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    vincible (adj.) — vitrify (v.)

    vincible (adj.)

    1540s, from French vincible and directly from Latin vincibilis "that which can be gained; easily maintained," from vincere "to overcome, conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). A vincible ignorance in theology is an ignorance in one who possesses the means of overcoming it.ETD vincible (adj.).2

    vinculum (n.)

    plural vincula, "a bond, tie," 1670s, from Latin vinculum "that with which anything is bound," from stem of vincire "to bind" (see wind (v.1)).ETD vinculum (n.).2

    vindication (n.)

    late 15c., "act of avenging, revenge," from Old French vindicacion "vengeance, revenge" and directly from Latin vindicationem (nominative vindicatio) "act of claiming or avenging," noun of action from past participle stem of vindicare "lay claim to, assert; claim for freedom, set free; protect, defend; avenge" (related to vindicta "revenge"), probably from vim dicare "to show authority," from vim, accusative of vis "force" (see vim) + dicare "to proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "justification by proof, defense against censure" is attested from 1640s.ETD vindication (n.).2

    vindicate (v.)

    1620s, "to avenge or revenge," from Latin vindicatus, past participle of vindicare "to stake a claim; to liberate; to act as avenger" (see vindication). Meaning "to clear from censure or doubt, by means of demonstration" is recorded from 1630s. Related: Vindicated, vindicating.ETD vindicate (v.).2

    vindicative (adj.)

    mid-15c., "vindictive, having vengeful intent," from Old French vindicatif (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin vindicativus, from vindicat-, past participle stem of vindicare (see vindicate). From c. 1600 as "involving retribution or punishment," a sense "common in 17th cent." [OED].ETD vindicative (adj.).2

    vindicatory (adj.)

    1640s, "serving to justify, tending to vindicate;" 1650s, "avenging," from vindicate + -ory.ETD vindicatory (adj.).2

    vindictive (adj.)

    1610s, "vengeful," from Latin vindicta "revenge" (see vindication) + -ive; or perhaps a shortening of vindicative based on the Latin word. From 1620s as "punitive, retributive," rather than personally vengeful or deliberately cruel. Related: Vindictively.ETD vindictive (adj.).2

    vindictiveness (n.)

    1670s, from vindictive + -ness.ETD vindictiveness (n.).2

    vine (n.)

    c. 1300, "plant which bears the grapes from which wine is made," from Old French vigne "vine, vineyard" (12c.), from Latin vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine," an Italic noun related to words for "wine" in Greek, Armenian, Hittite, and non-Indo-European Georgian and West Semitic (Hebrew yayin, Ethiopian wayn); probably ultimately from a lost Mediterranean language word *w(o)in- "wine."ETD vine (n.).2

    From late 14c. in reference to any plant with a long slender stem that trails or winds around. The European grape vine was imported to California via Mexico by priests in 1564.ETD vine (n.).3

    vinegar (n.)

    early 14c., from Old French vinaigre "vinegar," from vin "wine" (from Latin vinum; see wine (n.)) + aigre "sour" (see eager). In Latin, it was vinum acetum "wine turned sour," acetum for short (see acetic), also used figuratively for "wit, shrewdness;" and compare Greek oxos "wine vinegar," which is related to oxys "sharp" (from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce"). Related: Vinegary; vinegarish.ETD vinegar (n.).2

    vineyard (n.)

    c. 1300, replacing Old English wingeard, from vine + yard (n.1). Compare German weingarten.ETD vineyard (n.).2


    name supposedly given by Leif Eriksson to lands he explored in northeastern North America c. 1000; it could mean either "vine-land" or "meadow-land," and either way was perhaps coined to encourage settlement (compare Greenland).ETD Vinland.2

    That others might have found the New World before Columbus was popular knowledge: Irving's "History of New York" (1809) lists Noah along with Phoenician, Carthaginian, Tyrean, Chinese, German, and Welsh candidates, along with "the Norwegians, in 1002, under Biorn." Evidence in the old sagas of a Norse discovery of North America had been noticed from time to time by those who could read them. In early 19c. the notion was seriously debated by von Humboldt and other European scholars before winning their general acceptance by the 1830s. The case for the identification of Vinland with North America began to be laid out in English-language publications in 1840. Lowell wrote a poem about it ("Hakon's Lay," 1855). Thoreau knew of it ("Ktaadn," 1864). Physical evidence of the Norse discovery was uncovered by the excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960.ETD Vinland.3

    vino (n.)

    "inferior wine," 1919, colloquial, from the Italian and Spanish word for "wine," from Latin vinum (see vine (n.)). Earlier (by 1902) as the name of a native drink in the Philippines.ETD vino (n.).2

    vinous (adj.)

    1660s, from Latin vinosus "full of wine; fond of wine," from vinum "wine" (see wine (n.)).ETD vinous (adj.).2

    vintage (n.)

    early 15c., "harvest of grapes, yield of wine from a vineyard," from Anglo-French vintage (mid-14c.), from Old French vendage, vendenge "vine-harvest, yield from a vineyard," from Latin vindemia "a gathering of grapes, yield of grapes," from combining form of vinum "wine" (see wine (n.)) + stem of demere "take off" (from de- "from, away from" + emere "to take;" from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute"). Sense shifted to "age or year of a particular wine" (1746), then to a general adjectival sense of "being of an earlier time" (1883). Used of cars since 1928.ETD vintage (n.).2

    vintner (n.)

    "wine merchant," c. 1400 (late 12c. as a surname), alteration of Anglo-French vineter, Old French vinetier "wine-merchant; grape-harvester," from Medieval Latin vinetarius "a wine dealer," from Latin vinetum "vineyard," from vinum "wine" (see vine).ETD vintner (n.).2

    vinyl (n.)

    in modern use, in reference to a plastic or synthetic resin, 1939, short for polyvinyl; not in widespread use until late 1950s. Slang meaning "phonograph record" (1976) replaced wax (n.) in that sense. In chemistry, vinyl was used from 1851 as the name of a univalent radical derived from ethylene, from Latin vinum "wine" (see wine (n.)), because ethyl alcohol is the ordinary alcohol present in wine.ETD vinyl (n.).2

    viol (n.)

    stringed musical instrument played with a bow, c. 1500, vial, from Old French viole, viol "stringed instrument like a fiddle," from Old Provençal viola (see viola).ETD viol (n.).2

    violative (adj.)

    "tending to or causing violation," 1765, from violate + -ive.ETD violative (adj.).2

    viola (n.)

    "tenor violin," 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, from Medieval Latin vitula "stringed instrument," perhaps from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy (see fiddle), or from related Latin verb vitulari "to exult, be joyful." Viola da gamba "bass viol" (1724) is from Italian, literally "a viola for the leg" (i.e. to hold between the legs).ETD viola (n.).2


    fem. proper name, from Latin viola "the violet" (see violet).ETD Viola.2

    violation (n.)

    c. 1400, from Old French violacion and directly from Latin violationem (nominative violatio) "an injury, irreverence, profanation," from past participle stem of violare "to treat with violence, outrage, dishonor," perhaps an irregular derivative of vis "strength, force, power, energy," from PIE root *weie- "to go after, pursue with vigor or desire" (see gain (v.)).ETD violation (n.).2

    violate (v.)

    early 15c., "to break" (an oath, etc.), from Latin violatus, past participle of violare "treat with violence, dishonor, outrage" (see violation). Sense of "ravish" is first recorded mid-15c. Related: Violated; violating.ETD violate (v.).2

    violence (n.)

    late 13c., "physical force used to inflict injury or damage," from Anglo-French and Old French violence (13c.), from Latin violentia "vehemence, impetuosity," from violentus "vehement, forcible," probably related to violare (see violation). Weakened sense of "improper treatment" is attested from 1590s.ETD violence (n.).2

    violent (adj.)

    mid-14c., from Old French violent or directly from Latin violentus, related to violare (see violation). In Middle English the word also was applied in reference to heat, sunlight, smoke, etc., with the sense "having some quality so strongly as to produce a powerful effect." Related: Violently.ETD violent (adj.).2

    violet (n.)

    small wild plant with purplish-blue flowers, c. 1300, from Old French violete (12c.), diminutive of viole "violet," from Latin viola "the violet, a violet color," cognate with Greek ion (see iodine), probably from a pre-Indo-European substrate Mediterranean language. The color sense (late 14c.) developed from the flower.ETD violet (n.).2

    violin (n.)

    1570s, from Italian violino, diminutive of viola (see viola). The modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio.ETD violin (n.).2

    violinist (n.)

    1660s, from Italian violinista, from violino (see violin).ETD violinist (n.).2

    violoncello (n.)

    1724, from Italian violoncello, diminutive of violone "bass viol," from viola (see viola) + augmentative suffix -one (see -oon). Related: Violoncellist.ETD violoncello (n.).2

    violon d'Ingres (n.)

    "an occasional pastime, an activity other than that for which one is well-known, or at which one excells," 1963, from French, literally "Ingres' violin," from the story that the great painter preferred to play his violin (badly) for visitors instead of showing them his pictures.ETD violon d'Ingres (n.).2

    VIP (n.)

    also V.I.P., 1933, initialism (acronym) for very important person or personage; not common until after World War II.ETD VIP (n.).2

    viper (n.)

    early 15c., from Old French vipere, earlier in English as vipera (c. 1200), directly from Latin vipera "viper, snake, serpent," contraction of *vivipera, from vivus "alive, living" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + parire "bring forth, bear" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth"). In common with many snake species in cooler climates, in most cases the viper's eggs are kept inside the mother until hatching.ETD viper (n.).2

    Applied to persons of spiteful character at least since 1590s. The only venomous snake found in Great Britain, but not especially dangerous. The word replaced native adder. "The flesh of the viper was formerly regarded as possessing great nutritive or restorative properties, and was frequently used medicinally" [OED]; hence viper-wine, wine medicated with some kind of extract from vipers, used 17c. by "gray-bearded gallants" in a bid "to feele new lust, and youthfull flames agin." [Massinger]ETD viper (n.).3

    viperine (adj.)

    1540s, from Latin viperinus "pertaining to a viper or vipers," from vipera (see viper).ETD viperine (adj.).2

    virago (n.)

    late 14c., "man-like or heroic woman, woman of extraordinary stature, strength and courage," from Latin virago "female warrior, heroine, amazon," from vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man"). Ælfric (c. 1000), following Vulgate, used it in Genesis ii.23 as the name Adam gave to Eve (KJV = woman):ETD virago (n.).2

    Related: Viraginous.ETD virago (n.).3

    viral (adj.)

    "of the nature of, or caused by, a virus," 1944, see virus + -al (1). Sense of "become suddenly widely popular through internet sharing" is attested by 1999, originally in reference to marketing and based on the similarity of the effect to the spread of a computer virus. Related: Virally.ETD viral (adj.).2

    vireo (n.)

    small American bird, 1834, a modern use of Latin vireo, a word Pliny applied to some kind of bird, believed to be the European greenfinch, from virere "be green" (see verdure).ETD vireo (n.).2

    Virgilian (adj.)

    1510s, from Latin Virgilianus "of or characteristic of the Roman poet Virgil" (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70-19 B.C.E.). Also in Virgilian lots (Latin sortes Virgilianae), opening Virgil at random as an oracle.ETD Virgilian (adj.).2

    virginal (adj.)

    early 15c., from Old French virginal "virginal, pure, chaste," or directly from Latin virginalis "of a maiden, of a virgin," from virgin (see virgin). The keyed musical instrument so called from 1520s (see virginals).ETD virginal (adj.).2

    virginals (n.)

    "small harpsichord," 1520s, evidently from virgin, but the connection is unclear, unless it means "an instrument played by girls."ETD virginals (n.).2

    virginity (n.)

    c. 1300, from Anglo-French and Old French virginite "(state of) virginity; innocence" (10c. in Old French), from Latin virginitatem (nominative virginitas) "maidenhood, virginity," from virgo (see virgin).ETD virginity (n.).2

    virgin (n.)

    c. 1200, "unmarried or chaste woman noted for religious piety and having a position of reverence in the Church," from Anglo-French and Old French virgine "virgin; Virgin Mary," from Latin virginem (nominative virgo) "maiden, unwedded girl or woman," also an adjective, "fresh, unused," probably related to virga "young shoot," via a notion of "young" (compare Greek talis "a marriageable girl," cognate with Latin talea "rod, stick, bar").ETD virgin (n.).2

    Meaning "young woman in a state of inviolate chastity" is recorded from c. 1300. Also applied since early 14c. to a chaste man. Meaning "naive or inexperienced person" is attested from 1953. The adjective is recorded from 1550s in the literal sense; figurative sense of "pure, untainted" is attested from c. 1300. The Virgin Islands were named (in Spanish) by Columbus for St. Ursula and her 11,000 martyred virgin companions.ETD virgin (n.).3


    British colony in North America, name appears on a map in 1587, named for Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen. The fem. proper name is from Latin Virginia, fem. of Virginius, earlier Verginius, probably related to Vergilius (see Virgilian). Related: Virginian.ETD Virginia.2


    zodiacal constellation, c. 1000, from Latin constellation name Virgo "the virgin" (see virgin). Meaning "person born under the sign of Virgo" is attested from 1917.ETD Virgo.2

    virgule (n.)

    thin sloping line similar to a modern slash, used as a comma in medieval MSS and still in modern text to indicate line breaks in poetry, 1837, from French virgule (16c.), from Latin virgula "punctuation mark," literally "little twig," diminutive of virga "shoot, rod, stick." The word had been borrowed in its Latin form in 1728.ETD virgule (n.).2

    viridian (adj.)

    1882, from the paint color name (1862), from Latin virid-, stem of viridis "green, blooming, vigorous" (see verdure) + -ian.ETD viridian (adj.).2

    virility (n.)

    "period of manhood," 1580s, from French virilité, from Latin virilitatem (nominative virilitas) "manhood," from virilis "of a man, manly, worthy of a man," from vir "a man, a hero," from PIE root *wi-ro- "man." Meaning "power of procreation, capacity for sexual intercourse" is from 1590s; sense of "manly strength" is recorded from c. 1600.ETD virility (n.).2

    virile (adj.)

    late 15c., "characteristic of a man; marked by manly force," from Old French viril (14c.) and directly from Latin virilis "of a man, manly, worthy of a man," from vir "a man, a hero," from PIE root *wi-ro- "man." Virile member for "penis" is recorded from 1540s.ETD virile (adj.).2

    virion (n.)

    coined in French, 1959, from virus (see virus) + -on.ETD virion (n.).2

    virology (n.)

    1935, from combining form of virus + -logy. Related: Virological.ETD virology (n.).2

    virologist (n.)

    1946; see virology + -ist.ETD virologist (n.).2

    virtu (n.)

    "excellence in an object of art, passion for works of art," 1722, from Italian virtu "excellence," from Latin virtutem (nominative virtus) "virtue, goodness, manliness" (see virtue). The same word as virtue, borrowed during a period when everything Italian was in vogue. Sometimes spelled vertu, as though from French, but this sense of the word is not in French.ETD virtu (n.).2

    virtue (n.)

    c. 1200, vertu, "moral life and conduct; a particular moral excellence," from Anglo-French and Old French vertu "force, strength, vigor; moral strength; qualities, abilities" (10c. in Old French), from Latin virtutem (nominative virtus) "moral strength, high character, goodness; manliness; valor, bravery, courage (in war); excellence, worth," from vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man").ETD virtue (n.).2

    Especially (in women) "chastity, sexual purity" from 1590s. Phrase by virtue of (early 13c.) preserves alternative Middle English sense of "efficacy." The 14c. Wycliffe Bible has virtue where KJV uses power. The seven cardinal virtues (early 14c.) were natural (justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude) and theological (hope, faith, charity). To make a virtue of a necessity (late 14c.) translates Latin facere de necessitate virtutem [Jerome].ETD virtue (n.).3

    virtual (adj.)

    late 14c., "influencing by physical virtues or capabilities, effective with respect to inherent natural qualities," from Medieval Latin virtualis, from Latin virtus "excellence, potency, efficacy," literally "manliness, manhood" (see virtue). The meaning "being something in essence or effect, though not actually or in fact" is from mid-15c., probably via sense of "capable of producing a certain effect" (early 15c.). Computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" is attested from 1959.ETD virtual (adj.).2

    virtually (adv.)

    early 15c., "as far as essential qualities or facts are concerned;" from virtual + -ly (2). Sense of "in effect, as good as" is recorded from c. 1600.ETD virtually (adv.).2

    virtuosity (n.)

    late 15c., "manly qualities," from Medieval Latin virtuositas, from Late Latin virtuosus (see virtuous). As "skill or abilities of a virtuoso," 1670s, from virtuoso + -ity.ETD virtuosity (n.).2

    virtuoso (n.)

    1610s, "scholar, connoisseur," from Italian virtuoso (plural virtuosi), noun use of adjective meaning "skilled, learned, of exceptional worth," from Late Latin virtuosus (see virtuous). Meaning "person with great skill, one who is a master of the mechanical part of a fine art" (as in music) is first attested 1743.ETD virtuoso (n.).2

    virtuous (adj.)

    c. 1300, "characterized by vigor or strength; having qualities befitting a knight; valiant, hardy, courageous;" from Old French vertuos "righteous; potent; of good quality; mighty, valiant, brave" (12c.), from Late Latin virtuosus "good, virtuous," from Latin virtus "moral strength, high character, goodness; manliness; valor, bravery, courage (in war); excellence, worth," from vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man").ETD virtuous (adj.).2

    From mid-14c. in English as "having beneficial or efficacious properties;" late 14c. (of persons) as "having excellent moral qualities; conforming to religious law." Related: Virtuously; virtuousness.ETD virtuous (adj.).3

    virus (n.)

    late 14c., "poisonous substance" (a sense now archaic), from Latin virus "poison, sap of plants, slimy liquid, a potent juice," from Proto-Italic *weis-o-(s-) "poison," which is probably from a PIE root *ueis-, perhaps originally meaning "to melt away, to flow," used of foul or malodorous fluids, but with specialization in some languages to "poisonous fluid" (source also of Sanskrit visam "venom, poison," visah "poisonous;" Avestan vish- "poison;" Latin viscum "sticky substance, birdlime;" Greek ios "poison," ixos "mistletoe, birdlime;" Old Church Slavonic višnja "cherry;" Old Irish fi "poison;" Welsh gwy "poison").ETD virus (n.).2

    The meaning "agent that causes infectious disease" emerged by 1790s gradually out of the earlier use in reference to venereal disease (by 1728); the modern scientific use dates to the 1880s. The computer sense is from 1972.ETD virus (n.).3

    virulence (n.)

    1660s, from Late Latin virulentia, from Latin virulentus "full of poison" (see virulent). Related: Virulency (1610s).ETD virulence (n.).2

    virulent (adj.)

    c. 1400, in reference to wounds, ulcers, etc., "full of corrupt or poisonous matter," from Latin virulentus "poisonous," from virus "poison" (see virus). Figurative sense of "violent, spiteful" is attested from c. 1600. Related: Virulently.ETD virulent (adj.).2

    visa (n.)

    1831, "official signature or endorsement on a passport," from French visa, from Modern Latin charta visa "verified paper," literally "paper that has been seen," from fem. past participle of Latin videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Earlier visé (1810), from French past participle of viser "to examine, view." The credit card of this name was introduced 1976, replacing BankAmericard.ETD visa (n.).2

    visage (n.)

    c. 1300, from Anglo-French and Old French visage "face, countenance; portrait," from vis "face, appearance," from Latin visus "a look, vision," from past participle stem of videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Visagiste "makeup artist" is recorded from 1958, from French.ETD visage (n.).2

    vis-a-vis (prep.)

    1755, from French prepositional use of the adj. vis-à-vis "face to face," from Old French vis "face" (see visage).ETD vis-a-vis (prep.).2

    visceral (adj.)

    1570s, "affecting inward feelings," from French viscéral and directly from Medieval Latin visceralis "internal," from Latin viscera, plural of viscus "internal organ, inner parts of the body," of unknown origin. The bowels were regarded as the seat of emotion. The figurative sense vanished after 1640 and the literal sense is first recorded in 1794. The figurative sense was revived 1940s in arts criticism.ETD visceral (adj.).2

    viscera (n.)

    "inner organs of the body," 1650s, from Latin viscera, plural of viscus "internal organ," of unknown origin.ETD viscera (n.).2

    viscid (adj.)

    "sticky," 1630s, from French viscide or directly from Late Latin viscidus "sticky, clammy," from Latin viscum "mistletoe, birdlime" (see viscous). Related: Viscidity (1610s); viscidly.ETD viscid (adj.).2

    viscosity (n.)

    early 15c., from Old French viscosite (13c.) or directly from Medieval Latin viscositatem (nominative viscositas), from Late Latin viscosus (see viscous).ETD viscosity (n.).2

    viscous (adj.)

    late 14c., from Anglo-French viscous and directly from Late Latin viscosus "sticky," from Latin viscum "anything sticky, birdlime made from mistletoe, mistletoe," probably from PIE root *weis- "to melt away, flow" (used of foul or malodorous fluids); see virus.ETD viscous (adj.).2

    viscount (n.)

    late 14c., "deputy of a count or earl," from Anglo-French and Old French visconte (Modern French vicomte), from Medieval Latin vicecomes (genitive vicecomitis), from Late Latin vice- "deputy" (see vice-) + Latin comes "member of an imperial court, nobleman" (see count (n.1)). As a rank in British peerage, first recorded 1440. Related: Viscountess.ETD viscount (n.).2

    vise (n.)

    early 14c., "a winch, crane," from Anglo-French vice, Old French vis, viz "screw," from Latin vītis "vine, tendril of a vine," literally "that which winds," from root of viere "to bind, twist" (from PIE root *wei- "to turn, twist, bend"). Also in Middle English, "device like a screw or winch for bending a crossbow or catapult; spiral staircase; the screw of a press; twisted tie for fastening a hood under the chin." The modern meaning "clamping tool with two jaws closed by a screw" is first recorded c. 1500.ETD vise (n.).2


    name of a principal Hindu deity, 1630s, from Sanskrit Vishnu, probably from root vish- and meaning "all-pervader" or "worker."ETD Vishnu.2

    visible (adj.)

    mid-14c., from Old French visable, visible "perceptible" (12c.) and directly from Latin visibilis "that may be seen," from visus, past participle of videre "to see" (see vision). An Old English word for this was eagsyne. Related: Visibly.ETD visible (adj.).2

    visibility (n.)

    c. 1400, "condition of being visible," from Late Latin visibilitatem (nominative visibilitas) "condition of being seen; conspicuousness," from visibilis (see visible). Meaning "range of vision under given conditions" is from 1914. Sense of "prominence, fame, public attention" is recorded from 1958.ETD visibility (n.).2


    1640s, from Late Latin Visigothus (plural Visigothi), perhaps "West Goths" (which could be Latinized from a Germanic source such as Old High German westan "from the west"), as opposed to Ostrogothi; but according to some authorities, Visi/Vesi appears to be a Latinized form of a tribal name. Their kingdom endured to 507 in southern France, till 711 in Spain. In common with Vandal their name later was used for "uncivilized person" (1749). Related: Visigothic.ETD Visigoth.2

    vision (n.)

    c. 1300, "something seen in the imagination or in the supernatural," from Anglo-French visioun, Old French vision "presence, sight; view, look, appearance; dream, supernatural sight" (12c.), from Latin visionem (nominative visio) "act of seeing, sight, thing seen," noun of action from past participle stem of videre "to see," from PIE root *weid- "to see." The meaning "sense of sight" is first recorded late 15c. Meaning "statesman-like foresight, political sagacity" is attested from 1926.ETD vision (n.).2

    visionary (adj.)

    "able to see visions," 1650s (earlier "perceived in a vision," 1640s), from vision + -ary. Meaning "impractical" is attested from 1727. The noun is attested from 1702, from the adjective; originally "one who indulges in impractical fantasies."ETD visionary (adj.).2

    visit (v.)

    c. 1200, "come to (a person) to comfort or benefit," from Old French visiter "to visit; inspect, examine; afflict" (12c.) and directly from Latin visitare "to go to see, come to inspect," frequentative of visere "behold, visit" (a person or place), from past participle stem of videre "to see, notice, observe" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Originally of the deity, later of pastors and doctors (c. 1300), general sense of "pay a call" is from mid-13c. Meaning "come upon, afflict" (in reference to sickness, punishment, etc.) is recorded in English from mid-14c. Related: Visited; visiting.ETD visit (v.).2

    visitation (n.)

    c. 1300, "a visit by an ecclesiastical representative to examine the condition of a parish, abbey, etc.," from Anglo-French visitacioun, Old French visitacion and directly from Latin visitationem (nominative visitatio), noun of action from past participle stem of visitare (see visit (v.)). The supernatural sense of "a sight, apparition, a coming of God to a mortal" is attested from mid-14c.ETD visitation (n.).2

    visit (n.)

    1620s, "friendly or formal call upon someone," from visit (v.) and from French visite (n.). From 1800 as "short or temporary trip to some place." With pay (v.) since 1650s.ETD visit (n.).2

    visitor (n.)

    late 14c., from Anglo-French visitour, Old French visiteor "visitor, inspector," from visiter (see visit (v.)). Sports sense is from 1900.ETD visitor (n.).2

    visor (n.)

    c. 1300, viser, "front part of a helmet," from Anglo-French viser, Old French visiere "visor" (13c.), from vis "face, appearance," from Latin visus "a look, vision," from past participle stem of videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Spelling shifted 15c. Meaning "eyeshade" is recorded from 1925.ETD visor (n.).2

    vista (n.)

    1650s, "a view or prospect," from Italian vista "sight, view," noun use of fem. past participle of vedere "see," from Latin videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see").ETD vista (n.).2

    Vistavision (n.)

    form of wide-screen cinematography, 1954; see vista + vision.ETD Vistavision (n.).2

    visualization (n.)

    1881, noun of action from visualize.ETD visualization (n.).2

    visualize (v.)

    1817, first attested in, and perhaps coined by, Coleridge ("Biographia Literaria"); see visual + -ize. Related: Visualized; visualizing.ETD visualize (v.).2

    visual (adj.)

    early 15c., "pertaining to the faculty of sight;" also "coming from the eye or sight" (as a beam of light was thought to do), from Late Latin visualis "of sight," from Latin visus "a sight, a looking; power of sight; things seen, appearance," from visus, past participle of videre "to see" (see vision). Meaning "perceptible by sight" is from late 15c; sense of "relating to vision" is first attested c. 1600. The noun meaning "photographic film or other visual display" is first recorded 1944.ETD visual (adj.).2

    visually (adv.)

    mid-15c., from visual + -ly (2).ETD visually (adv.).2

    visualise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of visualize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Visualised; visualising; visualisation.ETD visualise (v.).2

    vita (n.)

    plural vitae, Latin, literally "life," from PIE root *gwei- "to live."ETD vita (n.).2

    vitality (n.)

    1590s, from Latin vitalitatem (nominative vitalitas) "vital force, life," from vitalis "pertaining to life" (see vital).ETD vitality (n.).2

    vital (adj.)

    late 14c., "of or manifesting life," from Latin vitalis "of or belonging to life," from vita "life," related to vivere "to live," from PIE root *gwei- "to live." The sense of "necessary or important" is from 1610s, via the notion of "essential to life" (late 15c.). Vital capacity recorded from 1852. Related: Vitally.ETD vital (adj.).2

    vitals (n.)

    "organs of the body essential to life," c. 1600, from noun use of adjective vital, perhaps on model of Latin vitalia "vital force," neuter plural of vitalis.ETD vitals (n.).2

    vitalize (v.)

    1670s, "to give life to," from vital + -ize. Figurative sense by 1805. Related: Vitalized; vitalizing.ETD vitalize (v.).2

    vital statistics (n.)

    1837, with reference to birth, marriage, death, etc.; meaning "a woman's bust, waist, and hip measurements" is from 1952. See vital.ETD vital statistics (n.).2

    vitamin (n.)

    1920, originally vitamine (1912) coined by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk (1884-1967), from Latin vita "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + amine, because they were thought to contain amino acids. The terminal -e formally was stripped off when scientists learned the true nature of the substance; -in was acceptable because it was used for neutral substances of undefined composition. The lettering system of nomenclature (Vitamin A, B, C, etc.) was introduced at the same time (1920).ETD vitamin (n.).2

    vitiate (v.)

    "to render vicious, faulty, or imperfect; injure the quality or substance of," 1530s, from Latin vitiatus, past participle of vitiare "to make faulty, injure, spoil, corrupt," from vitium "fault, defect, blemish, crime, vice" (see vice (n.1)). Related: Vitiated; vitiating.ETD vitiate (v.).2

    vitiation (n.)

    "impairment, corruption," 1630s, from Latin vitiationem (nominative vitiatio) "violation, corruption," noun of action from past-participle stem of vitiare "to make faulty, injure, spoil, corrupt," from vitium "fault, defect, blemish, crime, vice" (see vice (n.1)).ETD vitiation (n.).2

    viticulture (n.)

    "cultivation of grapes," 1867, from French viticulture, from Latin vītis "vine" (from PIE root *wei- "to turn, twist, bend") + cultura "cultivating, cultivation" (see culture (n.)). Related: Viticultural (1855).ETD viticulture (n.).2

    vitiligo (n.)

    1650s, from Latin vitiligo "a kind of cutaneous eruption, tetter" (Celsus), perhaps with an original sense of "blemish," from PIE *wi-tu-, from root *wei- (3) "vice, fault, guilt" (see vice (n.1)).ETD vitiligo (n.).2

    vitreous (adj.)

    early 15c., "glasslike," from Latin vitreus "of glass, glassy," from vitrum "glass," which perhaps was so called for its color (compare vitrium "woad"). Vitreous humor attested from 1660s.ETD vitreous (adj.).2

    vitrify (v.)

    1590s, from French vitrifier (16c.), from Latin vitrum "glass" (see vitreous) + -ficare, combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Vitrified; vitrification.ETD vitrify (v.).2

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