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    ethics (n.) — evaluative (adj.)

    ethics (n.)

    "the science of morals," c. 1600, plural of Middle English ethik "study of morals" (see ethic). The word also traces to Ta Ethika, title of Aristotle's work. Related: Ethicist.ETD ethics (n.).2

    ethical (adj.)

    c. 1600, "pertaining to morality," from ethic + -al (1). Related: Ethicality; ethically.ETD ethical (adj.).2

    ethic (n.)

    late 14c., ethik "study of morals," from Old French etique "ethics, moral philosophy" (13c.), from Late Latin ethica, from Greek ēthike philosophia "moral philosophy," fem. of ēthikos "ethical, pertaining to character," from ēthos "moral character," related to ēthos "custom" (see ethos). Meaning "moral principles of a person or group" is attested from 1650s.ETD ethic (n.).2

    Ethiop (n.)

    late 14c., from Latin Æthiops "Ethiopian, negro," from Greek Aithiops, long supposed in popular etymology to be from aithein "to burn" + ōps "face" (compare aithops "fiery-looking," later "sunburned").ETD Ethiop (n.).2


    Latin Aethiopia, from Greek Aithiopia, from Aithiops (see Ethiop). The native name is represented by Abyssinia.ETD Ethiopia.2

    Ethiopian (n.)

    "inhabitant of Ethiopia," mid-13c., Ethiopien, from Old French; see Ethiop + -ian. As an adjective from 1680s; earlier adjective was Ethiopic (1650s). Middle English also had Siʒel-harwa "Ethiopian," from Old English Sigelhearwa literally "sun-worshipper."ETD Ethiopian (n.).2

    ethnarch (n.)

    1640s, from Latinized form of Greek ethnarkhes, from ethnos "nation, a people" (see ethnic) + arkh- "chief, first" (see archon).ETD ethnarch (n.).2

    ethnicity (n.)

    "ethnic character," 1953, from ethnic + -ity. Earlier it meant "paganism" (1772).ETD ethnicity (n.).2

    ethnic (adj.)

    late 15c. (earlier ethnical, early 15c.) "pagan, heathen," from Late Latin ethnicus, from Greek ethnikos "of or for a nation, national," by some writers (Polybius, etc.) "adopted to the genius or customs of a people, peculiar to a people," and among the grammarians "suited to the manners or language of foreigners," from ethnos "band of people living together, nation, people, tribe, caste," also used of swarms or flocks of animals, properly "people of one's own kind," from PIE *swedh-no-, suffixed form of root *s(w)e-, third person pronoun and reflexive, also forming words referring to the social group (see idiom). Earlier in English as a noun, "a heathen, pagan, one who is not a Christian or Jew" (c. 1400). In modern noun use, "member of an ethnic group," from 1945.ETD ethnic (adj.).2

    In Septuagint, Greek ta ethne translates Hebrew goyim, plural of goy "nation," especially of non-Israelites, hence especially "gentile nation, foreign nation not worshipping the true God" (see goy), and ethnikos is used by ecclesiastical writers in a sense of "savoring of the nature of pagans, alien to the worship of the true God," and as a noun "the pagan, the gentile." The classical sense of "peculiar to a race or nation" in English is attested from 1851, a return to the word's original meaning; that of "different cultural groups" is 1935; and that of "racial, cultural or national minority group" is American English 1945. Ethnic cleansing is attested from 1991.ETD ethnic (adj.).3


    word-forming element meaning "race, culture," from Greek ethnos "people, nation, class, caste, tribe; a number of people accustomed to live together" (see ethnic). Used to form modern compounds in the social sciences.ETD ethno-.2

    ethnocentric (adj.)

    "believing that one's own nation is the center of civilization," 1891, from ethno- + -centric; a technical term in social sciences until it began to be more widely used in the second half of the 20th century. Related: Ethnocentricity; ethnocentrism (1902).ETD ethnocentric (adj.).2

    ethnogenesis (n.)

    1957 in modern usage, from ethno- + -genesis "birth, origin, creation." It was the title of an 1861 poem celebrating the birth of the Confederacy by U.S. Southern poet Henry Timrod (1828-1867).ETD ethnogenesis (n.).2

    ethnography (n.)

    "science of the description and classification of the races of mankind," 1812, perhaps from German Ethnographie; see ethno- "race, culture" + -graphy "study." Related: Ethnographer; ethnographic.ETD ethnography (n.).2

    ethnology (n.)

    "science of the characteristics, history, and customs of the races of mankind," 1832, from ethno- + -logy, perhaps modeled on French or German. Related: Ethnologist; ethnological.ETD ethnology (n.).2

    ethos (n.)

    "the 'genius' of a people, characteristic spirit of a time and place," 1851 (Palgrave) from Greek ēthos "habitual character and disposition; moral character; habit, custom; an accustomed place," in plural, "manners," from suffixed form of PIE root *s(w)e- third person pronoun and reflexive (see idiom). An important concept in Aristotle (as in "Rhetoric" II xii-xiv).ETD ethos (n.).2

    ethology (n.)

    late 17c., "mimicry, art of depicting characters by mimic gestures," from Latin ethologia, from Greek ēthologia, from ēthos "character" (see ethos). Taken by Mill as "science of character formation" (1843); as a branch of zoology, "study of instincts," from 1897. Related: Ethological.ETD ethology (n.).2

    ethyl (n.)

    1838, from German ethyl (Liebig, 1834), from ether + -yl. Ethyl alcohol, under other names, was widely used in medicine by 13c.ETD ethyl (n.).2

    ethylene (n.)

    poisonous, flammable gas, 1852, from ethyl + -ene, probably suggested by methylene.ETD ethylene (n.).2

    etic (adj.)

    1954, coined by U.S. linguist K.L. Pike (1912-2000) from ending of phonetic.ETD etic (adj.).2


    word-forming element meaning "pertaining to," from Greek -etikos, adjectival suffix for nouns ending in -esis.ETD -etic.2

    etiolate (v.)

    "turn (a plant) white by growing it in darkness," 1791, from French étiolé, past participle of étioler "to blanch" (17c.), perhaps literally "to become like straw," from Norman dialect étule "a stalk," Old French esteule "straw, field of stubble," from Latin stipula "straw" (see stipule). Related: Etiolated.ETD etiolate (v.).2

    etiology (n.)

    also aetiology, aitiology, "science of causes or causation," 1550s, from Late Latin aetiologia, from Greek aitiologia "statement of cause," from aitia "cause, responsibility" (from PIE *ai-t-ya-, from root *ai- (1) "to give, allot;" see diet (n.1)) + -logia "a speaking" (see -logy). Related: Etiologic; etiological.ETD etiology (n.).2

    etiquette (n.)

    1750, from French étiquette "prescribed behavior," from Old French estiquette "label, ticket" (see ticket (n.)).ETD etiquette (n.).2

    The sense development in French perhaps is from small cards written or printed with instructions for how to behave properly at court (compare Italian etichetta, Spanish etiqueta), and/or from behavior instructions written on a soldier's billet for lodgings (the main sense of the Old French word).ETD etiquette (n.).3


    volcano in Sicily, from Latin Aetna, from an indigenous Sicilian language, *aith-na "the fiery one," from PIE *ai-dh-, from root *ai- (2) "to burn" (see edifice). Related: Etnean.ETD Etna.2


    collar (1882), jacket (1873, formerly worn by the younger boys there), etc., from Eton College, public school for boys on the Thames opposite Windsor, founded by Henry VI. The place name is Old English ea "river" (see ea) + tun "farm, settlement" (see town (n.)). Related: Etonian.ETD Eton.2

    Etruscan (n.)

    1706, from Latin Etruscus "an Etruscan," from Etruria, ancient name of Tuscany (see Tuscan); of uncertain origin but containing an element that might mean "water" (see Basque) and which could be a reference to the rivers in the region.ETD Etruscan (n.).2


    diminutive word-forming element, from Old French -ette (fem.), used indiscriminately in Old French with masculine form -et (see -et).ETD -ette.2

    As a general rule, older words borrowed from French have -et in English, while ones taken in since 17c. have -ette.ETD -ette.3

    In use with native words since late 19c., especially among persons who coin new product names, who tend to give it a sense of "imitation, a sort of" (for example flannelette "imitation flannel of cotton," 1876; leatherette, 1855; linenette, 1894). It also formed such words as lecturette (1867), sermonette, which, OED remarks, "can scarcely be said to be in good use, though often met with in newspapers." A small supermarket in U.S. sometimes was a superette (1938), an etymological impossibility.ETD -ette.4


    fem. proper name, originally a shortening of Henrietta.ETD Etta.2

    ettin (n.)

    an old word for "a giant," extinct since 16c., from Old English eoten "giant, monster," from Proto-Germanic *itunoz "giant" (source also of Old Norse iotunn, Danish jætte), perhaps "immense eater," or "man-eater," from suffixed form of PIE root *ed- "to eat."ETD ettin (n.).2

    etude (n.)

    a composition having musical value but primarily intended to exercise the pupil in technical difficulties, 1837, from French étude, literally "study" (12c., Old French estudie), from Latin studium (see study (n.)). Popularized in English by the etudes of Chopin (1810-1849).ETD etude (n.).2

    etui (n.)

    1610s, also ettuy, etwee from French étui, Old French estui (12c.) "case, box, container," back-formation from estuier "put in put aside, spare; to keep, shut up, imprison," which is of uncertain origin. Perhaps from Latin studere "to be diligent."ETD etui (n.).2

    etymology (n.)

    late 14c., ethimolegia "facts of the origin and development of a word," from Old French etimologie, ethimologie (14c., Modern French étymologie), from Latin etymologia, from Greek etymologia "analysis of a word to find its true origin," properly "study of the true sense (of a word)," with -logia "study of, a speaking of" (see -logy) + etymon "true sense, original meaning," neuter of etymos "true, real, actual," related to eteos "true," which perhaps is cognate with Sanskrit satyah, Gothic sunjis, Old English soð "true," from a PIE *set- "be stable." Latinized by Cicero as veriloquium.ETD etymology (n.).2

    In classical times, with reference to meanings; later, to histories. Classical etymologists, Christian and pagan, based their explanations on allegory and guesswork, lacking historical records as well as the scientific method to analyze them, and the discipline fell into disrepute that lasted a millennium. Flaubert ["Dictionary of Received Ideas"] wrote that the general view was that etymology was "the easiest thing in the world with the help of Latin and a little ingenuity."ETD etymology (n.).3

    As a modern branch of linguistic science treating of the origin and evolution of words, from 1640s. As "an account of the particular history of a word" from mid-15c. Related: Etymological; etymologically.ETD etymology (n.).4

    etymologize (v.)

    1530s (transitive); see etymology + -ize. Compare French étymologiser, from Medieval Latin etymologisare. Intransitive sense from 1650s. Related: Etymologized; etymologizing.ETD etymologize (v.).2

    etymological (adj.)

    1590s; see etymology + -ical. Related: Etymologically.ETD etymological (adj.).2

    etymologicon (n.)

    "a work in which etymologies are traced," 1640s, from Latin etymologicon, from Greek etymologikon, neuter of etymologikos (see etymology). Plural is etymologica.ETD etymologicon (n.).2

    etymologist (n.)

    1630s; see etymology + -ist. Also etymologer (1640s).ETD etymologist (n.).2

    etymon (n.)

    "primitive word," 1570s, from Greek etymon, neuter of etymos "true, real, actual" (see etymology). Classical Greek used etymon as an adverb, "truly, really." Related: Etymic.ETD etymon (n.).2


    word-forming element, in modern use meaning "good, well," from Greek eus "good," eu "well" (adv.), also "luckily, happily" (opposed to kakos), as a noun, "the right, the good cause," from PIE *(e)su- "good" (source also of Sanskrit su- "good," Avestan hu- "good"), originally a suffixed form of root *es- "to be." In compounds the Greek word had more a sense of "greatness, abundance, prosperity," and was opposed to dys-.ETD eu-.2


    Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to dress," with extended form *wes- (2) "to clothe."ETD *eu-.2

    It forms all or part of: divest; exuviae; invest; revetment; transvestite; travesty; vest; vestry; wear.ETD *eu-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite washshush "garments," washanzi "they dress;" Sanskrit vaste "he puts on," vasanam "garment;" Avestan vah-; Greek esthes "clothing," hennymi "to clothe," eima "garment;" Latin vestire "to clothe;" Welsh gwisgo, Breton gwiska; Old English werian "to clothe, put on, cover up," wæstling "sheet, blanket."ETD *eu-.4

    eubacteria (n.)

    singular eubacterium, 1939, coined in German 1930; see eu-, here meaning "good," + bacteria. Classically, as an adverb, eu should form compounds only with verbs.ETD eubacteria (n.).2


    large island of Greece north of Attica and Boeotia, literally "rich in cattle," from eu- "good, well" (see eu-) + bous "ox, cow" (from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow"). Related: Euboean.ETD Euboea.2

    eucalyptus (n.)

    evergreen genus of Australia, 1789, from Modern Latin, coined 1788 by French botanist Charles Louis L'héritier de Brutelle (1746-1800) from Greek eu "well" (see eu-) + kalyptos "covered" (from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save"); so called for the covering on the bud.ETD eucalyptus (n.).2

    Eucharist (n.)

    "sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the Communion," mid-14c., from Old French eucariste, from Late Latin eucharistia, from Greek eukharistia "thanksgiving, gratitude," later "the Lord's Supper," from eukharistos "grateful," from eu "well" (see eu-) + stem of kharizesthai "show favor," from kharis "favor, grace" (from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want"). Eukharisteo is the usual verb for "to thank, to be thankful" in Septuagint and Greek New Testament. Related: Eucharistic.ETD Eucharist (n.).2

    euchre (n.)

    type of card game played with a partial deck, 1846, American English, of unknown origin. Elements of the game indicate it might be from German. In early use also uker, yucker.ETD euchre (n.).2

    Euclidean (adj.)

    1650s, "of or pertaining to Euclid" (Greek Eukleides), c. 300 B.C.E. geometer of Alexandria. Now often used in contrast to alternative models based on rejection of some of his axioms. His name in Greek means "renowned, glorious," from eu "well" (see eu-) + kleos "fame" (see Clio).ETD Euclidean (adj.).2

    eudaemonic (adj.)

    also eudemonic, "producing happiness," 1856, from Greek eudaimonikos "conducive to happiness," from eudaimonia "happiness," from eu "good" (see eu-) + daimōn "guardian, genius" (see daimon). Related: Eudaimonia; eudemonia; eudaemonical.ETD eudaemonic (adj.).2


    fem. proper name, Greek, literally "generous," fem. of eudoros, from eu "well, good" (see eu-) + dōron "gift" (from PIE root *do- "to give").ETD Eudora.2


    *euə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to leave, abandon, give out," with derivatives meaning "abandoned, lacking, empty."ETD *eue-.2

    It forms all or part of: avoid; devastation; devoid; evacuate; evanescent; vacant; vacate; vacation; vacuity; vacuole; vacuous; vacuum; vain; vanish; vanity; vaunt; void; wane; want; wanton; waste.ETD *eue-.3

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit una- "deficient;" Avestan va- "lack," Persian vang "empty, poor;" Armenian unain "empty;" Latin vacare "to be empty," vastus "empty, waste," vanus "empty, void," figuratively "idle, fruitless;" Old English wanian "to lessen," wan "deficient;" Old Norse vanta "to lack."ETD *eue-.4


    masc. proper name, from French Eugène, from Latin Eugenius, from Greek Eugenios, literally "nobility of birth," from eugenes "well-born" (see eugenics).ETD Eugene.2

    eugenics (n.)

    "doctrine of progress in evolution of the human race, race-culture," 1883, coined (along with adjective eugenic) by English scientist Francis Galton (1822-1911) on analogy of ethics, physics, etc. from Greek eugenes "well-born, of good stock, of noble race," from eu- "good" (see eu-) + genos "birth" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget").ETD eugenics (n.).2


    fem. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Eugenia, literally "nobility of birth," fem. of Eugenius (see Eugene).ETD Eugenia.2

    euhemerism (n.)

    1846, "the method of regarding myths as glorified accounts of actual events or persons," with -ism + name of Euhemerus, Greek philosopher of Sicily (4c. B.C.E.), who wrote "Iera Anagraphe," in which he maintained the Greek deities actually were historical mortals. His name is literally "good day," from eu "well, good" (see eu-) + hēmera "day" (from PIE *Hehmer "day"). Related: Euhemerist; euhemeristic.ETD euhemerism (n.).2

    eukaryotic (adj.)

    also eucaryotic, "characterized by well-defined cells (with nuclei and cell walls)," 1957, from French eucaryote (1925), from Greek eu "well, good" (see eu-) + karyon "nut, kernel" (see karyo-). Related: Eukaryote; eucaryote.ETD eukaryotic (adj.).2

    eulogize (v.)

    1753, from eulogy + -ize. Related: Eulogized; eulogizing.ETD eulogize (v.).2

    eulogy (n.)

    mid-15c., from Latin eulogium, from Greek eulogia "praise; good or fine language" (in New Testament, "blessing"), from eu "well" (see eu-) + -logia "speaking" (see -logy). Eu legein meant "speak well of."ETD eulogy (n.).2

    eulogist (n.)

    1758; see eulogy + -ist. Related: Eulogistic.ETD eulogist (n.).2


    Greek, literally "the well-minded ones," a euphemism of the Erinys; see eu- "well, good;" second element from Greek menos "spirit, passion," from PIE *men-es-, suffixed form of root *men- (1) "to think."ETD Eumenides.2


    fem. proper name, from Latinized form of Greek Eunikē, literally "victorious," from eu "good, well" (see eu-) + nikē "victory" (see Nike).ETD Eunice.2

    eunuch (n.)

    "castrated man," late 14c., eunuk, from Latin eunuchus, from Greek eunoukhos "castrated man," originally "guard of the bedchamber or harem," from euno-, combining form of eune "bed," a word of unknown origin, + -okhos, from stem of ekhein "to have, hold" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold").ETD eunuch (n.).2

    Harem attendants in Oriental courts and under the Roman emperors were charged with important affairs of state. The Greek and Latin forms of the word were used in the sense "castrated man" in the Bible but also to translate Hebrew saris, which sometimes meant merely "palace official," in Septuagint and Vulgate, probably without an intended comment on the qualities of bureaucrats. Related: Eunuchal; eunuchry; eunuchize.ETD eunuch (n.).3

    eupeptic (adj.)

    1831, from Greek eupeptos "having good digestion," from eu- "well, good" (see eu-) + peptos "cooked, digested," verbal adjective of peptein "to cook" (from PIE root *pekw- "to cook, ripen").ETD eupeptic (adj.).2

    euphemism (n.)

    1650s, from Greek euphemismos "use of a favorable word in place of an inauspicious one, superstitious avoidance of words of ill-omen during religious ceremonies," also of substitutions such as Eumenides for the Furies. This is from euphemizein "speak with fair words, use words of good omen," from eu- "good, well" (see eu-) + phēmē "speech, voice, utterance, a speaking," from phanai "speak" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say"). See also Euxine, and compare Greek Greek aristeros "the better one," a euphemism for "the left (hand)." In English, a rhetorical term at first; broader sense of "choosing a less distasteful word or phrase than the one meant" is first attested 1793. Related: Euphemistic; euphemistically.ETD euphemism (n.).2

    euphemistic (adj.)

    1830; see euphemism + -istic. Related: Euphemistically (1833).ETD euphemistic (adj.).2

    euphony (n.)

    mid-15c., from French euphonie, from Late Latin euphonia, from Greek euphonia "sweetness of voice," related to euphonos "well-sounding," from eu- "good" (see eu-) + phone "sound, voice," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say." Related: Euphonic (1782); euphonical (1660s); euphonious (1774). Hence, also, euphonium (1864), the musical instrument.ETD euphony (n.).2

    euphoric (adj.)

    "characterized by euphoria," 1885, originally with reference to cocaine, from euphoria + -ic. The noun meaning "a drug which causes euphoria" also is from 1885. Euphoriant is from 1946 as a noun, 1947 as an adjective.ETD euphoric (adj.).2

    euphoria (n.)

    1727, a physician's term for "condition of feeling healthy and comfortable (especially when sick)," medical Latin, from Greek euphoria "power of enduring easily," from euphoros, literally "bearing well," from eu "well" (see eu-) + pherein "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry." Non-technical use, now the main one, dates to 1882 and perhaps is a reintroduction. Earlier the word meant "effective operation of a medicine on a patient" (1680s).ETD euphoria (n.).2


    Mesopotamian river, arising in Armenia and flowing to the Persian Gulf, Old English Eufrate, from Greek Euphrates, from Old Persian Ufratu, perhaps from Avestan huperethuua "good to cross over," from hu- "good" + peretu- "ford" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over"). But Kent says "probably a popular etymologizing in O.P. of a local non-Iranian name" ["Old Persian," p.176]. In Akkadian, purattu. Related: Euphratean.ETD Euphrates.2


    name of one of the three Graces in Greek mythology, via Latin, from Greek Euphrosyne, literally "mirth, merriment," from euphron "cheerful, merry, of a good mind," from eu "well, good" (see eu-) + phrēn (genitive phrenos) "heart, mind" (see phreno-).ETD Euphrosyne.2


    chief character in two popular books by English writer John Lyly (1553-1606), from Greek euphyes "well-endowed by nature." The affected and ornate style of writing and speech popularized by the works was fashionable late 16c.-early 17c.; hence euphuism (1590s); euphuistic; euphuist.ETD Euphues.2

    Eurafrican (adj.)

    1884 of the region of the Atlantic beside both continents; ; see Euro- + African Transferred or re-coined to describe the "colored" population of South Africa (1920s) and political situations involving both continents (1909).ETD Eurafrican (adj.).2

    Eurasia (n.)

    1881, from Euro- + Asia. First record of it in any language seems to be in H. Reusche's "Handbuch der Geographie" (1858), but see Eurasian. Related: Eurasiatic (1863).ETD Eurasia (n.).2

    Eurasian (adj.)

    1844, from Euro- + Asian. Originally of children of British-East Indian marriages; meaning "of Europe and Asia considered as one continent" is from 1868. As a noun from 1845.ETD Eurasian (adj.).2


    c. 1600, from Greek heureka "I have found (it)," first person singular perfect active indicative of heuriskein "to find" (see heuristic). Supposedly shouted by Archimedes (c. 287-212 B.C.E.) when he solved a problem that had been set to him: determining whether goldsmiths had adulterated the metal in the crown of Hiero II, king of Syracuse.ETD eureka.2


    word-forming element meaning "wide," from Greek eurys "broad, wide," from PIE root *were- (1) "wide, broad" (source also of Sanskrit uruh "broad, wide").ETD eury-.2


    strait between Euboea and the Greek mainland, notorious for its violent and unpredictable currents, from eu- "good, well" (see eu-) + rhipe "rush." Apparently euphemistic.ETD Euripus.2


    before vowels Eur-, word forming element meaning "Europe, European," from combining form of Europe.ETD Euro-.2

    Euro (n.)

    name for the basic monetary unit of a pan-European currency, from 1996.ETD Euro (n.).2

    Eurocentric (adj.)

    1963, from Euro- + -centric.ETD Eurocentric (adj.).2


    from Latin Europa "Europe," from Greek Europe, which is of uncertain origin; as a geographic name first recorded in the Homeric hymn to Apollo (522 B.C.E. or earlier):ETD Europe.2

    Often explained as "broad face," from eurys "wide" (see eury-) + ops "face," literally "eye" (from PIE root *okw- "to see"). But also traditionally linked with Europa, Phoenician princess in Greek mythology. Klein (citing Heinrich Lewy) suggests a possible Semitic origin in Akkad. erebu "to go down, set" (in reference to the sun) which would parallel occident. Another suggestion along those lines is Phoenician 'ereb "evening," hence "west."ETD Europe.3


    c. 1600 (adj.); 1630s (n.), from French Européen, from Latin Europaeus, from Greek Europaios "European," from Europe (see Europe).ETD European.2

    europium (n.)

    rare earth element, 1901, named by its discoverer, French chemist Eugène Demarçay (1852-1903) in 1896, from Europe. With metallic element ending -ium.ETD europium (n.).2


    wife of Orpheus in Greek mythology, from Latinized form of Greek Eurydikē, literally "wide justice," from eurys "wide" (see eury-) + dikē "custom, usage; justice, right; court case," "custom, usage," and, via the notion of "right as dependent on custom," "law, a right; a judgment; a lawsuit, court case, trial; penalty awarded by a judge," from PIE *dika-, from root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly."ETD Eurydice.2

    eurypterid (n.)

    fossil swimming crustacean of the Silurian and Devonian, 1874, from Greek eurys "broad, wide" (see eury-) + pteron "feather, wing" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly"); so called from their swimming appendages.ETD eurypterid (n.).2

    eurythmic (adj.)

    also eurhythmic, "harmonious," 1831, from Greek eurythmia "rhythmical order," from eurythmos "rhythmical, well-proportioned," from eu "well, good" (see eu-) + rhythmos "measured flow or movement, rhythm; proportion, symmetry" (see rhythm). Related: Eurythmics (also eurhythmics), "system of rhythmical body movement to music, used as therapy or to teach musical understanding," developed by Swiss music educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze; eurythmy.ETD eurythmic (adj.).2


    masc. proper name, from Old French Eustace (Modern French Eustache), from Latin Eustachius, probably from Greek eustakhos "fruitful," from eu "well, good" (see eu-) + stakhys "ear (of grain);" see spike (n.1).ETD Eustace.2

    Eustachian tube (n.)

    so called for Italian physician Bartolomeo Eustachio (d.1574), who discovered the passages from the ears to the throat. His name is from Latin Eustachius (see Eustace).ETD Eustachian tube (n.).2


    muse of music, from Greek Euterpe, literally "well-pleasing," from eu "well" (see eu-) + terpein "to delight, please" (see Terpsichore). "A divinity of joy and pleasure, inventress of the double flute, favoring rather the wild and simple melodies of primitive peoples than the more finished art of music, and associated more with Bacchus than with Apollo" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Euterpean.ETD Euterpe.2

    euthanize (v.)

    by 1915, in place of earlier and etymologically correct euthanatize (1873); see euthanasia + -ize. Related: Euthanized; euthanizing.ETD euthanize (v.).2

    euthanasia (n.)

    1640s, "a gentle and easy death," from Greek euthanasia "an easy or happy death," from eu- "good" (see eu-) + thanatos "death" (see thanatology) + abstract noun ending -ia. Slightly earlier in Englished form euthanasy (1630s). Sense of "legally sanctioned mercy killing" is recorded in English by 1869.ETD euthanasia (n.).2

    euthanise (v.)

    chiefly British English spelling of euthanize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Euthanised; euthanising.ETD euthanise (v.).2


    archaic name for the Black Sea, from Latin Pontus Euxinus, from Greek Pontos Euxenios, literally "the hospitable sea," a euphemism for Pontos Axeinos, "the inhospitable sea." From eu- "good, well" (see eu-) + xenos "host; guest; stranger" (from PIE root *ghos-ti- "stranger, guest, host").ETD Euxine.2

    According to Room, The Old Persian name for the sea was akhshaena, literally "dark," probably in reference to the sudden, dangerous storms that make the sea perilous to sailors and darken its face (or perhaps in reference to the color of the water, from the sea being deep and relatively lifeless), and the Greeks took this untranslated as Pontos Axeinos, which was interpeted as the similar-sounding Greek word axenos "inhospitable." Thus the modern English name could reflect the Old Persian one.ETD Euxine.3

    eve (n.)

    c. 1200, eve "evening," especially the time between sunset and darkness, from Old English æfen, with loss of terminal -n (which, though forming part of the stem, perhaps was mistaken for an inflection), from Proto-Germanic *æbando- (source also of Old Saxon aband, Old Frisian ewnd, Dutch avond, Old High German aband, German Abend, Old Norse aptann, Danish aften), which is of uncertain origin. Now superseded in its original sense by evening.ETD eve (n.).2

    Specific meaning "day before a saint's day or festival" is from late 13c. Transferred sense of "the moment right before any event, etc." is by 1780. Even (n.), evening keep the original form.ETD eve (n.).3


    fem. proper name, Biblical first woman, Late Latin, from Hebrew (Semitic) Hawwah, literally "a living being," from base hawa "he lived" (compare Arabic hayya, Aramaic hayyin).ETD Eve.2

    evacuation (n.)

    c. 1400, "discharge from the body" (originally mostly of blood), from Old French évacuation and directly from Late Latin evacuationem (nominative evacuatio), noun of action from past participle stem of evacuare "to empty" (see evacuate). Military sense is by 1710. Of persons, by 1854.ETD evacuation (n.).2

    evacuate (v.)

    early 15c., in medicine (Chauliac), evacuaten "expel (humors) from the body" (transitive), from Latin evacuatus, past participle of evacuare "to empty, make void, nullify," used by Pliny in reference to the bowels, used figuratively in Late Latin for "clear out;" from assimilated form of ex- "out" (see ex-) + vacuus "empty" (according to Watkins, from PIE *wak-, extended form of root *eue- "to leave, abandon, give out").ETD evacuate (v.).2

    It replaced Middle English evacuen "draw off or expel (humors) from the body" (c. 1400). The military meaning "depart from, quit (a place)" is by 1710. The meaning "remove inhabitants to safer ground" is from 1934. The intransitive sense is attested from 1630s; of civilian persons by 1900. Related: Evacuated; evacuating.ETD evacuate (v.).3

    evacuee (n.)

    1934, from French évacué, from évacuer, from Latin evacuare "to empty" (see evacuate) + -ee. Evacuant (n.) was used from 1730s in medicine.ETD evacuee (n.).2

    evade (v.)

    1510s, "escape," from French evader, from Latin evadere "to escape, get away," from assimilated form of ex "away" (see ex-) + vadere "to go, walk" (see vamoose). Special sense of "escape by trickery" is from 1530s. Related: Evaded; evading.ETD evade (v.).2

    evagation (n.)

    "action of wandering," 1650s, from French évagation, from Latin evagationem (nominative evagatio), noun of action from past participle stem of evagari, from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + vagari, from vagus "roving, wandering" (see vague).ETD evagation (n.).2

    evaginate (v.)

    1650s, "withdraw (something) from a sheath;" 1660s, "to turn (a tube) inside out," from Latin evaginatus, past participle of evaginare "to unsheathe," from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + vagina (see vagina). Related: Evaginated; evaginating.ETD evaginate (v.).2

    evaluate (v.)

    1831, back-formation from evaluation, or else from French évaluer, back-formation from évaluation. Originally in mathematics. Related: Evaluated; evaluating.ETD evaluate (v.).2

    evaluation (n.)

    1755, "action of appraising or valuing," from French évaluation, noun of action from évaluer "to find the value of," from é- "out" (see ex-) + valuer, from Latin valere "be strong, be well; be of value, be worth" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong"). Meaning "job performance review" attested by 1947.ETD evaluation (n.).2

    evaluative (adj.)

    1903, from evaluate + -ive.ETD evaluative (adj.).2

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