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    Δαβίδ — διάδημα


    (1138) Δαβίδ (the form in Rec. after the more recent manuscripts [minuscules, cf. Tdf. on Matthew 1:1, and Treg. on Luke 3:31]), Δαυἲδ (Griesbach, Schott, Knapp, Theile, others), and Δαυείδ (L T Tr WH [on the ει see WH's Appendix, p. 155 and under the word ει, ι]; cf. Winers Grammar, p. 44; Bleek on Heb. vol. ii. 1, p. 538; in Josephus [Antiquities 6, 8, 1ff also Nicolaus Damascenus from 31, p. 114] Δαυἲδης, -ου), , (דָּוִד, and especially after the exile דָּוִיד [i. e. beloved]), David, indeclinable name of by far the most celebrated king of the Israelites: Matthew 1:1, Matthew 1:6, Matthew 1:17, etc. σκηνὴ Δ. Acts 15:16; κλεὶς τοῦ Δ. Revelation 3:7; θρόνος Δ. Luke 1:32; υἱὸς Δ., a name of the Messiah, viz. the descendant of David and heir to his throne (see υἱός , 1 b.); ῥίζα Δ. the offspring of David, Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16; βασιλεία τοῦ Δ. Mark 11:10 (see βασιλεία , 3); ἐν Δαυἲδ, in the book of the Psalms of David, Hebrews 4:7 [others take it personally, cf. Hebrews 1:1; yet see ἐν , I. 1 d.].TGL Δαβίδ.2

    Related entry: Δαυείδ and Δαυἲδ, see Δαβίδ.TGL Δαβίδ.3


    (1139) δαιμονίζομαι; 1 aorist passive participle δαιμονισθείς; (δαίμων); to be under the power of a demon: ἄλλος κατ’ ἄλλην δαιμονίζεται τύχην, Philemon 1:1-25 in Stobaeus, ecl. phys. 1, p. 196; of the insane, Plutarch, symp. 7, 5, 4, and in other later authors. In the N. T. δαιμονιζόμενοι are persons afflicted with especially severe diseases, either bodily or mental (such as paralysis, blindness, deafness, loss of speech, epilepsy, melancholy, insanity, etc.), whose bodies in the opinion of the Jews demons (see δαιμόνιον ) had entered, and so held possession of them as not only to afflict them with ills, but also to dethrone the reason and take its place themselves; accordingly, the possessed were accustomed to express the mind and consciousness of the demons dwelling in them; and their cure was thought to require the expulsion of the demon — [but on this subject see B. D. American edition under the word Demoniacs and references there; Weiss, Leben Jesu, book iii., chapter 6]: Matthew 4:24; Matthew 8:16, Matthew 8:28, Matthew 8:33; Matthew 9:32; Matthew 12:22; Matthew 15:22; Mark 1:32; Mark 5:15; John 10:21; δαιμονισθείς, that had been possessed by a demon [demons], Mark 5:18; Luke 8:36. They are said also to be ὀχλούμενοι ὑπὸ or ἀπὸ πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων, Luke 6:18 [T Tr WH ἐνοχλ.]; Acts 5:16; καταδυναστευόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου, i. e. by his ministers, the demons, Acts 10:38.TGL δαιμονίζομαι.2


    (1140) δαιμόνιον, -ου, τό, (neuter of adjective δαιμόνιος, , -ον, divine, from δαίμων; equivalent to τὸ θεῖον);TGL δαιμόνιον.2

    1. the divine Power, deity, divinity; so sometimes in secular authors as Josephus, b. j. 1, 2, 8; Aelian v. h. 12, 57; in plural καινὰ δαιμόνια, Xenophon, mem. 1, 1, 1f, and once in the N. T. ξένα δαιμόνια, Acts 17:18.TGL δαιμόνιον.3

    2. a spirit, a being inferior to God, superior to men [πᾶν τὸ δαιμόνιον μεταξύ ἐστι θεοῦ τε καὶ θνητοῦ, Plato, symp. 23, p. 202 e. (where see Stallbaum)], in both a good sense and a bad; thus Jesus, after his resurrection, said to his disciples οὐκ εἰμὶ δαιμόνιον ἀσώματον, as Ignatius (ad Smyrn. 3, 2) records it; πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου (genitive of apposition), Luke 4:33; (πονηρόν, Tobit 3:8, 17; δαιμόνιον πνεῦμα πονηρόν, ibid. Tobit 6:8). But elsewhere in the Scriptures used, without an adjunct, of evil spirits or the messengers and ministers of the devil [Winer's Grammar, 23 (22)]: Luke 4:35; Luke 9:1, Luke 9:42; Luke 10:17; John 10:21; James 2:19; (Psalms 90:6 (Psalms 91:6); Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14; Tobit 6:18; Tobit 8:3; Baruch 4:35); πνεύματα δαιμονίων (Rec. δαιμόνων) i. e. of that rank of spirits that are demons (genitive of apposition), Revelation 16:14; ἄρχων τῶν δαιμονίων, the prince of the demons, or the devil: Matthew 9:34; Matthew 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15; they are said ἐισέρχεσθαι εἴς τινα, to enter into (the body of) one to vex him with diseases (see δαιμονίζομαι ): Luke 8:30, Luke 8:32; ἐκβληθῆναι and ἐξέρχεσθαι ἔκ τινος or ἀπό τινος, when they are forced to come out of one to restore him to health: Matthew 9:33; Matthew 17:18; Mark 7:29, Mark 7:30; Luke 4:35, Luke 4:41; Luke 8:2, Luke 8:33, Luke 8:35. ἐκβάλλειν δαιμόνια, is used of those who compel demons to come out: Matthew 7:22; Matthew 12:27; Mark 1:34, Mark 1:39; Luke 9:49, etc. ἔχειν δαιμόνιον, to have a demon, be possessed by a demon, is said of those who either suffer from some exceptionally severe disease, Luke 4:33; Luke 8:27 (ἐχ. δαιμόνια); or act and speak as though they were mad, Matthew 11:18; Luke 7:33; John 7:20; John 8:48, John 8:52; John 10:20. According to a Jewish opinion which passed over to the Christians, the demons are the gods of the Gentiles and the authors of idolatry; hence, δαιμόνια stands for אֱלִילִים Psalms 95:5 (Psalms 96:5), and שֵׁדִים Deuteronomy 32:17; Psalms 105:37 (Psalms 106:37), cf. Baruch 4:7: προσκυνεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια καὶ τὰ εἴδωλα, Revelation 9:20. The apostle Paul, though teaching that the gods of the Gentiles are a fiction (1 Corinthians 8:4; 1 Corinthians 10:19), thinks that the conception of them has been put into the minds of men by demons, who appropriate to their own use and honor the sacrifices offered to idols. Hence, what the Gentiles θύουσι, he says δαιμονίοις θύουσιν καὶ οὐ θεῷ, 1 Corinthians 10:20 (from the Sept. of Deuteronomy 32:17, cf. Baruch 4:7), and those who frequent the sacrificial feasts of the Gentiles come into fellowship with demons, 1 Corinthians 10:20; [cf. Baudissin, Stud. zur scmit. Religionsgesch. vol. i. (St. ii. 4), p. 110ff]. Pernicious errors are disseminated by demons even among Christians, seducing them from the truth, 1 Timothy 4:1. Josephus, also makes mention of δαιμόνια taking possession of men, Antiquities 6, 11, 2f; 6, 8, 2; 8, 2, 5; but he sees in them, not as the N. T. writers do, bad angels, but the spirits of wicked men deceased, b. j. 7, 6, 3.TGL δαιμόνιον.4


    (1141) δαιμονιώδης, -ες, (δαιμόνιον, which see, and εἶδος), resembling or proceeding from an evil spirit, demon-like: James 3:15. [Schol. Aristophanes ran. 295; Psalms 90:6 Symm. .]TGL δαιμονιώδης.2


    (1142) δαίμων, -ονος, , ;TGL δαίμων.2

    1. in Greek authors, a god, a goddess; an inferior deity, whether good or bad; hence, ἀγαθοδαίμονες and κακοδαίμονες are distinguished [cf. Winer's Grammar, 23 (22)].TGL δαίμων.3

    2. In the N. T. an evil spirit (see δαιμόνιον , 2): Matthew 8:31; Mark 5:12 [R L]; Luke 8:29 [R G L marginal reading]; Revelation 16:14 (Rec. ); Revelation 18:2 (where L T Tr WH δαιμονίων). [B. D. (especially American edition) under the word Demon; cf. δαιμονίζομαι .]TGL δαίμων.4


    (1143) δάκνω; to bite;TGL δάκνω.2

    a. properly, with the teeth.TGL δάκνω.3

    b. metaphorically, to wound the soul, cut, lacerate, rend with reproaches: Galatians 5:15. So even in Homer, Iliad 5, 493 μῦθος δάκε φρένας, Menander quoted in Athen. 12, 77, p. 552 e., and times without number in other authors.TGL δάκνω.4


    (1144) δάκρυ, -υος, τό, and τὸ δάκρυον, -ου, [from Homer down], a tear: Mark 9:24 R G; Acts 20:19, Acts 20:31; 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Timothy 1:4; Hebrews 5:7; Hebrews 12:17. The (nominative) form τὸ δάκρυον in Revelation 7:17; Revelation 21:4, (Isaiah 25:8). The dative plural δάκρυσι in Luke 7:38, Luke 7:44 (Psalms 125:5 (Psalms 126:5); Lamentations 2:11).TGL δάκρυ.2


    (1145) δακρύω: 1 aorist ἐδάκρυσα; to weep, shed tears: John 11:35. [From Homer down. Synonym: see κλαίω , at the end.]TGL δακρύω.2


    (1146) δακτύλιος, -ου, , (from δάκτυλος, because decorating the fingers), a ring: Luke 15:22. (From Herodotus down.)TGL δακτύλιος.2


    (1147) δάκτυλος, -ου, , [from Batrach. 45 and Herodotus down], a finger: Matthew 23:4; Luke 11:46; Luke 16:24; Mark 7:33; John 8:6 Rec. ; John 20:25, John 20:27; ἐν δακτύλῳ θεοῦ, by the power of God, divine efficiency by which something is made visible to men, Luke 11:20 (Matthew 12:28 ἐν πνεύματι θεοῦ); Exodus 8:19, [cf. Exodus 31:18; Psalms 8:4].TGL δάκτυλος.2


    (1148) Δαλμανουθά [on the accent cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 103], , Dalmanutha, the name of a little town or village not far from Magdala [better Magadan (which see)], or lying within its territory: Mark 8:10 (cf. Matthew 15:39), see Fritzsche at the passage [B. D. American edition under the word]. Derivation of the name uncertain; cf. Keim, ii. 528 [(English translation 4:238), who associates it with Zalmonah, Numbers 33:41, but mentions other opinions. Furrer in the Zeitschr. des Deutsch. Palaestin.-Vereins for 1879, p. 58ff identifies it with Minyeh (abbrev. Manutha, Latin mensa )].TGL Δαλμανουθά.2


    (1149) Δαλματία [Lachmann, Δελμ. ("probably Alexandrian but possibly genuine," Hort)], -ας, , Dalmatia, a part of Illyricum on the Adriatic Sea; on the east adjoining Pannonia and upper Moesia, on the north separated from Liburnia by the river Titius, and extending southwards as far as to the river Drinus and the city Lissus [cf. Dict. of Geog., under the word; Conyb. and Hows. St. Paul, 2:126f; Lewin, St. Paul, 2:357]: 2 Timothy 4:10.TGL Δαλματία.2


    (1150) δαμάζω: 1 aorist ἐδάμασα; passive [present δαμάζομαι]; perfect δεδάμασμαι; [akin to Latin domo , dominus , Goth. gatamjan ; English tame ; cf. Curtius, § 260]; common from Homer down; to tame: Mark 5:4; James 3:7; to restrain, curb, τὴν γλῶσσαν, James 3:8.TGL δαμάζω.2


    (1151) δάμαλις, -εως, , (feminine of δαμάλης a young bullock or steer), a young cow, heifer (Aeschylus, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Lucian, others); used in Numbers 19:2, Numbers 19:6, Numbers 19:9 for פָּרָה and in Hebrews 9:13 of the red heifer with whose ashes, by the Mosaic law, those were to be sprinkled who had become defiled. (Besides in the Sept. chiefly for עֶגְלָה.)TGL δάμαλις.2


    (1152) Δάμαρις, -ιδος, , Damaris, a woman of Athens converted by Paul: Acts 17:34; [cf. Meyer at the passage; B. D. under the word].TGL Δάμαρις.2


    (1153) Δαμασκηνός, -ή, -όν, of Damascus, Damascene; substantively οἱ Δαμασκηνοί: 2 Corinthians 11:32.TGL Δαμασκηνός.2


    (1154) Δαμασκός, -οῦ, , Damascus, (Hebrew דַּמֶשֶׂק), a very ancient (Genesis 14:15), celebrated, flourishing city of Syria, lying in a most lovely and fertile plain at the eastern base of Antilibanus. It had a great number of Jews among its inhabitants (Josephus, b. j. 2, 20, 2 cf. 7, 8, 7). Still one of the most opulent cities of western Asia, having about 109,000 inhabitants ["in 1859 about 150,000; of these 6,000 were Jews, and 15,000 Christians" (Porter)]: Acts 9:2; Acts 22:5; 2 Corinthians 11:32; Galatians 1:17. [Cf. BB. DD. under the word, especially Alex.'s Kitto.]TGL Δαμασκός.2


    (1155) δανείζω (T WH δανίζω [see Ι, ι]; 1 aorist ἐδάνεισα (Luke 6:34 L text T WH Tr marginal reading); 1 aorist middle ἐδανεισάμην; (δάνειον, which see); [from Aristophanes down]; to lend money: Luke 6:34; middle to have money lent to oneself to take a loan, borrow [cf. Winers Grammar, § 38, 3; Riddell, Platonic idioms, § 87]: Matthew 5:42. (Deuteronomy 15:6, Deuteronomy 15:8; Proverbs 19:17; in Greek authors from Xenophon, and Plato down.)TGL δανείζω.2

    [Synonyms: δανείζω, κίχρημι: δ. to lend on interest, as a business transaction; κίχρ. to lend, grant the use of, as a friendly act.]TGL δανείζω.3

    Related entry: δανίζω, see δανείζω.TGL δανείζω.4


    (1156) δάνειον [WH δάνιον, see Ι, ι], -είου, τό, (δάνος a gift), a loan: Matthew 18:27. (Deuteronomy 15:8; Deuteronomy 24:13 (Deuteronomy 24:11); Aristotle, eth. Nic. 9, 2, 3; Diodorus 1, 79; Plutarch; others.)TGL δάν(ε)ιον.2

    Related entry: [δάνιον, see δάνειον.]TGL δάν(ε)ιον.3


    (1157) δανειστής (T WH δανιστής [see Ι, ι]), -οῦ, , (δανείζω, which see), a money-lender, creditor: Luke 7:41. (2 Kings 4:1; Psalms 108:11 (Psalms 109:11); Proverbs 29:13; Sir. 29:28. Demosthenes, p. 885, 18; Plutarch, Sol. 13, 5; de vitand. acre, etc. 7, 8; [others].)TGL δανειστής.2

    Related entry: δανιστής, see δανειστής.TGL δανειστής.3


    (1158) Δανιήλ, , (דָּנִיאֵל and דָּנִאֵל i. e. judge of God [or God is my judge]), Daniel, proper name of a Jewish prophet, conspicuous for his wisdom, to whom are ascribed the well-known prophecies composed between B. C. 167-164 ; [but cf. BB. DD. ]: Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14 Rec.TGL Δανιήλ.2


    (1159) δαπανάω, -ῶ: future δαπανήσω; 1 aorist ἐδαπάνησα; (δαπάνη); from [Herodotus and] Thucydides down; to incur expense, expend, spend: τί, Mark 5:26 (1 Macc. 14:32); ἐπί with the dative of person, for one, in his favor, Acts 21:24; ὑπέρ τινος, 2 Corinthians 12:15. in a bad sense, to waste, squander, consume: πάντα, Luke 15:14; ἵνα ἐν ταῖς ἡδοναῖς ὑμῶν δαπανήσητε, that ye may consume, waste what ye receive, in luxurious indulgence — [ἐν marking the realm in rather than the object on]: James 4:3. [Compare: ἐκ-, προσδαπανάω.]TGL δαπανάω.2


    (1160) δαπάνη, -ης, , (from δάπτω to tear, consume, [akin are δεῖπνον, Latin daps ; Curtius, § 261]), expense, cost: Luke 14:28. (2 Esdr. 6:4; 1 Macc. 3:30, etc. Among Greek writings Hesiod Works, 721, Pindar, Euripides, Thucydides, and following.)TGL δαπάνη.2


    (1161) δέ (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover (Winers Grammar, § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more frequent in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epistles of John and the Apocalypse. [On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 96; WHs Appendix, p. 146; Winers Grammar, § 5, 1 a.; Buttmann, p. 10f] It is used:TGL δέ.2

    1. universally, by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opposed to a preceding statement: ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε... ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε, Matthew 6:14; ἐὰν δὲ ὀφθαλμὸς κτλ. Matthew 6:23; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, Mark 2:20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of — either with strong emphasis: ἐγὼ δέ, Matthew 5:22, Matthew 5:28, Matthew 5:32, Matthew 5:34, Matthew 5:39, Matthew 5:44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 10:13; σὺ δέ, Matthew 6:6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mark 8:29; οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας, Matthew 8:12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες... δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρ. Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58; πᾶς λαὸς... οἱ δὲ φαρισαῖοι, Luke 7:29; δὲ πνευματικός, 1 Corinthians 2:15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, δέ, αὐτὸς δέ: Mark 1:45; Mark 5:34; Mark 6:37; Mark 7:6; Matthew 13:29, Matthew 13:37, Matthew 13:52; Matthew 15:23; Luke 4:40, Luke 4:43; Luke 5:16; Luke 6:8; Luke 8:10, Luke 8:54; Luke 15:29; οἱ δέ, Matthew 2:5; Mark 3:4; Mark 8:28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a proper name, as δὲ Ἰησοῦς: Matthew 8:22 [Tdf. omits .]; Matthew 9:12 [R G Tr brackets]; Matthew 9:22 [Tdf. omits .]; Matthew 13:57; Mark 1:41 [R G L marginal reading Tr marginal reading]; ἀποκρ. δὲ () Σίμων, Luke 7:43 R G L brackets; δὲ Μαρία, Luke 2:19, etc.TGL δέ.3

    2. μὲν... δέ, see μέν .TGL δέ.4

    3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (German wohl aber ): Matthew 6:19 (μή θησαυρίζετε... θησαυρίζετε δέ); Matthew 10:5; Acts 12:9, Acts 12:14; Romans 3:4; Romans 4:5; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 7:37; 1 Thessalonians 5:21 [not Rec. ]; Ephesians 4:14; Hebrews 2:5; Hebrews 4:13, Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 10:26; Hebrews 12:13; 1 Peter 1:12 (οὐχ ἑαυτοῖς ὑμῖν [Rec. ἡμ.] δέ); James 1:13; James 2:11.TGL δέ.5

    4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause [and give its force in English by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.]: Romans 3:21 (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boasted of and strove after, but δικαιοσ. διὰ πίστεως); Romans 9:30; 1 Corinthians 2:6 (σοφίαν δέ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου); Galatians 2:2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Philippians 2:8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2, p. 361f; L. Dindorf in Stephanus Thesaurus ii. col. 928; [cf. Winer's Grammar, 443 (412)].TGL δέ.6

    5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Matthew 1:18; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 10:21; Luke 12:13; Luke 13:1; John 7:14, John 7:37; Acts 6:1; Romans 8:28; 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 8:1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι , 2 c.TGL δέ.7

    6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: John 3:19; John 6:39; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 7:6, 1 Corinthians 7:29; Ephesians 5:32, etc.; — especially remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mark 5:13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L brackets); Mark 15:25; Mark 16:8 [R G]; John 6:10; John 9:14; John 12:3; τοῦτο δὲ γέγονε, Matthew 1:22; Matthew 21:4. Owing to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be confounded in the manuscripts (of secular writings also) with γάρ; cf. Winer on Galatians 1:11; Fritzsche on Mark 14:2; also his Commentary on Romans, vol. i., pp. 234, 265; ii., p. 476; iii., p. 196; [Winers Grammar, 452 (421); Buttmann, 363 (312)].TGL δέ.8

    7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again [cf. Winer's Grammar, 443 (412)]: Matthew 3:4; Luke 4:1; Romans 5:8; 2 Corinthians 2:12; 2 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 10:2; Ephesians 2:4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 376f.TGL δέ.9

    8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts 11:17 R G (1 Macc. 14:29; 2 Macc. 1:34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Colossians 1:22 (Colossians 1:21); cf. Matthiae 2:1470; Kühner, 2:818; [Jelf, § 770]; Klotz as above, p. 370f; [Buttmann, 364 (312)].TGL δέ.10

    9. καὶ... δέ, but... also, yea and, moreover also: Matthew 10:18; Matthew 16:18; Luke 2:35 [WH text omits; L Tr brackets δέ]; John 6:51; John 15:27; Acts 3:24; Acts 22:29; Romans 11:23; 2 Timothy 3:12; 1 John 1:3; 2 Peter 1:5; cf. Klotz as above, p. 645f; Buttmann, 364 (312); [also Winer's Grammar, 443 (413); Ellicott on 1 Timothy 3:10; Meyer on John 6:51]. καὶ ἐάν δέ yea even if: John 8:16.TGL δέ.11

    10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Matthew 10:11; Matthew 18:25; Mark 4:34; Luke 10:31; Acts 17:6; Acts 28:6; Galatians 3:23; 2 Timothy 3:8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Romans 5:3, Romans 5:11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Matthew 10:18; John 6:51; John 8:16; 1 John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 4:18; [Luke 22:69 L T Tr WH].TGL δέ.12


    (1162) δέησις, -εως, , (δέομαι);TGL δέησις.2

    1. need, indigence (Psalm 21:25 (Psalms 22:25)); Aeschines dial. 2, 39f; [Plato, Eryx. 405 e. bis]; Aristotle, rhet. 2, 7 [ii., p. 1385a, 27]).TGL δέησις.3

    2. a seeking, asking, entreating, entreaty (from Plato down); in the N. T. requests addressed by men to God (German Bittgebet, supplication); universally: James 5:16; 1 Peter 3:12; as often in the Sept. , joined with προσευχή (i. e. any pious address to God [see below]): Acts 1:14 Rec. ; Ephesians 6:18; Philippians 4:6; plural 2 Timothy 1:3; joined with προσευχαί, 1 Timothy 5:5; with νηστεῖαι, Luke 2:37; ποιεῖσθαι δέησιν, Philippians 1:4; π. δεήσεις, Luke 5:33; 1 Timothy 2:1. contextually, of prayers imploring God's aid in some particular matter: Luke 1:13; Philippians 1:19; plural Hebrews 5:7; supplication for others: [2 Corinthians 1:11]; περί τινος, Ephesians 6:18; ὑπέρ τινος, 2 Corinthians 9:14; Philippians 1:4; with the addition πρὸς τὸν θεόν, Romans 10:1. [Synonyms: δέησις, προσευχή, ἔντευξις: πρ., as Professor Grimm remarks, is unrestricted as respects its contents, while δ. is petitionary; moreover πρ. is a word of sacred character, being limited to prayer to God, whereas δ. may also be used of a request addressed to man. In Byzantine Greek it is used of a written supplication (like our petition); cf. Sophocles Lexicon under the word. See more at length Trench § 51; also Bp. Lightfoot on Philippians 4:6; Ellicott on Ephesians 6:18; cf. Schmidt chapter 7. In 1 Timothy 2:1 to these two words is added ἔντευξις, which expresses confiding access to God; thus, in combination, δέησις gives prominence to the expression of personal need, προσευχή to the element of devotion, ἔντευξις to that of child-like confidence, by representing prayer as the heart's converse with God. See Huther's extended note at the passage; Ellicott at the passage; Trench as above.]TGL δέησις.4


    (1163) δεῖ; subjunctive present δέῃ; imperfect ἔδει; an impersonal verb [cf. Buttmann, § 132, 12; cf. § 131, 3; from Homer down]; (δέω, namely, τινός, to have need of, be in want of; cf. German es bedarf ), it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper; followed either by the infinitive alone (cf. our one ought), or by the accusative with an infinitive [cf. Buttmann, 147 (129)], it denotes any sort of necessity; asTGL δεῖ.2

    a. necessity lying in the nature of the case: John 3:30; 2 Timothy 2:6.TGL δεῖ.3

    b. necessity brought on by circumstances or by the conduct of others toward us: Matthew 26:35 (κἄν δέῃ με ἀποθανεῖν), cf. Mark 14:31; John 4:4; Acts 27:21; 2 Corinthians 11:30; [2 Corinthians 12:1 L T Tr WH text]; or imposed by a condition of mind: Luke 2:49; Luke 19:5.TGL δεῖ.4

    c. necessity in reference to what is required to attain some end: Luke 12:12; John 3:7; Acts 9:6; Acts 16:30; 1 Corinthians 11:19; Hebrews 9:26 (on this cf. Winers Grammar, 283 (266); [also Buttmann, 216 (187); 225 (195)]); Hebrews 11:6.TGL δεῖ.5

    d. a necessity of law and command, of duty, equity: Matthew 18:33; Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42; Luke 13:14; Luke 15:32; Luke 18:1; Luke 22:7; John 4:20; Acts 5:29; Acts 15:5; Romans 1:27 (ἀντιμισθίαν, ἣν ἔδει, namely, ἀπολαμβάνεσθαι, the recompense due by the law of God); Romans 8:26; Romans 12:3; 1 Corinthians 8:2, etc. or of office: Luke 4:43; Luke 13:33; John 9:4; John 10:16; Ephesians 6:20; Colossians 4:4; 2 Timothy 2:24.TGL δεῖ.6

    e. necessity established by the counsel and decree of God, especially by that purpose of his which relates to the salvation of men by the intervention of Christ and which is disclosed in the O. T. prophecies: Matthew 17:10; Matthew 24:6; Mark 9:11; Acts 4:12; 1 Corinthians 15:53; in this use, especially of what Christ was destined finally to undergo, his sufferings, death, resurrection, ascension: Luke 24:46 [R G L brackets]; Matthew 26:54; John 3:14; Acts 3:21, etc. (of the necessity of fate in Herodotus 5, 33; with the addition κατὰ τὸ θεοπρόπιον, 8, 53; Thucydides 5, 26.) [Synonyms: δεῖ, χρή: δεῖ seems to be more suggestive of moral obligation, denoting especially that constraint which arises from divine appointment; whereas χρή signifies rather the necessity resulting from time and circumstance. Schmidt, chapter 150.]TGL δεῖ.7

    Related entry: δέον, -οντος, τό, (participle of δεῖ, which see), from [Sophocles and] Herodatus down, that of which there is need, which is requisite, due, proper: δέον ἐστί there is need, 1 Peter 1:6 [T Tr text WH omits Tr marginal reading in brackets .]; followed by accusative with an infinitive Acts 19:36; τὰ μὴ δέοντα that are not proper, 1 Timothy 5:13.TGL δεῖ.8


    (1164) δεῖγμα, -τος, τό, (δείκνυμι);TGL δεῖγμα.2

    a. properly, thing shown.TGL δεῖγμα.3

    b. a specimen of anything, example, pattern: πυρὸς αἰωνίου, set forth as a warning, Jude 1:7. (From Xenophon, Plato, Isocrates down.)TGL δεῖγμα.4


    (1165) δειγματίζω: 1 aorist ἐδειγμάτισα; (δεῖγμα); to make an example of, to show as an example; τινά, to expose one to disgrace (cf. παραδειγματίζω , θεατρίζω ): Matthew 1:19 L T Tr WH; Colossians 2:15. A word unknown to Greek writers. [Cf. Act. Petr. et Paul. § 33; Winer's Grammar, 25 (24); 91 (87); δειγματισμός occurs on the Rosetta stone, line 30; Boeckh, Inscriptions 4697. Compare: παραδειγματίζω.]TGL δειγματίζω.2


    (1166) δεικνύω (δεικνύειν, Matthew 16:21; δεικνύεις, John 2:18; τοῦ δεικνύοντος, Revelation 22:8 [not Tdf. ]) and δείκνυμι (1 Corinthians 12:31; Matthew 4:8; John 5:20; cf. Buttmann, 45 (39)); future δείξω; 1 aorist ἔδειξα; 1 aorist passive participle δειχθείς (Hebrews 8:5); the Sept. mostly for הִרְאָה; to show, exhibit;TGL δεικνύω.2

    1. properly, to show, i. e. expose to the eyes: τινί τι, Matthew 4:8; Luke 4:5; Luke 20:24 (for Rec. ἐπιδείξ.); Luke 22:12; Luke 24:40 [R G L, but T omits; Tr brackets WH reject the verse]; Mark 14:15; John 20:20; Acts 7:3; ὁδόν τινι, metaphorically, in which one ought to go, i. e. to teach one what he ought to do, 1 Corinthians 12:31; κατὰ τὸν τύπον τὸν δειχθέντα σοι, Hebrews 8:5; ἑαυτὸν δεικνύναι τινί to expose oneself to the view of one, Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14; δεῖξον ἡμῖν τὸν πατέρα render the Father visible to us, John 14:8; of things presented to one in a vision: τινί τι, Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:8; δεῖξαί τινι, δεῖ γενέσθαι, Revelation 1:1; Revelation 4:1; Revelation 22:6. to show, equivalent to to bring to pass, produce what can be seen (German sehen lassen ); of miracles performed in presence of others to be seen by them: σημεῖον, John 2:18, (Baruch 6 [i. e., epistle of Jeremiah] 66; σῆμα, Homer, Odyssey 3, 174; Iliad 13, 244); ἔργα ἔκ τινος, works done by the aid of one, John 10:32; τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, spoken of God, as the author of Christ's visible return, 1 Timothy 6:15; ἔργα δεικνύειν is used differently in John 5:20, to show works to one for him to do.TGL δεικνύω.3

    2. metaphorically,TGL δεικνύω.4

    a. with the accusative of the thing, to give the evidence or proof of a thing: πίστιν, James 2:18; τὶ ἔκ τινος, as τὴν πίστιν ἐκ τῶν ἔργων, ibid.; τὰ ἔργα ἐκ τῆς καλῆς ἀναστροφῆς, James 3:13.TGL δεικνύω.5

    b. to show by words, to teach: followed by ὅτι, Matthew 16:21 (διδάσκειν in Mark 8:31 for δεικνύειν); followed by an infinitive Acts 10:28. [Compare: ἀνα-, ἀπο-, ἐν-, ἐπι-, ὑποδείκνυμι.]TGL δεικνύω.6


    (1167) δειλία, -ας, , (δειλός), timidity, fearfullness, cowardice: 2 Timothy 1:7. (Sophocles [Herodotus], Euripides, [Aristophanes], Thucydides, and subsequent writings.)TGL δειλία.2

    [Synonyms: δειλία, φόβος, εὐάβεια: "of these three words the first is used always in a bad sense; the second is a middle term, capable of a good interpretation, capable of an evil, and lying pretty evenly between the two; the third is quite predominantly used in a good sense, though it too has not altogether escaped being employed in an evil." Trench § 10 which see; cf. δέος.]TGL δειλία.3


    (1168) δειλιάω, -ῶ; (δειλία, which see); to be timid, fearful: John 14:27. (Deuteronomy 31:6; Deuteronomy 1:21 and often in the Sept. ; Sir. 22:16; Sir. 31:16 (Sir. 34:16); 4 Macc. 14:4. Diodorus 20, 78. The Greeks prefer the compound ἀποδειλιῶ.)TGL δειλιάω.2


    (1169) δειλός, -ή, -όν, (δείδω to fear), timid, fearful: Matthew 8:26; Mark 4:40; in Revelation 21:8 of Christians who through cowardice give way under persecutions and apostatize. (From Homer down.)TGL δειλός.2


    (1170) δεῖνα, , , τό; genitive δεῖνος; dative δεῖνι; accusative τὸν, τὴν, τὸ δεῖνα (cf. Matthiae, § 151), such a one, a certain one, i. e. one whose name I cannot call on the instant, or whose name it is of no importance to mention; once in the Scriptures, namely, Matthew 26:18. (Aristophanes, Demosthenes, others.)TGL δεῖνα.2


    (1171) δεινῶς, adverb, (δεινός), terribly, grievously: Matthew 8:6; Luke 11:53. [From Herodotus down.]TGL δεινῶς.2


    (1172) δειπνέω, -ῶ: [future δειπνήσω]; 1 aorist ἐδείπνησα; (δεῖπνον); to sup: Luke 17:8; Luke 22:20 [WH reject the whole passage, see their Appendix]; 1 Corinthians 11:25; in an allegory, δειπνήσω μετ’ αὐτοῦ, I will make him to share in my most intimate and blissful intercourse: Revelation 3:20.TGL δειπνέω.2


    (1173) δεῖπνον, -ου, τό, and according to a rare and late form δεῖπνος in Luke 14:16 Lachmann [cf. Tdf. on Revelation 19:9, Revelation 19:17, also Winers Grammar, 65 (64); on the derivation cf. δαπάνη ] (in Homer the morning meal or breakfast, cf. Passow [more fully Liddell and Scott] under the word; this the Greeks afterward call τὸ ἄριστον which see [and references there], designating as τὸ δεῖπνον the evening meal or supper);TGL δεῖπνον.2

    1. supper, especially a formal meal usually held at evening: Luke 14:17, Luke 14:24; John 13:2, John 13:4; John 21:20; plural: Matthew 23:6; Mark 12:39; (Luke 11:43 Lachmann in brackets); Luke 20:46; used of the Messiah's feast, symbolizing salvation in the kingdom of heaven: Revelation 19:9, Revelation 19:17; κυριακὸν δεῖπνον (see κυριακός , 1), 1 Corinthians 11:20; ποιεῖν δεῖπνον, Luke 14:12 (ἄριστον δεῖπνον); Luke 14:16 (Daniel 5:1 [Theodotion]); with the addition τινί, Mark 6:21; John 12:2.TGL δεῖπνον.3

    2. universally, food taken at evening: 1 Corinthians 11:21.TGL δεῖπνον.4


    (1174) δεισιδαίμων, -ον, genitive -ονος, (δείδω to fear, and δαίμων deity), fearing the deity or deities, like the Latin religiosus ; used eitherTGL δεισιδαίμων.2

    1. in a good sense, reverencing god or the gods, pious, religious: Xenophon, Cyril 3, 3, 58; Ages. 11, 8; Aristotle, pol. 5, 11 [p. 1315a, 1]; orTGL δεισιδαίμων.3

    2. in a bad sense, superstitious: Theophrastus, char. 16 (22); Diodorus 1, 62; 4, 51; Plutarch, de adul. c. 16; de superstit. c. 10f. Paul in the opening of his address to the Athenians, Acts 17:22, calls them, with kindly ambiguity, κατὰ πάντα δεισιδαιμονεστέρους (namely, than the rest of the Greeks [Winer's Grammar, 244 (229)], cf. Meyer at the passage), as being devout without the knowledge of the true God; cf. Bengel at the passage.TGL δεισιδαίμων.4


    (1175) δεισιδαιμονία, -ας, , (δεισιδαίμων), fear of the gods;TGL δεισιδαιμονία.2

    1. in a good sense, reverence for the gods, piety, religion: Polybius 6, 56, 7; Josephus, Antiquities 10, 3, 2; καὶ θεοφιλής βίος, Diodorus 1, 70.TGL δεισιδαιμονία.3

    2. equivalent to δειλία πρὸς τὸ δαιμόνιον (Theophrastus, char. 16 (22) at the beginning [cf. Jebb, p. 263f]); superstition: [Polybius 12, 24, 5]; Plutarch [Sol. 12, 4]; Alex. 75, 1; de adulat. et am. 25, and in his Essay περὶ τῆς δεισιδαιμονίας; Antoninus 6, 30 θεοσεβὴς χωρὶς δεισιδαιμονίας.TGL δεισιδαιμονία.4

    3. religion, in an objective sense; in which sense Josephus, Antiquities 19, 5, 3, says Claudius commanded the Jews μὴ τὰς τῶν ἄλλων ἐθνῶν δεισιδαιμονίας ἐξουδενίζειν. Festus in the presence of Agrippa the Jewish king employs the word ambiguously and cautiously, in Acts 25:19, of the Jewish religion, namely, so as to leave his own judgment concerning its truth in suspense. Cf. Zezschwitz, Profangräcität u. Biblical Sprachgeist, p. 59; [K. F. Hermann, Lehrb. d. gottesdienstl. Alterthümer, § 8 note 6; Trench, § xlviii.; (cf. Kenrick, Biblical Essays, 1864, p. 108ff; Field, Otium Norv. iii., p. 80f)].TGL δεισιδαιμονία.5


    (1176) δέκα, οἱ, αἱ, τά, [from Homer down], ten: Matthew 20:24, etc. θλῖψις ἡμερῶν δέκα, i. e. to last a short time: Revelation 2:10; cf. Daniel 1:12, Daniel 1:14; Numbers 11:19; Terence, heaut. 5, 1, 36 decem dierum vix mi est familia.TGL δέκα.2


    (1177) δεκαδύο, rare in the earlier writings, frequent in the later (see Passow, under the word δέκα [especially Sophocles Lexicon, under the word; cf. Winers Grammar, 23 (22); Bp. Lightfoot on Galatians 1:18]), and in the Sept. ; equivalent to δώδεκα, twelve: Acts 19:7 and Acts 24:11, in both places L T Tr WH δώδεκα; [Revelation 21:16 Tdf. editions 2, 7].TGL δεκαδύο.2


    (1178) δεκαπέντε, for the earlier πεντεκαίδεκα, fifteen: John 11:18; Acts 27:28; Galatians 1:18; [Genesis 7:20 Ald. , Complutensian; Exodus 27:15; 1 Macc. 10:40; Polybius 3, 56, 3 var.; Diodorus 2, 13; Plutarch, Dion 38, 1; others; cf. δεκαδύο ].TGL δεκαπέντε.2


    (1179) Δεκάπολις, -εως, , Decapolis (regio decapolitana , Pliny, h. n. 5, 16, 17), i. e. a region embracing ten cities. This name is borne by a district of the tribe of Manasseh beyond the Jordan and bordering upon Syria, embracing ten principal cities with smaller towns also scattered in among them. But the ancient geographers vary in their enumeration of these ten cities. Pliny, the passage cited reckons Damascus among them, which Josephus seems to have excluded, calling Scythopolis μεγίστην τῆς δεκαπόλεως, b. j. 3, 9, 7. All seem to agree in this, that Gadara, Hippo, Pella and Scythopolis were of the number. Cf. Winers RWB under the word Decapolis; Vaihinger in Herzog 3:325f; Riehm, HWB, 266f; [BB. DD. , under the word. Caspari, Chron.-geogr. Einl. pp. 83-90; Schürer, Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 23, I. vol. ii. p. 83 (Eng. trans. ii1 p. 94)]: Matthew 4:25; Mark 5:20; Mark 7:31.TGL Δεκάπολις.2


    (1180) δεκατέσσαρες, -ων, οἱ, αἱ, -σαρα, τά, fourteen: Matthew 1:17; 2 Corinthians 12:2; Galatians 2:1. [Genesis 31:41; Tobit 8:19; Tobit 10:7; Polybius 1, 36, 11; cf. δεκαδύο .]TGL δεκατέσσαρες.2


    (1181) δεκάτη, -ης, , (δέκατος), the tenth part of anything, a tithe; specially the tenth part of booty taken from the enemy: Hebrews 7:2, Hebrews 7:4; the tithes of the fruits of the earth and of the flocks, which, by the law of Moses, were presented to the Levites in the congregation of Israel: Hebrews 7:8. (In Greek writings from [Simonides 133 Bgk.; Herodotus 2, 135]; 4, 152 down; the Sept. for מַעֲשֵׂר.) [Cf. BB. DD. under the word Tithe.]TGL δεκάτη.2


    (1182) δέκατος, , -ον, (δέκα), [from Homer down], the tenth: John 1:39 (John 1:40); Revelation 21:20; τὸ δέκατον, a substantive, the tenth part: Revelation 11:13.TGL δέκατος.2


    (1183) δεκατόω, -ῶ: perfect δεδεκάτωκα; perfect passive δεδεκάτωμαι; (δέκατος); to exact or receive the tenth part (for which Greek writers use δεκατεύω [Winer's Grammar, 24]): with the accusative of person from whom, Hebrews 7:6 [on the perfect cf. Winers Grammar, § 40, 4 a.; Lightfoot St. Clement, Appendix, p. 414]; passive to pay tithes (Vulg. decimor ): Hebrews 7:9. (Nehemiah 10:37.) [Compare: ἀποδεκατόω.]TGL δεκατόω.2


    (1184) δεκτός, , -όν, (δέχομαι), accepted, acceptable: Luke 4:24; Philippians 4:18; τινί, Acts 10:35; the phrases καιρὸς δεκτός, 2 Corinthians 6:2 (Isaiah 49:8 for רָצוֹן עֵת), and ἐνιαυτὸς δεκτός, Luke 4:19 (Isaiah 61:2 for רָצוֹן שְׁנַת), denote that most blessed time when salvation and the free favors of God profusely abound. (Exodus 28:34; Isaiah 56:7 [etc.]. Among secular authors used by Jamblichus, protr. symb. § 20, p. 350.)TGL δεκτός.2


    (1185) δελεάζω; [present passive δελεάζομαι]; (δέλεαρ a bait);TGL δελεάζω.2

    1. properly, to bait, catch by a bait: Xenophon, mem. 2, 1, 4, and others.TGL δελεάζω.3

    2. as often in secular authors, metaphorically, to beguile by blandishments, allure, entice, deceive: τινά, 2 Peter 2:14, 2 Peter 2:18; James 1:14, on this passage cf. Philo, quod omn. prob. book § 22. πρὸς ἐπιθυμίας ἐλαύνεται ὑφἡδονῆς δελεάζεται.TGL δελεάζω.4


    (1186) δένδρον, -ου, τό, a tree: Matthew 7:17, etc.; γίνεσθαι δένδρον or εἰς δένδρον, to grow to the shape and size of a tree, Matthew 13:32; Luke 13:19. [(Homer, Herodotus), Aristophanes, Thucydides down.]TGL δένδρον.2


    (1187) δεξιολάβος, -ου, , (δεξιός and λαμβάνω), a word unknown to the earlier writings, found in Constantinus Porphyrogenitus (10th century ) de them. 1, 1, who speaks of δεξιολάβοι, as a kind of soldiers, in company with bowmen (τοξοφόροι) and peltasts; [they are also mentioned by Theophylact Simocatta (hist. 4, 1) in the 7th century ; see the quotations in Meyer].TGL δεξιολάβος.2

    Since in Acts 23:23 two hundred of them are ordered to be ready, apparently spearmen are referred to (carrying a lance in the right hand); and so the Vulg. has taken it. The great number spoken of conflicts with the interpretation of those who suppose them to be soldiers whose duty it was to guard captives bound by a chain on the right hand. Meyer at the passage understands them to be [either] javelin men [or slingers].TGL δεξιολάβος.3

    Related entry: δεξιοβόλος, -ου, , (from δεξιός and βάλλω), throwing with the right hand, a slinger, an archer: Acts 23:23 in Lachman ed. min.; cf. the following word.TGL δεξιολάβος.4


    (1188) δεξιός, -ά, -όν, (from δέχομαι, future δέξομαι, or from δέκω, which is akin to δείκνυμι; properly, of that hand which is accustomed to take told of as well as to point out; just as ἄξιος comes from ἄξω, future of ἄγω; [cf. Curtius, §§ 11, 266]), the right: Matthew 5:29, Matthew 5:39; Luke 22:50; John 18:10; Revelation 10:2; δεξιὰ χείρ, Matthew 5:30; Luke 6:6; Acts 3:7; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 13:16; and (with χείρ omitted) δεξιά (like ἀριστερά), Matthew 6:3; Matthew 27:29; Revelation 1:20; Revelation 2:1; Revelation 5:7; ἐπὶ τὴν δεξιάν [on the right hand i. e.] at the right side, Revelation 5:1 [but others take it more closely, in the right hand; cf. Revelation 5:7 and Revelation 20:1]; διδόναι τὴν δεξιάν or τὰς δεξιάς, to pledge either a mutual friendship, or a compact, by joining the right hands: Galatians 2:9 (1 Macc. 6:58; 1 Macc. 11:50, 62, 66; 1 Macc. 13:50; 2 Macc. 11:26; 2 Macc. 12:11; 2 Macc. 13:22; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus ii., pp. 566 and 599; and in secular authors as Xenophon, an. 1, 6, 6; 2, 5, 3; Josephus, Antiquities 18, 9, 3 δεξιάν τε καὶ πίστιν διδόναι τινί); God is said to have done something τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ with his right hand i. e., according to Hebrew idiom, by his own power [cf. Winer's Grammar, 214 (201)]: Acts 2:33; Acts 5:31; τὰ ὅπλα τὰ δεξιά, arms carried in the right hand and used for attack, as the sword, the spear, καὶ ἀριστερά those carried in the left hand, for the purpose of defense, as the shield: 2 Corinthians 6:7; τὰ δεξιά μέρη τοῦ πλοίου, John 21:6. τά δεξιά the right side [Winer's Grammar, 176 (166)]: Mark 16:5; ἐκ δεξιῶν τινος on one's right hand (Latin ad alicuius dextram ), Matthew 25:33; Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27; Luke 1:11; Luke 23:33; εἶναι, Acts 2:25 (from Psalm 15:8 (Psalms 16:8), he is at my right hand, namely, as a leader, to sustain me). As in this expression the Greeks use the preposition ἐκ, so the Hebrews sometimes use מִן (מִימִין from i. e. at the right, פְּ״ מֵאֵצֶל from i. e. at the side of anyone) and the Romans ab (sedere a dextra alicuis , proximum esse ab aliquo ), because they define the position of one standing or sitting next another by proceeding from the one next to whom he is said to stand or sit [cf. Winer's Grammar, 367 (344)]. καθίσαι ἐκ δεξιῶν κ. ἐξ εὐωνύμων τινὸς βασιλέως, to occupy the places of honor nearest the king, Matthew 20:21, Matthew 20:23; Mark 10:37, Mark 10:40; (יָשַׁב פְּ״ לִימִין, 1 Kings 2:19; Psalms 44:10 (Psalms 45:10)). Hence, after Psalms 109:1 (Psalms 110:1) as applied to the Messiah (Matthew 22:44; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42), Christ is said to have ascended καθῆσθαι or καθίσαι ἐκ δεξιῶν (at or on the right hand) of God, Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62; Mark 16:19; Luke 22:69; Acts 2:34; Hebrews 1:13; εἶναι or καθίσαι ἐν δεξιᾷ τ. θεοῦ, Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 12:2 — to indicate that he has become a partner in God's universal government (cf. Knapp, De J. Chr. ad dextram dei sedente, in his Scripta var. arg., p. 41ff; [Stuart, Commentary on Hebrews, excurs. iv.]). That these expressions are to be understood in this figurative sense, and not of a fixed and definite place in the highest heavens (as Chr. Fr. Fritzsche in Nov. Opuscc. acad., p. 209ff tries to prove, after the orthodox theologians of the reformed church), will be questioned by no one who carefully considers Revelation 3:21. Christ is once spoken of as ἑστὼς ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ, as though in indignation at his adversaries [according to others, to welcome his martyred servant] he had risen from his heavenly throne, Acts 7:55.TGL δεξιός.2


    (1189) δέομαι; 3 person singular imperfect ἐδέετο (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 220; Winers Grammar, 46; [Veitch, under the word δέω to need at the end]), Luke 8:38 (where Lachmann ἐδέειτο, Tr WH ἐδεῖτο; cf. Meyer at the passage; [WHs Appendix, p. 166]; Buttmann, 55 (48)); 1 aorist ἐδεήθην; (from δέω to want, need; whence middle δέομαι to stand in need of, want for oneself); [from Herodotus down];TGL δέομαι.2

    1. to want, lack: τινός.TGL δέομαι.3

    2. to desire, long for: τινός.TGL δέομαι.4

    3. to ask, beg (German bitten);TGL δέομαι.5

    a. universally — the thing asked for being evident from the context: with the genitive of the person from whom, Galatians 4:12; the thing sought being specified in direct discourse: Luke 5:12; Luke 8:28; Luke 9:38 (according to the reading ἐπίβλεψον R L); Acts 8:34 (δέομαί σου, περὶ τίνος προφήτης λέγει τοῦτο; of whom, I pray thee, doth the prophet say this?); Acts 21:39; 2 Corinthians 5:20; followed by the infinitive, Luke 8:38; Luke 9:38 (according to the reading ἐπιβλέψαι Tr WH); Acts 26:3 (where G L T Tr WH omit σοῦ after δέομαι); followed by ἵνα, Luke 9:40 (cf. Winers Grammar, 335 (315); [Buttmann, 258 (222)]); followed by τό with an infinitive 2 Corinthians 10:2 [cf. Buttmann, 263 (226), 279 (239); Winer's Grammar, 321, 322 (301f)]; with the genitive of person and the accusative of a thing, 2 Corinthians 8:4 (G L T Tr WH; for Rec. adds δέξασθαι ἡμᾶς without warrant), [cf. Buttmann, 164 (143); Winers Grammar, 198 (186)].TGL δέομαι.6

    b. specifically, of requests addressed to God; absolutely to pray, make supplication: Acts 4:31; τοῦ θεοῦ, Acts 10:2; followed by εἰ ἄρα, Acts 8:22 [Buttmann, 256 (220); Winer's Grammar, 300 (282)]; τοῦ κυρίου, ὅπως etc. Matthew 9:38; Luke 10:2; without the genitive θεοῦ, — followed by εἴ πως, Romans 1:10 [cf. Winers Grammar, and Buttmann's Grammar, the passages cited]; by ἵνα, Luke 21:36; Luke 22:32; by the telic εἰς τό, 1 Thessalonians 3:10 [cf. Buttmann, 265 (228)]; ὑπέρ τινος πρὸς τὸν κύριον, ὅπως, Acts 8:24. [Synonyms: see αἰτέω and δέησις . Compare: προσδέομαι.]TGL δέομαι.7


    (1190) Δερβαῖος, -ου, , of Derbe, a native of Derbe: Acts 20:4.TGL Δερβαῖος.2


    (1191) Δέρβη, -ης, , Derbe, a city of Lycaonia, on the confines of Isauria, [on its supposed site see Lewin, St. Paul, i. 151f; B. D. under the word; cf. Conyb. and Hows. St. Paul Index under the word]: Acts 14:6, Acts 14:20; Acts 16:1.TGL Δέρβη.2


    (1192) δέρμα, -τος, τό, (from δέρω or δείρω, as κέρμα from κείρω), a skin, hide, leather: Hebrews 11:37. (Homer and following.)TGL δέρμα.2


    (1193) δερμάτινος, , -ον, (δέρμα), made of skin, leather (Vulg. pelliceus ): Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6; cf. 2 Kings 1:8. (Homer, Herodotus, Plato, Strabo, others.)TGL δερμάτινος.2


    (1194) δέρω; 1 aorist ἔδειρα; 2 future passive δαρήσομαι;TGL δέρω.2

    1. to flay, skin: Homer, Iliad 1, 459; 23, 167, etc.TGL δέρω.3

    2. to beat, throb, smite (cf. German durchgerben, [low English hide ]), so sometimes in secular authors from Aristophanes ran. 619 [cf. vesp. 485] down: τινά, Matthew 21:35; Mark 12:3, Mark 12:5; Luke 20:10; Luke 22:63; John 18:23; Acts 5:40; Acts 16:37; Acts 22:19; εἰς πρόσωπον δέρειν τινά, 2 Corinthians 11:20; ἀέρα δέρειν (see ἀήρ ), 1 Corinthians 9:26; passive: Mark 13:9; Luke 12:47 (δαρήσεται πολλάς, namely, πληγάς, will be beaten with many stripes); Luke 12:48 (ὀλίγας, cf. Xenophon, an. 5, 8, 12 παίειν ὀλίγας, Sophocles El. 1415 παίειν διπλῆν, Aristophanes nub. 968 (972) τύπτεσθαι πολλάς, Plato, legg. 8, p. 845 a. μαστιγοῦσθαι πληγάς; cf. [Winers Grammar, 589 (548)]; Buttmann, [82 (72)]; § 134, 6).TGL δέρω.4


    (1195) δεσμεύω; [imperfect passive 3 person singular ἐδεσμεύετο (Luke 8:29 T Tr WH)]; (δεσμός);TGL δεσμεύω.2

    a. to put in chains: Luke 8:29 T Tr WH; Acts 22:4; (Sept. Judges 16:11; Euripides, Bacch. 616; Xenophon, Hier. 6, 14; Plato, legg. 7, p. 808 d.).TGL δεσμεύω.3

    b. to bind up, bind together: φορτία, Matthew 23:4; (δράγματα, Genesis 37:7; Judith 8:3. [Hesiod, Works, 479, others]).TGL δεσμεύω.4


    (1196) δεσμέω, -ῶ: [imperfect passive 3 person singular ἐδεσμεῖτο]; to bind, tie: Luke 8:29 R G L; see δεσμεύω . ([Aristotle, de plant. 1, 2, p. 817b, 21; others]; Heliodorus 8, 9.)TGL δεσμέω.2


    (1197) δέσμη, -ης, or as others write it [e. g. Rec.st T; yet cf. Lob. Paralip., p. 396; Chandler § 132] δεσμή, -ῆς, , (δέω), a bundle: Matthew 13:30. (Exodus 12:22. Demosthenes, Dionysius Halicarnassus, others.)TGL δέσμη.2


    (1198) δέσμιος, -ου, , bound, in bonds, a captive, a prisoner [from Sophocles down]: Matthew 27:15; Mark 15:6; Acts 16:25, Acts 16:27; Acts 23:18; Acts 25:14, Acts 25:27; Acts 28:16 [R G], Acts 28:17; Hebrews 10:34 G L T Tr text WH; Hebrews 13:3; δέσμιος τοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, whom Christ, i. e. his truth which I have preached, has put in bonds (Winers Grammar, 189 (178); [Buttmann, 169 (147)]), Ephesians 3:1; 2 Timothy 1:8; Philemon 1:1, Philemon 1:9; in the same sense δέσμιος ἐν κυρίῳ, Ephesians 4:1; [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Philemon 1:13].TGL δέσμιος.2


    (1199) δεσμός, -οῦ, , (δέω) [from Homer down], a band or bond: Mark 7:35 (ἐλύθη δεσμὸς τῆς γλώσσης αὐτοῦ, i. e. the impediment in his speech was removed); Luke 13:16 (λυθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ, of a woman bowed together, held fast as it were by a bond).TGL δεσμός.2

    The plural form τά δεσμά the more common form in Greek writings (Winers Grammar, 63 (62) [cf. Buttmann, 23 (21); see below]), is found in Luke 8:29; Acts 16:26; Acts 20:23; the other form οἱ δεσμοί in Philippians 1:13 (ὥστε τοὺς δεσμούς μου φανεροὺς ἐν Χριστῷ γενέσθαι, so that my captivity became manifest as made for the cause of Christ), ["δεσμά sunt vincula quibus quis constringitur , sed δεσμός est in carcerem conjectio et captivitas in vinculis ... Utraque forma et ceteri Graeci omnes et Attici utuntur , sed non promiscue ut inter se permutari possint ." Cobet as quoted in Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 353]; the genitive and dative in Acts 22:30 Rec. ; Acts 23:29; Acts 26:29, Acts 26:31; Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:14, Philippians 1:16 (Philippians 1:17); Colossians 4:18; 2 Timothy 2:9; Philemon 1:10; Hebrews 10:34 R Tr marginal reading; Hebrews 11:36; Jude 1:6; ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, in the captivity into which the preaching of the gospel has thrown me, Philemon 1:13 [Winer's Grammar, 189 (178); cf. reference under the word δέσμιος, at the end].TGL δεσμός.3


    (1200) δεσμοφύλαξ, -κος, , (δεσμός and φύλαξ, like θησαυροφύλαξ [cf. Winer's Grammar 100 (95)]), a keeper of a prison, a jailer: Acts 16:23, Acts 16:27, Acts 16:36. (Josephus, Antiquities 2, 5, 1; Lucian, Tox. 30; [Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 3, 60; others]; ἀρχιδεσμοφύλαξ, Genesis 39:21-23.)TGL δεσμοφύλαξ.2


    (1201) δεσμωτήριον, -ου, τό, a prison, jail: Matthew 11:2; Acts 5:21, Acts 5:23; Acts 16:26. (Genesis 40:3; [Herodotus], Thucydides, Plato, Demosthenes, others.)TGL δεσμωτήριον.2


    (1202) δεσμώτης, -ου, , one bound, a prisoner: Acts 27:1, Acts 27:42. (Genesis 39:20; Baruch 1:9; Herodotus, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Thucydides, subsequent writers)TGL δεσμώτης.2


    (1203) δεσπότης, -ου, , [from Pindar down], a master, lord (as of δοῦλοι, οἰκέται): 1 Timothy 6:1-2; 2 Timothy 2:21; Titus 2:9; 1 Peter 2:18; God is thus addressed by one who calls himself his δοῦλος: Luke 2:29, cf. Acts 4:24, Acts 4:29 (δεσπότης τῶν πάντων, Job 5:8; Wis. 6:8); Christ is so called, as one who has bought his servants, 2 Peter 2:1; rules over his church, Jude 1:4 [some take δ. here as designating God; cf. R. V. marginal reading]; and whose prerogative it is to take vengeance on those who persecute his followers, Revelation 6:10.TGL δεσπότης.2

    [Synonyms: δεσπότης κύριος: δ. was strictly the correlative of slave, δοῦλος, and hence denoted absolute ownership and uncontrolled power; κύριος had a wider meaning, applicable to the various ranks and relations of life, and not suggestive either of poperty or of absolutism. Ammonius under the word δεσπότης says δ. τῶν ἀργυρωνήτων· κύριος δὲ καὶ πατὴρ υἱοῦ καὶ αὐτός τις ἑαυτοῦ. So Philo, quis rer. div. heres § 6 ὥστε τὸν δεσπότην κύριον εῖναι καὶ ἔτι ὡσανεὶ φοβερὸν κύριον οὐ μόνον τὸ κῦρος καὶ τὸ κράτος ἁπάντων ἀνημμένον, ἀλλὰ καὶ δέος καὶ φόβον ἱκανὸν ἑμποιῆσαι. Cf. Trench § 28; Woolsey, in Bib. Sacr. for 1861, p. 599f; Schmidt ch. 161, 5.]TGL δεσπότης.3


    (1204) δεῦρο, adverb, from Homer down;TGL δεῦρο.2

    1. of place,TGL δεῦρο.3

    a. hither; to this place.TGL δεῦρο.4

    b. in urging and calling, Here! Come! (Sept. especially for לֵך and לְכָה): Matthew 19:21; Mark 10:21; Luke 18:22; John 11:43 (δεῦρο ἔξω come forth). Acts 7:34; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9; δεῦρο εἰς γῆν, ἥν κτλ., Acts 7:3 (δεῦρο εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου, 1 Kings 1:53; εἰς Πτολεμαΐδα, 1 Macc. 12:45).TGL δεῦρο.5

    2. of time, hitherto, now: ἄχρι τοῦ δεῦρο up to this time, Romans 1:13 (μέχρι δεῦρο [Plato, legg. 7, p. 811 c.]; Athen. 1, 62, p. 34 c.; Plutarch, vit. Numbers 4:1-49; Pomp. 24).TGL δεῦρο.6


    (1205) δεῦτε, adverb, used when two or more are addressed [cf. Buttmann, 70 (61)]; perhaps from δευῥ ἴτε [yet see Buttmann Gram. 21te Aufl. § 115 Anm. 8], see δεῦρο , 1;TGL δεῦτε.2

    1. from Homer down, come hither, come here, come: followed by an imperative, δεῦτε, κληρονομήσατε, Matthew 25:34; δεῦτε, ἴδετε, Matthew 28:6; John 4:29; δεῦτε, ἀριστήσατε, John 21:12; δεῦτε, συνάχθητε (Rec. δ. καὶ συνάγεσθε), Revelation 19:17. δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου come after me, be my disciples: Matthew 4:19; Mark 1:17 (equivalent to אַחֲרַי לְכוּ, 2 Kings 6:19); δεῦτε εἰς τ. γάμους, Matthew 22:4; εἰς ἔρημον τόπον, Mark 6:31; δεῦτε πρός με, Matthew 11:28.TGL δεῦτε.3

    2. It gets the force of an interjection, Come! Come now! followed by a hortatory subjunctive: δεῦτε, ἀποκτείνωμεν, Matthew 21:38; Mark 12:7 and R G in Luke 20:14. (Sept. mostly for לְכוּ, sometimes for בֹּאוּ.)TGL δεῦτε.4


    (1206) δευτεραῖος, -αία, -αῖον, (δεύτερος), [Herodotus, Xenophon, others], of or belonging to the second; of one who comes, or does a thing, on the second day (cf. τριταῖος, τεταρταῖος , etc.): δευτεραῖοι ἤλθομεν, Acts 28:13; cf. Winers Grammar, § 54, 2; [Buttmann, § 123, 9].TGL δευτεραῖος.2


    (1207) δευτερόπρωτος, -ον, second-first (cf. δευτερεσχατος second-last, last but one): ἐν σαββάτῳ δευτεροπρώτῳ in Luke 6:1 seems to be, the second of the first sabbaths after the feast of the Passover; cf. Redslob in the Intelligenzblatt zur Hall. Lit. Zeit. 1847, N. 70; Ewald, Jahrbb. d. Biblical Wissensch. i., p. 72; [WH's Appendix, at the passage]. The various opinions of others are reviewed by Meyer [and McClellan] at the passage and Lübkert in the Studien und Kritiken for 1835, p. 664ff (Eustrat. in vita Eutych. n. 95 calls the first Sunday after Easter δευτεροπρώτην κυριακήν).TGL δευτερόπρωτος.2

    [But the genuineness of the word is questionable. It is lacking in א B L 1, 33, 69 and some other authorities. Hence, Tr text WH omit the word; L Tr marginal reading brackets it. Tischendorf, after expunging it in his 2nd edition, restored it in his 7th edition, subsequently put it in brackets, and finally (8th edition) inserted it again. It is questioned or discarded, by Meyer, Bleek, Alford, Weiss (on Mark, p. 101), Holtz., Hilgenf., Volkm., Farrar (commentary at the passage and Life of Christ 1:435), others. For the evidence see Tdf s note, and for discussions of it see WHs Appendix at the passage; Scrivener, Introduction, p. 515f; Green, "Developed Criticism" at the passage.]TGL δευτερόπρωτος.3


    (1208) δεύτερος, -έρα, -ερον, [from Homer down; Curtius, § 277], second: Matthew 22:26; Mark 12:21; Luke 12:38; John 4:54; Revelation 4:7, etc.; the second, the other of two: Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31; 1 Corinthians 15:47; Titus 3:10; 2 Peter 3:1; Hebrews 8:7; Hebrews 10:9; δεύτερος θάνατος (see θάνατος , 3), Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:14; Revelation 21:8; δευτέρα χάρις in 2 Corinthians 1:15 is not a double benefit, but a second, opposed to the former which the Corinthians would have had if Paul in passing through Achaia into Macedonia had visited them πρότερον [WH text Tr marginal reading read δευτ. χαράν, which see].TGL δεύτερος.2

    The neuter δεύτερον is used adverbially in the second place, a second time [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 37, 5 Note 1]: John 3:4; Revelation 19:3; πάλιν is added, as often in Greek writings (see ἄνωθεν , at the end): John 21:16; also τὸ δεύτερον, 2 Corinthians 13:2; Jude 1:5; ἐκ δευτέρου (1 Macc. 9:1), Mark 14:72; John 9:24; Acts 11:9; Hebrews 9:28; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1d.; with πάλιν added, Matthew 26:42; Acts 10:15, (Homer, Odyssey 3, 161 ἐπὶ δεύτερον αὖτις); ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ at the second time, Acts 7:13 (when they had come the second time); δεύτερον in a partition then, in the second place: 1 Corinthians 12:28.TGL δεύτερος.3


    (1209) δέχομαι; [future 2 person plural δέξεσθε, Ephesians 6:17 Rec.bez ]; 1 aorist ἐδεξάμην; perfect δεδεγμαι (Acts 8:14); deponent middle; Sept. mostly for לָקַח;TGL δέχομαι.2

    1. to take with the hand: τὸ γράμμα [L text T Tr WH τὰ γράμματα], Luke 16:6; τὸ ποτήριον, Luke 22:17; to take hold of, take up, τ. περικεφαλαίαν, τ. μάχαιραν, Ephesians 6:17; τὸ παιδίον εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας, Luke 2:28.TGL δέχομαι.3

    2. to take up, receive (German aufnehmen, annehmen );TGL δέχομαι.4

    a. used of a place receiving one: ὃν δεῖ οὐρανὸν δέξασθαι (οὐρ. is subject), Acts 3:21, (Plato, Theact., p. 177 a. τελευτήσαντας αὐτοὺς... τῶν κακῶν καθαρὸς τόπος οὐ δέξεται).TGL δέχομαι.5

    b. with the accusative of person to receive, grant access to, a visitor; not to refuse contact or friendship: Luke 9:11 R G; John 4:45; 2 Corinthians 7:15; Galatians 4:14; Colossians 4:10; to receive to hospitality, Matthew 10:14, Matthew 10:40; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5, Luke 9:53; Luke 10:8, Luke 10:10; Acts 21:17 Rec. ; Hebrews 11:31 (often in Greek writings from Homer down); παιδίον, to receive into one's family in order to bring up and educate, Matthew 18:5; Mark 9:37; Luke 9:48; to receive εἰς τ. οἴκους, τὰς σκηνάς, Luke 16:4, Luke 16:9; δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου, to thyself in heaven, Acts 7:59.TGL δέχομαι.6

    c. with the accusative of the thing offered in speaking, teaching, instructing; to receive favorably, give ear to, embrace, make one's own, approve, not to reject: τὸν λόγον, Luke 8:13; Acts 8:14; Acts 11:1; Acts 17:11; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; James 1:21; τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, 1 Corinthians 2:14; τὴν παράκλησιν, 2 Corinthians 8:17; τὴν ἀγάπην τῆς ἀληθείας namely, commended to them, 2 Thessalonians 2:10; [add the elliptical construction in Matthew 11:14] (often in Greek writings); to receive a benefit offered, not to reject it, 2 Corinthians 8:4 Rec.TGL δέχομαι.7

    d. to receive equivalent to to take upon oneself, sustain, bear, endure: τινά, his bearing and behavior, 2 Corinthians 11:16, (τήν ἀδικίαν, Hebrew נָשָׂא, Genesis 50:17; πᾶν, ἐὰν ἐπαχθῇ, Sir. 2:4; μῦθον χαλεπόν, Homer, Odyssey 20, 271, and often in Greek writings).TGL δέχομαι.8

    3. to receive, get, (German empfangen): ἐπιστολάς, Acts 22:5; γράμματα, Acts 28:21; τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ, to become a partaker of the benefits of God's kingdom, Mark 10:15; Luke 18:17; λόγια ζῶντα, Acts 7:38; εὐαγγέλιον, 2 Corinthians 11:4; τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ, 2 Corinthians 6:1; — equivalent to to learn: Philippians 4:18 [(?) see the commentaries at the passage]. [Synonyms: δέχομαι, λαμβάνω: The earlier classic use of these verbs sustains in the main the distinction laid down in the glossaries (e. g. Ammonius under the word λαβεῖν: λαβεῖν μέν ἐστι, τὸ κείμενόν τι ἀνελέσθαι· δέξασθαι δέ, τὸ διδόμενον ἐκ χειρός), and the suggestion of a self-prompted taking still adheres to λ. in many connexions (cf. λαβεῖν τινα γυναῖκα, ἀρχὴν λαβεῖν) in distinction from a receiving of what is offered; in use, however, the words overlap and distinctions disappear; yet the suggestion of a welcoming or an appropriating reception generally cleaves to δ. See Schmidt ch. 107, who treats of the comp. of δ in detail. Compare: ἀνα-, ἀπο-, δια-, εἰσ-, ἐκ-, ἀπ-ἐκ-, ἐν-, ἐπι-, παρα-, προσ-, ὑπο-δέχομαι]. The words are associated in 2 Corinthians 11:4.TGL δέχομαι.9


    (1210) δέω: [future δήσω]; 1 aorist ἔδησα; perfect participle δεδεκώς (Acts 22:29); passive, perfect δέδεμαι; 1 aorist infinitive δεθῆναι (Acts 21:33); Sept. chiefly for אָסַר; [from Homer down]; to bind, tie, fasten;TGL δέω.2

    1. properly: τί, εἰς δεσμάς, Matthew 13:30 [Tr WH brackets G probably omit εἰς, cf. Buttmann, 150 (131); Winer's Grammar, 225 (211)]; ὀθόνη τέσσαρσιν ἀρχαῖς δεδεμ. a sheet bound by the four corners (to the sky), Acts 10:11 (G L T Tr WH omit δεδεμ. καί); an animal, to prevent it from straying around, ὄνος δεδεμένη, πῶλος δεδεμένος, Matthew 21:2; Mark 11:2; Luke 19:30; with πρὸς τ. θύραν added, Mark 11:4; with the accusative of person to bind, to fasten with chains, to throw into chains: ἀγγέλους, Revelation 9:14; a madman, πέδαις καὶ ἁλύσεσι, Mark 5:3; captives, [Matthew 12:29]; Matthew 14:3; Matthew 22:13; Matthew 27:2; [Mark 3:27]; Mark 6:17; Mark 15:1; John 18:12; Acts 9:14; Acts 21:11; Acts 22:29; Revelation 20:2; Passive, Mark 15:7; John 18:24; Acts 9:2, Acts 9:21 (in the last two passages δεδεμένον ἄγειν τινά); Acts 21:13; Acts 22:5; Acts 24:27; Colossians 4:3; ἁλύσεσι, Acts 12:6; Acts 21:33; λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ οὐ δέδεται, figuratively for these bonds of mine in no way hinder its course, i. e. the preaching, extension, and efficacy of the gospel, 2 Timothy 2:9; the bodies of the dead, which were accustomed to be bound with bandages and linen cloths: τεθνηκὼς δεδεμένος τοὺς πόδας κ. τὰς χεῖρας κειρίαις, bound hand and foot with grave-cloths, John 11:44; τὸ σῶμα ὀθονίοις (Tdf. 2, 7 ἐν ὀθον.), to swathe in linen cloths, John 19:40.TGL δέω.3

    2. metaphorically,TGL δέω.4

    a. Satan is said δῆσαι a woman bent together, i. e. by means of a demon, as his messenger, taking possession of the woman and preventing her from standing upright, Luke 13:16 cf. Luke 13:11.TGL δέω.5

    b. to bind, i. e. put under obligation, namely, of law, duty, etc.: δεδεμένος τῷ πνεύματι, bound or constrained in my spirit, i. e. compelled by my convictions, Acts 20:22 (so not infrequent in Greek authors as Plato, rep. 8, p. 567 d. ἀνάγκῃ δέδεται προστάττει αὐτῷ); with the dative of person δεδέσθαι τινί, to be bound to one: ἀνδρί, of a wife, Romans 7:2; γυναικί, of a husband, 1 Corinthians 7:27; δέδεται absolutely, opposed to ἐλευθέρα ἐστί, 1 Corinthians 7:39; (Achilles Tatius 1, 11, p. 41 ἄλλῃ δέδεμαι παρθένῳ, Jamblichus, vit. Pythagoras 11, 56 τὴν μὲν ἄγαμον,... τὴν δὲ πρὸς ἄνδρα δεδεμένην).TGL δέω.6

    c. by a Chaldean and rabbinical idiom (equivalent to אֲסַר), to forbid, prohibit, declare to be illicit: Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:18. [Compare: κατα-, περι-, συν-, ὑποδέω.]TGL δέω.7


    (1211) δή (shortened from ἤδη [others besides]), a particle which, the epic phrases δὴ τότε, δὴ γάρ excepted, is never placed at the beginning of a sentence, but is joined to some preceding word, and indicates that "what it introduces can be taken as something settled, laid down in deed and in truth" (Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 392): now therefore, then, verily, in truth, (Latin jam, igitur, sane , etc. — although neither Latin, German [nor English] has a word precisely equivalent to δή).TGL δή.2

    1. added to relative pronouns: ὃς δή, who is such a one as, who preeminently, who then, Matthew 13:23.TGL δή.3

    2. joined to imperatives and hortatory subjunctives it signifies that the thing enjoined must be done forthwith, at once [cf. Winers Grammar, § 43, 3 a.], so that it may be evident that it is being done (cf. Passow, i., p. 612b), where the Latin says agedum , jam , German doch, nur [English, now, only, but]: Luke 2:15; [Acts 6:3 L WH marginal reading brackets]; Acts 13:2; Acts 15:36; 1 Corinthians 6:20 (Sir. 44:1).TGL δή.4

    3. surely, certainly: 2 Corinthians 12:1 R G.TGL δή.5


    (1212) δῆλος, , -ον, [from Homer down], clear, evident, manifest: Matthew 26:73; δῆλον namely, ἐστίν it is manifest, evident, followed by ὅτι (4 Macc. 2:7; Xenophon, an. 1, 3, 9; others): 1 Corinthians 15:27 [here some would take the words adverbially and parenthetically, i. e. δηλονότι, manifestly, cf. Winer's Grammar, § 64, 2 a.]; Galatians 3:11; 1 Timothy 6:7 (here L T Tr WH omit δῆλον).TGL δῆλος.2

    [Synonyms: δῆλος, φανερός: δ. evident, what is known and understood, φ. manifest, as opposed to what is concealed or invisible; δ. points rather to inner perception, φ. to outward appearance. Cf. Schmidt ch. 129.]TGL δῆλος.3


    (1213) δηλόω, -ῶ; [imperfect ἐδήλουν; future δηλώσω]; 1 aorist ἐδήλωσα; passive [imperfect 3 person singular ἐδηλοῦτο (1 Peter 1:11 WH marginal reading)]; 1 aorist ἐδηλώθην; (δῆλος); Sept. for הודִיעַ and sometimes for הורָה; in Greek authors from [Aeschylus and] Herodotus down; to make manifest: τί, 1 Corinthians 3:13; to make known by relating, to declare: τί, Colossians 1:8; τινὶ περί τινος, ὅτι, 1 Corinthians 1:11; to give one to understand, to indicate, signify: τί, Hebrews 12:27; 2 Peter 1:14; followed by the accusative with an infinitive Hebrews 9:8; εἴς τι, point unto, 1 Peter 1:11. [Synonyms: δηλόω, ἐμφανίζω: ἐμφ. to manifest to the sight, make visible; δ. to render evident to the mind, of such disclosures as exhibit character or suggest inferences; hence especially of prophetical, typical, or other supernatural disclosures. Cf. Schmidt ch. 129 § 6; Bleek on Hebrews 9:8]TGL δηλόω.2


    (1214) Δημᾶς, , Demas, (proper name, contracted apparently from Δημήτριος, cf. Winers Grammar, 103 (97); [on its declension, cf. Buttmann, 20 (18)]), a companion of Paul, who deserted the apostle when he was a prisoner at Rome and returned to Thessalonica: Colossians 4:14; Philemon 1:24; 2 Timothy 4:10.TGL Δημᾶς.2


    (1215) δημηγορέω, -ῶ: [imperfect ἐδημηγόρουν]; (to be a δημηγόρος, from δῆμος and ἀγορεύω, to harangue the people); to address a public assembly, make a speech to the people: ἐδημηγόρει πρὸς αὐτούς [A. V. made an oration], Acts 12:21. (Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, Demosthenes, others. Proverbs 30:31 (Prov. 24:66); 4 Macc. 5:15.)TGL δημηγορέω.2


    (1216) Δημήτριος, -ου, , Demetrius;TGL Δημήτριος.2

    1. a silversmith of Ephesus, a heathen: Acts 19:24, Acts 19:38.TGL Δημήτριος.3

    2. a certain Christian: 3 John 1:12.TGL Δημήτριος.4


    (1217) δημιουργός, -οῦ, , (δήμιος, public, belonging to the people, and ΕΡΓΩ; cf. ἱερουργός, ἀμπελουργός , etc.), often in Greek writings from Homer down;TGL δημιουργός.2

    a. properly, a workman for the public.TGL δημιουργός.3

    b. universally, the author of any work, an artisan, framer, builder: τεχνίτης κ. δημιουργός, Hebrews 11:10; (Xenophon, mem. 1, 4, 7 [cf. 9] σοφοῦ τινος δημιουργοῦ τέχνημα. God is called τοῦ οὐρανοῦ δημιουργός in Plato, rep. 7, p. 530 a.; δημ. τῶν ὅλων in Josephus, Antiquities 1, 7, 1, and often in ecclesiastical writings from Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 20, 11; 26, 1; 33, 2 on; [cf. Philo, de mut. nom. § 4; de opif. mund. Mϋller edition, p. 133; Piper, Einl. in monument. Theol. § 26; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word]. In the Scriptures, besides, only in 2 Macc. 4:1 κακῶν δημ.). [Cf. Trench, § cv.]TGL δημιουργός.4


    (1218) δῆμος, -ου , the people, the mass of the people assembled in a public place: Acts 12:22; Acts 19:33; ἄγειν [R G], εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δῆμον: Acts 17:5 [L T Tr WH προαγ.]; Acts 19:30. [From Homer down.] [Synonyms: δῆμος, λαός: in classic Greek δῆμος denotes the people as organized into a body politic, λαός the unorganized people at large. But in biblical Greek λαός is used especially of the chosen people of God; δῆμος on the other hand (found only in Acts) denotes the people of a heathen city. Cf. Trench § 98; Schmidt ch. 199.]TGL δῆμος.2


    (1219) δημόσιος, , -ον, especially frequent in Attic; belonging to the people or state, public (opposed to ἴδιος): Acts 5:18; in dative feminine δημοσίᾳ used adverbially (opposed to ἰδίᾳ) [cf. Winers Grammar, 591 (549) note], publicly, in public places, in view of all: Acts 16:37; Acts 18:28; δημ. καὶ κατ’ οἴκους, Acts 20:20; (2 Macc. 6:10; 3 Macc. 2:27; in Greek writings also by public authority, at the public expense).TGL δημόσιος.2


    (1220) δηνάριον, -ου, τό, [Plutarch, Epictetus, others], a Latin word, a denarius, a silver coin, originally consisting of ten [whence its name], afterward [from B. C. 217 on] of sixteen asses; about [3.898 grams, i. e. 8 1/2 pence or 16 2/3 cents; rapidly debased from Nero on; cf. BB. DD. under the word Denarius]: Matthew 18:28; Matthew 20:2, Matthew 20:9, Matthew 20:13; Matthew 22:19; Mark 6:37; Mark 12:15; Mark 14:5; Luke 7:41; Luke 10:35; Luke 20:24; John 6:7; John 12:5; Revelation 6:6 [cf. Winers Grammar, 587 (546); Buttmann, 164 (143)]; τὸ ἀνὰ δηνάριον namely, ὄν, the pay of a denarius apiece promised to each workman, Matthew 20:10 T Tr [txt., Tr marginal reading WH brackets τό].TGL δηνάριον.2


    (1221) δήποτε (from δή and ποτέ), adverb, now at length (jam aliquando ); at any time; at last, etc., just exactly; [hence, it generalizes a relative, like the Latin cumque ; see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 373]: δήποτε νοσήματι, with whatsoever disease, John 5:4 [R G, but L ὁιῳδηποτοῦν].TGL δήποτε.2


    (1222) δήπου [L WH δή ποῦ; cf. Lipsius, Gram. Untersuch., p. 123f], adverb (from δή and ποῦ), properly, now in some way, whatever that way is; it is used when something is affirmed in a slightly ironical manner, as if with an affectation of uncertainty, perhaps, doubtless, verily: οὐ δήπου, not surely (German doch nicht etwa), hardly I trow; (cf. Rost in Passow, i., p. 613b; Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 427f.). Once in Scripture: Hebrews 2:16.TGL δήπου.2


    (1223) διά ["written δἰ before a vowel, except in proper names and 2 Corinthians 5:7; Romans 8:10" Tdf. Proleg., p. 94], akin to δίς and Latin dis in composition, properly, denoting a division into two or more parts; a preposition taking the genitive and the accusative. In its use the biblical writers differ in no respect from the Greek; cf. Winer's Grammar, 377ff (353ff); 398 (372)f.TGL διά.2

    A. with the genitive: through;TGL διά.3

    I. of place;TGL διά.4

    1. properly, after verbs denoting an extension, or a motion, or an act, that occurs through any place: δἰ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀναχωρεῖν, Matthew 2:12; δἰ ἀνύδρων τόπων, Matthew 12:43; διὰ τῆς Σαμαρείας, John 4:4; διὰ τῆς θύρας, John 10:1; add, Matthew 19:24; Mark 2:23; Mark 10:25; Mark 11:16; Luke 4:30; Luke 5:19; Luke 18:25; 2 Corinthians 11:33; Hebrews 9:11; Hebrews 11:29, etc.; δἰ ὑμῶν, through your city, Romans 15:28; [on διὰ πάντων, Acts 9:32, see πᾶς , II. 1]; διὰ πάντων, diffusing his saving influence through all, Ephesians 4:6; σώζεσθαι διὰ πυρός, 1 Corinthians 3:15; διασώζ. δἰ ὕδατος, 1 Peter 3:20 (Evang. Nicod. c. 9, p. 568f, Thilo edition [p. 228, Tdf. edition] διὰ θαλάσσης ὡς διὰ ξηρᾶς); βλέλπειν δἰ ἐσόπτρου, 1 Corinthians 13:12 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356)]. Add the adverbial phrase δἰ ὅλου from top to bottom, throughout, John 19:23 (metaphorically, in every way, 1 Macc. 6:18). From this use of the preposition has comeTGL διά.5

    2. its tropical use of state or condition in which (properly, passing through which as through a space) one does or suffers something, where we, with a different conception, employ with, in, etc. (German bei, unter, mit): διὰ γράμματος κ. περιτομῆς παραβάτης νόμου, Romans 2:27 [Winers Grammar, 380 (355)]; οἱ πιστεύοντες δἰ ἀκροβυστίας who believe, though uncircumcised (see ἀκροβυστία, a.), Romans 4:11; διὰ προσκόμματος ἐσθίειν, with offence, or so as to be an offence [cf. Winers Grammar, 380 (356), and see πρόσκομμα], Romans 14:20; διὰ πίστεως περιπατεῖν, οὐ διὰ εἴδους (see εἶδος, 1), 2 Corinthians 5:7; τὰ διὰ [Lachmann marginal reading (cf. Tr marginal reading) τὰ ἴδια (see Meyer at the passage)] τοῦ σώματος, done in the body (i. e. while we were clothed with our earthly body [others take διά here instrumentally; see III. 2 below]), 2 Corinthians 5:10; διὰ πολλῶν δακρύων, 2 Corinthians 2:4; διὰ δόξης, clothed with glory, 2 Corinthians 3:11; ἔρχεσθαι, εἰσέρχ. διά τινος with a thing, Hebrews 9:12; 1 John 5:6 [but cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (355)]; δἰ ὑπομονῆς, Romans 8:25 (διὰ πένθους τὸ γῆρας διάγειν, Xenophon, Cyril 4, 6, 6; cf. Matthiae ii., p. 1353).TGL διά.6

    II. of Time [cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356); Ellicott or Meyer on Galatians 2:1; Fritzsche as below];TGL διά.7

    1. of continued time; hence,TGL διά.8

    a. of the time throughout (during) which anything is done: Matthew 26:61; Mark 14:58; δἰ ὅλης (τῆς R G) νυκτός, Luke 5:5; διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν, Hebrews 2:15; διὰ παντός [so L WH Tr (except Mark 5:5; Luke 24:53)], or written together διαπαντός [so G T (except in Matthew); cf. Winers Grammar, 46 (45); Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 125], continually, always: Matthew 18:10; Mark 5:5; Luke 24:53; Acts 2:25 (from Psalm 15:8 (Psalms 16:8)); Acts 10:2; Acts 24:16; Romans 11:10 (from Psalms 68:24 (Psalms 69:24)); 2 Thessalonians 3:16; Hebrews 9:6; Hebrews 13:15 (often in Greek writings).TGL διά.9

    b. of the time within which a thing is done: διὰ τῆς νυκτός (L T Tr WH διὰ νυκτός), by night, Acts 5:19; Acts 16:9; Acts 17:10; Acts 23:31, (Palaephatus 1, 10); δἰ ἡμερῶν τεσσαράκοντα, repeatedly within the space of forty days, Acts 1:3; — (denying this use of the preposition, C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritzschiorum Opuscc., p. 164f would refer these instances to the use noted under a. [see Winer's, Ellicott, Meyer as above]).TGL διά.10

    2. of time elapsed, and which has, so to say, been passed through: Galatians 2:1 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356)]; δἰ ἡμερῶν (some) days having intervened, after (some) days, Mark 2:1; δἰ ἐτῶν πλειόνων, Acts 24:17; examples from Greek authors in Fritzsche on Mark, p. 50; [Winers Grammar, 380 (356); Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II. 2; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 2; Field, Otium Norv. iii, p. 14].TGL διά.11

    III. of the means or instrument by which anything is effected; because what is done by means of a person or thing seems to pass as it were through the same [cf. Winer's Grammar, 378 (354)].TGL διά.12

    1. of one who is the author of the action as well as its instrument, or of the efficient cause: δἰ αὐτοῦ (i. e. τοῦ θεοῦ) τὰ πάντα namely, ἐστίν or ἐγένετο, Romans 11:36; also δἰ οὗ, Hebrews 2:10; δἰ οὗ ἐκλήθητε, 1 Corinthians 1:9; add [Galatians 4:7 L T Tr WH, see below]; Hebrews 7:21 ( ἰατρικη πᾶσα διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τούτου, i. e. Aesculapius, κυβερναται, Plato, symp., p. 186 e.; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i., p. 15 [and for examples Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 1]); of him to whom that is due which anyone has or has done; hence equivalent to by the fault of anyone: δἰ οὗ τὸ σκάνδαλον ἔρχεται, Matthew 18:7; δἰ ἑνὸς ἀνθρ. ἁμαρτία... εἰσῆλθε, Romans 5:12, cf. Romans 5:16-19; ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, Romans 8:3; by the merit, aid, favor of anyone: ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσι διά, etc. Romans 5:17, cf. Romans 5:18; 1 Corinthians 15:21; διὰ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, and the like: Romans 5:1; Romans 5:11; Acts 10:43; Galatians 4:7 [Rec. , but see above]; δοξάζειν τ. θεὸν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Peter 4:11, and εὐχαριστεῖν τῷ θεῷ διά Ἰησ. Χρ. Romans 1:8; Romans 7:25 (where L T Tr WH text χάρις τῷ θεῷ); Colossians 3:17 — because the possibility both of glorifying God and of giving thanks to him is due to the kindness of Christ: καυχᾶσθαι ἐν τῷ θεῷ διὰ Ἰησ. Χρ. Romans 5:11; ἀναπαύεσθαι διά τινος, Philemon 1:7; οἱ πεπιστευκότες διὰ τῆς χάριστος, Acts 18:27; πολλῆς εἰρήνης τυγχάνοντες διὰ σοῦ... διὰ τῆς σῆς προνοίας, Acts 24:2 (Acts 24:3); ὑπερνικᾶν διὰ τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντος ἡμᾶς, Romans 8:37; περισσεύειν διά τινος, by the increase which comes from one, Philippians 1:26; 2 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 9:12; διὰ τῆς ὑμῶν δεήσεως, Philippians 1:19; add, Philemon 1:22 Romans 1:12; 2 Corinthians 1:4; Galatians 4:23; 1 Peter 1:5.TGL διά.13

    2. of the instrument used to accomplish a thing, or of the instrumental cause in the stricter sense: — with the genitive of person by the service, the intervention of, anyone; with the genitive of thing, by means of, with the help of, anything;TGL διά.14

    a. in passages where a subject expressly mentioned is said to do or to have done a thing by some person or by some thing: Mark 16:20 (τοῦ κυρίου τὸν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος διὰ τ. σημείων); Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Acts 2:22 (τέρασι κ. σημείοις, οἷς ἐποίησε δἰ αὐτοῦ θεός); Acts 8:20; Acts 10:36; Acts 15:23 (γράψαντες διὰ χειρὸς αὐτῶν); Acts 20:28; Acts 21:19; Acts 28:25; Romans 2:16; Romans 3:31; Romans 7:13; [Romans 8:11 Rec.bez elz L edition min. T WH text]; Romans 15:18; Romans 16:18; 1 Corinthians 1:21 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)]; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 4:15; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 1 Corinthians 14:9, 1 Corinthians 14:19 [R G]; 1 Corinthians 15:57; 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 4:14 R G; 2 Corinthians 5:18, 2 Corinthians 5:20; 2 Corinthians 9:13 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)]; 2 Corinthians 10:9; 2 Corinthians 12:17; Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20, Colossians 1:22; Colossians 2:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 1:2, Hebrews 1:3 [R G]; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 6:12; Hebrews 7:19; Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 13:2, Hebrews 13:12, Hebrews 13:15, Hebrews 13:21; Revelation 1:1; γῆ ἐξ ὕδατος (material cause) κ. δἰ ὕδατος συνεστῶσα τῷ τοῦ θεοῦ λόγῳ, 2 Peter 3:5 [Winers Grammar, 419 (390) cf. 217 (204)].TGL διά.15

    b. in passages in which the author or principal cause is not mentioned, but is easily understood from the nature of the case, or from the context: Romans 1:12; 1 Corinthians 11:12 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)]; Philippians 1:20; 1 Thessalonians 3:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:2, 2 Thessalonians 2:15; Hebrews 11:39 [cf. Winer's Grammar, as above, also § 50, 3]; Hebrews 12:11,Hebrews 12:15; 1 Peter 1:7; διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων, by the mediation (intervention) of many witnesses, they being summoned for that purpose [cf. Winers Grammar, 378 (354); A. V. among], 2 Timothy 2:2. Where it is evident from the religious conceptions of the Bible that God is the author or first cause: John 11:4; Acts 5:12; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 2:19; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 10:10; 2 Peter 3:6; σώζεσθαι διὰ τ. πίστεως, Ephesians 2:8; συνεγείρεσθαι διὰ τ. πίστ., Colossians 2:12; δικαιοῦσθαι διά τῆς πίστεως, Galatians 2:16, cf. Romans 3:30; in the phrases διὰ τοῦ Ἰησ. Χριστοῦ, and the like: John 1:17; John 3:17; Acts 13:38; Romans 1:5; Romans 5:9; 1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 John 4:9; Philippians 1:11; διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, 1 Corinthians 15:2; Ephesians 3:6; διὰ λόγου θεοῦ, 1 Peter 1:23, cf. 1 Peter 1:3; διὰ νόμου, Romans 3:27; Romans 4:13; δἰ ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησ. Χρ. Galatians 1:12, cf. Galatians 1:15; διὰ τοῦ (ἁγίου) πνεύματος, Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 12:8; Ephesians 3:16; πιστεύειν διά τινος (see πιστεύω , 1 b. γ.), John 1:7; 1 Corinthians 3:5; σημεῖον γέγονε δἰ αὐτῶν, Acts 4:16; λόγος δἰ ἀγγέλων λαληθείς, Hebrews 2:2, cf. Galatians 3:19; νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη, John 1:17; in passages in which something is said to have been spoken through the O. T. prophets, or some one of them [cf. Lightfoot Fresh Revision etc., p. 121f]: Matthew 2:5, Matthew 2:17 L T Tr WH, Matthew 2:23; [Matthew 3:3 L T Tr WH]; Matthew 4:14; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 24:15; Matthew 27:9; Acts 2:16; or to have been so written: Luke 18:31; with the added mention of the first cause: ὑπὸ τοῦ κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφ., Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, cf. Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Acts 28:25; Romans 1:2; in passages relating to the Logos: πάντα δἰ αὐτοῦ (i. e., through the Divine Logos [cf. Winer's Grammar, 379 (355)]) ἐγένετο or ἐκτίσθη: John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6 (where he is expressly distinguished from the first cause: ἐξ αὐτοῦ [Winer's Grammar, 419 (391)]); Colossians 1:16 [Winer's Grammar, the passage cited], cf. Hebrews 1:2 (Philo de cherub. § 35). The instrumental cause and the principal are distinguished in 1 Corinthians 11:12 (διὰ τῆς γυναικός... ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ); Galatians 1:1 (ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων... δἰ ἀνθρώπου [cf. Winer's Grammar, 418 (390)]).TGL διά.16

    3. with the genitive of a thing διά is used to denote the manner in which a thing is done, or the formal cause: εἶπε διὰ παραβολῆς, Luke 8:4; εἶπε δἰ ὁράματος, Acts 18:9; ἀπαγγέλλειν διὰ λόγου, by word of mouth, Acts 15:27; τῷ λόγῳ δἰ ἐπιστολῶν, 2 Corinthians 10:11, cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:15; πίστις ἐνεργουμένη δἰ ἀγάπης, Galatians 5:6; κεχάρισται δἰ ἐπαγγελίας, Galatians 3:18; δουλεύειν διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης, Galatians 5:13; ἐπιστέλλειν διὰ βραχέων, Hebrews 13:22; γράφειν δἰ ὀλίγων, 1 Peter 5:12 (Plato, Gorgias, p. 449 b. διὰ μακρῶν λόγους ποιεῖσθαι [see ὀλίγος , at the end; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1 b.]); διὰ χάρτου καὶ μέλανος, 2 John 1:12; διὰ μέλανος κ. καλάμου, 3 John 1:13, (Plutarch, Sol. 17, 3). To this head I should refer also the use of διά τινος in exhortations etc. where one seeks to strengthen his exhortation by the mention of a thing or a person held sacred by those whom he is admonishing (διά equivalent to by an allusion to, by reminding you of [cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)]): Romans 12:1; Romans 15:30; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 10:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:2 [yet cf. Winer's Grammar, 379 (355) note]; 2 Thessalonians 3:12 R G.TGL διά.17

    B. with the accusative [Winer's Grammar, 398f (372f)].TGL διά.18

    I. of place; through; often so in the Greek poets, once in the N. T. according to L T Tr WH viz. Luke 17:11 διὰ μέσον Σαμαρείας, for R G διὰ μέσου Σαμ. [but see μέσος , 2].TGL διά.19

    II. of the ground or reason on account of which anything is or is not done; by reason of, because of (German aus Grund).TGL διά.20

    1. of the reason for which a thing is done, or of the efficient reason, when for greater perspicuity it may be rendered by [cf. Kühner, § 434 Anm.];TGL διά.21

    a. with the accusative of the thing: δἰ ἥν, viz. τὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμέραν (properly, by reason of which day, i. e. because it will come [cf. Winer's Grammar, 400 (373)]), 2 Peter 3:12; διὰ τ. λόγον (properly, by reason of the word, i. e. because the word has cleansing power), John 15:3; διὰ τὸ θέλημά σου (Vulg. proptar voluntatem tuam , i. e. because thou didst will it), Revelation 4:11; add, Revelation 12:11; Revelation 13:14 (ἀναβιώσκεται διὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς φύσιν, Plato, symp., p. 203 e.); cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 3:1.TGL διά.22

    b. with the accusative of the person, by whose will, agency, favor, fault, anything is or is done: διὰ τὸν πατέρα... δἰ ἐμέ (properly, because the father lives... because I live [cf. Winer's Grammar, 399 (373)]), John 6:57; διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα, by the will of him who subjected it, opposed to οὐχ ἑκοῦσα, Romans 8:20 [cf. Winer's 399 (373) note]; μὴ εἴπῃς ὅτι διὰ κύριον ἀπέστην, Sir. 15:11; so too in the Greek writings of every age; cf. Krüger, § 68, 23; Grimm on 2 Macc. 6:25. Much more oftenTGL διά.23

    2. of the reason or cause on account of which anything is or is done, or ought to be done; on account of, because of;TGL διά.24

    a. in the phrases διὰ τοῦτο, for this cause; for this reason; therefore; on this account; since this is so: Matthew 6:25; Matthew 12:27, Matthew 12:31; Matthew 13:13, etc.; Mark 6:14; Mark 11:24; Luke 11:49; Luke 14:20; John 6:65; John 9:23; Acts 2:26; Romans 1:26; Romans 4:16; Romans 5:12; Romans 13:6; Romans 15:9; 1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 11:10, 1 Corinthians 11:30; 2 Corinthians 4:1; Ephesians 1:15; Ephesians 5:17; Ephesians 6:13; Colossians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, 1 Thessalonians 3:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:11; 2 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 2:1; 1 John 4:5; 3 John 1:10; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 18:8. followed by ὅτι, for this cause... because, therefore... because: John 5:16, John 5:18; John 8:47; John 10:17; John 12:18, John 12:39; 1 John 3:1; cf. Tholuck edition 7 on John 10:17 [he questions, at least for John 10:17 and John 12:39, the canon of Meyer (on John 12:39), Luthardt (on John 10:17), others, that in this phrase in John the τοῦτο always looks backwards] in the opposite order (when the words that precede with ὅτι are to be emphasized): John 15:19. It indicates the end and purpose, being followed either by ἵνα, 2 Corinthians 13:10; 1 Timothy 1:16; Philemon 1:15, (in the opposite order, John 1:31); or by ὅπως, Hebrews 9:15. διὰ τί [so L Tr WH] and written together διατί [so G T; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 126], why? wherefore? Matthew 9:11, Matthew 9:14; Matthew 13:10; Matthew 17:19; Mark 2:18; Luke 5:30; John 7:45; Acts 5:3; Romans 9:32; 1 Corinthians 6:7; Revelation 17:7. δἰ ἥν αἰτίαν, see αἰτία , 1. τίς αἰτία, δἰ ἥν, Acts 10:21; Acts 23:28; διὰ ταύτην τὴν αἰτίαν, Acts 28:20; διὰ ταῦτα, Ephesians 5:6, etc.TGL διά.25

    b. used, with the accusative of any noun, of the mental affection by which one is impelled to some act [English for ; cf. Winer's Grammar, 399 (372)] διὰ φθόνον, because prompted by envy, for envy, Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10; διὰ τὸν φόβον τινός, John 7:13; John 19:38; John 20:19; Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:15; διὰ τὴν πολλὴν ἀγάπην, Ephesians 2:4. of any other cause on account of which one is said to do or to have done something — as in Matthew 14:3, Matthew 14:9; Matthew 15:3, Matthew 15:6; John 4:39, John 4:41; John 12:11; John 14:11; Acts 28:2; Romans 3:25 (διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγ. ἁμαρτημ. because of the pretermission etc., i. e. because he had left the sins unpunished); Romans 6:19; Romans 15:15; 2 Corinthians 9:14; Galatians 4:13 (δἰ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκός, on account of an infirmity of the flesh, i. e. detained among you by sickness; cf. Wieseler [or Bp. Lightfoot] at the passage); — or to suffer or have suffered something, Matthew 24:9; Matthew 27:19; Luke 23:19, Luke 23:25; Acts 21:35; 2 Corinthians 4:11; Colossians 3:6; 1 Peter 3:14; Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; — or to have obtained something, Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 5:14; 1 John 2:12; — or to be or to become something, Romans 8:10; Romans 11:28; Ephesians 4:18; Hebrews 5:12 [Winer's Grammar, 399 (373)]; Hebrews 7:18. of the impeding cause, where by reason of some person or thing something is said to have been impossible: Matthew 13:58; Matthew 17:20; Mark 2:4; Luke 5:19; Luke 8:19; Acts 21:34; Hebrews 3:19; Hebrews 4:6. διά with the accusative of a person is often equivalent to for the benefit of, [English for the sake of ]: Mark 2:27; John 11:42; John 12:30; 1 Corinthians 11:9; Hebrews 1:14; Hebrews 6:7; διὰ τούς ἐκλεκτούς, Matthew 24:22; Mark 13:20; 2 Timothy 2:10; διὰ Χριστόν for Christ's sake, to promote his cause, 1 Corinthians 4:10; δἰ ὑμᾶς, John 12:30; 2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Philippians 1:24; 1 Thessalonians 1:5. διὰ τινα, because of the example set by one: 2 Corinthians 2:10; Romans 2:24; 2 Peter 2:2; διὰ τὸν Χριστόν, for Christ, to become a partner of Christ, Philippians 3:7 (equivalent to ἵνα Χριστὸν κερδήσω, Philippians 3:8).TGL διά.26

    c. διὰ τό, because that, for that, is placed before the infinitive — either standing alone, as Luke 9:7; Hebrews 7:23; — or having a subject accusative expressed, as Matthew 24:12; Mark 5:4; Luke 2:4; Luke 19:11; Acts 4:2; Acts 12:20; Acts 18:2; Acts 27:4, Acts 27:9; Acts 28:18; Philippians 1:7; Hebrews 7:24; Hebrews 10:2; James 4:2; — or with its subject accusative evident from the context, as Matthew 13:6; Mark 4:6; Luke 11:8; Luke 18:5; Luke 23:8; Acts 8:11; Acts 18:3.TGL διά.27

    C. In Composition διά indicates:TGL διά.28

    1. a passing through space or time, through, (διαβαίνω, διέρχομαι, διϋλίζω, etc.); hence,TGL διά.29

    2. continuity of time (διαμένω, διατελέω, διατηρέω), and completeness of action (διακαθαρίζω, διαζώννυμι).TGL διά.30

    3. distribution (διαδίδωμι, διαγγέλλω, διαφημίζω).TGL διά.31

    4. separation (διαλύω, διαιρέω).TGL διά.32

    5. rivalry and endeavor (διαπίνω, διακατελέγχομαι; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 854; [Winer. as below, p. 6]).TGL διά.33

    6. transition from one state to another (διαλλάσσω, διορθόω). [Cf. Winer, De verb. comp. etc. Part v.; Valckenaer on Herodotus 5, 18; Cattier. Gazophyl. edition Abresch, Cant. 1810, p. 39; A. Rieder, Ueb. d. mit mehr als ein. prap. zusammeng. verba im N. T., p. 17f] No one of the N. T. writers makes more frequent use of verbs compounded with διά than Luke, [see the list in Winer, as above, p. 3 note; on their construction Winers Grammar, § 52, 4, 8].TGL διά.34


    (1224) διαβαίνω: 2 aorist διέβην, infinitive διαβῆναι, participle διαβάς; as in Greek writings from Homer down; (Pliny pertranseo ); to pass through, cross over;TGL διαβαίνω.2

    a. transitively: τὴν θάλασσαν ὡς διὰ ξηρᾶς, Hebrews 11:29.TGL διαβαίνω.3

    b. intransitive: πρός τινα, Luke 16:26; εἰς with the accusative of place, Acts 16:9; (for עָבַר, 1 Samuel 13:7).TGL διαβαίνω.4


    (1225) διαβάλλω: 1 aorist passive διεβλήθην:TGL διαβάλλω.2

    1. properly, to throw over or across, to send over, (τὶ διά τινος).TGL διαβάλλω.3

    2. very often, from Herodotus down, to traduce, calumniate, slander, accuse, defame (cf. Latin perstringere , German durchziehen, [διά as it were from one to another; see Winer, De verb. comp. etc. Part v., p. 17]), not only of those who bring a false charge against one (διέβλητο πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀδίκως, Josephus, Antiquities 7, 11, 3), but also of those who disseminate the truth concerning a man, but do so maliciously, insidiously, with hostility [cf. Lucian's Essay de calumn. non temere credend.], (Daniel 3:8, Sept. ; Daniel 6:24 Theodot. ); so διεβλήθη αὐτῷ ὡς διασκορπίζων, Luke 16:1 (with the dative of person to whom the charge is made, also in Herodotus 5, 35, et al.; τινὰ πρός τινα, Herodotus 5, 96, et al.; followed by ὡς with participle, Xenophon, Hell. 2, 3, 23; Plato, epistles 7, p. 334 a.). [Synonym: see κατηγορέω .]TGL διαβάλλω.4


    (1226) διαβεβαιόομαι (-οῦμαι); middle to affirm strongly, assert confidently, [cf. Winer's Grammar, 253 (238)]: περί τινος (Polybius 12, 11 (12), 6), 1 Timothy 1:7 [cf. WH's Appendix, p. 167]; Titus 3:8. (Demosthenes, p. 220, 4; Diodorus, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Aelian)TGL διαβεβαιόομαι.2


    (1227) διαβλέπω: future διαβλεψω; 1 aorist διέβλεψα; to look through, penetrate by vision;TGL διαβλέπω.2

    a. to look fixedly, stare straight before one (Plato, Phaedo, p. 86 d.): διέβλεψε, of a blind man recovering sight, Mark 8:25 T WH Tr text [some refer this to b.].TGL διαβλέπω.3

    b. to see clearly: followed by an infinitive expressing the purpose, Matthew 7:5; Luke 6:42. (Aristotle, Plutarch)TGL διαβλέπω.4


    (1228) διάβολος, -ον, (διαβάλλω, which see), prone to slander, slanderous, accusing falsely, (Aristophanes, Andocides, Plutarch, others): 1 Timothy 3:11; 2 Timothy 3:3; Titus 2:3; as a substantive, διάβολος, a calumniator, false accuser, slanderer, [see κατηγορέω , at the end], (Xenophon, Ages. 11, 5; [Aristotle, others]): Sept. Esther 7:4; Esther 8:1. In the Bible and in ecclesiastical writings διάβολος [also διάβ. without the article; cf. Winers Grammar, 124 (118); Buttmann, 89 (78)] is applied κατ’ ἐξοχήν to the one called in Hebrew הַשָּׂטָן, σατανᾶς (which see), namely, Satan, the prince of demons, the author of evil, persecuting good men (Job 1:1-22; Zechariah 3:1, cf. Revelation 12:10), estranging mankind from God and enticing them to sin, and afflicting them with diseases by means of demons who take possession of their bodies at his bidding; the malignant enemy of God and the Messiah: Matthew 4:1, Matthew 4:5, [Matthew 4:8, Matthew 4:11]; Matthew 13:39; Matthew 25:41; Luke 4:2, [Luke 4:3, Luke 4:5 R L, Luke 4:6, Luke 4:13]; Luke 8:12; John 13:2; Acts 10:38; Ephesians 4:27; Ephesians 6:11; 1 Timothy 3:6; 2 Timothy 2:26; Hebrews 2:14; James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8; Jude 1:9; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 12:9, Revelation 12:12; Revelation 20:2, Revelation 20:10; (Wis. 2:24; [cf. Psalms 108:6 (Psalms 109:6); 1 Chronicles 21:1]). Men who resemble the devil in mind and will are said εἶναι ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου to be of the devil, properly, to derive their origin from the devil, tropically, to depend upon the devil in thought and action, to be prompted and governed by him: John 8:44; 1 John 3:8; the same are called τέκνα τοῦ διαβ. children of the devil, 1 John 3:10; υἱοὶ τοῦ δ. sons of the devil, Acts 13:10, cf. Matthew 13:38; John 8:38; 1 John 3:10. The name διάβολος is figuratively applied to a man who, by opposing the cause of God, may be said to act the part of the devil or to side with him: John 6:70, cf. Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. [Cf. σατᾶν at the end.]TGL διάβολος.2


    (1229) διαγγέλλω; 2 aorist passive διηγγελην; from Pindar down; to carry a message through, announce everywhere, through places, through assemblies of men, etc.; to publish abroad, declare, [see διά , C. 3]: τί, Luke 9:60; Acts 21:26 (διαγγέλλων, namely, to all who were in the temple and were knowing to the affair); with the addition ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῆ, Romans 9:17 from Exodus 9:16. (Leviticus 25:9; Joshua 6:10; Psalms 2:7; [Psalm 58:13 (Psalms 59:13)]; Sir. 43:2; 2 Macc. 3:34.)TGL διαγγέλλω.2


    (1230) διαγίνομαι: 2 aorist διεγενομην;TGL διαγίνομαι.2

    1. to be through, continue.TGL διαγίνομαι.3

    2. to be between, intervene; hence, in Greek writings from Isaeus (p. 84, 14, 9 [or. de Hagn. hered.] χρόνων διαγενομένων) down, the aorist is used of time, to have intervened, elapsed, passed meanwhile, [cf. χρόνου μεταξὺ διαγενομένου Lysias 93, 6]: ἡμερῶν διαγενομένων τινῶν, Acts 25:13; ἱκανοῦ χρόνου διαγενομένου, Acts 27:9; διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου, Mark 16:1.TGL διαγίνομαι.4


    (1231) διαγινώσκω; future διαγνώσομαι;TGL διαγινώσκω.2

    1. to distinguish (Latin dignosco ), i. e. to know accurately, ascertain exactly: τί, Acts 23:15; (so in Greek writings from Homer down).TGL διαγινώσκω.3

    2. in a legal sense, to examine, determine, decide, (cf. Cicero, cognosco ): τὰ καθ’ ὑμᾶς your case, Acts 24:22; (2 Macc. 9:15; Demosthenes, p. 629, 25; p. 545, 9; others).TGL διαγινώσκω.4


    (1232) διαγνωρίζω: 1 aorist διεγνώρισα; to publish abroad, make known thoroughly: περί τινος, Luke 2:17 R G. Besides, only in [Philo, quod det. pot. § 26, i. 210, 16, Mang. edition and] in Schol. in Bekker Anecd., p. 787, 15 to discriminate.TGL διαγνωρίζω.2


    (1233) διάγνωσις, -εως, , (see διαγινώσκω );TGL διάγνωσις.2

    1. a distinguishing.TGL διάγνωσις.3

    2. in a legal sense (Latin cognitio ), examination, opinion, decision, (Sap. iii. 18; Plato, legg. 9, p. 865 c.): Acts 25:21.TGL διάγνωσις.4


    (1234) διαγογγύζω: imperfect διεγόγγυζον; to murmur (διά, i. e. either through a whole crowd, or 'among one another,' German durch einander [cf. διά , C.]); hence, it is always used of many indignantly complaining (see γογγύζω ): Luke 15:2; Luke 19:7. (Exodus 16:2, Exodus 16:7, Exodus 16:8; [Numbers 14:2]; Joshua 9:24 (Joshua 9:18), etc.; Sir. 34:24 (Sir. 31:24); Clement of Alexandria, i, p. 528, Pott. edition; Heliodorus 7, 27, and in some Byzantine writings) cf. Winer's De verb. comp. etc. Part v., p. 16f.TGL διαγογγύζω.2


    (1235) διαγρηγορέω, -ῶ: 1 aorist διεγρηγόρησα; to watch through, (Herodian, 3, 4, 8 [4 Bekker edition] πάσης τῆς νυκτὸς... διαγρηγορήσαντες, Niceph. Greg. Hist. Byz., p. 205 f. and 571 a.); to remain awake: Luke 9:32 (for they had overcome the force of sleep, with which they were weighed down, βεβαρημ. ὕπνῳ); [others (e. g. , R. V. text) to be fully awake, cf. Niceph. as above, p. 205 f. δόξαν ἀπεβαλόμην ὥσπερ οἱ διαγρηγορήσαντες τὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑπνοῖς ὀνειρατα; Winer's De verb. comp. etc. Part 5, p. 11f].TGL διαγρηγορέω.2


    (1236) διάγω;TGL διάγω.2

    1. to lead through, lead across, send across.TGL διάγω.3

    2. with τὸν βίον, τὸν χρόνον, etc., added or understood, to pass: βίον, 1 Timothy 2:2 (very often in Greek writings); διάγειν ἔν τινι, namely, τόν βίον, to live [Winers Grammar, 593 (551f); Buttmann, 144 (126)], Titus 3:3 (ἐν φιλοσοφία, Plato, Phaedr., p. 259 d.; ἐν εἰρήνη καὶ σχολῇ, Plutarch, Timol. 3).TGL διάγω.4


    (1237) διαδέχομαι: 1 aorist διεδεξάμην; properly, to receive through another anything left or bequeathed by him, to receive in succession, receive in turn, succeed to: τὴν σκηνήν, the tabernacle, Acts 7:45. (τὴν ἀρχήν, τὴν βασιλείαν, etc., in Polybius, Diodorus, Josephus, others) [Cf. δέχομαι .]TGL διαδέχομαι.2


    (1238) διάδημα, -τος, τό, (διαδέω, to bind round), a diadem, i. e. the blue band marked with white with which Persian kings used to bind on the turban or tiara; the kingly ornament for the head: Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12. (Xenophon, Cyril 8, 3, 13; Esther 1:11; Esther 2:17 for כֶּתֶר; 1 Macc. 1:9.) [Synonyms: διάδημα, στέφανος: στ. like the Latin corona is a crown in the sense of a chaplet, wreath, or garland—the badge of "victory in the games, of civic worth, of military valor, of nuptial joy, of festal gladness"; διάδημα is a crown as the badge of royalty, βαοιλείας γνώρισμα (Lucian, Pisc. 35). Cf. Trench § 23; Bp. Lightfoot on Philippians 4:1; Dictionary of Christian Antiquities under the word Coronation p. 464f; B. D. American edition under the word Diadem; but cf. στέφανος, a.]TGL διάδημα.2

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