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    Ζαβουλών — ζῳοποιέω


    (2194) Ζαβουλών, , indeclinable, (זֲבֻלון [but on the Hebrew form see B. D. ] habitation, dwelling, Genesis 30:20), Vulg. Zabulon; Zebulun, the tenth son of Jacob; by metonymy, the tribe of Zebulun: Matthew 4:13, Matthew 4:15; Revelation 7:8.TGL Ζαβουλών.2


    (2195) Ζακχαῖος, -ου, , (זַכַּי pure, innocent; cf. 2 Esdr. 2:9; Nehemiah 7:14), Zacchæus, a chief tax-collector: Luke 19:2, Luke 19:5, Luke 19:8. [B. D. , under the word.]TGL Ζακχαῖος.2


    (2196) Ζαρά, , (זֶרַח a rising (of light)), indeclinable, Zarah [better Zerah], one of the ancestors of Christ: Matthew 1:3; cf. Genesis 38:30.TGL Ζάρα.2


    (2197) Ζαχαρίας, Ζαχαριου, (זְכַרְיָה and זְכַריָהוּ i. e. whom Jehovah remembered), Zacharias or Zachariah or Zechariah;TGL Ζαχαρίας.2

    1. a priest, the father of John the Baptist: Luke 1:5, Luke 1:12, Luke 1:18, Luke 1:21, Luke 1:40, Luke 1:59, Luke 1:67; Luke 3:2.TGL Ζαχαρίας.3

    2. a prophet, the son of Jehoiada the priest, who was stoned to death in the middle of the ninth century before Christ in the court of the temple: 2 Chronicles 24:19; Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51. Yet this Zachariah is called in Matthew, the passage cited the son not of Jehoiada but of Barachiah. But most interpreters now think (and correctly) that the Evangelist confounded him with that more noted Zachariah the prophet who lived a little after the exile, and was the son of Barachiah (cf. Zechariah 1:1), and whose prophecies have a place in the canon. For Christ, to prove that the Israelites throughout their sacred history had been stained with the innocent blood of righteous men, adduced the first and the last example of the murders committed on good men; for the books of the Chronicles stand last in the Hebrew canon. But opinions differ about this Zachariah. For according to an ancient tradition, which the Greek church follows (and which has been adopted by Chr. W. Müller in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1841, p. 673ff, and formerly by Hilgenfeld, krit. Untersuchungen üb. die Evangg. Justins, etc., p. 155 and die Evangg. nach ihrer Entstehung, p. 100), Zachariah the father of John the Baptist is meant (cf. Protevangelium Jacobi, c. 23); others think (so quite recently Keim , iii. 184 (English translation, see 218), cf. Weiss, das Matthäusevang., p. 499) a certain Zachariah son of Baruch (according to another reading Βαρισκαιου), who during the war between the Jews and the Romans was slain by the zealots ἐν μέσῳ τῷ ἱερῷ, as Josephus , b. j. 4, 5, 4 relates. Those who hold this opinion believe, either that Jesus divinely predicted this murder and in the prophetic style said ἐφονεύσατε for φονευσετε (cf. Buttmann , § 137, 4; Winer s Grammar, 273 (256) n.; § 40, 5 b.), or that the Evangelist, writing after the destruction of Jerusalem, by an anachronism put this murder into the discourse of Jesus. These inventions are fully refuted by Fritzsche on Matthew, the passage cited, and Bleek, Erklär. der drei ersten Evangg. ii., p. 177ff; cf. Hilgenfeld, Einl. in d. N. T., p. 487f; (and Dr. James Morison, Commentary on Matthew, the passage cited; B. D. , under Zechariah 6:1-15, and under Zechariah 11:1-17).TGL Ζαχαρίας.4


    (2198) ζάω, ζῶ, ζῇς, ζῇ, infinitive ζῆν (so L T , but R G WH -η-, Tr also (except 1 Corinthians 9:14; 2 Corinthians 1:8); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5, 4 c.; WH . Introductory § 410; Lipsius Gram. Unters., p. 5f), participle ζῶν; imperfect ἔζων (Romans 7:9, where Vat. has the inferior form ἔζην (found again Colossians 3:7 ἐζῆτε); cf. Fritzsche on Romans, ii., p. 38; (WH s Appendix, p. 169; Veitch , under the word)); future in the earlier form ζήσω (Romans 6:2 (not L marginal reading); Hebrews 12:9; L T Tr WH also in John (John 5:25); John 6:57,John 6:58 (John 6:51 T WH ), (not L ; John 14:19 T Tr WH ); 2 Corinthians 13:4; James 4:15), and much oftener ((?) five times, quotations excepted, viz. Matthew 9:18; Luke 10:28; John 11:25; Romans 8:13; Romans 10:5; cf. Moulton's Winer , p. 105) the later form, first used by (Hippocrates 7, 536 (see Veitch , under the word)) Demosthenes , ζήσομαι; 1 aorist (unused in Attic (Hipp., Anth. Pal. , Plutarch , others (see Veitch ))) ἔζησα (Acts 26:5, etc.); cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Sprachl. ii. 191f; Buttmann , 58 (51); Krüger , i., p. 172; Kühner, i. 829; Winer s Grammar, 86 (83); (Veitch , under the word); Hebrew חָיָה; (from (Homer ) Theognis , Aeschylus down); to live;TGL ζάω.2

    I. properly,TGL ζάω.3

    1. to live, be among the living, be alive (not lifeless, not dead): Acts 20:12; Romans 7:1-3; 1 Corinthians 7:39; 2 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 1 Thessalonians 4:15, 1 Thessalonians 4:17; Revelation 19:20, etc.; ψυχή ζῶσα, 1 Corinthians 15:45 and R Tr marginal reading Revelation 16:3; διά παντός τοῦ ζῆν, during all their life (on earth), Hebrews 2:15 (διατελεῖν πάντα τόν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον, Diodorus 1, 74 (cf. Buttmann , 262 (225))); ἔτι ζῶν (participle imperfect (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 341 (320))), while he was yet alive, before his death, Matthew 27:63; with ἐν σαρκί added, of the earthly life, Philippians 1:22; δέ νῦν ζῶ ἐν σαρκί, that life which I live in an earthly body, Galatians 2:20 (Buttmann , 149 (130); Winer 's Grammar, 227 (213)); ἐν αὐτῷ ζῶμεν, in God is the cause why we live, Acts 17:28; ζῶσα τέθνηκε, 1 Timothy 5:6; ἐμοί τό ζῆν Χριστός, my life is devoted to Christ, Christ is the aim, the goal, of my life, Philippians 1:21; ζῶντες are opposed to νεκροί, Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:27; Luke 20:38; ζῶντες καί νεκροί, Acts 10:42; Romans 14:9; 2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Peter 4:5; in the sense of living and thriving, 2 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Thessalonians 3:8; ζῇ ἐν ἐμοί Χριστός, Christ is living and operative in me, i. e. the holy mind and energy of Christ pervades and moves me Galatians 2:20; ἐκ δυνάμεως Θεοῦ ζῆν εἰς τινα, through the power of God to live and be strong toward one (namely, in correcting and judging), 2 Corinthians 13:4; in the absolute sense, God is said to be ζῶν: Matthew 16:16; Matthew 26:63; John 6:57; John 6:69 Rec. ; Acts 14:15; Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Timothy 3:15; 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:17 R G ; Hebrews 3:12; Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 10:31; Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 7:2 (Joshua 3:10; 2 Kings 19:4, 2 Kings 19:16; Isaiah 37:4, Isaiah 37:17; Hosea 1:10; Daniel 6:20 Theod. , 26, etc.); with the addition of εἰς τούς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, Revelation 4:9; Revelation 15:7; ζῶ ἐγώ (אָנִי חַי, Numbers 14:21; Isaiah 49:18, etc.) as I live (by my life), the formula by which God swears by himself, Romans 14:11. equivalent to to continue to live, to be kept alive (ὅστις ζῆν ἐπιθυμεῖ, πειράσθω νικαν, Xenophon , an. 3, 2, 26 (39)): ἐάν κύριος θελήσῃ καί ζήσωμεν (ζήσομεν L T Tr WH ), James 4:15 (Buttmann , 210 (181); Winer 's Grammar, 286 (268f)); ζῆν ἐπ' ἄρτῳ (Matthew 4:4, etc.) see ἐπί , B. 2 a. α. (Tobit 5:20); ζῆν ἐκ τίνος, to get a living from a thing, 1 Corinthians 9:14; also when used of convalescents, John 4:50, John 4:53; with ἐκ τῆς ἀρρωστίας added, 2 Kings 1:2; 2 Kings 8:8, figuratively, to live and be strong: ἐν τούτοις (for Rec. ἐν αὐτοῖς) in these vices, opposed to the ethical death by which Christians are wholly severed from sin (see ἀποθνῄσκω , II. 2 b.), Colossians 3:7; cf. Meyer at the passage equivalent to to be no longer dead, to recover life, be restored to life: Matthew 9:18; Acts 9:41; so of Jesus risen from the dead, Mark 16:11; Luke 24:5, Luke 24:23; Acts 1:3; Acts 25:19; Romans 6:10; 2 Corinthians 13:4; opposed to νεκρός, Revelation 1:18; Revelation 2:8; ἔζησεν came to life, lived again, Romans 14:9 G L T Tr WH (opposed to ἀπέθανε); Revelation 13:14; Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:5 (Rec. ἀνέζησεν) (Ezekiel 37:9; on the aorist as marking entrance upon a state see βασιλεύω , at the end); ζῆν ἐκ νεκρῶν, tropically, out of moral death to enter upon a new life, dedicated and acceptable to God, Romans 6:13; (similarly in Luke 15:32 T Tr WH ). equivalent to not to be mortal, Hebrews 7:8 (where ἄνθρωποι ἀποθνῄσκοντες dying men i. e. whose lot it is to die, are opposed to ζῶν).TGL ζάω.4

    2. emphatically, and in the Messianic sense, to enjoy real life, i. e. to have true life and worthy of the name — active, blessed, endless in the kingdom of God (or ζωή αἰώνιος; see ζωή , 2b.): Luke 10:28; John 5:25; John 11:25; Romans 1:17; Romans 8:13; Romans 14:9 ((?) see above); Galatians 3:12; Hebrews 12:9; with the addition of ἐκ πίστεως, Hebrews 10:38; of εἰς τόν αἰῶνα, John 6:51, John 6:58; σύν Χριστῷ, in Christ's society, 1 Thessalonians 5:10; this life in its absolute fullness Christ enjoys, who owes it to God; hence, he says ζῶ διά τόν πατέρα, John 6:57; by the gift and power of Christ it is shared in by the faithful, who accordingly are said ζήσειν δἰ αὐτόν, John 6:57; δἰ αὐτοῦ, 1 John 4:9. with a dative denoting the respect, πνεύματι, 1 Peter 4:6; ὄνομα ἔχεις ὅτι ζῇς καί νεκρός εἰ, thou art said to have life (i. e. vigorous spiritual life bringing forth good fruit) and (yet) thou art dead (ethically), Revelation 3:1. In the O. T : ζῆν denotes to live most happily in the enjoyment of the theocratic blessings: Leviticus 18:5; Deuteronomy 4:1; Deuteronomy 8:1; Deuteronomy 30:16.TGL ζάω.5

    3. to live i. e. pass life, of the manner of living and acting; of morals or character: μετά ἀνδρός with the accusative of time, of a married woman, Luke 2:36; χωρίς νόμου, without recognition of the law, Romans 7:9; Φαρισαῖος, Acts 26:5; also ἐν κόσμῳ, Colossians 2:20; with ἐν and a dative indicating the act or state of the soul: ἐν πίστει, Galatians 2:20; ἐν τῇ ἁμαρτία, to devote life to sin, Romans 6:2; with adverbs expressing the manner: εὐσεβῶς, 2 Timothy 3:12; Titus 2:12; ἀσώτως, Luke 15:13; ἐθνικῶς, Galatians 2:14; ἀδίκως, Wis. 14:28; ζῆν τίνι (the dative of person, a phrase common in Greek authors also, in Latin vivere alicui ; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. iii., p. 176ff), to devote, consecrate, life to one; so to live that life results in benefit to someone or to his cause: τῷ Θεῷ, Luke 20:38; Romans 6:10; Galatians 2:19 (4 Macc. 16:25); τῷ Χριστῷ, 2 Corinthians 5:15; that man is said ἑαυτῷ ζῆν who makes his own will his law, is his own master, Romans 14:7; 2 Corinthians 5:15; with the dative of the thing to which life is devoted: τῇ δικαιοσύνη, 1 Peter 2:24; πνεύματι, to be actuated by the Spirit, Galatians 5:25; κατά σάρκα, as the flesh dictates, Romans 8:12.TGL ζάω.6

    II. Metaphorically, of inanimate things;TGL ζάω.7

    a. ὕδωρ ζῶν, חַיִּים מַיִם (Genesis 26:19; Leviticus 14:5; etc.), living water, i. e. bubbling up, gushing forth, flowing, with the suggested idea of refreshment and salubrity (opposed to the water of cisterns and pools (cf. our spring water)), is figuratively used of the spirit and truth of God as satisfying the needs and desires of the soul: John 4:10; John 7:38; ἐπί ζώσας πηγάς ὑδάτων, Revelation 7:17 Rec.TGL ζάω.8

    b. having vital power in itself and exerting the same upon the soul: ἐλπίς ζῶσα, 1 Peter 1:3; λόγος Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 1:23; Hebrews 4:12; λόγια namely, τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 7:38, cf. Deuteronomy 32:47; ὁδός ζῶσα, Hebrews 10:20 (this phrase describing that characteristic of divine grace, in granting the pardon of sin and fellowship with God, which likens it to a way leading to the heavenly sanctuary). In the same manner the predicate ζῶν is applied to those things to which persons are compared who possess real life (see I. 2 above), in the expressions λίθοι ζῶντες, 1 Peter 2:4; ἄρτος ζῶν (see ἄρτος , at the end), John 6:51; θυσία ζῶσα (tacitly opposed to slain victims), Romans 12:1. (Compare: ἀναζάω, συζάω.)TGL ζάω.9


    (2199) Ζεβεδαῖος, -ου, , Zebedee (זַבְדַי for זַבְדִּי [i. e. my gift], a form of the proper name which occurs a few times in the O. T., as 1 Chronicles 27:27 (Sept. Ζαβδί), munificent, [others for זְבַדְיָה gift of Jehovah]; from זָבַד to give), a Jew, by occupation a fisherman, husband of Salome, father of the apostles James and John: Matthew 4:21; Matthew 10:2-3; Matthew 20:20; Matthew 26:37; Matthew 27:56; Mark 1:19; Mark 3:17; Mark 10:35; Luke 5:10; John 21:2.TGL Ζεβεδαῖος.2


    (2200) ζεστός, , -όν, (ζέω), boiling hot, hot, [Strabo, Appian, Diogenes Laërtius, others]; metaphorically, of fervor of mind and zeal: Revelation 3:15.TGL ζεστός.2


    (2201) ζεῦγος, -εος (-ους), τό, (ζεύγνυμι to join, yoke),TGL ζεῦγος.2

    1. two draught-cattle (horses or oxen or mules) yoked together, a pair or yoke of beasts: Luke 14:19 (צֶמֶד, 1 Kings 19:19, etc.; often in Greek writings; from Homer, Iliad 18, 543 down).TGL ζεῦγος.3

    2. universally, a pair: Luke 2:24 (Herodotus 3, 130; Aeschylus Ag. 44; Xenophon, oec. 7, 18, and often in Greek writings).TGL ζεῦγος.4


    (2202) ζευκτηρία, -ας, , (from the adjective ζευκτήριος, fit for joining or binding together), a band, fastening: Acts 27:40. Found nowhere else.TGL ζευκτηρία.2


    (2203) Ζεύς, [but genetive Διός, (dative Διΐ), accusative Δία (or Δίαν), (from old nominative Δίς), Zeus, corresponding to Latin Jupiter (A. V.): Acts 14:12 (see Δίς); ἱερεὺς τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ ὄντος πρὸ τῆς πόλεως, the priest of Zeus whose temple was before the city, Acts 14:13 (cf. Meyer at the passage.)]. See Δίς.TGL Ζεύς.2

    Related entry: [Δία, see Ζεύς.]TGL Ζεύς.3

    Related entry: [Διός, see Δίς.]TGL Ζεύς.4

    Related entry: Δίς, an unused nominative for Ζεύς, genitive Διός, accusative Διά (Δίαν, Acts 14:12 Tdf. edition 7; see in ἄρρην and Buttmann, 14 (373)), Zeus, Jupiter, the supreme divinity in the belief of Greeks and Romans; the father of gods and men: Acts 14:12. (2 Macc. 6:2.) [Cf. Ζεύς .]TGL Ζεύς.5


    (2204) ζέω; to boil with heat, be hot; often in Greek writings; thus of water, Homer, Iliad 18, 349; 21, 362 (365); metaphorically, used of 'boiling' anger, love, zeal for what is good or bad, etc. (Tragg., Plato, Plutarch, others); ζέων (on this uncontracted form cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. [or his School Gram. (Robinson's translation)] § 105 N. 2, i., p. 481; Matthiae, i., p. 151; [Hadley § 371 b.]) τῷ πνεύματι, fervent in spirit, said of zeal for what is good, Acts 18:25; Romans 12:11; cf. especially Rückert and Fritzsche on Romans, the passage cited.TGL ζέω.2


    (2205) ζῆλος, ζήλου, , and (in Philippians 3:6 L T Tr WH ; (2 Corinthians 9:2 T Tr WH )) τό ζῆλος (Ignatius ad Trall. 4 [ET]; διά ζῆλος, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 4, 8 [ET] ("in Clement of Rome, §§ 3, 4, 5, 6 the masculine and neuter seem to be interchanged without any law" (Lightfoot ). For facts see especially Clement of Rome, edition 2 Hilgenfeld (1876), p. 7; cf. Wit. Appendix, p. 158; Winer s Grammar, § 9, N. 2; Buttmann , 23 (20)); (from ζέω (Curtius , § 567; Vanicek , p. 757)); the Sept. for קִנְאָה; excitement of mind, ardor, fervor of spirit;TGL ζῆλος.2

    1. zeal, ardor in embracing, pursuing, defending anything: 2 Corinthians 12:11; 2 Corinthians 9:2; κατά ζῆλος, as respects zeal (in maintaining religion), Philippians 3:6; with the genitive of the object, zeal in behalf of, for a person or thing, John 2:17 from Psalms 68:10 (Psalms 69:10); Romans 10:2 (1 Macc. 2:58; Sophocles O. C. 943); ὑπέρ τίνος, genitive of person, 2 Corinthians 7:7; Colossians 4:13 Rec. with subject. genitive ζήλῳ Θεοῦ, with a jealousy such as God has, hence, most pure and solicitous for their salvation, 2 Corinthians 11:2; the fierceness of indignation, punitive zeal, πυρός (of penal fire, which is personified (see πῦρ , at the end)), Hebrews 10:27 (Isaiah 26:11; Wis. 5:18).TGL ζῆλος.3

    2. an envious and contentious rivalry, jealousy: Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 3:3; James 3:14, James 3:16; ἐπλήσθησαν ζήλου, Acts 5:17; Acts 13:45; plural ζῆλοι, now the stirrings or motions of ζῆλος, now its outbursts and manifestations: 2 Corinthians 12:20; Galatians 5:20; but in both passages L T Tr (WH , yet in Galatians, the passage cited WH only in text) have adopted ζῆλος (ζῆλοι τέ καί φθόνοι, Plato , legg. 3, p. 679 c.). (On the distinction between ζῆλος (which may be used in a good sense) and φθόνος (used only in a bad sense) cf. Trench , Synonyms, § xxvi.; Cope on Aristotle , rhet. 2, 11,TGL ζῆλος.4


    (2206) ζηλεύω; equivalent to ζηλόω, which see;TGL ζηλόω.2

    1. to envy, be jealous: Simplicius in Epictetus c. 26, p. 131, Salinas edition. (c. 19, 2, p. 56, 34 Didot) οὐδείς τῶν τ' ἀγαθόν τό ἀνθρώπινον ζητούντων φθονει ζηλευει πότε.TGL ζηλόω.3

    2. in a good sense, to imitate emulously, strive after: ἔργα ἀρετῆς, οὐ λόγους, Demosthenes quoted in Stab. flor. app. 14, 7, iv. 384, Gaisf. edition; intransitive, to be full of zeal for good, be zealous: Revelation 3:19 L T Tr text WH , for Rec. ζήλωσον (cf. WH 's Appendix, p. 171).TGL ζηλόω.4


    (2207) ζηλωτής, ζηλωτου, (ζηλόω), one burning with zeal; a zealot;TGL ζηλωτής.2

    1. absolutely, for the Hebrew קַנָּא, used of God as jealous of any rival and sternly vindicating his control: Exodus 20:5; Deuteronomy 4:24, etc. From the time of the Maccabees () there existed among the Jews a class of men, called Zealots, who rigorously adhered to the Mosaic law and endeavored even by a resort to violence, after the example of Phinehas (Numbers 25:11, ζηλωτής Φινης 4 Macc. 18:12), to prevent religion from being violated by others; but in the latter days of the Jewish commonwealth they used their holy zeal as a pretext for the basest crimes, Josephus , b. j. 4, 3, 9; 4, 5, 1; 4, 6, 3; 7, 8, 1. To this class perhaps Simon the apostle had belonged, and hence, got the surname ζηλωτής: Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13; (cf. Schürer , Neutest. Zeitgesch., Index under the word Zeloten; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i. 237ff).TGL ζηλωτής.3

    2. with the genitive of the object: with the genitive of the thing, most eagerly desirous of, zealous for, a thing;TGL ζηλωτής.4

    a. to acquire a thing (zealous of) (see ζηλόω , 2): 1 Corinthians 14:12; Titus 2:14; 1 Peter 3:13 L T Tr WH (ἀρετῆς, Philo , praem. et poen. § 2; τῆς εὐσεβείας, de monarch. 50:1, § 3; εὐσεβείας καί δικαιοσύνης, de poenit. § 1; τῶν πολεμικων ἔργων, Diodorus 1, 73; περί τῶν ἀνηκόντων εἰς σωτηρίαν, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 45, 1 [ET]).TGL ζηλωτής.5

    b. to defend and uphold a thing, vehemently contending for a thing (zealous for): νόμου, Acts 21:20 (2 Macc. 4:2); τῶν πατρικῶν παραδόσεων, Galatians 1:14 (τῶν αἰγυπτιακων πλασματων, Philo , vit. Moys. iii. § 19; τῆς ἀρχαίας καί σώφρονος ἀγωγης, Diodorus excerpt., p. 611 (from 50:37, vol. 2:564 Didot)); with the genitive of person: Θεοῦ, intent on protecting the majesty and authority of God by contending for the Mosaic law, Acts 22:3. (In secular authors also an emulator, admirer, imitator, follower of anyone.)TGL ζηλωτής.6


    (2208) ζηλωτής, ζηλωτου, (ζηλόω), one burning with zeal; a zealot; 1. absolutely, for the Hebrew קַנָּא, used of God as jealous of any rival and sternly vindicating his control: Exodus 20:5; Deuteronomy 4:24, etc. From the time of the Maccabees () there existed among the Jews a class of men, called Zealots, who rigorously adhered to the Mosaic law and endeavored even by a resort to violence, after the example of Phinehas (Numbers 25:11, ζηλωτής Φινης 4 Macc. 18:12), to prevent religion from being violated by others; but in the latter days of the Jewish commonwealth they used their holy zeal as a pretext for the basest crimes, Josephus , b. j. 4, 3, 9; 4, 5, 1; 4, 6, 3; 7, 8, 1. To this class perhaps Simon the apostle had belonged, and hence, got the surname ζηλωτής: Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13; (cf. Schürer , Neutest. Zeitgesch., Index under the word Zeloten; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i. 237ff). 2. with the genitive of the object: with the genitive of the thing, most eagerly desirous of, zealous for, a thing; a. to acquire a thing (zealous of) (see ζηλόω , 2): 1 Corinthians 14:12; Titus 2:14; 1 Peter 3:13 L T Tr WH (ἀρετῆς, Philo , praem. et poen. § 2; τῆς εὐσεβείας, de monarch. 50:1, § 3; εὐσεβείας καί δικαιοσύνης, de poenit. § 1; τῶν πολεμικων ἔργων, Diodorus 1, 73; περί τῶν ἀνηκόντων εἰς σωτηρίαν, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 45, 1 [ET]). b. to defend and uphold a thing, vehemently contending for a thing (zealous for): νόμου, Acts 21:20 (2 Macc. 4:2); τῶν πατρικῶν παραδόσεων, Galatians 1:14 (τῶν αἰγυπτιακων πλασματων, Philo , vit. Moys. iii. § 19; τῆς ἀρχαίας καί σώφρονος ἀγωγης, Diodorus excerpt., p. 611 (from 50:37, vol. 2:564 Didot)); with the genitive of person: Θεοῦ, intent on protecting the majesty and authority of God by contending for the Mosaic law, Acts 22:3. (In secular authors also an emulator, admirer, imitator, follower of anyone.)*TGL Ζηλωτής.2


    (2209) ζημία, -ας, , damage, loss, [Sophocles, Herodotus down]: Acts 27:10, Acts 27:21; ἡγεῖσθαι ζημίαν (Xenophon, mem. 2, 4, 3; τινά, accusative of person, 2, 3, 2), τί, to regard a thing as a loss: Philippians 3:7 (opposed to κέρδος),Philippians 3:8.TGL ζημία.2


    (2210) ζημιόω, -ῶ: (ζημία), to affect with damage, do damage to: τινά ([Thucydides], Xenophon, Plato); in the N. T. only in the passive, future ζημιωθήσομαι ([Xenophon, mem. 3, 9, 12, others; but "as often"] in secular authors [future middle] ζημιώσομαι in passive sense; cf. Krüger § 39, 11 Anm.; Kühner, on Xenophon, mem. as above; [Liddell and Scott, under the word; Veitch, under the word]); 1 aorist ἐζημιώθην; absolutely, to sustain damage, to receive injury, suffer loss: 1 Corinthians 3:15; ἔν τινι ἔκ τινος, in a thing from one, 2 Corinthians 7:9; with the accusative of the thing: (one from whom another is taken away [as a penalty] by death, is said τὴν ψυχήν τινος ζημιοῦσθαι, Herodotus 7, 39), τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, to forfeit his life, i. e. according to the context, eternal life, Matthew 16:26; Mark 8:36, for which Luke, in Luke 9:25, ἑαυτόν i. e. himself, by being shut out from the everlasting kingdom of God. πάντα ἐζημιώθην, reflexive [yet see Meyer], I forfeited, gave up all things, I decided to suffer the loss of all these [(?)] things, Philippians 3:8.TGL ζημιόω.2


    (2211) Ζηνᾶς [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians 4:15; Winer's Grammar § 16 N. 1], -ᾶν, [Buttmann, 20 (18)], , Zenas, at first a teacher of the Jewish law, afterwards a Christian: Titus 3:13. [B. D. under the word.]TGL Ζηνᾶς.2


    (2212) ζητέω, ζητῶ; imperfect 3 person singular ἐζήτει, plural ἐζήτουν; future ζητήσω; 1 aorist ἐζήτησα; passive, present ζητοῦμαι; imperfect 3 person singular ἐζητεῖτο (Hebrews 8:7); 1 future ζητηθήσομαι (Luke 12:48); (from Homer on); the Sept. for דָּרַשׁ, and much more often for בִּקֵשׁ; to seek, i. e.TGL ζητέω.2

    1. to seek in order to find;TGL ζητέω.3

    a. universally and absolutely: Matthew 7:7; Luke 11:9 (see εὑρίσκω , 1 a); τινα, Mark 1:37; Luke 2:48 (Luke 2:45 R L marginal reading), (Luke 4:42 Rec. ); John 6:24; John 18:4, John 18:7; Acts 10:19, and often; followed by ἐν with the dative of place, Acts 9:11; with the accusative of the thing (μαργαρίτας), of buyers, Matthew 13:45; something lost, Matthew 18:12; Luke 19:10; τί ἐν τίνι, as fruit on a tree, Luke 13:6; ἀνάπαυσιν, a place of rest, Matthew 12:43; Luke 11:24; after the Hebrew (פּ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ בִּקֵּשׁ... (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 33 (32); 18)) ψυχήν τίνος, to seek, plot against, the life of one, Matthew 2:20; Romans 11:3, (Exodus 4:19, etc.); universally, τί ζητεῖς; what dost thou seek? what dost thou wish? John 1:38 (39); (John 4:27).TGL ζητέω.4

    b. to seek (i. e. in order to find out) by thinking, meditating, reasoning; to inquire into: περί τίνος ζητεῖτε μετ' ἀλλήλων; John 16:19; followed by indirect discourse, πῶς, τί, τινα: Mark 11:18; Mark 14:1, Mark 14:11; Luke 12:29; Luke 22:2; 1 Peter 5:8; τόν Θεόν, to follow up the traces of divine majesty and power, Acts 17:27 (universally, to seek the knowledge of God, Wis. 1:1 Wis. 13:6; (Philo , monarch. i. § 5)).TGL ζητέω.5

    c. to seek after, seek for, aim at, strive after: εὐκαιρίαν, Matthew 26:16; Luke 22:6; ψευδομαρτυρίαν, Matthew 26:59; Mark 14:55; τόν θάνατον, an opportunity to die, Revelation 9:6; λύσιν, 1 Corinthians 7:27; τήν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ, Matthew 6:33; Luke 12:31; τά ἄνω, Colossians 3:1; εἰρήνην, 1 Peter 3:11; ἀφθαρσίαν etc. Romans 2:7; δόξαν ἐκ τίνος, 1 Thessalonians 2:6; τήν δόξαν τήν παρά τίνος, John 5:44; τά τίνος, the property of one, 2 Corinthians 12:14; τήν δόξαν Θεοῦ, to seek to promote the glory of God, John 7:18; John 8:50; τό θέλημα τίνος, to attempt to establish, John 5:30; τό σύμφορον τίνος, to seek to further the profit or advantage of one, 1 Corinthians 10:33, equivalent to ζητεῖν τά τίνος, 1 Corinthians 10:24; 1 Corinthians 13:5; Philippians 2:21; ὑμᾶς, to seek to win your souls, 2 Corinthians 12:14; τόν Θεόν, to seek the favor of God (see ἐκζητέω , a.), Romans 10:20; (Romans 3:11 Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading). followed by an infinitive (Buttmann , 258 (222); Winer s Grammar, § 44, 3) to seek i. e. desire, endeavor: Matthew 12:46 (Matthew 12:47 (WH in marginal reading only)); Matthew 21:46; Mark 4:19 (L Tr marginal reading); Mark 12:12; Luke 5:18; Luke 6:19; Luke 9:9; John 5:18; John 7:4 (Buttmann , § 142, 4); John 5:19; Acts 13:8; Acts 16:10; Romans 10:3; Galatians 1:10; Galatians 2:17; followed by ἵνα (Buttmann , 237 (205)), 1 Corinthians 14:12.TGL ζητέω.6

    2. to seek i. e. require, demand: (σημεῖον, Mark 8:12 L T Tr WH ; Luke 11:29 T Tr WH ); σοφίαν, 1 Corinthians 1:22; δοκιμήν, 2 Corinthians 13:3; τί παρά τίνος, to crave, demand something from someone, Mark 8:11; Luke 11:16; Luke 12:48; ἐν τίνι, the dative of person, to seek in one, i. e. to require of him, followed by ἵνα, 1 Corinthians 4:2. (Compare: ἀναζητέω, ἐκζητέω, ἐπιζητέω, συζητέω.)TGL ζητέω.7


    (2213) ζήτημα, -τος, τό, (ζητέω), a question, debate: Acts 15:2; Acts 26:3; νόμου, about the law, Acts 23:29; περί τινος, Acts 18:15; Acts 25:19. [From Sophocles down.]TGL ζήτημα.2


    (2214) ζήτησις, -εως, , (ζητέω);TGL ζήτησις.2

    a. a seeking: [Herodotus], Thucydides 8,57; others.TGL ζήτησις.3

    b. inquiry (German die Frage): περί τινος, Acts 25:20.TGL ζήτησις.4

    c. a questioning, debate: Acts 15:2 (for Rec. συζήτησις); Acts 15:7 T Tr textual reading WH; περί τινος, John 3:25.TGL ζήτησις.5

    d. a subject of questioning or debate, matter of controversy: 1 Timothy 1:4 R G L; 1 Timothy 6:4; 2 Timothy 2:23; Titus 3:9.TGL ζήτησις.6

    Related entry: ἐκζήτησις, (ἐκζητέω, which see), -εως, ;TGL ζήτησις.7

    1. an investigating.TGL ζήτησις.8

    2. a subject of subtle inquiry and dispute, [R. V. questioning]: 1 Timothy 1:4 T Tr [WH; see Ellicott at the passage and cf. οἰκονομία ]. (Basil of Cæsarea, Didymus of Alexandria.)TGL ζήτησις.9


    (2215) ζιζάνιον, -ου, τό, (doubtless a word of Semitic origin; Arabic Zizanion, Syriac Zizanion [see Schaaf, Lex. under the word, p. 148], Talmud זֲוָנִין or זוּנִין; Suidas ζιζάνιον· ἐν τῷ σίτῳ αἶρα), zizanium, [A. V. tares], a kind of darnel, bastard wheat [but see references below], resembling wheat except that the grains are black: Matthew 13:25-27, Matthew 13:29, Matthew 13:38, Matthew 13:38, Matthew 13:40. (Geoponica [for references see B. D. American edition, p. 3177 note]). Cf. Winers RWB under the word Lolch; Furrer in Schenkel B. L. 4:57; [B. D. , and Tristram, National History of the Bible, under the word Tares].TGL ζιζάνιον.2


    (2216) Ζοροβάβελ, in Josephus, Ζοροβάβηλος, -ου, , (זְרֻבָּבֶל, i. e. either for זְרוּבָבֶל dispersed in Babylonia or for בָּבֶל זְרוּעַ begotten in Babylonia), Zerubbabel, Vulgate Zorobabel , a descendant of David, the leader of the first colony of the Jews on their return from the Babylonian exile: Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27.TGL Ζοροβαβέλ.2


    (2217) ζόφος, -ου, , (akin to γνόφος, δνόφος, νέφος, κνέφας, see Bttm. Lexil. 2, p. 266 [Fishlake's translation, p. 378]; cf. Curtius, p. 706), darkness, blackness: Hebrews 12:18 L T Tr WH; as in Homer Iliad 15, 191; 21, 56, etc., used of the darkness of the nether world (cf. Grimm on Wis. 17:14), 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:6; ζόφος τοῦ σκότους (cf. חֹשֶׁךְ־אֲפֵלָה, Exodus 10:22), the blackness of (i. e. the densest) darkness, 2 Peter 2:17; Jude 1:13. [Cf. Trench, § c.]TGL ζόφος.2


    (2218) ζυγός, -οῦ, , for which in Greek writings before Polybius τὸ ζυγόν was more common, (from ζεύγνυμι);TGL ζυγός.2

    1. a yoke;TGL ζυγός.3

    a. properly, such as is put on draught-cattle.TGL ζυγός.4

    b. metaphorically, used of any burden or bondage: as that of slavery, 1 Timothy 6:1 (Leviticus 26:13), δουλείας, Galatians 5:1 (Sophocles Aj. 944; δουλοσύνης, Demosthenes 322, 12); of troublesome laws imposed on one, especially of the Mosaic law, Acts 15:10; Galatians 5:1; hence, the name is so transferred to the commands of Christ as to contrast them with the commands of the Pharisees which were a veritable 'yoke'; yet even Christ's commands must be submitted to, though easier to be kept: Matthew 11:29 (less aptly in Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 16:1-24, 1 Corinthians 16:17 Christians are called οἱ ὑπὸ τὸν ζυγὸν τῆς χάριτος ἐλθόντες [cf. Harnack at the passage]).TGL ζυγός.5

    2. a balance, pair of scales: Revelation 6:5 (as in Isaiah 40:12; Leviticus 19:36; Plato, rep. 8, 550 e.; Aelian v. h. 10, 6; others).TGL ζυγός.6


    (2219) ζύμη, -ης, , (ζέω [but cf. Curtius, p. 626f; Vanicek, p. 760]), leaven: Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21, (Exodus 12:15; Leviticus 2:11; Deuteronomy 16:3, etc.; Aristotle, gen. an. 3, 4; Josephus, Antiquities 3, 10, 6; Plutarch, mor., p. 289f [quaest. Rom. 109]); τοῦ ἄρτου, Matthew 16:12; metaphorically, of inveterate mental and moral corruption, 1 Corinthians 5:8 [1 Corinthians 5:7], (Ignatius ad Magnes. 10); viewed in its tendency to infect others, ζύμη τῶν Φαρισαίων: Matthew 16:6, Matthew 16:11; Mark 8:15; Luke 12:1, which figuratively Matthew 16:12 explains of the teaching of the Pharisees, Luke, the passage cited more correctly [definitely?] of their hypocrisy. It is applied to that which, though small in quantity, yet by its influence thoroughly pervades a thing: either in a good sense, as in the parable Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21, (see ζυμόω ); or in a bad sense, of a pernicious influence, as in the proverb μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ, a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump, which is used variously, according to the various things to which it is applied, namely a single sin corrupts a whole church, 1 Corinthians 5:6; a slight inclination to error (respecting the necessity of circumcision) easily perverts the whole conception of faith, Galatians 5:9; but many interpretations explain the passage 'even a few false teachers lead the whole church into error.'TGL ζύμη.2


    (2220) ζυμόω, -ῶ; 1 aorist passive ἐζυμώθην; (ζύμη); to leaven (to mix leaven with dough so as to make it ferment): 1 Corinthians 5:6; Galatians 5:9, (on which passage see ζύμη ); ἕως ἐζυμώθη ὅλον, namely, τὸ ἄλευρον, words which refer to the saving power of the gospel, which from a small beginning will gradually pervade and transform the whole human race: Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21. (Sept. , Hipp., Athen. , Plutarch.)TGL ζυμόω.2


    (2221) ζωγρέω, -ῶ; perfect passive participle ἐζωγρημένος; (ζωός alive, and ἀγρέω [poetic form of ἀγρεύω, which see]);TGL ζωγρέω.2

    1. to take alive (Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, others; Sept. ).TGL ζωγρέω.3

    2. universally, to take, catch, capture: ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ (i. e. τοῦ διαβόλου) εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα, if they are held captive to do his will, 2 Timothy 2:26 [others make ἐζ. ὑπ’ αὐτ. parenthetic and refer ἐκείνου to God; see ἐκεῖνος , 1 c.; cf. Ellicott, in the place cited]; ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶν, thou shalt catch men, i. e. by teaching thou shalt win their souls for the kingdom of God, Luke 5:10.TGL ζωγρέω.4


    (2222) ζωή, ζωῆς, (from ζάω, ζῶ), the Sept. chiefly for חַיִּים; life;TGL ζωή.2

    1. universally, life, i. e. the state of one who is possessed of vitality or is animate: 1 Peter 3:10 (on which see ἀγαπάω ); Hebrews 7:3, Hebrews 7:16; αὐτός ( Θεός) διδούς πᾶσιν ζωήν καί πνοήν, Acts 17:25; πνεῦμα ζωῆς ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ, the vital spirit, the breath of (i. e. imparting) life, Revelation 11:11 (Ezekiel 37:5); πᾶσα ψυχή ζωῆς, genitive of possess, every living soul, Revelation 16:3 G L T Tr text WH ; spoken of earthly life: ζωή τίνος, Luke 12:15; Acts 8:33 (see αἴρω , 3 h.); James 4:14; ἐν τῇ ζωή σου, whilst thou wast living on earth, Luke 16:25 (ἐν τῇ ζωή αὐτοῦ, Sir. 30:5 Sir. 50:1); ἐν τῇ ζωή ταύτῃ, 1 Corinthians 15:19; πᾶσαι αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς ζωῆς τίνος, Luke 1:75 Rec. (Genesis 3:14; Psalms 127:5 (Psalms 128:5); Sir. 22:12 (10)). ἐπαγγελία ζωῆς τῆς νῦν καί τῆς μελλούσης, a promise looking to the present and the future life, 1 Timothy 4:8; ζωή and θάνατος are contrasted in Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 3:22; Philippians 1:20; of a life preserved in the midst of perils, with a suggestion of vigor, 2 Corinthians 4:12 (the life of Paul is meant here, which exerts a saving power on the Corinthians by his discharge of his apostolic duties); of the life of persons raised from the dead: ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς, figuratively spoken of a new mode of life, dedicated to God, Romans 6:4; of the life of Jesus after his resurrection, Acts 2:28; Romans 5:10; of the same, with the added notion of vigor, 2 Corinthians 4:10.TGL ζωή.3

    2. used emphatically,TGL ζωή.4

    a. of the absolute fullness of life, both essential and ethical, which belongs to God, and through him both to the hypostatic λόγος and to Christ in whom the λόγος put on human nature: ὥσπερ πατήρ ἔχει ζωήν ἐν ἑαυτῷ, οὕτως ἔδωκεν καί τῷ υἱῷ ζωήν ἔχειν ἐν ἑαυτῷ, John 5:26; ἐν αὐτῷ (namely, τῷ λόγῳ) ζωή ἦν καί ζωή ἦν τό φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, in him life was (comprehended), and the life (transfused from the Logos into created natures) was the light (i. e. the intelligence) of men (because the life of men is self-conscious, and thus a fountain of intelligence springs up), John 1:4; λόγος τῆς ζωῆς, the Logos having life in itself and communicating it to others, 1 John 1:1; ζωή ἐφανερώθη, was manifested in Christ, clothed in flesh, 1 John 1:2. From this divine fountain of life flows forth that life which is next to be defined: viz.TGL ζωή.5

    b. life real and genuine, vita quae sola vita nominanda (Cicero , de sen. 21, 77), a life active and vigorous, devoted to God, blessed, the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions (among them a more perfect body), and to last forever (the writers of the O. T. have anticipated the conception, in their way, by employing חַיִּים to denote a happy life and every kind of blessing: Deuteronomy 30:15, Deuteronomy 30:19; Malachi 2:5; Psalms 33:13 (Psalms 34:13) 13; Proverbs 8:35; Proverbs 12:28, etc.): John 6:51, John 6:63; John 14:6; Romans 7:10; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:10; 2 Corinthians 2:16; Philippians 2:16; (Colossians 3:4); 2 Peter 1:3; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:16, 1 John 5:20; with the addition of τοῦ Θεοῦ, supplied by God (Winer 's Grammar, 186 (175)), Ephesians 4:18; ἐν Χριστῷ, to be obtained in fellowship with Christ, 2 Timothy 1:1; μεταβεβηκέναι ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου εἰς ζωήν, John 5:24; 1 John 3:14; ὄψεσθαί τήν ζωήν, John 3:36; ἔχειν ζωήν, John 5:40; John 10:10; 1 John 5:12; with ἐν ἑαυτῷ (or ἑαυτοῖς) added, John 5:26; (John 6:53); διδόναι, John 6:33; χάρις ζωῆς, the grace of God evident in the life obtained, 1 Peter 3:7; τό πνεῦμα τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, the Spirit, the repository and imparter of life, and which is received by those united to Christ, Romans 8:2; ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς (see ἄρτος , at the end), John 6:35, John 6:48; τό φῶς τῆς ζοης, the light illumined by which one arrives at life, John 8:12. more fully ζωή αἰώνιος and ζωή αἰώνιος ((cf. Buttmann , 90 (79)); see below): John 4:36; (John 12:50); John 17:3; 1 John 1:2; 1 John 2:25; (ῤήματα ζωῆς αἰωνίου, John 6:68); εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, unto the attainment of eternal life (cf. εἰς , B. II. 3 c. δ., p. 185a), John 4:14; John 6:27; διδόναι ζωήν αἰώνιον, John 10:28; John 17:2; 1 John 5:11; ἔχειν ζωήν αἰώνιον, John 3:15 (and John 3:16) (opposed to ἀπολλυσθαι), John 3:36; John 5:24, John 5:39; John 6:40, John 6:47, John 6:54; John 20:31 L brackets; 1 John 5:13; οὐκ ἔχειν ζωήν αἰώνιον ἐν ἑαυτῷ, 1 John 3:15; (in Enoch 15:4,6 the wicked angels are said before their fall to have been spiritual and partakers of eternal and immortal life). ζωή and ζωή, without epithet, are used of the blessing of real life after the resurrection, in Matthew 7:14; John 11:25; Acts 3:15; Acts 5:20; Acts 11:18; Romans 5:17, Romans 5:18 (on which see δικαίωσις , at the end); 2 Corinthians 5:4; Colossians 3:3; 2 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:2; Titus 3:7; ζωή ἐκ νεκρῶν, life breaking forth from the abode of the dead, Romans 11:15; εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τήν ζωήν, Matthew 18:8; Matthew 19:17; Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45; ἀνάστασις ζωῆς equivalent to εἰς ζωήν (2 Macc. 7:14), John 5:29 (on the genitive, cf. Winer 's Grammar, 188 (177)); στέφανος τῆς ζωῆς equivalent to ζωή ὡς στέφανος, James 1:12; Revelation 2:10; ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς, the tree whose fruit gives and maintains eternal life, Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19 (G L T Tr WH ) (cf. Genesis 2:9; Proverbs 3:18; δένδρον ζωῆς, Proverbs 11:30; Proverbs 13:12); cf. Bleek, Vorless. üb. d. Apokalypse, p. 174f; ὕδωρ ζωῆς, water the use of which serves to maintain eternal life, Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17; in the same sense ζωῆς πηγαί ὑδάτων, Revelation 7:17 G L T Tr WH ; βίβλος and τό βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς, the book in which the names of those are recorded to whom eternal life has been decreed: Philippians 4:3; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27; (Revelation 22:19 Rec. ; cf. Lightfoot on Philippians, the passage cited), more fully ὄντως (Rec. αἰώνιος) ζωή, 1 Timothy 6:19; ζωή αἰώνιος (cf. above) (Justin Martyr , de resurr. i., p. 588 c. λόγος... διδούς ἡμῖν ἐν ἑαυτῷ τήν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν καί τήν μετά ταῦτα ζωήν αἰώνιον), Matthew 25:46 (opposed to κόλασις αἰώνιος); Acts 13:46, Acts 13:48; Romans 2:7; Romans 6:22; Galatians 6:8; 1 Timothy 6:12; after ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ, Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30; ἔχειν ζωήν αἰώνιον Matthew 19:16; κληρονομεῖν, Matthew 19:29; Mark 10:17; Luke 10:25; Luke 18:18; εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, unto the attainment of life eternal, John 12:25; Romans 5:21; 1 Timothy 1:16; Jude 1:21 (Daniel 12:2; Daniel 4:1-37 Macc. 15:2; ἀενναος ζωή, 2 Macc. 7:36; ἀΐδιος ζωή, Ignatius ad Eph. 19 [ET]). Cf. Köstlin, Lehrbegriff des Ev. Johann. etc., pp. 234ff, 338ff; Reuss, Johann. Theologie (in Beiträge zu d. theol. Wissenschaften, vol. i.), p. 76ff (cf. his Hist. de la Theol. Chret., book vii., chapter xiv.); Lipsius , Paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, pp. 152ff 185f; Güder in Herzog viii. 254 (2nd edition, 509ff); B. B. Brückner, De notione vocis ζωή in N. T. Lipsius 1858; Huther, d. Bedeut. d. Begriffe ζωή u. πιστεύειν im N. T., in the Jahrbb. f. deutsche Theol. 1872, p. 1ff (For the relations of the term to heathen conceptions cf. G. Teichmüller, Aristotle , Forsch. iii., p. 127ff) Some, as Bretschneider, Wahl, Wilke, especially Käuffer (in his book De biblica ζωῆς αἰωνίου notione. Dresd. 1838); Westcott, Epp. of St. John, p. 204 sqq., maintain that ζωή αἰώνιος everywhere even in John's writings refers to life after the resurrection; but in this way they are compelled not only to assume a prophetic use of the perfect in the saying ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου μεταβεβηκέναι εἰς τήν ζωήν (John 5:24; 1 John 3:14), but also to interpret the common phrase ἔχει ζωήν αἰώνιον as meaning he has eternal life as his certain portion though as yet only in hope, as well as to explain ζωήν αἰώνιον οὐκ ἔχειν ἐν ἑαυτῷ μένουσαν (1 John 3:15) of the hope of eternal life. (Synonym: see βίος , at the end.)TGL ζωή.6


    (2223) ζώνη, -ης, , (ζώννυμι, [from Homer down], a girdle, belt, serving not only to gird on flowing garments, Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6; Acts 21:11; Revelation 1:13; Revelation 15:6; but also, since it was hollow, to carry money in [A. V. purse]: Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8; Plutarch, mor., p. 665 b. quaest. conviv. 4:2, 3, 2; "argentum in zonis habentes, " Livy 33, 29. [B. D. under the word Girdle.]TGL ζώνη.2


    (2224) ζώννυμι and ζωννύω: imperfect 2 person singular ἐζώννυες; fut, ζώσω; 1 aorist middle imperative ζῶσαι; to gird: τινά, John 21:18; middle to gird oneself: Acts 12:8 L T Tr WH. (Exodus 29:9; Homer, and others.)TGL ζώννυμι.2

    [Compare: ἀνα-, δια-, περι-, ὑποζώννυμι.]TGL ζώννυμι.3


    (2225) ζωογονέω, -ῶ; future ζωογονήσω; present infinitive passive ζωογονεῖσθαι; (from ζωογόνος viviparous, and this from ζωός and ΓΕΝΩ);TGL ζῳογονέω.2

    1. properly, to bring forth alive (Theophrastus, Diodorus, Lucian, Plutarch, others).TGL ζῳογονέω.3

    2. to give life (Theophrastus, de caus. pl. 4, 15, 4; Ath. 7, p. 298 c.): τὰ πάντα, of God, 1 Timothy 6:13 L T Tr WH, [(1 Samuel 2:6)].TGL ζῳογονέω.4

    3. in the Bible to preserve alive: τὴν ψυχήν, Luke 17:33; passive Acts 7:19.TGL ζῳογονέω.5

    (For הֶחֱיָה, Exodus 1:17; Judges 8:19; [1 Samuel 27:9, 1 Samuel 27:11; 1 Kings 21:31 (1 Kings 20:31)].)TGL ζῳογονέω.6


    (2226) ζῶον [or ζῷον (so L WH uniformly, Treg. in Hebrews and Revelations; see Etym. Magn. 413, 24, and references under the word Ι, ι)], -ου, τό, (ζωός alive);TGL ζῷον.2

    1. a living being.TGL ζῷον.3

    2. an animal, brute, beast: Hebrews 13:11; 2 Peter 2:12; Jude 1:10; Revelation 4:6-9 [on Revelation 4:8 cf. Buttmann, 130 (114)], etc.TGL ζῷον.4

    [Synonyms: ζῶον differs from θηρίον (at least etymologically; but cf. Schmidt as below) in giving prominence to the vital element, while θηρίον emphasizes the bestial element. Hence, in Revelation as above ζ. is fitly rendered living creature in contradistinction to the θηρίον beast, cf. Revelation 11:7; Revelation 13:1, etc. See Trench § 81; Schmidt 2, chapter 70.]TGL ζῷον.5


    (2227) ζωοποιέω; -ῶ; future ζωοποιήσω; 1 aorist infinitive ζωοποιῆσαι; passive, present ζωοποιοῦμαι; 1 future ζωοποιηθήσομαι; 1 aorist participle ζωοποιηθείς; (ζωοποιός making alive);TGL ζῳοποιέω.2

    1. to produce alive, beget or bear living young, (Aristotle, Theophrastus).TGL ζῳοποιέω.3

    2. to cause to live, make alive, give life: τὰ πάντα, of God, 1 Timothy 6:13 R G [cf. Nehemiah 9:6; 2 Kings 5:7; Diognetus, epistle 5 at the end]; by spiritual power to arouse and invigorate, 2 Corinthians 3:6; Galatians 3:21; to give ζωὴ αἰώνιος (in the Johannean sense), John 6:63; of the dead, to reanimate, restore to life: 1 Corinthians 15:45; τινά, John 5:21; Romans 4:17; Romans 8:11; passive 1 Corinthians 15:22; equivalent to to give increase of life: thus of physical life, πρῶτον τὸ παιδίον μέλιτι, εἶτα γάλακτι ζωοποιεῖται, the Epistle of Barnabas 6, 17; of the spirit, ζωοποιηθεὶς πνεύματι, quickened as respects the spirit, endued with new and greater powers of life, 1 Peter 3:18, on which cf. Lechler, Das apost. u. nachapost. Zeitalter, p. 182 edition 2; [Zezschwitz, De Christi ad inferos descensu (Lipsius 1857), p. 20]. metaphorically (Geoponica 9, 11, 7) of seeds quickening into life, i. e. germinating, springing up, growing: 1 Corinthians 15:36.TGL ζῳοποιέω.4

    [Compare: συζωοποιέω.]TGL ζῳοποιέω.5

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