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    σαβαχθάνι — σιτευτός


    (4518) σαβαχθάνι, σαβαχθανει T Tr WH (see WH 's Appendix, p. 155, and under the word εἰ, ), σαβακθανι Lachmann (in Matt. only) (שְׁבַקתַּנִי, from the Chaldean שְׁבַק), thou hast forsaken me: Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34 (from Psalms 21:2 (Psalms 22:2), for the Hebrew עֲזַבְתַּנִי, which is so rendered also by the Chaldee paraphrast). (See Kautzsch , Gram. d. Biblical-Aram. (Leipzig 1884), p. 11.)TGL σαβαχθάνι.2


    (4519) σαβαώθ (Hebrew צְבָאות, plural of צָבָא, an army): κύριος σαβαώθ (צְבָאות יְהוָה) (A. V. Lord of Sabaoth), i. e. lord of the armies namely, of Israel, as those who under the leadership and protection of Jehovah maintain his cause in war (cf. Schrader, Ueber d. ursprüngl. Sinn des Gottesnamens Jahve Zebaoth, in the Jahrbb. f. protest. Theol. for 1875, p. 316ff, and in Schenkel see 702f; cf. Herm. Schultz, Alttest. Theol. ii., p. 96ff; (B. D. under the word , the Lord of. But for the other view, according to which the heavenly hosts arc referred to, see Hackett in B. D. , American edition, under the phrase, , Lord of, and Delitzsch in the Luth. Zeitschr. for 1874, pp. 217ff; so Riehm (HWB, under the word Zebaoth) as respects the use of the sphrase by the prophets). On the diverse interpretations of the word cf. Oehler in Herzog xviii., p. 400ff (and in his O. T. Theol. (edited by Day) § 195f; cf. T. K. Cheyne, Isaiah, edition 3 vol. i. 11f)): Romans 9:29; James 5:4.TGL Σαβαώθ.2


    (4520) σαββατισμός, σαββατισμου, (σαββατίζω to keep the sabbath);TGL σαββατισμός.2

    1. a keeping sabbath.TGL σαββατισμός.3

    2. the blessed rest from toils and troubles looked for in the age to come by the true worshippers of God and true Christians (R. V. sabbath rest): Hebrews 4:9. (Plutarch , de superstit. c. 3; ecclesiastical writings.)TGL σαββατισμός.4


    (4521) σάββατον, σαββάτου, τό (Hebrew שַׁבָּת), found in the N. T. only in the historical books except twice in Paul's Epistles; sabbath; i. e.:TGL σάββατον.2

    1. the seventh day of each week, which was a sacred festival on which the Israelites were required to abstain from all work (Exodus 20:10; Exodus 31:13; Deuteronomy 5:14);TGL σάββατον.3

    a. singular σάββατον and τό σάββατον: Mark 6:2; (Mark 15:42 L Tr ); Mark 16:1; John 5:9, etc.; equivalent to the institution of the sabbath, the law for keeping holy every seventh day of the week: Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:27; Luke 6:5; λύειν, John 5:18; τηρεῖν, John 9:16; ἡμέρα τοῦ σαββάτου (הַשַּׁבָּת יום, Exodus 20:8 and often), the day of the sabbath, sabbath-day, Luke 13:16; Luke 14:5; ὁδός σαββάτου, a sabbath-day's journey, the distance it is lawful to travel on the sabbath-day, i. e. according to the Talmud two thousand cubits or paces, according to Epiphanius (haer. 66, 82) six stadia: Acts 1:12, cf. Matthew 24:20 (the regulation was derived from Exodus 16:29); cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Sabbathsweg; Oehler in Herzog xiii., 203f (cf. Leyrer in Herzog edition 2 vol. 9:379); Mangold in Sehenkel v., 127f; (Ginsburg in Alexander's Kitto under the word Sabbath Day's Journey; Lumby on Acts 1:12 (in Cambr. Bible for Schools)). as dative of time (Winer s Grammar, § 31, 9 b.; Buttmann , § 133, 26): σαββάτῳ, Matthew 24:20 (G L T Tr WH ); Luke 14:1; τῷ σαββάτῳ, Luke 6:9 L text T Tr WH ; Luke 13:14; Luke 14:3; Acts 13:44; ἐν σαββάτῳ, Matthew 12:2; John 5:16; John 7:22 (here L WH brackets ἐν),23; ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ, Luke 6:7; John 19:31, accusative τό σάββατον during (on) the sabbath (cf. Buttmann , § 131, 11; Winer 's Grammar, § 32,6): Luke 23:56; κατά πᾶν σάββατον every sabbath, Acts 13:27; Acts 15:21; Acts 18:4. plural τά σάββατα, of several sabbaths, Acts 17:2 (some refer this to 2).TGL σάββατον.4

    b. plural, τά σαββάτων (for the singular) of a single sabbath, sabbath-day (the use of the plural being occasioned either by the plural names of festivals, as τά ἐγκαίνια, ἄζυμα, γενέσια, or by the Chaldaic form שַׁבָּתָא (Winer s Grammar, 177 (167); Buttmann , 23 (21))): Matthew 28:1; Colossians 2:16 (Exodus 20:10; Leviticus 23:32 etc.; τήν ἑβδόμην σάββατα καλουμεν, Josephus , Antiquities 3, 6, 6; add, 1, 1, 1; (14, 10, 25; Philo de Abrah. § 5; de cherub. § 26; Plutarch , de superstitione 8); τήν τῶν σαββάτων ἑορτήν, Plutarch , symp. 4, 6, 2; hodie tricesima sabbata, Horace sat. 1, 9, 69; nowhere so used by John except in the phrase μία τῶν σαββάτων, on which see 2 below); ἡμέρα τῶν σαββάτων, Luke 4:16; Acts 13:14; Acts 16:13 (Exodus 20:8; Exodus 35:3; Deuteronomy 5:12; Jeremiah 17:21); τοῖς σάββασιν and ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν (so constantly (except Lachmann in Matthew 12:1, Matthew 12:12) by metaplasm for σαββάτοις, cf. Winer s Grammar, 63 (62); (Buttmann , 23 (21))) on the sabbath-day: Matthew 12:1(see above),5, 10-12 (see above); Mark 1:21; Mark 2:23; Mark 3:2, Mark 3:4; Luke 4:31; Luke 6:9 (R G L marginal reading) (1 Macc. 2:38; the Sept. uses the form σαββάτοις, and Josephus both forms). On the precepts of the Jews with regard to the observance of the sabbath, which were for the most part extremely punctilious and minute, cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Sabbath; Oehler in Herzog xiii. 192ff (revised by Orelli in edition 2 vol. xiii. 156ff); Schürer , Zeitgesch. 2te Aufl. § 28 II.; Mangold in Schenkel see, p. 123f; (BB. DD. , under the word ; Geikie, Life and Words of Christ, chapter xxxviii. vol. ii: p. 95ff; Farrar, Life of Christ, chapter xxxi. vol. i., p. 432f; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, vol. ii., p. 56ff and Appendix, xvii.).TGL σάββατον.5

    2. seven days, a week: πρώτη σαββάτου, Mark 16:9; δίς τοῦ σαββάτου, twice in the week, Luke 18:12. The plural is used in the same sense in the phrase μία τῶν σαββάτων, the first day of the week (see εἷς , 5) (Prof. Sophocles regards the genitive (dependent on ἡμέρα) in such examples as those that follow (cf. Mark 16:9 above) as equivalent to μετά with an accusative, the first day after the sabbath; see his Lex., p. 43 par. 6): Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1, John 20:19; Acts 20:7; κατά μίαν σαββάτων (L T Tr WH σαββάτου), on the first day of every week, 1 Corinthians 16:2.TGL σάββατον.6


    (4522) σαγήνη, σαγηνης, (σάσσω to load, fill), a large fishing-net, a drag-net (Vulg. sagena (cf. English seine)), used in catching fish that swim in shoals (cf. B. D. , under the word ; Trench , Synonyms, § lxiv.): Matthew 13:47. (The Sept. ; Plutarch , solert. anim., p. 977 f.; Lucian , pisc. 51; Tim. 22; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 2, 14; Aelian h. a. 11, 12; (βάλλειν σαγηνης Babrius fab. 4, 1; 9, 6).)TGL σαγήνη.2


    (4523) Σαδδουκαῖος, Σαδδουκαιου, , a Sadducee, a member of the party of the Sadducees, who, distinguished for birth, wealth, and official position, and not averse to the favor of the Herod family and of the Romans, hated the common people, were the opponents of the Pharisees, and rejecting tradition (see παράδοσις , 2) acknowledged the authority of the O. T. alone in matters pertaining to faith and morals (Josephus , Antiquities 13, 10, 6); they denied not only the resurrection of the body (Matthew 22:23; Mark 12:18; Luke 20:27; Acts 23:8), but also the immortality of the soul and future retribution (ψυχῆς τέ τήν διαμονην καί τάς καθ' ᾅδου τιμωρίας καί τιμάς ἀναιρουσι, Josephus , b. j. 2, 8, 14, cf. Antiquities 18, 1, 4), as well as the existence of angels and spirits (Acts 23:8). They maintained man's freedom in opposition to the doctrine of divine predestination (according to Josephus , b. j. 2, 8, 14). They are mentioned in the N. T. (in addition to the one already referred to) in Matthew 3:7; Matthew 16:1, Matthew 16:6, Matthew 16:11 (in which passages they are associated apparently with the Pharisees contrary to the truth of history ((?) cf. the commentaries ad Iliad chapters)); Matthew 22:34; Acts 4:1; Acts 5:17; Acts 23:6. The Sadducees derived their name apparently not from the Hebrew צַדִּיק, as though they boasted of being pre-eminently 'righteous' or 'upright' (since it cannot be shown that the vowel i ever passed over into u), but, according to a more probable conjecture now approved by many, from the Zadok (צָדוק, the Sept. , Σαδδουκ), who was high priest in the time of David and exhibited special fidelity to the king and his house (2 Samuel 15:24; 1 Kings 1:32); hence, the posterity of this priest (צָדוק בְּנֵי, Ezekiel 40:46; Ezekiel 43:19; Ezekiel 44:15; Ezekiel 48:11) and all their adherents seem to have been called Σαδδουκαῖοι (צדוקים). Cf., besides others, Winer s RWB, under the word, Sadducäer; Reuss in Herzog xiii., p. 289ff; (Sieffert in Herzog edition 2 xiii., pp. 210-244); Geiger, Sadduc. u. Pharisäer (Brsl. 1863); Keim , i., p. 273ff (English translation, i. (2nd edition), p. 353f); Hausrath in Schenkel iv., p. 518ff; Schürer , Ntl. Zeitgesch. 2te Aufl. § 26; Wellhausen, Pharis. u. Sadducäer (Greifsw. 1874); Oort, De oorsprong van den naam Sadducëen, in the Theolog. Tijdsehrift for 1876, p. 605ff; (Ginsburg, in Alexander's Kitto, under the word; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, book iii., chapter ii.; Geikie, Life of Christ, chapter xlv. (cf. chapter v.); and B. D. American edition, under the word , for additional references).TGL Σαδδουκαῖος.2


    (4524) Σαδώκ (צָדוק, a pr. name occurring often in the O. T.), , Sadoc: Matthew 1:14.TGL Σαδώκ.2


    (4525) σαίνω: present infinitive passive σαίνεσθαι; (ΣΑΩ, σείω);TGL σαίνω.2

    1. properly, to wag the tail: of dogs, Homer , Odyssey 16, 6; Aelian v. h. 13, 41; Aesop fab. 229, Halm edition (354 edition Coray); with ὀυρη added, Odyssey 17, 302; Hesiod theog. 771; οὐράν, Aesop , the passage cited; others; see Passow (or Liddell and Scott), under the word, I.TGL σαίνω.3

    2. metaphorically,TGL σαίνω.4

    a. to flatter, fawn upon (Aeschylus , Pindar , Sophocles , others).TGL σαίνω.5

    b. to move (the mind of one),TGL σαίνω.6

    α. agreeably: passive, ὑπ' ἐλπίδος, Aeschylus , Oppian ; ἀληθῆ σαινει τήν ψυχήν, Aristotle , metaphorically, 13, 3, p. 1090a, 37.TGL σαίνω.7

    β. to agitate, disturb, trouble: passive, 1 Thessalonians 3:3 (here A. V. move (Buttmann , 263 (226))) (here Lachmann ἀσαίνω, which see); οἱ δέ σαινόμενοι τοῖς μενοις ἐδακρυον, (Diogenes Laërtius 8, 41.TGL σαίνω.8


    (4526) σάκκος (Attic σάκος), σάκκου, , Hebrew שַׂק (cf. Fremdwörter, under the word), a sack (Latinsaccus ) i. e.TGL σάκκος.2

    a. a receptacle made for holding or carrying various things, as money, food, etc. (; Leviticus 11:32).TGL σάκκος.3

    b. a coarse cloth (Latincilicium ), a dark coarse stuff made especially of the hair of animals (A. V. sackcloth): Revelation 6:12; a garment of the like material, and clinging to the person like a sack, which was usually worn (or drawn on over the tunic instead of the cloak or mantle) by mourners, penitents, suppliants, Matthew 11:21; Luke 10:13, and also by those who, like the Hebrew prophets, led an austere life, Revelation 11:3 (cf. what is said of the dress of John the Baptist, Matthew 3:4; of Elijah, 2 Kings 1:8). More fully in Winer s RWB under the word Sack; Roskoff in Schenkel 5:134; (under the word in B. D. ; also in McClintock and Strong. (From Herodotus down.))TGL σάκκος.4


    (4527) Σαλά (שֶׁלַח, a missile), , Sala (so A. V. (but in Gen. Salah); properly Shelah (so R. V. )), proper name of a man mentioned in Luke 3:35 (Genesis 10:24); (T Tr marginal reading WH read Σαλά also in Luke 3:32, for Σαλμών, which see). [Lchm. Ζάλα]TGL Σαλά.2


    (4528) Σαλαθιήλ (שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל, whom I asked of God), , Salathiel (Greek for Shealtiel (so R. V. )), the father of Zerubbabel: Matthew 1:12; (Luke 3:27).TGL Σαλαθιήλ.2


    (4529) Σαλαμίς (on its derivation, see Pape , Eigennamen, under the word), Σαλαμινος, , Salamis, the principal city of the island Cyprus: Acts 13:5. (BB. DD. ; Dict. of Geog. under the word; Lewin, St. Paul, i., 120f.)TGL Σαλαμίς.2


    (4530) Σαλείμ, τό, Salim, a town which according to Eusebius and Jerome (Onomast. (edited by Larsow and Parthey), pp. 28, 11; 29, 14) was eight miles south of Scythopolis: John 3:23; cf. Pressel in Herzog 13:326; (cf. Αἰνών ). See Σαλήμ .TGL Σαλείμ.2


    (4531) σαλεύω; 1 aorist ἐσάλευσα; passive, present participle σαλευόμενος; perfect participle σεσαλευμενος; 1 aorist ἐσαλευθην; 1 future σαλευθήσομαι; (σάλος, which see); from Aeschylus and Aristophanes down; in the Sept. , passive σαλεύομαι for מוט and נוּעַ;TGL σαλεύω.2

    a. properly, of the motion produced by winds, storms, waves, etc.; to agitate or shake: κάλαμον, passive, Matthew 11:7; Luke 7:24; to cause to totter, τάς δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν, passive, Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:25; Luke 21:26; τήν γῆν, Hebrews 12:26 (Isaiah 24:20; Amos 9:5); an edifice, Luke 6:48; Acts 4:31; Acts 16:26; τά μή σαλευόμενα, the things which are not shaken, i. e. the perfect state of things which will exist after the return of Christ from heaven and will undergo no change, opposed to τά σαλευόμενα, the present order of things subject to vicissitude and decay, Hebrews 12:27. To shake thoroughly, of a measure filled by shaking its contents together, Luke 6:38.TGL σαλεύω.3

    b. to shake down, overthrow, i. e. tropically, to cast down from one's (secure and happy) state, Acts 2:25 (from Psalm 15:8 (Psalms 16:8)); by a tropical use foreign to secular authors, to move or agitate the mind, to disturb one:τινα ἀπό τοῦ νως, so as to throw him out of his sober and natural mental state (Buttmann , 322 (277)), 2 Thessalonians 2:2; τούς ὄχλους, to stir up, Acts 17:13.TGL σαλεύω.4


    (4532) Σαλήμ, (Heb. שָׁלֵם), Salem: Hebrews 7:1; cf. Genesis 14:18, which some (as Gesenius, Winer , Hitzig, Knobel, Delitzsch) think is the ancient name of the city of Jerusalem, appealing to the words of Psalms 76:3 סֻכּו בְּשָׁלֵם וַיְהִי, and Josephus , Antiquities 1, 10, 2 τήν μέντοι Σολυμα ὕστερον ἐκάλεσαν Ἱεροσόλυμα; cf. b. j. 6, 10. But more correctly (yet cf. B. D. under the word , and under the word under the end) others (as Rosenmüller, Bleek, Tuch, Roediger in Gesenius Thesaurus under the word, p. 1422, Dillmann), relying on the testimony of Jerome ((Ep. ad Evangelum § 7 i. e.) Epistle 73 in Vallarsi's edition of his works, i., p. 446), hold that it is the same as Σαλείμ (which see). For the ancient name of Jerusalem was יְבוּס (Judges 19:10; 1 Chronicles 11:4; (cf. B. D. American edition, under the word )), and the form of the name in Psalms 76:3 (where the Sept. εἰρήνη) is to be regarded as poetic, signifying 'safe.'TGL Σαλήμ.2


    (4533) Σαλμών (שַׁלְמון, Ruth 4:21), , indeclinable, Salmon, the name of a man: Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:32 (here T WH Tr marginal reading Σαλά).TGL Σαλμών.2


    (4534) Σαλμώνη, Σαλμονης, , Salmone, Salmonium (also Sammonium), an eastern and partly northern promontory of Crete opposite Cnidus and Rhodes (the identification of which is somewhat uncertain; see B. D. American edition, under the word , and Dict. of Geogr. under the word Samonium): Acts 27:7.TGL Σαλμώνη.2


    (4535) σάλος, σάλου, , the tossing or swell of the sea (R. V. billows): Luke 21:25. (Sophocles , Euripides , others.)TGL σάλος.2


    (4536) σάλπιγξ, σάλπιγγος, , a trumpet: Matthew 24:31 (cf. Buttmann , 161 (141); 343 (295)); 1 Corinthians 14:8; Hebrews 12:19; Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1; Revelation 8:2, Revelation 8:6, Revelation 8:13; Revelation 9:14; ἐν σάλπιγγι Θεοῦ, a trumpet which sounds at God's command (Winer 's Grammar, § 36, 3 b.), 1 Thessalonians 4:16; ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι, the trumpet which will sound at the last day, 1 Corinthians 15:52 (4 (2) Esdr. 2 Esdras 6:23; see commentaries on 1 Thessalonians as above). (From Homer down; the Sept. for שׁופָר and חֲצֹצְרָה.)TGL σάλπιγξ.2


    (4537) σαλπίζω; future σαλπίσω (for the earlier σαλπιγξω, see Lob. ad. Phryn., p. 191; the Sept. also σαλπιῶ, as Numbers 10:1-36:(3),5,8,10); 1 aorist ἐσαλπισα (also in the Sept. ; Aelian v. h. 1, 26 and other later writings (cf. Veitch , under the word), for the earlier ἐσαλπιγξα, Xenophon , anab. 1, 2, 17) (cf. Winer s Grammar, 89 (85); Buttmann , 37 (32); WH s Appendix, p. 170); from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for תָּקַע, also for חִצֵּר; to sound a trumpet (A. V. (mostly) sound): Revelation 8:6-10, Revelation 8:12; Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:13; Revelation 10:7; Revelation 11:15; σαλπίσει (strictly namely, σαλπιστής or σάλπιγξ), like our the trumpet will sound (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 58, 9b. β.; (Buttmann , § 129, 16)), 1 Corinthians 15:52; σαλπίζειν ἔμπροσθεν ἑαυτοῦ, i. e. to take care that what we do comes to everybody's ears, make a great noise about it (cf. our do a thing 'with a flourish of trumpets'), Matthew 6:2 (Cicero , ad div. 16, 21quod polliceris, te buccinatorem fore nostrae existimationis ; Achilles Tatius 8, 10 αὕτη οὐχ ὑπό σάλπιγγι μόνον, ἀλλά καί κηρυκι μοιχεύεται).TGL σαλπίζω.2


    (4538) σαλπιστής (a later form, used by Theophrastus , char. 25; Polybius 1, 45, 13; Dionysius Halicarnassus 4, 18 (others), for the earlier and better σαλπιγκτής, Thucydides 6, 69; Xenophon , an. 4, 3, 29; Josephus , b. j. 3, 6, 2; and σαλπικτης, Demosthenes , p. 284, 26; Appendix, hisp. 6, 93; and in the best manuscripts of Xenophon , Diodorus , Plutarch , others; (cf. Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 279); from σαλπίζω (which see)), σαλπιστου, , a trumpeter: Revelation 18:22.TGL σαλπιστής.2


    (4539) Σαλώμη (Hebrew 'peaceful'), Σαλωμης, , Salome, the wife of Zebedee, and the mother of the apostles James the elder and John: Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1.TGL Σαλώμη.2


    (4540) Σαμάρεια (on the accent cf. Chandler § 104; Buttmann , 17 (15); Σαμαρια T WH (see Tdf. Proleg., p. 87; cf. Iota); on the forms see Abbot in B. D. American edition, under the word), Σαμαρείας (cf. Buttmann , as above), (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 18, 5{a}) (Hebrew שֹׁמְרון, Chaldean שָׁמְרַיִן pronoun Scha-me-ra-in, Assyr. Samirina) (on the derivation, see B. D. , under the word), Samaria;TGL Σαμάρεια.2

    1. the name of a city built by Omri king of Israel (1 Kings 16:24), on a mountain of the same name (שֹׁמְרון הַר, Amos 6:1), situated in the tribe of Ephraim; it was the capital of the whole region and the residence of the kings of Israel. After having been besieged three years by Shalmaneser (IV.), king of Assyria, it was taken and doubtless devastated by Sargon, his son and successor, , who deported the ten tribes of Israel and supplied their place with other settlers; 2 Kings 17:5, 2 Kings 17:24; 2 Kings 18:9. After its restoration, it was utterly destroyed by John Hyrcanus the Jewish prince and high priest (see next word). Long afterward rebuilt once more, it was given by Augustus to Herod (the Great), by whom it was named in honor of Augustus Sebaste, i. e. Augusta (Strabo book 16, p. 760; Josephus , Antiquities 15, 7, 3; 8, 5). It is now an obscure village bearing the name of Sebustieh or Sebastiyeh (cf. Bädeker, Palästina, p. 354ff. (English translation, p. 340ff; Murray, Handbook, Part ii., p. 329ff)). It is mentioned, Acts 8:5 L T WH , εἰς τήν πόλιν τῆς Σαμαρείας (genitive of apposition, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 59, 8 a.; (Buttmann , § 123, 4)), but according to the better reading, πόλει... τῆς Σαμαρείας, the genitive is partitive, and does not denote the city but the Samaritan territory; cf. Acts 8:9.TGL Σαμάρεια.3

    2. the Samaritan territory, the region of Samaria, of which the city Samaria was the capital: Luke 17:11; John 4:4, John 4:7; Acts 1:8; Acts 8:1, Acts 8:5 (see above), Acts 8:9; Acts 9:31; Acts 15:3; by metonymy, for the inhabitants of the region, Acts 8:14. Cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Samaria; Robinson, Palestine ii. 288ff; Petermann in Herzog 13:359ff; (especially Kautzsch in (Riehm under the word Samaritaner, and) Herzog edition 2, xiii. 340ff, and references there and in B. D. (especially American edition) under the word ).TGL Σαμάρεια.4


    (4541) Σαμαρείτης (Σαμαρείτης Tdf. ; (see Tdf. Proleg., p. 87; WH 's Appendix, p. 154; cf. Iota) (Σαμάρεια), Σαμαρειτου, , a Samaritan (Samarites, Curt. 4, 8, 9; Tacitus , ann. 12, 54; Samaritanus, Vulg. ((2 Kings 17:29 'Samaritae')) and ecclesiastical writings), i. e. an inhabitant either of the city or of the province of Samaria. The origin of the Samaritans was as follows: After Shalmaneser (others say Esarhaddon, cf. Ezra 4:2, Ezra 4:10; but see Kautzsch in Herzog edition 2, as referred to under the preceding word), king of Assyria, had sent colonists from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim into the land of Samaria which he had devastated and depopulated (see Σαμάρεια , 1), those Israelites who had remained in their desolated country (cf. 2 Chronicles 30:6, 2 Chronicles 30:10; 2 Chronicles 34:9) associated and intermarried with these heathen colonists and thus produced a mixed race. When the Jews on their return from exile were preparing to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem, the Samaritans asked to be allowed to bear their part in the common work. On being refused by the Jews, who were unwilling to recognize them as brethren, they not only sent letters to the king of Persia and caused the Jews to be compelled to desist from their undertaking flown to the second year of Darius (Hystaspis) (), but also built a temple for themselves on Mount Gerizim, a place held sacred even from the days of Moses (cf. Deuteronomy 27:12, etc.), and worshipped Jehovah there according to the law of Moses, recognizing only the Pentateuch as sacred. This temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus. Deprived of their temple, the Samaritans have nevertheless continued to worship on their sacred mountain quite down to the present time, although their numbers are reduced to some forty or fifty families. Hence, it came to pass that the Samaritans and the Jews entertained inveterate and unappeasable enmity toward each other. Samaritans are mentioned in the following N. T. passages: Matthew 10:5; Luke 9:52; Luke 10:33; Luke 17:16; John 4:9 (here T omits; WH brackets the clause), John 4:39; John 8:48; Acts 8:25. In Hebrew the Samaritans are called שֹׁמְרונִים, 2 Kings 17:29. Cf. Juynboll, Commentarii in historiam gentis Samaritanae (Lugd. Bat. 1846); Winer s RWB, under the word Samaritaner; Petermann in Herzog xiii., p. 363ff; Schrader in Schenkel v, p. 150ff; (especially Kautzsch in Herzog and Riehm as above). On the Christology of the Samaritans see Westcott, Introd. to the Study of the Gospels, 5th ed., p. 159 sq.TGL Σαμαρίτης.2


    (4542) Σαμαρεῖτις (Σαμαρεῖτις Tdf. ; (see the preceding word)), Σαμαρείτιδος, (feminine of Σαμαρείτης), a Samaritan woman: John 4:9. (The Samaritan territory, Josephus , b. j. (1, 21, 2, etc.); 3, 7, 32; Σαμαρεῖτις χώρα, ibid. 3, 3, 4.)TGL Σαμαρῖτις.2


    (4543) Σαμοθρᾴκη (Σαμοθρᾴκη Rbez elz G (as here and there in secular authors; see Pape , Eigennamen, under the word); according to some 'height of Thrace', according to others 'Thracian Samos' (cf. Σάμος ); other opinions see in Pape , the passage cited), Σαμοθρακης, , Samothrace, an island of the Aegean Sea, about 38 miles distant from the coast of Thrace where the river Hebrus empties into the sea (Pliny , h. n. 4, 12 (23)) (now Samothraki): Acts 16:11.TGL Σαμοθρᾴκη.2


    (4544) Σάμος ((probably 'height'; cf. Pape , Eigennamen)), Σαμου, , Samos, an island in that part of the Aegean which is called the Icarian Sea, opposite Ionia and not far from Ephesus; it was the birthplace of Pythagoras ; (now Greek Samo, Turkish Susam Adassi): Acts 20:15.TGL Σάμος.2


    (4545) Σαμουήλ (שֲׁמוּאֵל, for שְׁמוּעֲאֵל, i. e. 'beard of God', from שָׁמַע and אֵל; cf. 1 Samuel 1:20, 1 Samuel 1:27 (see B. D. under the word )), (indeclinable; Josephus (Antiquities 5, 10, 3) Σαμουηλος, Σαμουηλου), Samuel, the son of Elkanah by his wife Anna (or Hannah), the last of the שֹׁפְטִים or judges, a distinguished prophet, and the founder of the prophetic order. He gave the Jews their first kings, Saul and David: Acts 3:24; Acts 13:20; Hebrews 11:32. (1 Samuel 1:1-28; cf. 1 Samuel 28:1-25; Sir. 46:13ff.)TGL Σαμουήλ.2


    (4546) Σαμψών (שִׁמְשׁון from שֶׁמֶשׁ, 'sun-like', cf. Hebrew אִישׁון from אִישׁ) (Buttmann , 15 (14)), , Samson (Vulg. Samson), one of the Israelite judges (שֹׁפְטִים), famous for his strength and courage, the Hebrew Hercules (cf. BB. DD. ; McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word 2, 4; especially Orelli in Herzog edition 2, under the word Simson) (Judges 13:1-25ff): Hebrews 11:32.TGL Σαμψών.2


    (4547) σανδάλιον, σανδαλιου, τό (diminutive of σάνδαλον (which is probably a Persian word; cf. Vanicek , Fremdwörter, under the word)), a sandal, a sole made of wood or leather, covering the bottom of the foot and bound on with thongs: Mark 6:9; Acts 12:8. (Herodotus , Josephus , Diodorus , Aelian , Herodian , others; for נַעַל in Isaiah 20:2; Judith 10:4 Judith 16:9. (In the Sept. and Josephus σανδάλιον and ὑπόδημα are used indiscriminately; cf. Isaiah 20:2; Joshua 5:15; Josephus , b. j. 6, 1, 8.)) Cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Schuhe; Roskoff in Schenkel 5:255; (Kamphausen in Riehm , p. 1435ff; B. D. , under the word ; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i. 621).TGL σανδάλιον.2


    (4548) σανίς, σανίδος, , a board, a plank: Acts 27:44. (From Homer down; the Sept. , Song of Solomon 8:9; Ezekiel 27:5.)TGL σανίς.2


    (4549) Σαούλ (שָׁאוּל, 'asked for'), , indeclinable (in Josephus , Σαουλος), Saul;TGL Σαούλ.2

    1. the name of the first king of Israel: Acts 13:21.TGL Σαούλ.3

    2. the Jewish name of the apostle Paul, but occurring only in address (cf. Buttmann , 6): Acts 9:4, Acts 9:17; Acts 22:7, Acts 22:13; Acts 26:14; in the other passages of the Book of Acts the form Σαῦλος (which see) with the Greek terminology is used.TGL Σαούλ.4


    (4550) σαπρός, σαπρά, σαπρόν (σήπω, 2 aorist passive σαπῆναι);TGL σαπρός.2

    1. rotten, putrid ((Hipponax ), Hippcr. , Aristophanes , others).TGL σαπρός.3

    2. corrupted by age and no lounger fit for use, worn out (Aristophanes , Dio Chr., others); hence, in general, of poor quality, bad, unfit for use, worthless (A. V. corrupt) (πᾶν, μή τήν ἰδίαν χρείαν πληροι, σαπρόν λέγομεν, Chrysostom hom. 4 on 1 Timothy): δένδρον, καρπός, opposed to καλός, Matthew 7:17; Matthew 12:33; Luke 6:43; fishes, Matthew 13:48 (here A. V. bad); tropically, λόγος, Ephesians 4:29 (cf. Harless at the passage); δόγμα, Epictetus 3, 22, 61. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 377f.TGL σαπρός.4


    (4551) Σαπφείρῃ, dative Σαπφείρῃ (R G T WH ), Σαπφειρα (L Tr ; cf. (WH s Appendix, p. 156); Buttmann , 11; (Winer 's Grammar, 62 (61))), (either Aram. ספירא, i. e. 'beautiful'; Peshitto )rYPS []; or from σάπφειρος, which see), Sapphira, the name of a woman: Acts 5:1.TGL Σάπφιρα.2


    (4552) σάπφειρος, σαπφείρου, , Hebrew סַפִיר, sapphire, a precious stone (perhaps our lapis lazuli, cf. B. D. , under the word ; Riehm , HWB, under the word Edelsteine, 14): Revelation 21:19. (Theophrastus , Dioscorides (?), others; the Sept. .)TGL σάπφιρος.2


    (4553) σαργάνῃ ((properly, 'braided-work', from the root, tark; Fick , Part iii., p. 598; Vanicek , p. 297)), σαργανης, ;TGL σαργάνη.2

    1. a braided rope, a band (Aeschylus suppl. 788).TGL σαργάνη.3

    2. a basket, a basket made of ropes, a hamper (cf. B. D. , under the word ): 2 Corinthians 11:33; (Timocles , in Athen. 8, p. 339 e.; 9, p. 407 e.; (others)).TGL σαργάνη.4


    (4554) Σάρδεις, dative Σάρδεσιν, αἱ (from Aeschylus , Herodotus down), Sardis (or Sardes), the capital of Lydia, a luxurious city; now an obscure village, Sart, with extensive ruins: Revelation 1:11; Revelation 3:1, Revelation 3:4. (Cf. McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word .)TGL Σάρδεις.2


    (4555) σάρδινος, σαρδινου, , Revelation 4:3 Rec. , equivalent to σάρδιον, which see See related Strong's entry Strong's 4556.TGL σάρδινος.2


    (4556) σάρδιον, σαρδίου, τό (neuter of σάρδιος, see below), sard, sardius, a precious stone, of which there are two kinds, concerning which Theophrastus , de lapid. 16, 5, § 30, Schneid. edition says, τοῦ γάρ σαρδίου τό μέν διαφανες ἐρυθροτερον δέ καλεῖται θῆλυ, τό δέ διαφανες μέν μελαντερον δέ καίi ἄρσεν, the former of which is called carnelian (because flesh-colored; Hebrew אֹדֶם, the Sept. σάρδιον, Exodus 28:17; Exodus 36:17 (Exodus 39:10); Ezekiel 28:13; ἁιματοεντα σαρδια, the Orphica , de lapid. 16, 5), the latter sard: Revelation 4:3 (Rec. σαρδίνῳ); Revelation 21:20 G L T Tr WH . Hence, the adjective σάρδιος, σαρδια, σάρδιον (from Σάρδεις, cf. Pliny , h. n. 37, 7) sardine namely, λίθος (the full phrase occurs Exodus 35:8 (variant)): Revelation 21:20 Rec. (B. D. , see under the words, Sardine, Sardius.)TGL σάρδιον.2


    (4557) σαρδιονυξ, equivalent to σαρδόνυξ (which see): Revelation 21:20 LachmannTGL σαρδόνυξ.2


    (4558) Σάρεπτα (Tr marginal reading Σαρεφθα; Tdf. in O. T. Σάρεπτα), (צָרְפַת from צָרַף, to smelt; hence, perhaps 'smelting-house'), Σαρεπτων (yet cf. Buttmann , 15 (14); but declined in Obad.), τά; Sarepta (so A. V. ; better with O. T. Zarephath) a Phoenician town between Tyre and Sidon, but nearer Sidon (now Surafend; cf. B. D. , under the word ), (1 Kings 17:9; Obadiah 1:20; in Josephus , Antiquities 8, 13, 2 Σαρεφθα): τῆς Σιδωνίας, in the land of Sidon, Luke 4:26. Cf. Robinson, Palestine 2:474ff; (B. D. as above).TGL Σάρεπτα.2


    (4559) σαρκικός, σαρκικῇ, σαρκικον (σάρξ), fleshly, carnal (Vulg. carnalis );TGL σαρκικός.2

    1. having the nature of flesh, i. e. under the control of the animal appetites (see σάρξ , 3), Romans 7:14 Rec. (see σάρκινος , 3); governed by mere human nature (see σάρξ , 4) not by the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 3:1, 1 Corinthians 3:3, also 4 R G ; having its seat in the animal nature or roused by the animal nature, αἱ σαρκικαι ἐπιθυμίαι, 1 Peter 2:11; equivalent to human: with the included idea of weakness, ὅπλα, 2 Corinthians 10:4; with the included idea of depravity, σαρκικά σοφία (i. e. πανουργία, 2 Corinthians 4:2), 2 Corinthians 1:12. ((Anthol. Pal. 1, 107; cf. ἀπέχου τῶν σαρκικῶν καί σωματικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν, 'Teaching etc. 1, 4 [ET]). Cf. Trench , Synonyms, § lxxi.)TGL σαρκικός.3

    2. pertaining to the flesh, i. e. to the body (see σάρξ , 2): relating to birth, lineage, etc., ἐντολή, Hebrews 7:16 Rec. ; τά σαρκικά, things needed for the sustenance of the body, Romans 15:27; 1 Corinthians 9:11, (Aristotle , h. anim. 10, 2, p. 635a, 11; Plutarch , de placit. philos. 5, 3, 7; once in the Sept. , 2 Chronicles 32:8 Complutensian ).TGL σαρκικός.4


    (4560) σάρκινος, σαρκίνη, σάρκινον (σάρξ) (Aristophanes , Plato , Aristotle , others), fleshy, Latin carneus , i. e.TGL σάρκινος.2

    1. consisting of flesh, composed of flesh (for proparoxytones ending in -ινος generally denote the material of which a thing is made, cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, ii., p. 46f; (Donaldson, New Crat. § 258)); Vulg. carnalis : opposed to λίθινος, 2 Corinthians 3:3 (σάρκινος ἰχθύς, opposed to a fish of gold which has been dreamed of, Theocritus , id. 21, 66; the word is also found in Plato , Aristotle , Theophrastus , Plutarch ; the Sept. , others).TGL σάρκινος.3

    2. pertaining to the body (as earthly and perishable material, opposed to ζωή ἀκατάλυτος): Hebrews 7:16 G L T Tr WH (see σαρκικός , 2).TGL σάρκινος.4

    3. it is used where σαρκικός might have been expected: viz. by G L T Tr WH in Romans 7:14 and 1 Corinthians 3:1; in these passages, unless we decide that Paul used σαρκικός and σάρκινος indiscriminately, we must suppose that σάρκινος expresses the idea of σαρκικός with an emphasis: wholly given up to the flesh, rooted in the flesh as it were. Cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 16, 3 γ.; Fritzsche as above; Reiche, Critical Commentary on the N. T., i., p. 138ff; Holsten, Zum Evang. des Paulus u. Petrus, p. 397ff. (Rostock, 1887); (Trench , Synonyms, § lxxii.).TGL σάρκινος.5


    (4561) σάρξ, σαρκός, (Aeolic, συρξ; hence, it seems to be derived from σύρω, akin to σαίρω, 'to draw,' 'to draw off,' and to signify what can be stripped off from the bones (Etym. Magn. 708, 34; sed quis subsignabit (Lob. Paralip., p. 111))), from Homer down, Hebrew בָּשָׂר;TGL σάρξ.2

    1. properly, flesh (the soft substance of the living body, which covers the bones and is permeated with blood) of both men and beasts: 1 Corinthians 15:39; plural — cf. the flesh of many beings, Revelation 19:18, Revelation 19:21; of the parts of the flesh of one, Luke 24:39 Tdf. ; Revelation 17:16; accordingly, it is distinguished both from blood, σάρξ καί αἷμα (on which expression see below, 2 a.; 3 bis; 4 at the end (cf. Winer's Grammar, 19)), and from bones, πνεῦμα σάρκα καί ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει, Luke 24:39 (οὐ γάρ ἔτι σάρκας τέ καί ὀστέα ἰνες ἔχουσιν, Homer, Odyssey 11,219). φαγεῖν τάς σάρκας τίνος: properly, Revelation 17:16; Revelation 19:18 (Leviticus 26:29; κατεσθίειν, 2 Kings 9:36, and often in the Sept. ; in classical Greek frequently βιβρώσκειν σάρκας; σαρκῶν ἐδωδή, Plutarch, septem sap. couviv. c. 16); tropically, to torture one with eternal penal torments, James 5:3, cf. Micah 3:3; Psalms 26:2 (Psalms 27:2); φαγεῖν and τρώγειν τήν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, in figurative discourse, to appropriate to oneself the saving results of the violent death endured by Christ, John 6:52-56; ἀπέρχεσθαι or πορεύεσθαι ὀπίσω σαρκός, to follow after the flesh, is used of those who are on the search for persons with whom they can gratify their lust (see ὀπίσω , 2 a.), Jude 1:7; 2 Peter 2:10; τό σῶμα τῆς σαρκός, the body compacted of flesh (cf. Winer's Grammar, 188 (177)), Colossians 1:22. Since the flesh is the visible part of the body, σάρξ isTGL σάρξ.3

    2. equivalent to the body, not designating it, however, as a skilful combination of related parts (`an organism,' which is denoted by the word σῶμα), but signifying the material or substance of the living body (cf. Aeschylus, Sept. 622γέροντα τόν νοῦν σάρκα δ' ἡβωσαν φέρει);TGL σάρξ.4

    a. universally, John 6:63 (see πνεῦμα , 2, p. 520a middle); Acts 2:26, Acts 2:30 Rec. ; 2 Corinthians 12:7; Galatians 4:14; Ephesians 5:29; Hebrews 9:10, Hebrews 9:13; (1 Peter 3:21); Jude 1:8; μία σάρξ, one body, of husband and wife, Mark 10:8; so εἰς σάρκα μίαν (from Genesis 2:24), Matthew 19:5; Mark 10:8; 1 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 5:31; opposed to ψυχή, Acts 2:31 (ἔδωκεν... Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν... τήν σάρκα ὑπέρ τῆς σαρκός ἡμῶν καί τήν ψυχήν ὑπέρ τῶν ψυχῶν ἡμῶν, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 49, 6 (cf. Irenaeus 5, 1, 1; but G L T Tr WH drop ψυχή αὐτοῦ in Acts, the passage cited)); opposed to πενυμα (the human), 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Colossians 2:5; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Peter 4:6; σάρξ καί αἷμα, equivalent to ψυχικόν σῶμα, 1 Corinthians 15:50, cf. 1 Corinthians 15:44; περιτομή ἐν σαρκί, Romans 2:28; Ephesians 2:11; τό πρόσωπον μου ἐν σαρκί (A. V. my face in the flesh), my bodily countenance, Colossians 2:1; ἀσθένεια σαρκός, of disease, Galatians 4:13; ἐν τῇ θνητῇ σαρκί ἡμῶν, 2 Corinthians 4:11 (cf.ἐν τῷ σώματι ἡμῶν, 2 Corinthians 4:10); ἐν τῇ σαρκί αὐτοῦ, by giving up his body to death, Ephesians 2:14 (15); also διά τῆς σαρκός αὐτοῦ, Hebrews 10:20, cf. John 6:51 (προσφέρειν τήν σάρκα μου, to offer in sacrifice my flesh — Christ is speaking, the Epistle of Barnabas 7, 5; τήν σάρκα παραδοῦναι εἰς καταφθοράν, ibid. 5, 1 ). life on earth, which is passed in the body (flesh), is designated by the following phrases: ἐν σαρκί εἶναι, Romans 7:5 (where Paul uses this expression with designed ambiguity in order to involve also the ethical sense, 'to be in the power of the flesh,' to be prompted and governed by the flesh; see 4 below); ζῆν ἐν σαρκί, Galatians 2:20; Philippians 1:22; ἐπιμένειν ἐν σαρκί, Philippians 1:24; ἐν σαρκί χρόνος, 1 Peter 4:2; αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς σαρκός αὐτοῦ, of Christ's life on earth, Hebrews 5:7. ἐν σαρκί or ἐν τῇ σαρκί, in things pertaining to the flesh (body), such as circumcision, descent, etc.: Galatians 6:12; πεποιθέναι, Philippians 3:3; ἔχειν πεποίθησιν, Philippians 3:4.TGL σάρξ.5

    b. used of natural or physical origin, generation, relationship: οἱ συγγενεῖς κατά σάρκα, Romans 9:3 (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 20, 2 a.); τέκνα τῆς σαρκός, children by birth, natural posterity, Romans 9:8; ἀδελφόν ἐν σαρκί καί ἐν κυρίῳ, a natural brother (as it were) and a Christian brother, Philemon 1:16; οἱ τῆς σαρκός ἡμῶν πατέρες, our natural fathers (opposed to God πατήρ τῶν πνευμάτων, see πατήρ , 1 a. and 3 b.), Hebrews 12:9; τά ἔθνη ἐν σαρκί, Gentiles by birth, Ephesians 2:11; Ἰσραήλ κατά σάρκα, 1 Corinthians 10:18 (the opposite term Ἰσραήλ τοῦ Θεοῦ, of Christians, is found in Galatians 6:16); τό κατά σάρκα, as respects the flesh i. e. human origin, Romans 9:5 ((Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 32, 2; Irenaeus haer. 4, 4, 1 and fragment 17 ed; Stieren, p. 836)); γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυίδ κατά σάρκα, Romans 1:3; κατά σάρκα γεννηθείς, born by natural generation (opposed to γεννηθείς... τόν κατά πνεῦμα, i. e. by the supernatural power of God, operating in the promise), Galatians 4:29, Galatians 4:23; τό γεγεννήμενοι ἐκ τῆς σαρκός σάρξ ἐστιν, that which has been born of the natural man is a natural man (opposed to one who has been born again by the power of the Holy Spirit), John 3:6; σάρξ μου, those with whom I share my natural origin, my fellow-countrymen, Romans 11:14 (ἰδού ὀστᾶ σου καί σάρκες σου, 2 Samuel 5:1; add, 2 Samuel 19:13; Genesis 37:27; Judges 9:2); εἶναι ἐκ τῆς σαρκός καί ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων τίνος, which in its proper use signifies to be 'formed out of one's flesh and bones' (Genesis 2:23; to be related to one by birth, Genesis 29:14), is transferred metaphorically, to the church, which spiritually derives its origin from Christ and is united to him, just as Eve drew her origin from her husband Adam, Ephesians 5:30 (R G Tr marginal reading brackets).TGL σάρξ.6

    c. the sensuous nature of man, 'the animal nature': without any suggestion of depravity, τό θέλημα τῆς σαρκός, of sexual desire, John 1:13; the animal nature with cravings which incite to sin: Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; Romans 7:18 (for which τά μέλη is used in Romans 7:22); Romans 13:14; Jude 1:23; opposed to νοῦς, Romans 7:25; ἐπιθυμία τῆς σαρκός, 1 John 2:16 (with its manifestation, ἐπιθυμία τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν; (others regard this last as a new specification; cf. Westcott at the passage)); plural 2 Peter 2:18 (τά τῆς σαρκός πάθη, 4 Macc. 7:18; τό μή δεδουλωσθαι σαρκί καί τοῖς πάθεσι ταύτης διάγειν, ὑφ' ὧν κατασπωμενος νοῦς τῆς θνητης ἀναπιμπλαται φλυαριας, ἐυδαιμον τί καί μακάριον, Plur. consol. ad Apoll c. 13; τῆς σαρκός ἡδονή, opposed to ψυχή, Plutarch, de virt. et vit. c. 3; add, Philo de gigant. § 7; (Diogenes Laërtius 10, 145; animo cum hac carne grave certamen est , Seneca, consol. ad Marc. 21; animus liber habitat; nunquam me cato ista compellet ad metum , Seneca, epistles 65 (7, 3, 22); non est summa felicitatis nostrae in carne ponenda , ibid. 74 (9, 3, 16)). the physical nature of man as subject to suffering: παθεῖν σαρκί, 1 Peter 4:1; ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, in that my flesh suffers afflictions, Colossians 1:24 (where cf. Meyer and DeWette (and Lightfoot)); θλῖψιν ἔχειν τῇ σαρκί, 1 Corinthians 7:28.TGL σάρξ.7

    3. a living creature (because possessed of a body of flesh), whether man or beast: πᾶσα σάρξ (in imitation of the Hebrew כָּל־בָּשָׂר (Winers Grammar, 33)), every lving creature, 1 Peter 1:24; with οὐ preceding (qualifying the verb (Winers Grammar, § 26, 1; Buttmann, 121 (106))), no living creature, Matthew 24:22; Mark 13:20; specifically, a man (ἄνθρωπος for בָּשָׂר, Genesis 6:13), generally with a suggestion of weakness, frailty, mortality: Sir. 28:5; ἐν τῷ Θεῷ ἤλπισα, οὐ φοβηθήσομαι τί ποιήσει μοι σάρξ, Psalms 55:5 (Psalms 56:5); cf. Jeremiah 17:5; ἐμνήσθη, ὅτι σάρξ εἰσιν, Psalm 77:39 (Psalms 78:39); σάρξ καί αἷμα, Ephesians 6:12; γενεά σαρκός καί αἵματος, μέν τελευτᾷ, ἑτέρα δέ γεννᾶται, Sir. 14:18; λόγος σάρξ ἐγένετο, entered into participation in human nature, John 1:14 (the apostle used σάρξ, not ἄνθρωπος, apparently in order to indicate that he who possessed supreme majesty did not shrink from union with extreme weakness); εὑρίσκειν τί κατά σάρκα, to attain to anything after the manner of a (weak) man, i. e. by the use of merely human powers, Romans 4:1 (for substance equivalent to ἐξ ἔργων in Romans 4:2); Hebraistically (see above), πᾶσα σάρξ, all men, Luke 3:6; John 17:2 (Winer's Grammar, § 30, 1 a.); Acts 2:17; Sir. 45:4; with οὐ or μή preceding (qualifying the verb (Winers Grammar, and Buttmann, as referred to above)), no man, no mortal, Romans 3:20; 1 Corinthians 1:29; Galatians 2:16. man as he appears, such as he presents himself to view, man's external appearance and condition: κατά σάρκα κρίνειν, John 8:15 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 583 (542)) (equivalent to κρίνειν κατ' ὄψιν, John 7:24); γινώσκειν or εἰδέναι τινα κατά σάρκα, 2 Corinthians 5:16; οἱ κατά σάρκα κυρίου (see κατά , II. 3 b.), Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22. universally, human nature, the soul included: ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκός ἁμαρτίας, in a visible form, like human nature which is subject to sin, Romans 8:3 (cf. ὁμοίωμα , b.); ἐν σαρκί ἔρχεσθαι, to appear clothed in human nature, 1 John 4:2 and Rec. in 3; 2 John 1:7 (the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 10 ); φανερουσθαι, 1 Timothy 3:16 (the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 6; 6, 7; 12, 10 ); κεκοινωνηκεναι αἵματος καί σαρκός, Hebrews 2:14.TGL σάρξ.8

    4. σάρξ, when either expressly or tacitly opposed to τό πνεῦμα (τοῦ Θεοῦ), has an ethical sense and denotes "mere human nature, the earthly nature of man apart from divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God"; accordingly it includes whatever in the soul is weak, low, debased, tending to ungodliness and vice ("Thou must not understand 'flesh', therefore, as though that only were 'flesh' which is connected with unchastity, but St. Paul uses 'flesh' of the whole man, body and soul, reason and all his faculties included, because all that is in him longs and strives after the flesh (Luther, Preface to the Epistle to the Romans); note that 'flesh' signifies the entire nature of man, sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit" (Melanchthon, Loci, edition of 1535, in Corpus Reform. xxi., p. 277). This definition is strikingly supported by these two utterances of Paul: οὐδεμίαν ἔσχηκεν ἄνεσιν σάρξ ἡμῶν, 2 Corinthians 7:5; οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πνεύματι μου, 2 Corinthians 2:13): Romans 8:3; Galatians 5:13, Galatians 5:19; opposed to τό πνεῦμα (τοῦ Θεοῦ), Romans 8:6, Romans 8:12; Galatians 5:16; Galatians 6:8; Colossians 2:13 (on which see ἀκροβυστία , c.); Colossians 2:23 (see πλησμονή ); ἐπιθυμία σαρκός, Galatians 5:16; αἱ ἐπιθυμίαι and τά θελήματα τῆς σαρκός, Ephesians 2:3; νοῦς τῆς σαρκός, Colossians 2:18; σῶμα τῆς σαρκός, a body given up to the control of the flesh, i. e. a body whose members our nature, estranged from God, used as its instruments (cf. Romans 6:19), Colossians 2:11 G L T Tr WH; τά τῆς σαρκός (opposed to τά τοῦ πνεύματος), the things which please the flesh, which the flesh craves, Romans 8:5; σαρκί ἐπιτελοῦμαι, to make for oneself an end (see ἐπιτελέω , 1 tim) by devoting oneself to the flesh, i. e. by gradually losing the Holy Spirit and giving oneself up to the control of the flesh, Galatians 3:3; σταυρουν τήν σάρκα αὐτοῦ (see σταυρόω , 3 b.), Galatians 5:24; ἐν σαρκί εἶναι (opposed to ἐν πνεύματι, namely, τοῦ Θεοῦ), to be in the power of the flesh, under the control of the flesh, Romans 8:8, cf. Romans 7:5 (see 2 above); οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες, who exhibit the nature of the flesh, equivalent to οἱ σαρκικοί (opposed to οἱ κατά πνεῦμα ὄντες), Romans 8:5; κατά σάρκα περιπατεῖν, to live according to the standard of the flesh, to comply in conduct with the impulse of the flesh, Romans 8:1 Rec. ; 2 Corinthians 10:2; opposed to κατά πνεῦμα, Romans 8:4; βουλεύεσθαι, 2 Corinthians 1:17; καυχᾶσθαι, 2 Corinthians 11:18 where cf. Meyer; (opposed to κατά πνεῦμα) ζῆν, Romans 8:12 (ἐν σαρκί τυγχάνουσιν, ἀλλ' οὐ κατά σάρκα ζῶσιν, of Christians, Ep. ad Diogn. 5, 8 ); ἐν σαρκί περιπατοῦντες οὐ κατά σάρκα στρατευόμεθα, although the nature in which we live is earthly and therefore weak, yet we do not carry on our warfare according its law, 2 Corinthians 10:3 (οὐ κατά σάρκα γράφειν, ἀλλά κατά γνώμην Θεοῦ, Ignatius ad Rom. 8, 3 ); with the suggestion of weakness as respects knowledge: σάρξ καί αἷμα, a man liable to err, fallible man: Matthew 16:17; Galatians 1:16; ἀσθένεια τῆς σαρκός, Romans 6:19; σοφοί κατά σάρκα, 1 Corinthians 1:26. Cf. Tholuck, Ueber σάρξ als Quelle der Sünde, in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1855, p. 477ff; C. Holsten, Die Bedeut. des Wortes σάρξ im Lehrbegriffe des Paulus, 4to, Rostock 1855 (reprinted in his Zum Evang. des Paul. u. Petr., p. 365ff. (Rostock, 1867); see also (with especially reference to Holsten) Lüdemann, Die Anthropologie des Apest. Paul. (Kiel, 1872)); Ritschl, Entstehung der altkathol. Kirche, edition 2, p. 66ff; Baur in the Theol. Jahrbb. for 1857, p. 96ff, and in his Biblical Theol. des N. T., p. 142ff, etc.; Wieseler, Br. an die Galater, pp. 443ff, 448ff (cf. Riddle in Schaff's Lange's Commentary on Romans, p. 235f) Weiss, Biblical Theol. des N. T. (3rd edition) § 68, p. 243ff, § 100, p. 414f; Rich. Schmidt, Paulin. Christologie, p. 8ff; Eklund, σάρξ vocabulum quid ap. Paulum apost. significet (Lund, 1872); Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, p. 47ff. (English translation, vol. i., p. 47ff); Wendt, Die Begrifle Fleisch u. Geist im Biblical Sprachgebr. (Gotha, 1878); (Cremer in Herzog edition 2 under the word Fleisch, but especially in his Biblical-theol. Wörterbuch, 3te (or 4te) Aufl., under the word; Laidlaw, The Bible Doctr. of Man (Edinb. 1879), pp. 74ff, 373f; Philippi, Glaubensl. edition 2, vol. iii., pp. 231-250; especially Dickson, St. Paul's use of the terms Flesh and Spirit (Glasgow, 1883)); and the references in Meyer on Romans 4:1 (6te Aufl.).TGL σάρξ.9


    (4562) Σαρούχ (Rec. ), more correctly (G L T Tr WH ) Σερούχ (שְׂרוּג equivalent to שָׂרִג, 'vine-shoot'), , Serug (so R. V. ; but A. V. in the N. T. Saruch), the name of a man (Genesis 11:20 etc.): Luke 3:35.TGL Σερούχ.2


    (4563) σαρόω (for the earlier σαίρω, cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 83 (Winer 's Grammar, 24, 91 (87))), σάρω; perfect passive participle σεσαρωμένος; (σάρον a broom); to sweep, clean by sweeping: τί, Luke 15:8; passive, Matthew 12:44; Luke 11:25. (Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 2, 33; (Apoll. Dysk. , p. 253, 7); Geoponica .)TGL σαρόω.2


    (4564) Σάρρα, Σαρρας, (שָׂרָה 'princess', Genesis 17:15), Sarah, wife of Abraham: Romans 4:19; Romans 9:9; Hebrews 11:11; 1 Peter 3:6.TGL Σάρρα.2


    (4565) Σαρών, Σαρωνος (so Tdf. ; but L WH accusative Σαρῶνα, Tr Σαρῶνα; cf. Buttmann , 16 (14)), (Hebrew שָׁרון for יְשָׁרון from יָשַׁר 'to be straight'; (in Hebrew always with the article הַשָׁרון, 'the level')), Sharon (so R. V. ; but A. V. Saron), a level region extending from Caesarea of Palestine (Strato's Tower) as far as Joppa (about 30 miles); it abounded in pasturage and was famous for its fertility (Isaiah 33:9; Isaiah 65:10; 1 Chronicles 27:29): Acts 9:35. (Cf. B. D. , under the word ; Robinson, Phys. Geogr. etc., p. 126.)TGL Σαρ(ρ)ων.2


    (4566) σαταν indeclinable (2 Corinthians 12:7 R G (Tdf. in 1 Kings 11:14 accents σαταν (Lagarde leaves it unaccented))), , and σατανᾶς (i. e. with the article (except in Mark 3:23; Luke 22:3)), σατανᾶ (cf. Buttmann , 20 (18); Winer 's Grammar, § 8, 1) ((Aram. סָטָנָא, stative emphatic of סָטָן.) Hebrew שָׂטָן), adversary (one who opposes another in purpose or act); the appellation is given to:TGL Σατάν.2

    1. the prince of evil spirits, the inveterate adversary of God and of Christ (see διάβολος , and in πονηρός, 2b.): Mark 3:1-35:(Mark 3:23),Mark 3:26; Mark 4:15; Luke 10:18; Luke 11:18; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; 1 Timothy 1:20; Revelation 2:9, Revelation 2:13, Revelation 2:24; Revelation 3:9; he incites to apostasy from God and to sin, Matthew 4:10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:8 R L in brackets; Luke 22:31; Acts 5:3; 1 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 2:11 (10); 1 Timothy 5:15; circumventing men by stratagems, 2 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; the worshippers of idols are said to be under his control, Acts 26:18; Revelation 12:9; he is said both himself ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς τινα, in order to act through him, Luke 22:3; John 13:27; and by his demons to take possession of the bodies of men and to afflict them with diseases, Luke 13:16, cf. Matthew 12:26; 2 Corinthians 12:7; by God's assistance he is overcome, Romans 16:20; on Christ's return from heaven he will be bound with chains for a thousand years, but when the thousand years are finished he will walk the earth in yet greater power, Revelation 20:2, Revelation 20:7, but shortly after will be given over to eternal punishment, Revelation 20:10.TGL Σατάν.3

    2. a Satan-like man: Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. (Cf. Delitzsch in Riehm , under the word; Schenkel in his BL, under the word; Hamburger , Real-Encycl. i., 897f; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, Appendix xiii. § ii.; and BB. DD. , under the word. Dorner System d. Christ. Glaubenslehre, §85, vol. ii. 1 p. 188 sqq.; Woldemar Schmidt in Herzog ed. 2, xv. 358 sq.; esp. Weser in Stud. u. Krit. for 1882 pp. 284-303.)TGL Σατάν.4


    (4567) σαταν indeclinable (2 Corinthians 12:7 R G (Tdf. in 1 Kings 11:14 accents σαταν (Lagarde leaves it unaccented))), , and σατανᾶς (i. e. with the article (except in Mark 3:23; Luke 22:3)), σατανᾶ (cf. Buttmann , 20 (18); Winer 's Grammar, § 8, 1) ((Aram. סָטָנָא, stative emphatic of סָטָן.) Hebrew שָׂטָן), adversary (one who opposes another in purpose or act); the appellation is given to: 1. the prince of evil spirits, the inveterate adversary of God and of Christ (see διάβολος , and in πονηρός, 2b.): Mark 3:1-35:(Mark 3:23),Mark 3:26; Mark 4:15; Luke 10:18; Luke 11:18; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; 1 Timothy 1:20; Revelation 2:9, Revelation 2:13, Revelation 2:24; Revelation 3:9; he incites to apostasy from God and to sin, Matthew 4:10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:8 R L in brackets; Luke 22:31; Acts 5:3; 1 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 2:11 (10); 1 Timothy 5:15; circumventing men by stratagems, 2 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; the worshippers of idols are said to be under his control, Acts 26:18; Revelation 12:9; he is said both himself ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς τινα, in order to act through him, Luke 22:3; John 13:27; and by his demons to take possession of the bodies of men and to afflict them with diseases, Luke 13:16, cf. Matthew 12:26; 2 Corinthians 12:7; by God's assistance he is overcome, Romans 16:20; on Christ's return from heaven he will be bound with chains for a thousand years, but when the thousand years are finished he will walk the earth in yet greater power, Revelation 20:2, Revelation 20:7, but shortly after will be given over to eternal punishment, Revelation 20:10. 2. a Satan-like man: Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. (Cf. Delitzsch in Riehm , under the word; Schenkel in his BL, under the word; Hamburger , Real-Encycl. i., 897f; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, Appendix xiii. § ii.; and BB. DD. , under the word.)TGL Σατανᾶς.2


    (4568) σάτον (Hebrew כְאָה, Chaldean כָאתָא, Syriac )t)S []), σατου, τό, a kind of dry measure, a modius and a half (equivalent to about a peck and a half (cf. μόδιος )) (Josephus , Antiquities 9, 4, 5 ἰσχύει δέ τό σάτον μόδιον, καί ἥμισυ ἰταλικον; cf. Genesis 18:6 (see Aq. and Symm. ); Judges 6:19): Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21, (in both examples A. V. 'three measures of meal' i. e. the common quantity for 'a baking' (cf. Genesis 18:6; Judges 6:19; 1 Samuel 1:24)).TGL σάτον.2


    (4569) Σαῦλος, Σαύλου, (see Σαούλ , 2), Saul, the Jewish name of the apostle Paul (cf. Woldemar Schmidt in Herzog edition 2 xi., p. 357f; Conybeare and Howson, St. Paul, i. 150ff (American edition); Farrar, St. Paul, chapter 19:at the end; B. D. American edition under the word ): Acts 7:58; Acts 8:1, Acts 8:3; Acts 9:1, Acts 9:8, Acts 9:11, Acts 9:19 Rec. , Acts 9:22,Acts 9:24,Acts 9:26 Rec. ; Acts 11:25,Acts 11:30; Acts 12:25; Acts 13:1,Acts 13:7,Acts 13:9.TGL Σαῦλος.2


    (4570) σβέννυμι (ζβέννυμι, 1 Thessalonians 5:19 Tdf. (cf. Sigma)) and (in classics) σβεννύω; future σβέσω; 1 aorist ἐσβεσα; passive, present σβεννυμαι; from Homer down; the Sept. for כִּבָּה and דָּעַך, to extinguish, quench;TGL σβέννυμι.2

    a. properly: τί, fire or things on fire, Matthew 12:20; Ephesians 6:16; Hebrews 11:34; passive (the Sept. for כָּבָה), to be quenched, to go out: Matthew 25:8; Mark 9:44, Mark 9:46 (both which vss. T WH omit; Tr brackets), 48.TGL σβέννυμι.3

    b. metaphorically, to quench, i. e. to suppress, stifle: τό πνεῦμα, divine influence, 1 Thessalonians 5:19 (ἀγάπην, Song of Solomon 8:7; τά πάθη, 4 Macc. 16:4; χόλον, Homer , Iliad 9, 678; ὕβριν, Plato , legg. 8, 835 d.; τόν θυμόν, ibid. 10, 888 a.).TGL σβέννυμι.4


    (4571) *For 4571 see Strong's entry Strong's 4771.TGL σέ.2


    (4572) σεαυτοῦ, σεαυτῆς, σεαυτοῦ, a reflexive pronoun of the 2nd person, used only in the genitive, dative, and accusative; in the N. T. only in the masculine; genitive (of) thyself (of) thee: John 8:13; John 18:34 L Tr WH ; Acts 26:1; 2 Timothy 4:11; dative σεαυτῷ (to) thyself (to) thee: John 17:5; Acts 16:23; Romans 2:5; 1 Timothy 4:16; accusative σεαυτόν, thyself, thee: Matthew 4:6; Mark 12:31; Luke 4:23; John 8:53; Romans 14:22; Galatians 6:1; 1 Timothy 4:7; 2 Timothy 2:15; James 2:8; etc. (Cf. Buttmann , § 127, 13.)TGL σεαυτοῦ.2


    (4573) σεβάζομαι: (σέβας reverence, awe);TGL σεβάζομαι.2

    1. to fear, be afraid: Homer , Iliad 6, 167. 417.TGL σεβάζομαι.3

    2. in later authors equivalent to σέβομαι (Winer s Grammar, § 2, 1 b.), to honor religiously, to worship: with 1 aorist passive ἐσεβασθην in an active sense, Romans 1:25 (the Orphica , Argon. 554; ecclesiastical writings).TGL σεβάζομαι.4


    (4574) σέβασμα, σεβασματος, τό (σεβάζομαι), whatever is religiously honored, an object of worship: 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (Wis. 14:20); used of temples, altars, statues, etc., Acts 17:23; of idolatrous images, Bel and the Dragon, 27; Wis. 15:17. (Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 1, 30).TGL σέβασμα.2


    (4575) σεβαστός, σεβαστη, Σεβαστόν (σεβάζομαι);TGL σεβαστός.2

    1. reverend, venerable.TGL σεβαστός.3

    2. σεβαστός, Latinaugustus , the title of the Roman emperors: Acts 25:21, Acts 25:25 (Strabo , Lucian , Herodian , Dio Cassius , others); adjective σεβαστός, σεβαστη, Σεβαστόν, Augustan, i. e. taking its name from the emperor; a title of honor which used to be given to certain legions, or cohorts, or battalions, for valor (ala augusta ob virtutem appellata . Corpus inscriptions Latin vii. n. 340, 341, 344): σπείρης Σεβαστῆς, the Augustan (Imperial) cohort, Acts 27:1 (λεγεών σεβαστη, Ptolemy , 2, 3, 30; 2, 9, 18; 4, 3, 30). The subject is fully treated by Schürer in the Zeitsehr. für wissensch. Theol. for 1875, p. 413ffTGL σεβαστός.4


    (4576) σέβω, and (so everywhere in the Scriptures) σέβομαι; from Homer down; to revere, to worship: τινα (a deity), Matthew 15:9; Mark 7:7; Acts 18:13; Acts 19:27 (Wis. 15:18 etc.; for יָרֵא, Joshua 4:24; Joshua 22:25; Jonah 1:9). In the Acts, proselytes of the gate (see προσήλυτος , 2) are called σεβόμενοι τόν Θεόν (`men that worship God'), Acts 16:14; Acts 18:7 (Josephus , Antiquities 14, 7, 2); and simply οἱ σεβόμενοι (A. V. the devout persons), Acts 17:17; σεβόμενοι προσήλυτοι (R. V. devout proselytes), Acts 13:43; σεβομεναι γυναῖκες, Acts 13:50; τῶν... σεβομένων Ἑλλήνων, (A. V. the devout Greeks), Acts 17:4; in the Latin church,metuentes, verecundi, religiosi, timorati ; Vulg. (except Acts 13:50)colentes ; cf. Thilo in his Cod. apocr. Nov. Test., p. 521.TGL σέβω.2


    (4577) σειρά, σειράς, (εἴρω, to fasten, bind together, (akin to Latinsero, series, servus , etc.); cf. Curtius , § 518), from Homer down;TGL σειρά.2

    a. a line, a rope.TGL σειρά.3

    b. a chain: σειραῖς ζόφου (A. V. to chains of darkness, i. e.) to darkness as if to chains, 2 Peter 2:4 R G (but Tr WH have σειροις, L T σιροις, which see in their place); μία ἁλύσει σκότους πάντες ἐδέθησαν, Wis. 17:17 (18).TGL σειρά.4


    (4578) σεισμός, σεισμοῦ, (σείω), a shaking, a commotions: ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, a tempest, Matthew 8:24; as often in Greek writings from (Herodotus 4, 28), Sophocles , Aristophanes down, pre-eminently an earthquake: Matthew 24:7; Matthew 27:54; Matthew 28:2; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11; Acts 16:26; Revelation 6:12; Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:13, Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:15; the Sept. for רַעַשׁ.TGL σεισμός.2


    (4579) σείω; future σείσω (Hebrews 12:26 L T Tr WH ); passive, present participle σειόμενος; 1 aorist ἐσείσθην; from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for רָעַשׁ; to shake, agitate, cause to tremble: Revelation 6:13; τήν γῆν, Hebrews 12:26 after Haggai 2:6; ἐσείσθη γῆ, Matthew 27:51 (Judges 5:4; 2 Samuel 22:8); σεισθῆναι ἀπό φοβοῦ, of men, to be thrown into a tremor, to quake for fear, Matthew 28:4; metaphorically, to agitate the mind: ἐσείσθη πόλις (R. V. was stirred) i. e. its inhabitants Matthew 21:10. (Compare: ἀνασείω, διασείω, κατασείω.)TGL σείω.2


    (4580) Σεκοῦνδος, T WH Σεκοῦνδος (Chandler §§ 233, 235), Σεκουνδου, (a Latin word), Secundus, a certain man of Thessalonica: Acts 20:4.TGL Σεκοῦνδος.2


    (4581) Σελεύκεια (T WH Σελευκια (see Iota)), Σελευκείας, , Seleucia, a city of Syria on the Mediterranean, about 5 miles (40 stadia, Strabo 16, p. 750) north of the mouth of the river Orontes, about 15 miles (120 stadia) distant from Antioch, and opposite Cyprus: Acts 13:4 (1 Macc. 11:8). (Lewin, St. Paul, 1:116ff; Conyb. and Howson, op. cit., 1:136f.)TGL Σελεύκεια.2


    (4582) σελήνη, σελήνης, (from σέλας brightness), from Homer down, Hebrew יָרֵחַ, the moon: Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:24; Luke 21:25; Acts 2:20; 1 Corinthians 15:41; Revelation 6:12; Revelation 8:12; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 21:23.TGL σελήνη.2


    (4583) σεληνιάζομαι; (σελήνη); (literally, to be moon-struck (cf. lunatic); see Wetstein on Matthew 4:24; Suicer, Thesaurus ii. 945f; BB. DD. , under the word ); to be epileptic (epilepsy being supposed to return and increase with the increase of the moon): Matthew 4:24; Matthew 17:15. (Manetho carm. 4, 81 and 217; (Lucian , others); ecclesiastical writings.)TGL σεληνιάζομαι.2


    (4584) Σεμεϊ, L marginal reading Σεμεΐν, T Tr WH Σεμηιν (see WH s Appendix, p. 155; cf. εἰ , ) (שִׁמְעִי, i. e. famous), Semein (so R. V. but A. V. Semei), the name of a man: Luke 3:26.TGL Σεμεΐν.2


    (4585) σεμίδαλις, accusative σεμίδαλιν, , the finest wheaten flour: Revelation 18:13. (Hippocrates , Aristophanes , Josephus , others; the Sept. often for כֹּלֶת.)TGL σεμίδαλις.2


    (4586) σεμνός, σεμνή, σεμνόν (σέβω), from (Homer h. Cer., others), Aeschylus , Pindar down, august, venerable, reverend; to be venerated for character, honorable: of persons (A. V. grave), 1 Timothy 3:8, 1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:2; of deeds, Philippians 4:8. (Cf. Trench , § xcii.; Schmidt , chapter 173, 5.)TGL σεμνός.2


    (4587) σεμνότης, σεμνητος, (σεμνός), that characteristic of a person or a thing which entitles to reverence or respect, dignity, gravity, majesty, sanctity: τοῦ ἱεροῦ σεμνότης, 2 Macc. 3:12; in an ethical sense, gravity (so R. V. uniformly (cf. Trench , p. 347)), honor, probity, purity: 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:4; Titus 2:7. (Euripides , Plato , Demosthenes , others.)TGL σεμνότης.2


    (4588) Σέργιος, Σεργιου, , Sergius, surnamed Paulus, proconsul of Cyprus, converted to Christianity by the apostle Paul; otherwise unknown (cf. Lightfoot in Contemp. Rev. for 1878, p. 290; Farrar, St. Paul, vol. i., Excurs. xvi.; Reman, Saint Paul, p. 14f): Acts 13:7.TGL Σέργιος.2


    (4589) Σήθ, (שֵׁת, 'put' (A. V. 'appointed'), from שׁוּת, to put (i. e. in place of the murdered Abel; cf. B. D. under the word ), Genesis 4:25), Seth, the third sou of Adam: Luke 3:38.TGL Σήθ.2


    (4590) Σήμ (in Josephus , Σημας), (שֵׁם, 'name,' 'sign,' 'celebrity'; but variously explained)), Shem, the eldest son of Noah: Luke 3:36.TGL Σήμ.2


    (4591) σημαίνω; imperfect ἐσήμαινον (Acts 11:28 L WH text); 1 aorist ἐσημανα, for ἐσήμηνα which is the more common form in the earlier and more elegant Greek writings (see Matthiae , § 185; Kühner, § 343, under the word; (Veitch , under the word); Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 24f; Winer s Grammar, § 15, under the word; Buttmann , 41 (35)); (from σῆμα a sign); from (Homer ), Aeschylus , Herodotus down; to give a sign, to signify, indicate: τί, Acts 25:27; followed by indirect discourse, John 12:33; John 18:32; John 21:19; equivalent to to make known: absolutely Revelation 1:1; followed by the accusative with an infinitive Acts 11:28.TGL σημαίνω.2


    (4592) σημεῖον, σημείου, τό (σημαίνω (or σῆμα)), from Aeschylus and Herodotus down, Hebrew אות, a sign, mark, token;TGL σημεῖον.2

    1. universally, that by which a person or a thing is distinguished from others and known: Matthew 26:48; Luke 2:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:17; σημεῖον περιτομῆς (explanatory genitive (cf. Buttmann , § 123, 4)), equivalent to σημεῖον, ἐστι περιτομή, circumcision which should be a sign of the covenant formed with God, Romans 4:11; τά σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the tokens by which one is proved to be an apostle, 2 Corinthians 12:12; a sign by which anything future is pre-announced, Mark 13:4; Luke 21:7; τό σημεῖον τῆς σής παρουσίας, genitive of the object, Matthew 24:3; τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, the sign which indicates that the Messiah will shortly, or forthwith, come from heaven in visible manifestation, Matthew 24:30; with a genitive of the subjunctive τά σημεῖα τῶν καιρῶν, i. e. the indications of future events which οἱ καιροί furnish, what οἱ καιροί portend, Matthew 16:3 (T brackets WH reject the passage); a sign by which one is warned, an admonition, 1 Corinthians 14:22. used of noteworthy personages, by whom God forcibly admonishes men and indicates to them what he would have them do: thus σημεῖον ἀντιλεγόμενον is said of Jesus Christ, Luke 2:34; Ἰωνᾶς ἐγένετο σημεῖον τοῖς Νινευίταις (Jonah 3:4), Luke 11:30; hence, τό σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ, Luke 11:29, is equivalent to τό σημεῖον like to that ὅς ἦν Ἰωνᾶς, i. e. to the sign which was given by the mission and preaching of Jonah, to prompt men to seek salvation (Winer 's Grammar, 189 (177)); in the same sense, υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου says that he will be a σημεῖον, to the men of his generation, Luke 11:30; but in Matthew 12:39; Matthew 16:4 τό σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ is the miraculous experience which befell Jonah himself, cf. Matthew 12:40; that Luke reproduces Christ's words more correctly than Matthew is shown by De Wette and Bleek on Matthew 12:40, by Neander, Leben Jesu, p. 265f edition 1 (English translation, (3rd edition N. Y. 1851) § 165, p. 245f), and others; (but that Luke's report is less full than Matthew's, rather than at variance with it, is shown by Meyer, Weiss, Keil, and others (on Matthew, the passage cited)).TGL σημεῖον.3

    2. a sign, prodigy, portent, i. e. an unusual occurrence, transcending the common course of nature;TGL σημεῖον.4

    a. of signs portending remarkable events soon to happen: Luke 21:11, Luke 21:25; Acts 2:19; Revelation 12:1, Revelation 12:3; Revelation 15:1.TGL σημεῖον.5

    b. of miracles and wonders by which God authenticates the men sent by him, or by which men prove that the cause they are pleading is God's: Matthew 12:38; Matthew 16:1, Matthew 16:4; Mark 8:11; Mark 16:17, Mark 16:20; Luke 11:16, Luke 11:29; Luke 23:8; John 2:11, John 2:18, John 2:23; John 3:2; John 4:54; John 6:2, John 6:14, John 6:26, John 6:30; John 7:31; John 9:16; John 10:41; John 11:47; John 12:18, John 12:37; John 20:30; Acts 2:22, Acts 2:43; Acts 8:6; 1 Corinthians 1:22; but time power διδόναι σημεῖα, by which men are deceived, is ascribed also to false teachers, false prophets, and to demons: Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; Revelation 13:13; Revelation 16:14; Revelation 19:20; 2 Thessalonians 2:9. σημεῖα καί τέρατα (וּמֹפְתִים אֹתות) or (yet less frequent) τέρατα καί σημεῖα (terms which differ not in substantial meaning but only in origin; cf. Fritzsche, Romans, vol. iii., p. 270f; (Trench , § xci.)) are found conjoined: Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; John 4:48; Acts 2:19, Acts 2:43; Acts 4:30; Acts 5:12; Acts 6:8; Acts 7:36; Acts 14:3; Acts 15:12; Romans 15:19; 2 Thessalonians 2:9, (Deuteronomy 28:46; Deuteronomy 34:11; Nehemiah 9:10; Isaiah 8:18; Isaiah 20:3; Jeremiah 39:20 (Jeremiah 32:20); Wis. 8:8 Wis. 10:16; Polybius 3, 112, 8; Philo , vit. Moys. 1:16; Josephus , Antiquities 20, 8, 6; b. j. prooem. 11; Plutarch , Alex. 75; Aelian v. h. 12,57); with καί δυνάμεσιν added, 2 Corinthians 12:12; Hebrews 2:4; σημεῖα καί δυνάμεις, Acts 8:13; δυνάμεις καί τέρατα καί σημεῖα, Acts 2:22; διδόναι σημεῖα (see δίδωμι , B. II. 1 a.): Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22 (here Tdf. ποιεῖν, σημεῖον, see ποιέω , I. 1 c.); σημεῖα are said γίνεσθαι διά τίνος in Acts 2:43; Acts 4:1-37:(Acts 4:16),Acts 4:30; Acts 5:12; Acts 14:3; Acts 15:12 (here ποιεῖν σημεῖον, see above); τό σημεῖον τῆς ἰάσεως, the miracle, which was the healing, Acts 4:22.TGL σημεῖον.6


    (4593) σημειόω, σημείῳ: (σημεῖον), to mark, note, distinguish by marking; middle present imperative 2 person plural σημειοῦσθε; to mark or note for oneself (Winer s Grammar, § 38, 2 b.; Buttmann , § 135, 4): τινα, 2 Thessalonians 3:14 (cf. Buttmann , 92 (80); Winer s Grammar, 119 (113)). (Theophrastus , Polybius , Philo , Dionysius Halicarnassus , others; (Psalms 4:7, the Sept. ).)TGL σημειόω.2


    (4594) σήμερον (Attic τήμερον, i. e. ἡμέρα with pronominal prefix (Sanskritsa ); cf. Vanicek , p. 971), adverb, from Homer down, the Sept. for הַיום, today, this day: Matthew 6:11; Matthew 16:3 (T brackets WH reject the passage); Luke 4:21; Luke 19:5; Acts 4:9; Acts 13:33, etc.; also where the speaker refers to the night just passed, Matthew 27:19; equivalent to this night (now current), Luke 2:11; σήμερον ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτί, Mark 14:30; ἕως σήμερον, 2 Corinthians 3:15; opposed to αὔριον, Matthew 6:30; Luke 12:28; Luke 13:32; James 4:13; χθές καί σήμερον καί εἰς τούς αἰῶνας, a rhetorical periphrasis for ἀεί, Hebrews 13:8; σήμερον ἡμέρα, this (very) day, Acts 20:26; ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας, Romans 11:8; μέχρι τῆς σήμερον namely, ἡμέρας, Matthew 11:23; Matthew 28:15; ἕως τῆς σήμερον, Matthew 27:8; ἄχρι... τῆς σήμερον (where L T Tr WH add ἡμέρας), 2 Corinthians 3:14; σήμερον, equivalent to what has happened today (others render concerning this day's riot; Buttmann , § 133, 9; but see Meyer at the passage; Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 9 a.), Acts 19:40; τό σήμερον, the word today, Hebrews 3:13; as a substantive: ὁρίζει ἡμέραν, σήμερον, a today (meaning, 'a time for embracing the salvation graciously offered' (cf. R. V. marginal reading)), Hebrews 4:7.TGL σήμερον.2


    (4595) σήπω: from Homer down; to make corrupt; in the Bible also to destroy, Job 40:7 (12); passive, to become corrupt or rotten; 2 perfect active σέσηπα, to (have become i. e. to) be corrupted (cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 82): πλοῦτος σέσηπεν, has perished, James 5:2.TGL σήπω.2


    (4596) σηρικός (Lachmann, the major edition, T WH σιρικός (cf. WH 's Appendix, p. 151)), σηρικη, σηρικον (Σήρ, Σηρες, the Seres, a people of India (probably modern China; yet on the name cf. Pape , Eigennamen, under the word; Dict. of Geog., under the word Serica));TGL σιρικός.2

    1. properly, pertaining to the Seres.TGL σιρικός.3

    2. silken: τό σηρικον, silk, i. e. the fabric, silken garments. Revelation 18:12. ((Strabo , Plutarch , Arrian , Lucian ); ἐσθήσεσι σηρικαις, Josephus , b. j. 7, 5, 4.)TGL σιρικός.4


    (4597) σής, σητός, (Hebrew סָס., Isaiah 51:8; עָשׁ, Job 4:19; Job 13:28), a moth, the clothes-moth (B. D. , under the word ; Alex.'s Kitto, under the word Ash): Matthew 6:19; Luke 12:33. (Pindar , Aristophanes , Aristotle , Theophrastus , others.)TGL σής.2


    (4598) σητόβρωτος, σητόβρωτον (from σής a moth, and βρωτός from βιβρώσκω), moth-eaten: ἱμάτιον, James 5:2 (ἱμάτια, Job 13:28; of idol-images, Sibylline oracles in Theophilus ad Autol. 2, 36).TGL σητόβρωτος.2


    (4599) σθενόω, σθένω: (σθένος (allied with στῆναι, hence, properly, steadfastness; Curtius , p. 503f) strength), to make strong, to strengthen: τινα, one's soul, 1 Peter 5:10, where for 1 aorist optative active 3 person singular σθενώσαι, we must read the future σθενώσει, with G L T Tr WH . (passive in Rhet. Gr. edition Walz, vol. i. c. 15.)TGL σθενόω.2


    (4600) σιαγών, σιαγόνος, , the jaw, the jaw-bone (A. V. cheek): Matthew 5:39; Luke 6:29. (Sophicles, Xenophon , Plato , Aristotle , others; the Sept. for לְחִי.)TGL σιαγών.2


    (4601) σιγάω, σίγω; 1 aorist ἐσίγησα; perfect passive participle σεσιγημενος; (σιγή); from Homer down; to keep silence, hold one's peace: Luke 9:36; Luke 18:39 L T Tr WH ; (Luke 20:26); Acts 12:17; Acts 15:12; 1 Corinthians 14:28, 1 Corinthians 14:30, 1 Corinthians 14:34; passive, to be kept in silence, be concealed, Romans 16:25. (Synonym: see ἡσυχάζω .)TGL σιγάω.2


    (4602) σιγή, σιγῆς, (from σίζω (onomatopoetic, Etym. Magn. 712, 29) i. e. to command silence by making the sound st or sch; (yet σιγή probably has no connection with σίζω, but is of European origin (cf. German schweigen); cf. Fick , Part 3:843; Curtius , § 572)), from Homer down, silence: Acts 21:40; Revelation 8:1.TGL σιγή.2


    (4603) σιδήρεος, σιδηρεα, σιδηρεον, contracted σιδηρεους, σιδηρεα, σιδηρεουν (σίδηρος), from Homer down, made of iron: Acts 12:10; Revelation 2:27; Revelation 9:9; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15.TGL σιδηροῦς.2


    (4604) σίδηρος, σιδήρου, , from Homer down, iron: Revelation 18:12.TGL σίδηρος.2


    (4605) Σιδών, Σιδῶνος (Buttmann , 16 (14)), (צִידון and צִידֹן, from צוּד, 'to hunt', in Aramaic also 'to fish'; hence, properly, taking its name from its abundance of fish; cf. Justin 18, 3), Sidon, a very ancient Phoenician city, formerly distinguished for wealth and traffic, situated near the Mediterranean on the borders of Judaea; it had been assigned to the tribe of Asher (Joshua 19:28), but the Jews vainly endeavored to capture it (Judges 1:31; Judges 3:3; Judges 10:12); now Saida, containing about 10,000 (or 9,000, according to Porter in Murray's Handbook, p. 376) inhabitants (Baedeker, Palestine, p. 433): Matthew 11:21; Matthew 15:21; Mark 3:8; Mark 7:24 (where T omits; WH Tr marginal reading brackets the words καί Σιδῶνος), Mark 7:31; Luke 4:26 (where L T Tr WH Σιδωνίας); Luke 6:17; Luke 10:13; Acts 27:3. (Cf. BB. DD. , under the word; Schultz in Herzog edition 2 vol. xiv. 192ff; Schlottmann in Riehm , under the word.)TGL Σιδών.2


    (4606) Σιδώνιος, Σιδωνία, Σιδώνιον (Σιδών), belonging to Sidon, of Sidon: τῆς Ζιδωνιας namely, χώρας (R. V. in the land of Sidon), Luke 4:26 L T Tr WH (Homer , Odyssey 13, 285 (but Σιδονιος)); Σιδώνιοι, the inhabitants of Sidon, Acts 12:20.TGL Σιδώνιος.2


    (4607) σικάριος, σικαριου, (a Latin word), an assassin, i. e. one who carries a dagger or short sword (Latinsica (cf. Josephus , as below)) under his clothing, that he may kill secretly and treacherously anyone he wishes to (a cut-throat): Acts 21:38. (Josephus , b. j. 2, 17, 6 σικαριους ἐκάλουν τούς λῃστάς ἔχοντας ὑπό τοῖς κόλποις τά ξιφη (cf. 2, 13, 3); also Antiquities 20, 8, 10 σικαριοι λῃσταί εἰσί χρώμενοι ξιφιδιοις παραπλησιοις μέν τό μέγεθος τοῖς τῶν Περσῶν ἀκινακαις, ἐπικαμπεσι δέ ] καί ὁμοιοις ταῖς ὑπό Ῥωμαίων σικαις καλουμεναις, ἀφ' ὧν καί τήν προσηγοριαν οἱ ληστευοντες ἔλαβον πολλούς ἀναιροῦντες.) (Synonym: see φονεύς .)TGL σικάριος.2


    (4608) σίκερα, τό (Hebrew שֵׁכָר (rather, according to Kautzsch (Gram., p. 11) for שִׁכְרָא (properly, σικρα) the stative emphatic of שְׁכַר (literally, 'intoxicating' drink))), indeclinable (Winer s Grammar, 68 (66); Buttmann , 24 (21)) (yet Eusebius , praep. evang. 6, 10, 8 has a genitive σικερος (and Sophocles in his Lex. quotes from Cyrill. Alex. 1, 1041 d. (edited by Migne) a genitive σικερατος), strong drink, an intoxicating beverage, different from wine (except in Numbers 28:7 (cf. Isaiah 28:7)); it was a factitious product, made of a mixture of sweet ingredients, whether derived from grain and vegetables, or from the juice of fruits (dates), or a decoction of honey: Luke 1:15 (Leviticus 10:9; Numbers 6:3; Deuteronomy 14:25 (Deuteronomy 14:26); Deuteronomy 29:6, etc.; the same Hebrew word is rendered also by μέθυσμα, Judges 13:4, Judges 13:7, Judges 13:14; Micah 2:11). Cf. Winer s RWB under the word Wein, künstlicher; (B. D. , under the word ).TGL σίκερα.2


    (4609) Σιλᾶς (genitive not found (except Josephus , Vita17 Σιλᾷ)), dative Σιλᾷ, accusative Σιλᾶν (Buttmann , 20 (18)), , Silas (contracted from Σιλουανός, which see; Winer 's Grammar, 103 (97)), a Roman citizen (Acts 16:37), the companion of the apostle Paul in several of his journeys, and his associate in preaching the gospel: Acts 15:22, Acts 15:27, Acts 15:32, Acts 15:34 Rec. , 40; Acts 16:19, Acts 16:25, Acts 16:29; Acts 17:4, Acts 17:10, Acts 17:14; Acts 18:5. (B. D. , under the word .)TGL Σιλᾶς.2


    (4610) Σιλουανός, Σιλουανοῦ, , Silvanus, the same man who in Acts is called Σιλᾶς (which see): 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12. (Not infrequent written in the manuscripts Σιλβανος, Silbanus; cf. Tdf. on Iliad chapters)TGL Σιλουανός.2


    (4611) Σιλωάμ (Hebrew שִׁלֹחַ, Isaiah 8:6, which in John 9:7 is translated ἀπεσταλμένος, but more correctly (see below) 'a sending out,' 'gushing forth' (of water); it is formed after the analogy of אִיּוב, 'had in hatred', 'persecuted', from אָיַב; יִלּוד, 'born', from יָלַד, 'to bring forth'; ("the purely passive explanation, ἀπεσταλμένος, John 9:7, is not so incorrect." Ewald, Ausführl. Lehrbuch d. Hebrew Spr. § 150, 2 a.; cf. Meyer on John, the passage cited)), (in Josephus , Σιλωάμ, namely, πηγή, b. j. 5, 12, 2; 6, 8, 5; but also μέχρι τοῦ Σιλωάμ, b. j. 2, 16, 2; 6, 7, 2; (Buttmann , 21 (19))), (indeclinable; but in Josephus , b. j. 5, 6, 1 ἀπό τῆς Σιλωας), Siloam, a fountain of sweet and abundant water (Josephus , b. j. 5, 4, 1), flowing into a basin or pool of the same name (Nehemiah 3:15), both of which seem to have been situated in the southern part of Jerusalem, although opinions vary on this point: Luke 13:4; John 9:11 (Isaiah 8:6). Cf. (B. D. , under the word ); Winer s RWB under the word Siloah; Rödiger in Gesenius Thesaurus, p. 1416; Leyrer in Herzog edition 1, ivx., p. 371ff; Robinson, Palestine, i. 333ff; Tobler, Die Siloaquelle n. der Oelberg (St. Gallen, 1852); Kneucker, Siloah, Quelle Teich u. Thal in Jerus. (Heidelb. 1873); Furrer in Schenkel v., 295f; (Ritter, Palestine, etc., English translation, i., 148f; Wilson, Ordnance Survey, etc., 1865; especially Guthe in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Pal.-Vereins for 1882, pp. 205ff, 229ff; Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl.-Gesellsch. for 1882, p. 725ff).TGL Σιλωάμ.2


    (4612) σιμικίνθιον (or σημικίνθιον), σιμικινθιου, τό, (Latinsemicinctium (cf. Rich, Dict. of Antiq. , under the word), from semi and cingo), a narrow apron, or linen covering, which workmen and servants were accustomed to wear: Acts 19:12 (A. V. aprons).TGL σιμικίνθιον.2


    (4613) Σίμων, Σίμωνος (Buttmann , 16 (14)), (שִׁמְעון, 'a hearing', from שָׁמַע, 'to hear'; (there was also a Greek name Σίμων (allied with Σῖμος, i. e. 'flat-nosed'; Fick , Gr. Personennamen, p. 210), but cf. B. D. , under the word at the beginning; Lightfoot on Galatians, p. 266f)), Simon;TGL Σίμων.2

    1. Peter, the apostle: Matthew 17:25; Mark 1:29, Mark 1:36; Luke 4:38; Luke 5:4 Luke 5:10, etc.; see Πέτρος .TGL Σίμων.3

    2. the brother of Judas Lebbaeus (cf. under the word Ἰούδας, 8), an apostle, who is called Κανανίτης (so R G , but L T Tr WH Κανιναιος, which see), Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18, and ζηλωτής, Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.TGL Σίμων.4

    3. a brother of Jesus (cf. under the word ἀδελφός, 1): Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3.TGL Σίμων.5

    4. a certain Cyrenian, who carried the cross of Jesus: Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26.TGL Σίμων.6

    5. the father of Judas Iscariot land himself surnamed Ἰσκαριώτης (see Ἰούδας , 6)): John 6:71; John 12:4; John 13:2, John 13:26.TGL Σίμων.7

    6. a certain Pharisee, Luke 7:40, Luke 7:43, who appears to (some, e. g. Grotius, Schleiermacher, Holtzmann, Schenkel , Ewald, Keim , Hug, Bleek (see his Synoptative Erklär. on Luke, the passage cited) to) be the same as Simon the leper, Matthew 26:6; Mark 14:3; (but the occurrence recorded by Luke, the passage cited is now commonly thought to be distinct from that narrated by Matt. and Mark the passages cited; cf. Godet or Keil on Luke).TGL Σίμων.8

    7. a certain tanner, living at Joppa: Acts 9:43; Acts 10:6, Acts 10:17, Acts 10:32.TGL Σίμων.9

    8. Simon (`Magus'), the Samaritan sorcerer: Acts 8:9, Acts 8:13, Acts 8:18, Acts 8:24. The various ecclesiastical stories about him, as well as the opinions and conjectures of modern theologians, are reviewed at length by Lipsius in Schenkel v., pp. 301-321; (cf. W. Möller in Herzog edition 2, vol. xiv., pp. 246ff; Schaff, Hist. of the Chris. Church, vol. ii (1883) § 121).TGL Σίμων.10


    (4614) Σινᾶ (Σινᾶ WH ; cf. Chandler §§ 135, 138), τό (namely, ὄρος, cf. Buttmann , 21f (19)), indeclinable, Josephus , τό Σιναιον, Antiquities 3, 5, 1, and τό Σιναιον ὄρος, Antiquities 2, 12, 1; Hebrew סִינַי (perhaps 'jagged'; others make it an adjective 'belonging to (the desert of) Sin') (Sina or) Sinai, a mountain or, rather, a mountainous region in the peninsula of Arabia Petraea, made famous by the giving of the Mosaic law. There are three summits: one toward the west, which is called חוהֵב, a second toward the east, Sinai proper so called, the third toward the south, now Mount St. Catharine. But the distinction between Horeb and Sinai is given differently by different writers; and some think that they were two different names of one and the same mountain (cf. Sir. 48:7); cf. (McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word ); Winer s RWB, under the word Sinai; Arnold in Herzog edition 1 vol. xiv., p. 420f; (Schultz in edition 2 vol. xiv., p. 282ff); Furrer in Schenkel v., p. 326ff; (English Ordnance Survey, 1869; Palmer, Desert of the Exodus, 1872; also his Sinai from the Monuments, 1878; Furrer commends Holland's Sketch Map etc. in the Journ. of the Royal Geog. Soc. vol. 39 (Lond. 1869)). The name occurs in Acts 7:30, Acts 7:38; Galatians 4:24.TGL Σινᾶ.2


    (4615) σίναπι (also σινηπι (but not in the N. T.), both later for the Attic νᾶπυ (so accented in late authors, better νᾶπυ), see Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 288) (thought to be of Egyptian origin; cf. Vanicek , Fremdwörter, under the word νᾶπυ), σινάπεως (Buttmann , 14 (13)), τό, mustard, the name of a plant which in oriental countries grows from a very small seed and attains to the height of 'a tree' — ten feet and more; hence, a very small quantity of a thing is likened to a κόκκος σινάπεως (A. V. a grain of mustard seed), Matthew 17:20; Luke 17:6; and also a thing which grows to a remarkable size, Matthew 13:31; Mark 4:31; Luke 13:19. (Cf. B. D. , under the word ; Löw, Aram. Pflanzennamen, § 134; Carruthers in the 'Bible Educator ' vol. i., p. 119f; Tristram, Nat. Hist. of the Bible, p. 472f; Thomson, The Land and the Book, ii., 100f.)TGL σίναπι.2


    (4616) σινδών, σινδονος, (of uncertain origin; Sanskritsindhu (Egyptian,sehenti or 'sent'; cf. Vanicek , Fremdwörter under the word); the Sept. for סָדִין, Judges 14:12; Proverbs 29:42 (Proverbs 31:24), fine cloth (Latinsindon ), i. e.:TGL σινδών.2

    1. linen cloth, especially that which was fine and costly, in which the bodies of the dead were wrapped: Matthew 27:59; Mark 15:46; Luke 23:53 (cf. Herodotus 2, 86 who says of the Egyptians, κατειλισσουσι πᾶν τό σῶμα σινδονος βυσσινης (see Wilkinson's note in Rawlinson's Herod. 3rd edition, the passage cited)).TGL σινδών.3

    2. thing made of fine cloth: so of a light and loose garment worn at night over the naked body, Mark 14:51 (others suppose a sheet rather than a shirt to be referred to; A. V. linen cloth; cf. B. D. American edition, under the word Sheets). (Besides Herodotus , the writers Sophocles , Thucydides , Strabo , Lucian , others use the word.)TGL σινδών.4


    (4617) σινιάζω: 1 aorist infinitive σινιάσαι; (σινίον 'a sieve,' 'winnowing-van'; an ecclesiastical and Byzantine word (cf. Macarius , homil. 5, p. 73f (496 a., Migne edition))); to sift, shake in a sieve: τινα ὡς τόν σῖτον, i. e., dropping the figure, by inward agitation to try one's faith to the verge of overthrow, Luke 22:31. (Ecclesiastical writings (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 92 (87), 26; (25), and see above).)TGL σινιάζω.2


    (4618) σιτευτός, σιτευτη, σιτευτόν (σιτεύω, to feed with wheat, to fatten), fattened, fatted: Luke 15:23, Luke 15:27, Luke 15:30. (Jeremiah 26:21 (Jeremiah 46:21); 1 Kings 4:23 (etc.); Xenophon , Polybius , Athen. , (others).)TGL σιτευτός.2

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