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    unfriend (v.) — Union Jack

    unfriend (v.)

    in the Facebook sense, attested from November 2007, from un- (1) "not" + friend (v.). Unfriended is at least as old as Shakespeare in the sense "friendless." A noun unfriend "enemy" is recorded from late 13c., chiefly in Scottish, and was still in use in the 19th century.ETD unfriend (v.).2

    unfriendly (adj.)

    early 15c., "not characteristic of friends, hostile, inimical," from un- (1) "not" + friendly. Similar formation in Middle Dutch onvriendelijc, Middle High German unvriuntlich, German unfreundlich. Old English had unferondlice "unkindly." Related: Unfriendliness.ETD unfriendly (adj.).2

    unfruitful (adj.)

    late 14c., "barren," from un- (1) "not" + fruitful. Originally literal; figurative sense is attested from c. 1400. Related: Unfruitfully; unfruitfulness.ETD unfruitful (adj.).2

    unfulfilled (adj.)

    late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of fulfill (v.).ETD unfulfilled (adj.).2

    unfunded (adj.)

    1776, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of fund (v.).ETD unfunded (adj.).2

    unfunny (adj.)

    1858, from un- (1) "not" + funny (adj.).ETD unfunny (adj.).2

    unfurl (v.)

    1640s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + furl (v.). Related: unfurled, unfurling.ETD unfurl (v.).2

    unfurnished (adj.)

    1540s, "not equipped, unprepared," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of furnish (v.). In reference to houses, apartments, etc., "not provided with furniture," it is recorded from 1580s.ETD unfurnished (adj.).2

    ungainly (adj.)

    1610s, "unfit, improper," from Middle English ungeinliche, from ungein (late 14c.) "inconvenient, disagreeable, troublesome," from un- (1) "not" + gein "kind, helpful; reliable; beneficial; suitable, appropriate; convenient," from Old Norse gegn "straight, direct, helpful," from Proto-Germanic *gagina "against" (see again). Old English had ungænge "useless, vain."ETD ungainly (adj.).2

    ungentlemanly (adj.)

    1560s, from un- (1) "not" + gentlemanly.ETD ungentlemanly (adj.).2

    ungird (v.)

    Old English ongyrde, from un- (2) "opposite of" + gird (v.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ontgorden, Old High German ingurten, German entgürten. Related: Ungirded; ungirding.ETD ungird (v.).2

    unglue (v.)

    1540s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + glue (v.). Related: Unglued; ungluing. Unglued in figurative sense is recorded from 1922.ETD unglue (v.).2

    ungodly (adj.)

    late 14c., "irreligious, not god-fearing, not in accordance with the laws of God," from un- (1) "not" + godly (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ongodelijc, German ungöttlich, Middle Swedish ogudhlik. Colloquial sense of "extremely annoying" is recorded from 1887.ETD ungodly (adj.).2

    ungoverned (adj.)

    from un- (1) "not" + past participle of govern (v.).ETD ungoverned (adj.).2

    ungovernable (adj.)

    1670s, from un- (1) "not" + governable.ETD ungovernable (adj.).2

    ungraceful (adj.)

    1660s, from un- (1) "not" + graceful. Related: ungracefully.ETD ungraceful (adj.).2

    ungracious (adj.)

    c. 1200, "ungrateful;" early 14c., "lacking God's grace;" early 15c., "rude, unmannerly," from un- (1) "not" + gracious (adj.). Related: Ungraciously.ETD ungracious (adj.).2

    ungrammatical (adj.)

    1650s, from un- (1) "not" + grammatical. Related: Ungrammatically.ETD ungrammatical (adj.).2

    ungrateful (adj.)

    1550s, from un- (1) "not" + grateful. Related: Ungratefully.ETD ungrateful (adj.).2

    ungual (adj.)

    "pertaining to a nail or claw," 1834, from Latin unguis "a claw, nail of the finger or toe;" cognate with Greek onyx, Old English nægel, Old Norse nagl "nail;" see nail (n.).ETD ungual (adj.).2

    unguarded (adj.)

    1590s, "not furnished with a guard," from un- (1) "not" + guarded. Sense of "not on one's guard, not taking heed" is attested from 1630s.ETD unguarded (adj.).2

    unguent (n.)

    "ointment," early 15c., from Latin unguentem "ointment," from stem of unguere "to anoint or smear with ointment," from PIE root *ongw- "to salve, anoint" (source also of Sanskrit anakti "anoints, smears," Armenian aucanem "I anoint," Old Prussian anctan "butter," Old High German ancho, German anke "butter," Old Irish imb, Welsh ymenyn "butter").ETD unguent (n.).2

    unguided (adj.)

    1580s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of guide (v.).ETD unguided (adj.).2

    ungulate (adj.)

    "hoofed," 1802, from Late Latin ungulatus "hoofed," from ungula "hoof, claw, talon," diminutive (in form but not sense) of unguis "nail" (see ungual). Ungulata, the order of hoofed mammals, is recorded from 1839.ETD ungulate (adj.).2

    unhallowed (adj.)

    "not consecrated," Old English unhalgod, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hallow (v.).ETD unhallowed (adj.).2

    unhampered (adj.)

    1690s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hamper (v.).ETD unhampered (adj.).2

    unhand (v.)

    c. 1600, "to release from one's grasp," from un- (2) "opposite of" + hand (v.).ETD unhand (v.).2

    unhappy (adj.)

    c. 1300, "causing misfortune or trouble (to oneself or others)," from un- (1) "not" + happy. Meaning "unfortunate, unlucky" is recorded from late 14c.; sense of "miserable, wretched" is recorded from late 14c. (originally via misfortune or mishap).ETD unhappy (adj.).2

    unhappiness (n.)

    late 15c., "misfortune," from unhappy + -ness. Meaning "mental misery" is from 1722.ETD unhappiness (n.).2

    unhappily (adv.)

    late 14c., "unfortunately, unluckily;" early 15c., "wretchedly, without happiness," from un- (i) "not" + happily, or from unhappy + -ly (2.). Similar formation in Old Norse unheppiliga.ETD unhappily (adv.).2

    unharness (v.)

    mid-15c., "divest of armor," from un- (2) "opposite of" + harness (v.). Similar formation in Dutch ontharnassen "to disarm." Meaning "to free (a horse) from harness" is recorded from 1610s. Related: Unharnessed; unharnessing.ETD unharness (v.).2

    unharmed (adj.)

    mid-14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of harm (v.).ETD unharmed (adj.).2

    unhealthy (adj.)

    1590s, "injurious to health," from un- (1) "not" + healthy (adj.). Earlier unhealthsome (1540s), unhealthful (1570s). Of persons, "sickly," it is attested from 1610s. Related: Unhealthily.ETD unhealthy (adj.).2

    unheard (adj.)

    c. 1300 "not detected by sense of hearing," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hear. Meaning "unknown, new" is attested from late 14c. (Old English had ungehered in this sense). Usually with of since 1590s. Similar formation in Old Norse oheyrðr, Danish uhørt, Middle Dutch ongehoort, Old High German ungehoret.ETD unheard (adj.).2

    unheeded (adj.)

    1610s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of heed (v.).ETD unheeded (adj.).2

    unhelpful (adj.)

    1590s, from un- (1) "not" + helpful. Related: Unhelpfully; unhelpfulness.ETD unhelpful (adj.).2

    unheralded (adj.)

    1845, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of herald (v.).ETD unheralded (adj.).2

    unhindered (adj.)

    1610s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hinder (v.).ETD unhindered (adj.).2

    unhinge (v.)

    recorded earlier in the mental sense of "to disorder" the mind, etc. (1612) than in the literal one of "to take (a door, etc.) off its hinges" (1616); from un- (2) "opposite of" + hinge (n.). Hinge as a verb meaning "to attach by a hinge" is recorded only from 1758. Related: Unhinged; unhinging.ETD unhinge (v.).2

    unhinged (adj.)

    "thrown into confusion," 1719, past-participle adjective from unhinge.ETD unhinged (adj.).2

    unhistorical (adj.)

    1610s, "not in accordance with history, not being a part of recorded history," from un- (1) "not" + historical. Unhistoric in this sense is from 1801. Related: Unhistorically.ETD unhistorical (adj.).2

    unhitch (v.)

    1620s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + hitch (v.). Related: Unhitched; unhitching.ETD unhitch (v.).2

    unholy (adj.)

    Old English unhalig, "impious, profane, wicked," from un- (1) "not" + halig (see holy). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onheilich, Old Norse uheilagr, Danish unhellig, Swedish ohelig. In reference to actions, it is attested from late 14c. Colloquial sense of "awful, dreadful" is recorded from 1842.ETD unholy (adj.).2

    unhonored (adj.)

    1510s, also unhonoured, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of honor (v.).ETD unhonored (adj.).2

    unhorse (v.)

    late 14c., "to throw (someone) from his horse," from un- (2) "opposite of" + horse (v.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ontorsen.ETD unhorse (v.).2

    unhuman (adj.)

    1540s, "inhumane, cruel," from un- (1) "not" + human (adj.). Meaning "destitute of human qualities; superhuman" is from 1782.ETD unhuman (adj.).2


    sound expressing negation or denial, attested from 1951.ETD unh-unh.2

    unhygienic (adj.)

    1883, from un- (1) "not" + hygienic.ETD unhygienic (adj.).2


    word-forming element meaning "having one only," from Latin uni-, combining form of unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique").ETD uni-.2


    "pertaining to an Eastern Christian church that acknowledges the supremacy of the Pope," 1833, from Russian uniyat, from unia "unity, union," from Latin unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique").ETD Uniate.2

    unicameral (adj.)

    1853, from uni- "one" + Late Latin camera "chamber" (see camera) + -al (1).ETD unicameral (adj.).2


    by 1948, acronym from United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, which was created in 1946 (the name was changed 1953 to United Nations Children's Fund but the acronym endured).ETD UNICEF.2

    unicellular (adj.)

    1858; see uni- + cellular.ETD unicellular (adj.).2

    unicorn (n.)

    early 13c., from Old French unicorne, from Late Latin unicornus (Vulgate), from noun use of Latin unicornis (adj.) "having one horn," from uni- "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique") + cornus "horn" (from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head").ETD unicorn (n.).2

    The Late Latin word translates Greek monoceros, itself rendering Hebrew re'em (Deuteronomy xxxiii.17 and elsewhere), which probably was a kind of wild ox. According to Pliny, a creature with a horse's body, deer's head, elephant's feet, lion's tail, and one black horn two cubits long projecting from its forehead. Compare German Einhorn, Welsh ungorn, Breton uncorn, Old Church Slavonic ino-rogu. Old English used anhorn as a loan-translation of Latin unicornis.ETD unicorn (n.).3

    unicycle (n.)

    1869, American English, from Latin uni- "one" (see uni-) + -cycle, from bicycle (from Greek kyklos "circle, wheel").ETD unicycle (n.).2

    unidentified (adj.)

    1860, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of identify (v.).ETD unidentified (adj.).2

    unidentifiable (adj.)

    1859, from un- + identifiable.ETD unidentifiable (adj.).2

    unidirectional (adj.)

    1883, from uni- + directional (see direction).ETD unidirectional (adj.).2

    unification (n.)

    1849, noun of action from unify (v.). Unification Church was founded 1954.ETD unification (n.).2

    unify (v.)

    c. 1500, "to make into one," from French unifier (14c.) or directly from Late Latin unificare "make one," from Latin uni- "one" (see uni-) + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Unified; unifying. Unified (field) theory in physics is recorded from 1935.ETD unify (v.).2

    uniform (adj.)

    1530s, "of one form," from French uniforme (14c.), from Latin uniformis "having only one form or shape," from uni- "one" (see uni-) + forma "form" (see form (n.)). Related: Uniformly.ETD uniform (adj.).2

    uniformity (n.)

    early 15c., from Old French uniformite (14c.) or directly from Late Latin uniformitatem (nominative uniformitas) "uniformity," from Latin uniformis (see uniform (adj.)).ETD uniformity (n.).2

    uniform (n.)

    "distinctive clothes worn by one group," 1748, from French uniforme, from the adjective (see uniform (adj.)).ETD uniform (n.).2

    uniform (v.)

    1680s, "to make alike," from uniform (adj.). Meaning "to dress in a uniform" is from 1861. Related: Uniformed.ETD uniform (v.).2

    uniformitarian (n.)

    1840 in geology, from uniformity + -arian. Related: Uniformitarianism (1865).ETD uniformitarian (n.).2

    unilateralism (n.)

    1926, from unilateral + -ism. Earliest usages seem to be in the sense of "advocate of unilateral disarmament." Meaning "pursuit of a foreign policy without allies" is attested by 1964.ETD unilateralism (n.).2

    unilateral (adj.)

    1802, from Modern Latin unilateralis, from unum, neuter of unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique") + latus (genitive lateralis) "the side, flank of humans or animals, lateral surface," a word of uncertain origin. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) may have been the first to use it in the legal sense of "made or entered into by one party." Related: Unilaterally. Unilateral disarmament is recorded from 1929.ETD unilateral (adj.).2

    unimaginable (adj.)

    1610s, from un- (1) "not" + imaginable. Related: Unimaginably.ETD unimaginable (adj.).2

    unimaginative (adj.)

    1802, from un- (1) "not" + imaginative.ETD unimaginative (adj.).2

    unimpaired (adj.)

    1580s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of impair (v.). Rare before c. 1760.ETD unimpaired (adj.).2

    unimpeachable (adj.)

    1784, from un- (1) "not" + impeachable. Related: Unimpeachably.ETD unimpeachable (adj.).2

    unimpeded (adj.)

    1760, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of impede (v.).ETD unimpeded (adj.).2

    unimportance (n.)

    1751; see unimportant + -ance.ETD unimportance (n.).2

    unimportant (adj.)

    1750, from un- (1) "not" + important (adj.). Used earlier in a sense of "unassuming, modest" (1727). Related: Unimportantly.ETD unimportant (adj.).2

    unimposing (adj.)

    "unimpressive," 1809, from un- (1) "not" + imposing.ETD unimposing (adj.).2

    unimpressed (adj.)

    1861, "not awed," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of impress (v.). Used earlier in a sense of "not subjected to restraint" (1743). Unimpressive is recorded from 1796.ETD unimpressed (adj.).2

    unimproved (adj.)

    1660s, "not made better," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of improve (v.). Sense of "not developed or taken advantage of" (of land) is recorded from 1781.ETD unimproved (adj.).2

    unincorporated (adj.)

    1715, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of incorporate (v.).ETD unincorporated (adj.).2

    uninflected (adj.)

    1713, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of inflect (v.).ETD uninflected (adj.).2

    uninfluenced (adj.)

    1734, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of influence (v.).ETD uninfluenced (adj.).2

    uninformed (adj.)

    1590s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of inform. Originally in reference to some specific matter or subject; general sense of "uneducated, ignorant" is recorded from 1640s.ETD uninformed (adj.).2

    uninhabited (adj.)

    1570s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of inhabit (v.).ETD uninhabited (adj.).2

    uninhabitable (adj.)

    mid-15c., from un- (1) "not" + inhabitable.ETD uninhabitable (adj.).2

    uninhibited (adj.)

    1880, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of inhibit.ETD uninhibited (adj.).2

    uninitiated (adj.)

    1670s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of initiate (v.).ETD uninitiated (adj.).2

    uninjured (adj.)

    1570s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of injure (v.).ETD uninjured (adj.).2

    uninquisitive (adj.)

    c. 1600, from un- (1) "not" + inquisitive.ETD uninquisitive (adj.).2

    uninspired (adj.)

    1680s, from un- (1) "not" + inspired.ETD uninspired (adj.).2

    unintelligible (adj.)

    1610s, "incapable of being understood," from un- (1) "not" + intelligible. Related: Unintelligibly.ETD unintelligible (adj.).2

    unintelligent (adj.)

    c. 1600, from un- (1) "not" + intelligent (adj.). Related: Unintelligently.ETD unintelligent (adj.).2

    unintended (adj.)

    1640s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of intend (v.).ETD unintended (adj.).2

    unintentional (adj.)

    1701, from un- (1) "not" + intentional (adj.). Related: Unintentionally.ETD unintentional (adj.).2

    uninterested (adj.)

    1640s, "unbiased," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of interest (v.). It later meant "disinterested" (1660s); sense of "unconcerned, indifferent" is recorded from 1771. This is the correct word for what often is miscalled disinterested.ETD uninterested (adj.).2

    uninteresting (adj.)

    "not capable of exciting interest," 1769, from un- (1) "not" + interesting.ETD uninteresting (adj.).2

    uninterrupted (adj.)

    c. 1600, "continuous;" 1650s, "undisturbed," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of interrupt. Related: Uninterruptedly.ETD uninterrupted (adj.).2

    uninvited (adj.)

    "not having been invited," 1630s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of invite (v.).ETD uninvited (adj.).2

    uninviting (adj.)

    1680s, from un- (1) + inviting (adj.).ETD uninviting (adj.).2

    uninvite (v.)

    "countermand an invitation," 1660s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + invite (v.). Related: Uninvited; uninviting.ETD uninvite (v.).2

    union (n.)

    early 15c., "action of joining one thing to another," also "agreement, accord," also "state of matrimony," from Anglo-French unioun, Old French union (12c.), from Late Latin unionem (nominative unio) "oneness, unity, a uniting," also in Latin meaning "a single pearl or onion," from unus "one," from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique."ETD union (n.).2

    Sense of "action of uniting into one political body" is attested from 1540s. Meaning "group of people or states" is from 1650s. Short for trade union, it is recorded from 1833. U.S. political sense is attested from 1775; used especially during the Civil War, in reference to the remainder of the United States after the Southern secession.ETD union (n.).3

    unionize (v.)

    1841, "make into a union" (transitive), from union + -ize. Sense "form into a trade union" is from 1887. Related: Unionized; unionizing.ETD unionize (v.).2

    Union Jack

    1670s, from union + jack (n.); properly a small British union flag flown as the jack of a ship, but it has long been in use as a general name for the union flag. The Union flag (1630s) was introduced to symbolize the union of the crowns of England and Scotland (in 1603) and was formed of a combination of the cross saltire of St. Andrew and the cross of St. George. The cross saltire of St. Patrick was added 1801 upon the union of parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland.ETD Union Jack.2

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