensign (n.).2

    ensilage (n.)

    "mode of storing green fodder, etc., by burying it in pits or silos dug in the ground," 1879, from French ensilage, from ensiler "put in a silo," from Spanish ensilar (see silo).ETD ensilage (n.).2

    enslave (v.)

    "make a slave of, reduce to slavery or bondage," 1640s, from en- (1) "make, make into" + slave (n.). Related: Enslaved; enslaving.ETD enslave (v.).2

    enslavement (n.)

    "act of enslaving; state of being enslaved, slavery, bondage, servitude," 1690s, from enslave + -ment.ETD enslavement (n.).2

    ensnare (v.)

    formerly also insnare, 1570s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + snare (n.). Related: Ensnared; ensnaring.ETD ensnare (v.).2

    ensorcell (v.)

    also ensorcel, "to bewitch," 1540s, from French ensorceller, from Old French ensorceler, a dissimilation of ensorcerer from en- (see en- (1)) + verb from sorcier "sorcerer, wizard" (see sorcery). Related: Ensorcelled; ensorceled.ETD ensorcell (v.).2

    A rare word in English until Richard Burton took it for The Tale of the Ensorcelled Prince, a translation of a title of one of the Arabian Nights tales (1885). The word had been used in an earlier (1838) partial translation, "The Book of The Thousand Nights and One Night," by Henry Torrens, whose book Burton knew and admired. It turns up, once, in George Puttenham's "Arte of English Poesie" (1589), which was reprinted in the early 19th century. Perhaps Torrens saw it there.ETD ensorcell (v.).3

    ensue (v.)

    c. 1400, "seek after, pursue; follow (a path)," from Old French ensu-, past participle stem of ensivre "follow close upon, come afterward," from Late Latin insequere, from Latin insequi "to pursue, follow, follow after; come next," from in- "upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + sequi "follow" (from PIE root *sekw- (1) "to follow"). Early 15c. as "follow (as a consequence), to result;" mid-15c. as "to follow" in time or space, "to come or appear next, be subsequent to, happen subsequently." Related: Ensued; ensues; ensuing.ETD ensue (v.).2

    en suite

    French, literally "as part of a series or set" (see suite (n.)).ETD en suite.2

    ensure (v.)

    late 14c., from Anglo-French enseurer, from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + Old French seur "sure" (see sure); probably influenced by Old French asseurer "assure." Compare insure. Related: Ensured; ensures; ensuring.ETD ensure (v.).2


    word-forming element making adjectives from nouns or verbs, from French -ent and directly from Latin -entem (nominative -ens), present-participle ending of verbs in -ere/-ire. Old French changed it in many words to -ant, but after c. 1500 some of these in English were changed back to what was supposed to be correct Latin. See -ant.ETD -ent.2

    entablature (n.)

    1610s, in architecture, nativization of Italian intavolatura; see en- (1) + tablature.ETD entablature (n.).2

    entail (v.)

    mid-14c., "convert (an estate) into 'fee tail' (feudum talliatum)," from en- (1) "make" + taile "legal limitation," especially of inheritance, ruling who succeeds in ownership and preventing the property from being sold off, from Anglo-French taile, Old French taillie, past participle of taillier "allot, cut to shape," from Late Latin taliare "to split" (see tailor (n.)). Sense of "have consequences" is 1829, via the notion of "inseparable connection." Related: Entailed; entailling; entailment.ETD entail (v.).2

    entangle (v.)

    early 15c., entanglen, "involve (someone in difficulty); embarrass;" from Anglo-French entangler, variant of entagler. See en- (1) + tangle (n.). Related: Entangled; entangling.ETD entangle (v.).2

    entanglement (n.)

    1630s, "that which entangles," from entangle + -ment. From 1680s as "act of entangling." Foreign entanglements does not appear as such in Washington's Farewell Address (1796), though he warns against them. The phrase is found in William Coxe's 1798 memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole.ETD entanglement (n.).2

    entelechy (n.)

    c. 1600, from Latinized form of Greek entelekheia "actuality," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + telei, dative of telos "perfection" (see telos) + ekhein "to have" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold"). In Aristotle, "the condition in which a potentiality has become an actuality."ETD entelechy (n.).2

    entente (n.)

    "an understanding," 1854, from French éntente "an understanding," from Old French entente "intent, intention; attention; aim, goal" (12c.), noun use of fem. past participle of entendre "to direct one's attention" (see intent). Political sense arose in 19c. from entente cordiale (1844); the best-known example was that between England and France (1904), to which Russia was added in 1908.ETD entente (n.).2

    enter (v.)

    late 13c. entren, "enter into a place or a situation; join a group or society" (trans.); early 14c., "make one's entrance" (intrans.), from Old French entrer "enter, go in; enter upon, assume; initiate," from Latin intrare "to go into, enter" (source of Spanish entrar, Italian entrare), from intra "within," related to inter (prep., adv.) "among, between," from PIE *enter "between, among," comparative of root *en "in."ETD enter (v.).2

    Transitive and intransitive in Latin; in French intransitive only. From c. 1300 in English as "join or engage in: (an activity);" late 14c. as "penetrate," also "have sexual intercourse" (with a woman);" also "make an entry in a record or list," also "assume the duties" (of office, etc.). Related: Entered; entering.ETD enter (v.).3

    enteric (adj.)

    "pertaining to the intestines," 1822, from Latinized form of Greek enterikos "intestinal," first used in this sense by Aristotle, from entera (plural; singular enteron) "intestines," from PIE *enter-, comparative of root *en "in."ETD enteric (adj.).2

    enteritis (n.)

    "acute inflammation of the bowels," 1808, medical Latin, coined c. 1750 by French pathologist François-Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1706-1767), from enteron "intestine" (see enteric) + -itis "inflammation."ETD enteritis (n.).2


    before vowels enter-, word-forming element meaning "intestine," from Greek enteron "an intestine, piece of gut" (see enteric).ETD entero-.2

    enterovirus (n.)

    1957; see entero- + virus.ETD enterovirus (n.).2

    enterprise (n.)

    early 15c., "an undertaking," formerly also enterprize, from Old French enterprise "an undertaking," noun use of fem. past participle of entreprendre "undertake, take in hand" (12c.), from entre- "between" (see entre-) + prendre "to take," contraction of prehendere "to catch hold of, seize" (from prae- "before," see pre-, + -hendere, from PIE root *ghend- "to seize, take"). Abstract sense of "adventurous disposition, readiness to undertake challenges, spirit of daring" is from late 15c.ETD enterprise (n.).2

    enterprising (adj.)

    "eager to undertake, prompt to attempt," 1610s, present-participle adjective from the verb enterprise (late 15c.), from the noun enterprise. Until mid-19c. (at least in Britain) mostly in a bad sense: "scheming, ambitious, foolhardy." Earlier (1560s) as a verbal noun meaning "action of undertaking."ETD enterprising (adj.).2

    entertainment (n.)

    1530s, "provision for support of a retainer; manner of social behavior," now obsolete, along with other 16c. senses; from entertain + -ment. Meaning "the amusement of someone" is from 1610s; sense of "that which entertains" is from 1650s; that of "public performance or display meant to amuse" is from 1727.ETD entertainment (n.).2

    entertain (v.)

    late 15c., "to keep up, maintain, to keep (someone) in a certain frame of mind," from Old French entretenir "hold together, stick together, support" (12c.), from entre- "among" (from Latin inter; see inter-) + tenir "to hold" (from Latin tenere, from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").ETD entertain (v.).2

    Sense of "have a guest" is late 15c.; that of "gratify, amuse" is 1620s. Meaning "to allow (something) to consideration, take into the mind" (of opinions, notions, etc.) is 1610s. Related: Entertained; entertaining.ETD entertain (v.).3

    entertainer (n.)

    "public performer," 1530s, agent noun from entertain.ETD entertainer (n.).2

    enthalpy (n.)

    1927 in physics, from Greek enthalpein "to warm in," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + thalpein "to heat," from thalpos "warmth, heat," especially "summer heat."ETD enthalpy (n.).2

    enthrall (v.)

    also enthral "to hold in mental or moral bondage," 1570s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + thrall (n.). Literal sense (1610s) is rare in English. Related: Enthralled; enthralling.ETD enthrall (v.).2

    enthrone (v.)

    "to place on a throne, exalt to the seat of royalty," c. 1600, from en- (1) + throne (n.). Replacing enthronize (late 14c.), from Old French introniser (13c.), from Late Latin inthronizare, from Greek enthronizein. Also simply throne (v.), late 14c., from the noun in English. Related: Enthroned; enthroning.ETD enthrone (v.).2

    enthuse (v.)

    1827, American English, back-formation from enthusiasm. Originally often humorous or with affected ignorance. Related: enthused; enthusing.ETD enthuse (v.).2

    enthusiasm (n.)

    c. 1600, from French enthousiasme (16c.) and directly from Late Latin enthusiasmus, from Greek enthousiasmos "divine inspiration, enthusiasm (produced by certain kinds of music, etc.)," from enthousiazein "be inspired or possessed by a god, be rapt, be in ecstasy," from entheos "divinely inspired, possessed by a god," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts).ETD enthusiasm (n.).2

    The English word acquired a derogatory sense of "excessive religious emotion through the conceit of special revelation from God" (1650s) under the Puritans; the generalized meaning "fervor, zeal" (the main modern sense) is recorded by 1716.ETD enthusiasm (n.).3

    enthusiastic (adj.)

    c. 1600, "pertaining to possession by a deity," from Greek enthousiastikos "inspired," from enthousiazein "be possessed or inspired by a god" (see enthusiasm). Meaning "pertaining to irrational delusion in religion" is from 1690s. The main modern sense, in reference to feelings or persons, "intensely eager, rapturous," is from 1786. Related: Enthusiastically.ETD enthusiastic (adj.).2

    enthusiast (n.)

    1560s, pejorative, "one who believes himself possessed of divine revelations or special communication from God," from Greek enthousiastes "a person inspired," from enthousiazein (see enthusiasm). General sense (not always entirely pejorative) is from mid-18c.ETD enthusiast (n.).2

    enthymeme (n.)

    "a syllogism in which one premise is omitted," in Aristotle, "an inference from likelihoods and signs," 1580s, from Latin enthymema, from Greek enthymema "thought, argument, piece of reasoning," from enthymesthai "to think, consider," literally "to keep in mind, take to heart," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + thymos "spirit, courage, anger, sense" (from PIE root *dheu- (1) "dust, vapor, smoke"). Related: Enthymematic.ETD enthymeme (n.).2

    entice (v.)

    late 13c., intice, "to incite or instigate" (to sin or violence) from Old French enticier "to stir up (fire), to excite, incite," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps from Vulgar Latin *intitiare "set on fire," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + titio (genitive titionis) "firebrand," which is of uncertain origin. Meaning "to allure, attract" is from c. 1300. Related: Enticed; enticing; enticingly.ETD entice (v.).2

    enticement (n.)

    c. 1300, "thing which entices," from Old French enticement "incitement, instigation, suggestion," from enticier (see entice). From 1540s as "action of enticing."ETD enticement (n.).2

    entire (adj.)

    mid-14c., of things, "whole, intact," from Old French entier "whole, unbroken, intact, complete," from Latin integrum "completeness" (nominative integer; see integer). Related: Entireness.ETD entire (adj.).2

    entirely (adv.)

    "wholly, completely, fully," mid-14c., from entire + -ly (2).ETD entirely (adv.).2

    entirety (n.)

    "wholeness, completeness, state of being entire or whole," also entierty, mid-14c., enterete, intierty, from Anglo-French entiertie, Old French entiereté "totality, entirety; integrity, purity," from Latin integritatem (nominative integritas) "completeness, soundness, integrity," from integer (see integer).ETD entirety (n.).2

    entity (n.)

    1590s, "being," from Late Latin entitatem (nominative entitas), from ens (genitive entis) "a thing," proposed by Caesar as present participle of esse "be" (see is), to render Greek philosophical term to on "that which is" (from neuter of present participle of einai "to be," from PIE root *es- "to be"). Originally abstract; concrete sense in English is from 1620s.ETD entity (n.).2

    entitlement (n.)

    1823, perhaps in some senses from French entitlement, which was in Old French as "title (of a book), inscription," and later was used in legal language; but also in part a native formation from entitle + -ment. Entitlement culture attested by 1994 (culture of entitlement is from 1989).ETD entitlement (n.).2

    entitle (v.)

    also intitle, late 14c., "to give a title to a chapter, book, etc.," from Anglo-French entitler, Old French entiteler "entitle, call" (Modern French intituler), from Late Latin intitulare "give a title or name to," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + titulus "title" (see title (n.)).ETD entitle (v.).2

    Meaning "to bestow (on a person) a rank or office" is mid-15c. Sense of "to give (someone) 'title' to an estate or property," hence to give that person a claim to possession or privilege, is mid-15c.; this now is used mostly in reference to circumstances and actions. Related: Entitled; entitling.ETD entitle (v.).3


    word-forming element used chiefly in biology and meaning "within, inside, inner," from Greek ento-, combining form of entos (adv., prep.) "within, inside," as a noun, "inner parts" (cognate with Latin intus), from PIE *entos-, extended form of root *en "in," with adverbial suffix *-tos, denoting origin.ETD ento-.2

    entomb (v.)

    "to place in a tomb, bury, inter," 1570s, from Old French entomber "place in a tomb," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + tombe "tomb" (see tomb). Related: Entombed; entombing. The earlier verb was simply tomb (c. 1300).ETD entomb (v.).2

    entombment (n.)

    "act of entombment; state of being entombed," 1660s, from entomb + -ment.ETD entombment (n.).2

    entomolite (n.)

    "fossilized insect," 1813, from entomo-, from Greek entomon "insect" (see entomology) + -lite "stone." Late 18c. in French and German.ETD entomolite (n.).2

    entomology (n.)

    "the branch of zoology which treats of insects," 1764, from French entomologie (1764), coined from -logie "study of" (see -logy) + Greek entomon "insect," neuter of entomos "cut in pieces, cut up," in this case "having a notch or cut (at the waist)," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + temnein "to cut" (from PIE root *tem- "to cut").ETD entomology (n.).2

    Insects were so called by Aristotle in reference to the segmented division of their bodies. Compare insect, which is from a Latin loan-translation of the Greek word. Related: Entomological; entomologically. Hybrid insectology (1766, from French insectologie, 1744) is not much used.ETD entomology (n.).3

    entomologist (n.)

    "one versed in or engaged in the study of insects," 1771; see entomology + -ist.ETD entomologist (n.).2

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