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    ἀσχήμων — ἄψυχος


    (809) ἀσχήμων, -ονος, neuter ἄσχημον (σχῆμα);TGL ἀσχήμων.2

    a. deformed.TGL ἀσχήμων.3

    b. indecent, unseemly: 1 Corinthians 12:23, opposed to εὐσχήμων. ([Herodotus], Xenophon, Plato, and subsequent writings.)TGL ἀσχήμων.4


    (810) ἀσωτία, -ας, , (the character of an ἄσωτος, i. e. of an abandoned man, one that cannot be saved, from σαόω, σόω equivalent to σώζω, [ἄσωτος, Curtius, § 570]; hence, properly, incorrigibleness), an abandoned, dissolute, life; profligacy, prodigality [R. V. riot]: Ephesians 5:18; Titus 1:6; 1 Peter 4:4; (Proverbs 28:7; 2 Macc. 6:4. Plato, rep. 8, p. 560 e.; Aristotle, eth. Nic. 4, 1, 5 (3), p. 1120a, 3; Polybius 32, 20, 9; 40, 12, 7; cf. Cicero, Tusc. 3, 8; Herodian, 2, 5, 2 (1, Bekker edition), and elsewhere). Cf. Tittmann i., p. 152f; [Trench, § xvi.].TGL ἀσωτία.2


    (811) ἀσώτως, adverb (adjective ἄσωτος, on which see ἀσωτία ), dissolutely, profligately: ζῆν (Josephus, Antiquities 12, 4, 8), Luke 15:13 [A. V. riotous living].TGL ἀσώτως.2


    (812) ἀτακτέω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἠτάκτησα; to be ἄτακτος, to be disorderly;TGL ἀτακτέω.2

    a. properly, of soldiers marching out of order or quitting the ranks: Xenophon, Cyril 7, 2, 6, etc. Hence,TGL ἀτακτέω.3

    b. to be neglectful of duty, to be lawless: Xenophon, Cyril 8, 1, 22; oec. 5, 15; Lysias 141, 18 [i. e. c. Alcib. or. 1 § 18], othersTGL ἀτακτέω.4

    c. to lead a disorderly life: 2 Thessalonians 3:7, cf. 2 Thessalonians 3:11.TGL ἀτακτέω.5


    (813) ἄτακτος, -ον, (τάσσω), disorderly, out of the ranks, (often so of soldiers); irregular, inordinate (ἄτακτοι ἡδοναί immoderate pleasures, Plato, legg. 2, 660 b.; Plutarch, de book educ. c. 7), deviating from the prescribed order or rule: 1 Thessalonians 5:14, cf. 2 Thessalonians 3:6. (In Greek writings from [Herodotus and] Thucydides down; often in Plato.)TGL ἄτακτος.2


    (814) ἀτάκτως, adverb, disorderly: 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ἀτάκτως περιπατεῖν, which is explained by the added καὶ μὴ κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν ἥν παρέλαβε παῤ ἡμῶν; cf. 2 Thessalonians 3:11, where it is explained by μηδὲν ἐργαζόμενοι, ἀλλὰ περιεργαζόμενοι. (Often in Plato.)TGL ἀτάκτως.2


    (815) ἄτεκνος, -ον, (τέκνον), without offspring, childless: Luke 20:28-30. (Genesis 15:2; Sir. 16:3. In Greek writings from Hesiod, Works, 600 down.)TGL ἄτεκνος.2


    (816) ἀτενίζω; 1 aorist ἠτένισα; (from ἀτενής stretched, intent, and this from τείνω and α intensive; [yet cf. Winers Grammar, § 16, 4; Buttmann, a. at the end, and under the word Α, α, 3]); to fix the eyes on, gaze upon: with the dative of person, Luke 4:20; Luke 22:56; Acts 3:12; Acts 10:4; Acts 14:9; Acts 23:1; followed by εἰς with an accusative of person, Acts 3:4; Acts 6:15; Acts 13:9; metaphorically, to fix one's mind on one as an example, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 9, 2; εἴς τι, Acts 1:10; Acts 7:55; 2 Corinthians 3:7, 2 Corinthians 3:13; εἴς τι, to look into anything, Acts 11:6. (3 Macc. 2:26. [Aristotle], Polybius 6, 11, 5 [i. e. 6, 11a, 12 Dindorf]; Diodorus 3, 39 [Dindorf ἐνατ.]; Josephus, b. j. 5, 12, 3; Lucian, cont. 16, others)TGL ἀτενίζω.2


    (817) ἄτερ, preposition, frequent in the poets [from Homer down], rare in prose writings from Plato [?] down; without, apart from: with the genitive [Dionysius Halicarnassus 3, 10; Plutarch, Numbers 14:1-45, Cat. min. 5]; in the Bible only in 2 Macc. 12:15; Luke 22:6 (ἄτερ ὄχλου in the absence of the multitude; hence, without tumult), Luke 22:35. ['Teaching' 3, 10; Herm. sim. 5, 4, 5.]TGL ἄτερ.2


    (818) ἀτιμάζω; 1 aorist ἠτίμασα; [passive, present ἀτιμάζομαι]; 1 aorist infinitive ἀτιμασθῆναι; (from ἄτιμος; hence) to make ἄτιμος, to dishonor, insult, treat with contumely, whether in word, in deed, or in thought: [Mark 12:4 T Tr marginal reading WH (cf. ἀτιμάω and -μόω)]; Luke 20:11; John 8:49; Acts 5:41; Romans 2:23; James 2:6 [Winers Grammar § 40, 5, 2; Buttmann, 202 (175)]. Passive: Romans 1:24, on which cf. Winers Grammar, 326 (305f); [and § 39, 3 N. 3]. (In Greek writings from Homer down; the Sept. .)TGL ἀτιμάζω.2

    Related entry: ἀτιμάω, -ῶ: [1 aorist ἠτίμησα]; (τιμή); to deprive of honor, despise, treat with contempt or contumely: τινά, Mark 12:4 L Tr text ἠτίμησαν (see ἀτιμάζω and -μόω). (In Greek writings [chiefly Epic] from Homer down.)TGL ἀτιμάζω.3


    (819) ἀτιμία, -ας, , (ἄτιμος), dishonor, ignominy, disgrace [from Homer down]: 1 Corinthians 11:14; opposed to δόξα, 2 Corinthians 6:8; 1 Corinthians 15:43 (ἐν ἀτιμίᾳ namely, ὄν, in a state of disgrace, used of the unseemliness and offensiveness of a dead body); κατ’ ἀτιμίαν equivalent to ἀτίμως, with contempt namely, of myself, 2 Corinthians 11:21 [R. V. by way of disparagement, cf. κατά , II. at the end]; πάθη ἀτιμίας base lusts, vile passions, Romans 1:26, cf. Winers Grammar, § 34, 3b.; [Buttmann, § 132, 10]. εἰς ἀτιμίαν for a dishonorable use, of vessels, opposed to τιμή: Romans 9:21; 2 Timothy 2:20.TGL ἀτιμία.2


    (820) ἄτιμος, -ον, (τιμή); from Homer down; without honor, unhonored, dishonored: Matthew 13:57; Mark 6:4; 1 Corinthians 4:10 (opposed to ἔνδοξος); base, of less esteem: 1 Corinthians 12:23 [here the neuter plural of the comparitive, ἀτιμότερα (Rec.elz ἀτιμώτερα)].TGL ἄτιμος.2


    (821) ἀτιμόω, -ῶ: [perfect passive participle ἠτιμωμένος]; (ἄτιμος); from Aeschylus down; to dishonor, mark with disgrace: Mark 12:4 R G, see ἀτιμάω [and ἀτιμάζω].TGL ἀτιμόω.2


    (822) ἀτμίς, -ίδος, , vapor: James 4:14; καπνοῦ (Joel 2:30 [others, Joel 3:3]), Acts 2:19 [opposed to καπνός in Aristotle, meteor. 2, 4, p. 359b, 29f, to νέφος ibid. 1, 9, p. 346b, 32]. (In Greek writings from [Herodotus 4, 75 and] Plato, Tim., p. 86; e. down.)TGL ἀτμίς.2


    (823) ἄτομος, -ον (τέμνω to cut), that cannot be cut in two or divided, indivisible [Plato, Sophocles 229 d.; of time, Aristotle, phys. 8, 8, p. 263b, 27]: ἐν ἀτόμῳ in a moment, 1 Corinthians 15:52.TGL ἄτομος.2


    (824) ἄτοπος, -ον, (τόπος), out of place; not befitting, unbecoming (so in Greek writings from Thucydides down; very often in Plato); in later Greek in an ethical sense, improper, wicked: Luke 23:41 (ἄτοπόν τι πράσσειν, as in Job 27:6; 2 Macc. 14:23); Acts 25:5 L T Tr WH; (Sept. for אָוֶן. Job 4:8; Job 11:11, etc. Josephus, Antiquities 6, 5, 6; Plutarch, de aud. poët. c. 3 φαυλά and ἄτοπα); of men: 2 Thessalonians 3:2 (ἄτοποι καὶ πονηροί; Luth. unartig , more correctly unrighteous [(iniquus ), A. V. unreasonable, cf. Ellicott at the passage]). inconvenient, harmful: Acts 28:6 μηδὲν ἄτοπον εἰς αὐτὸν γινόμενον, no injury, no harm coming to him (Thucydides 2, 49; Josephus, Antiquities 11, 5, 2; Herodian, 4, 11, 7 [4, Bekker edition]).TGL ἄτοπος.2


    (825) Ἀττάλεια [-λία T WH (see Ι, ι)], -ας, , Attalia, a maritime city of Pamphylia in Asia, very near the borders of Lycia, built and named by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamum; now Antali [or Adalia; cf. Dict. of Geog.]: Acts 14:25.TGL Ἀττάλεια.2


    (826) αὐγάζω: 1 aorist infinitive αὐγάσαι; (αὐγή);TGL αὐγάζω.2

    1. in Greek writings transitively, to beam upon, irradiate.TGL αὐγάζω.3

    2. in the Bible intransitive, to be bright, to shine forth: 2 Corinthians 4:4 [L marginal reading Tr marginal reading καταυγ. see φωτισμός , b.] (Leviticus 13:24-28, [etc.]). [Compare: δι-, καταυγάζω.]TGL αὐγάζω.4

    Related entry: [καταυγάζω: 1 aorist infinitive καταυγάσαι; to beam down upon; to shine forth, shine brightly: 2 Corinthians 4:4 L marginal reading Tr marginal reading, where others αὐγάσαι equivalent to; cf. φωτισμός, b.; (transitive Wis. 17:5, etc.; intransitive 1 Macc. 6:39; Heliodorus 5, 31).]TGL αὐγάζω.5


    (827) αὐγή, -ῆς, , brightness, radiance (cf. German Auge [eye ], of which the tragic poets sometimes use αὐγή, see Pape [or Liddell and Scott; cf. Latin lumina ]), especially of the sun; hence, ἡλίου is often added (Homer and following), daylight; hence, ἄχρις [-ρι T Tr WH] αὐγῆς even till break of day, Acts 20:11 (Polyaenus 4, 18, p. 386 κατὰ τὴν πρώτην αὐγὴν τῆς ἡμέρας). [Synonym: see φέγγος , at the end.]TGL αὐγή.2


    (828) Αὔγουστος, -ου, , Augustus [cf. English Majesty ; see σεβαστός , 2], the surname of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, the first Roman emperor: Luke 2:1.TGL Αὔγουστος.2


    (829) αὐθάδης, -ες, (from αὐτός and ἥδομαι), self-pleasing, self-willed, arrogant: Titus 1:7; 2 Peter 2:10. (Genesis 49:3, Genesis 49:7; Proverbs 21:24. In Greek writings from Aeschylus and Herodotus down.) [Trench, § xciii.]TGL αὐθάδης.2


    (830) αὐθαίρετος, -ον, (from αὐτός and αἱρέομαι), self-chosen; in Greek writings especially of states or conditions, as δουλεία, Thucydides 6, 40, etc., more rarely of persons; voluntary, of free choice, of one's own accord, (as στρατηγός, Xenophon, an. 5, 7, 29, explained § 28 by ὅς ἑαυτὸν ἕληται): 2 Corinthians 8:3, 2 Corinthians 8:17.TGL αὐθαίρετος.2


    (831) αὐθεντέω, -ῶ; (a Biblical and ecclesiastical word; from αὐθέντης contracted from αὐτοέντης, and this from αὐτός and ἔντεα arms [others, ἕντης, cf. Hesychius συνέντης· συνεργός; cf. Lobeck, Technol., p. 121]; henceTGL αὐθεντέω.2

    a. according to earlier usage, one who with his own hand kills either others or himself.TGL αὐθεντέω.3

    b. in later Greek writings one who does a thing himself, the author (τῆς πράξεως, Polybius 23, 14, 2, etc.); one who acts on his own authority, autocratic, equivalent to αὐτοκράτωρ an absolute master; cf. Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 120 [also as above; cf. Winers Grammar, § 2, 1 c.]); to govern one, exercise dominion over one: τινός, 1 Timothy 2:12.TGL αὐθεντέω.4


    (832) αὐλέω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ηὔλησα; [present passive participle τὸ αὐλούμενον]; (αὐλός); to play on the flute, to pipe: Matthew 11:17; Luke 7:32; 1 Corinthians 14:7. (From [Alcman , Herodotus] Xenophon, and Plato down.)TGL αὐλέω.2


    (833) αὐλή, -ῆς, , (ἄω to blow; hence) properly, a place open to the air (διαπνεόμενος τόπος αὐλὴ λέγεται, Athen. 5, 15, p. 189 b.);TGL αὐλή.2

    1. among the Greeks in Homer's time an uncovered space around the house, enclosed by a wall, in which the stables stood (Homer, Odyssey 9, 185; Iliad 4, 433); hence, among the Orientals that roofless enclosure in the open country in which flocks were herded at night, a sheepfold: John 10:1, John 10:16.TGL αὐλή.3

    2. the uncovered court-yard of the house, Hebrew חָצֵר, the Sept. αὐλή, Vulg. atrium . In the O. T. particularly of the courts of the tabernacle and of the temple at Jerusalem; so in the N. T. once: Revelation 11:2 (τὴν αὐλὴν τήν ἔξωθεν [Rec.st ἔσωθεν] τοῦ ναοῦ). The dwellings of the higher classes usually had two αὐλαί, one exterior, between the door and the street, called also προαύλιον (which see); the other interior, surrounded by the buildings of the dwelling itself. The latter is mentioned Matthew 26:69 (where ἔξω is opposed to the room in which the judges were sitting); Mark 14:66; Luke 22:55. Cf. Winers RWB under the word Häuser; [B. D. American edition under the word Court; BB. DD. under the word House].TGL αὐλή.4

    3. the house itself, a palace: Matthew 26:3, Matthew 26:58; Mark 14:54; Mark 15:16; Luke 11:21; John 18:15, and so very often in Greek writings from Homer, Odyssey 4, 74 down [cf. Eustathius 1483, 39 τῷ τῆς αὐλῆς ὀνόματι τὰ δώματα δηλοῖ, Suidas col. 652 c. αὐλή· τοῦ βασιλέως οἰκία. Yet this sense is denied to the N. T. by Meyer neuter plural; see Meyer on Matthew, the passage cited].TGL αὐλή.5


    (834) αὐλητής, -οῦ, , (αὐλέω), a flute-player: Matthew 9:23; Revelation 18:22. (In Greek writings from [Theognis and] Herodotus 6, 60 down.)TGL αὐλητής.2


    (835) αὐλίζομαι: deponent; imperfect ηὐλιζόμην; 1 aorist ηὐλίσθην [Veitch, under the word; Buttmann, 51 (44); Winer's Grammar, § 39, 2]; (αὐλή); in the Sept. mostly for לוּן;TGL αὐλίζομαι.2

    1. properly, to lodge in the courtyard especially at night; of flocks and shepherds.TGL αὐλίζομαι.3

    2. to pass the night in the open air, bivouac.TGL αὐλίζομαι.4

    3. universally, to pass the night, lodge: so Matthew 21:17; Luke 21:37 (ἐξερχόμενος ηὐλίζετο εἰς τὸ ὄρος, going out to pass the night he retired to the mountain; cf. Buttmann, § 147, 15). (In Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL αὐλίζομαι.5


    (836) αὐλός, -οῦ, , (ἄω, αὔω) [from Homer down], a pipe: 1 Corinthians 14:7. [Cf. Stainer, Music of the Bible, chapter 5]TGL αὐλός.2


    (837) αὐξάνω, and earlier (the only form in Pindar and Sophocles [Veitch, under the word says, 'Hesiod, Mimnermus, Sophocles, Thucydides always have αὔξω or ἀύξομαι, and Pindar except ἀυξάνοι from 130 (Bergk)']) αὔξω (Ephesians 2:21; Colossians 2:19); imperfect ηὔξανον; future αὐξήσω; 1 aorist ηὔξησα; [passive, present αὐξάνομαι]; 1 aorist,TGL αὐξάνω.2

    1. transitive, to cause to grow, to augment: 1 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 9:10. Passive to grow, increase, become greater: Matthew 13:32; Mark 4:8 L T Tr WH; 2 Corinthians 10:15; Colossians 1:6 [not Rec. ]; εἰς τὴν ἐπίγνωσιν τοῦ Θεοῦ unto the knowledge of God, Colossians 1:10 (G L T Tr WH τῇ ἐπιγνώσει τοῦ θεοῦ); εἰς σωτηρίαν [not Rec. ] to the attaining of salvation, 1 Peter 2:2.TGL αὐξάνω.3

    2. according to later usage (from Aristotle, an. post. 1, 13, p. 78b, 6, etc., down; but nowhere in the Sept. [cf. Buttmann, 54 (47); 145 (127); Winers Grammar, § 38, 1]) intransitive, to grow, increase: of plants, Matthew 6:28; Mark 4:8 Rec. ; Luke 12:27 [not Tdf. ; Tr marginal reading brackets αὐξ.]; Luke 13:19; of infants, Luke 1:80; Luke 2:40; of a multitude of people, Acts 7:17. of inward Christian growth: εἰς Χριστόν, in reference to [Winer's Grammar, 397 (371); yet cf. Ellicott at the passage] Christ, Ephesians 4:15; εἰς ναόν, so as to form a temple, Ephesians 2:21; ἐν χάριτι, 2 Peter 3:18; with an accusative of the substance, τὴν αὔξησιν, Colossians 2:19 [cf. Winers Grammar, § 32, 2; Buttmann, § 131, 5, also Bp. Lightfoot's note at the passage]; of the external increase of the gospel it is said λόγος ηὔξανε: Acts 6:7; Acts 12:24; Acts 19:20; of the growing authority of a teacher and the number of his adherents (opposed to ἐλαττοῦσθαι), John 3:30. [Compare: συν-, ὑπεραυξάνω.]TGL αὐξάνω.4

    Related entry: αὔξω, see αὐξάνω.TGL αὐξάνω.5


    (838) αὔξησις, -εως, , (αὔξω), increase, growth: Ephesians 4:16; τοῦ θεοῦ, effected by God, Colossians 2:19; cf. Meyer at the passage ([Herodotus], Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, and subsequent writings.)TGL αὔξησις.2


    (839) αὔριον, adverb (from αὔρα the morning air, and this from αὔω to breathe, blow; [according to others akin to ἠώς, Latin aurora ; Curtius, § 613, cf. Vanicek, p. 944]), tomorrow (Latin cras ): Matthew 6:30; Luke 12:28; Acts 23:15 Rec. , Acts 23:20; Acts 25:22; 1 Corinthians 15:32 (from Isaiah 22:13); σήμερον καὶ αὔριον, Luke 13:32; James 4:13 [Rec.st G; others σήμ. αὔρ.]. αὔριον namely, ἡμέρα [Winers Grammar, § 64, 5; Buttmann, § 123, 8] the morrow, Matthew 6:34; Acts 4:3; ἐπὶ τὴν αὔριον, on the morrow, i. e. the next morning, Luke 10:35; Acts 4:5; τὸ [L τὰ; WH omits] τῆς αὔριον, what the morrow will bring forth, James 4:14. [From Homer down.]TGL αὔριον.2


    (840) αὐστηρός, -ά, -όν, (from αὔω to dry up), harsh (Latin austerus ), stringent of taste, αὐστηρὸν καὶ γλυκὺ (καὶ πικρόν), Plato, legg. 10, 897 a.; οἶνος, Diogenes Laërtius 7, 117. of mind and manners, harsh, rough, rigid [cf. Trench, § xiv.]: Luke 19:21-22; (Polybius 4, 20, 7; Diogenes Laërtius 7, 26, etc. 2 Macc. 14:30).TGL αὐστηρός.2


    (841) αὐτάρκεια, -ας, , (αὐτάρκης, which see), a perfect condition of life, in which no aid or support is needed; equivalent to τελειότης κτήσεως ἀγαθῶν, Plato, def., p. 412 b.; often in Aristotle, [defined by him (pol. 7, 5 at the beginning, p. 1326b, 29) as follows: τὸ πάντα ὑπάρχειν κ. δεῖσθαι μηθενὸς αὐτάρκες; cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Philippians 4:11); hence, a sufficiency of the necessaries of life: 2 Corinthians 9:8; subjectively, a mind contented with its lot, contentment: 1 Timothy 6:6; (Diogenes Laërtius 10, 130).TGL αὐτάρκεια.2


    (842) αὐτάρκης [on the accent see Chandler § 705], -ες, (αὐτός, ἀρκέω), [from Aeschylus down], sufficient for oneself, strong enough or possessing enough to need no aid or support; independent of external circumstances; often in Greek writings from [Aeschylus and] Herodotus 1, 32 down. Subjectively, contented with one's lot, with one's means, though the slenderest: Philippians 4:11 (so Sir. 40:18; Polybius 6, 48, 7; Diogenes Laërtius 2, 24 of Socrates, αὐτάρκης καὶ σεμνός). [Cf. αὐτάρκεια .]TGL αὐτάρκης.2


    (843) αὐτοκατάκριτος, -ον, (αὐτός, κατακρίνω), self-condemned: Titus 3:11; (ecclesiastical writings [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3]).TGL αὐτοκατάκριτος.2


    (844) αὐτόματος, -ον, and , -ον, (from αὐτός and μέμαα to desire eagerly, from the obsolete theme μάω), moved by one's own impulse, or acting without the instigation or intervention of another (from Homer down); often of the earth producing plants of itself, and of the plants themselves and fruits growing without culture; [on its adverbial use cf. Winer's Grammar, § 54, 2]: Mark 4:28; (Herodotus 2, 94; 8, 138; Plato, polit., p. 272 a.; [Theophrastus, h., p. 2, 1]; Diodorus 1, 8, etc. Leviticus 25:5, Leviticus 25:11). of gates opening of their own accord: Acts 12:10, (so in Homer, Iliad 5, 749; Xenophon, Hell. 6, 4, 7; Apoll. Rh. 4, 41; Plutarch, Timol. 12; Nonnus, Dionysius 44, 21; [Dion Cassio, 44, 17]).TGL αὐτόματος.2


    (845) αὐτόπτης, -ου, , (αὐτός, ΟΠΤΩ), seeing with one's own eyes, an eye-witness (cf. ἀυτήκοος one who has himself heard a thing): Luke 1:2. (In Greek writings from Herodotus down.)TGL αὐτόπτης.2


    (846) αὐτός, -ή, -ό, pronoun ("derived from the particle αὖ with the added force of a demonstrative pronoun. In itself it signifies nothing more than again, applied to what has either been previously mentioned or, when the whole discourse is looked at, must necessarily be supplied." Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 219; [see Vanicek, p. 268]). It is used by the biblical writings both of the O. T. and of the N. T. far more frequently than the other pronouns; and in this very frequent and almost inordinate use of it, they deviate greatly from secular authors; cf. Buttmann, § 127, 9. [On classic usage cf. Hermann, Opuscc. i. 308ff, of which dissertation a summary is given in his edition of Viger, pp. 732-736.]TGL αὐτός.2

    I. self, as used (in all persons, genders, numbers) to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence.TGL αὐτός.3

    1. When used to express Opposition or Distinction, it is addedTGL αὐτός.4

    a. to the subjects implied in the verb, the personal pronouns ἐγώ, ἡμεῖς, σύ, etc., being omitted: Luke 5:37 (αὐτός ἐκχυθήσεται the wine, as opposed to the skins); Luke 22:71 (αὐτοὶ γὰρ ἠκούσαμεν we ourselves, opposed to witnesses whose testimony could have been taken); John 2:25 (αὐτὸς ἐγίνωσκεν, opposed to testimony he might have called for); John 4:42 (we ourselves, not thou only); John 9:21 [T Tr WH omit]; Acts 18:15 (ὄψεσθε αὐτοί); Acts 20:34; Acts 22:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:9, etc.; with a negative added, 'he does not himself do this or that,' i. e. he leaves it to others: Luke 6:42 (αὐτός, viz., thou, οὐ βλέπων); Luke 11:46 (αὐτοί, viz., ye, οὐ προσψαύετε), Luke 11:52; John 18:28; 3 John 1:10. With the addition of καί to indicate that a thing is ascribed to one equally with others: Luke 14:12 (μήποτε καὶ αὐτοί σε ἀντικαλέσωσι); Luke 16:28; Acts 2:22 [G L T Tr WH omit καί]; John 4:45; John 17:19, John 17:21; Philippians 2:24, etc. In other passages καὶ αὐτός is added to a subject expressly mentioned, and is placed after it; and in translation may be joined to the predicate and rendered likewise: Luke 1:36 ( συγγενής σου καὶ αὐτὴ συνειληφυῖα υἱόν thy kinswoman herself also, i. e. as well as thou); Matthew 27:57 (ὅς καὶ αὐτὸς ἐμαθήτευσε [L T Tr WH text -τεύθη] τῷ Ἰησοῦ); Luke 23:51 [R G]; Mark 15:43; Acts 8:13 ( δὲ Σίμων καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπίστευσε); Acts 15:32; Acts 21:24; 1 John 2:6; Galatians 2:17; Hebrews 13:3.TGL αὐτός.5

    b. it is added to subjects expressed, whether to pronouns personal or demonstrative, or to nouns proper or common: John 3:28 (αὐτοὶ ὑμεῖς ye yourselves bear witness, not only have I affirmed); Acts 20:30 (ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν from among your own selves, not only from other quarters); Romans 15:14 (καὶ αὐτὸς ἐγώ I of myself also, not only assured by report, cf. Romans 1:8); 1 Corinthians 5:13 (ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν from your own society, opposed to them that are without, of whose character God must be the judge); 1 Corinthians 7:35; 1 Corinthians 11:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:9; αὐτοὶ οὗτοι, Acts 24:20; αὐτοῦ τούτου (masculine), Acts 25:25; Ἰησοῦς αὐτός Jesus himself, personally, opposed to those who baptized by his command, John 4:2; αὐτὸς Ἰησοῦς, opposed to those who believed on him on account of his miracles, John 2:24; Jesus himself, not others only, John 4:44; αὐτ. Δαυείδ, opposed to the doctors of the law, whose decision did not seem quite to agree with the words of David, Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42; αὐτὸς Σατανᾶς, opposed to his ministers, 2 Corinthians 11:14; αὐτὸς θεός, God himself, not another, Revelation 21:3; αὐτὰ τὰ ἐπουράνια, the heavenly things themselves [i. e. sanctuary], opposed to its copies, Hebrews 9:23 [see ἐπουράνιος , 1 c.].TGL αὐτός.6

    c. it is used to distinguish one not only from his companions, disciples, servants — as Mark 2:25 (αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ); John 2:12; John 4:53; John 18:1 — but also from things done by him or belonging to him, as John 7:4 (τὶ ποιεῖ καὶ ζητεῖ αὐτός [L Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading αὐτό]); 1 Corinthians 3:15 (τινὸς τὸ ἔργον κατακαήσεται, αὐτὸς δὲ σωθήσεται); Luke 24:15 (αὐτὸς () Ἰησοῦς, Jesus himself in person, opposed to their previous conversation about him).TGL αὐτός.7

    d. self to the exclusion of others, i. e. he etc. alone, by oneself: Mark 6:31 (ὑμεῖς αὐτοί ye alone, unattended by any of the people; cf. Fritzsche at the passage); John 14:11 (διὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτά [WH marginal reading αὐτοῦ]); Romans 7:25 (αὐτὸς ἐγώ I alone, unaided by the Spirit of Christ; cf. Romans 8:2); 2 Corinthians 12:13 (αὐτὸς ἐγώ, unlike the other preachers of the gospel); Revelation 19:12; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 733 iii.; Matthew § 467, 5; Kühner, § 468 Anm. 2; [Jelf, § 656, 3]; with the addition of μόνος (as often in Attic writings): John 6:15.TGL αὐτός.8

    e. self not prompted or influenced by another, i. e. of oneself of one's own accord: John 16:27 (so even Homer, Iliad 17, 254; and among Attic writings especially Xenophon).TGL αὐτός.9

    2. When it gives Prominence, it answersTGL αὐτός.10

    a. to our emphatic he, she, it: Matthew 1:21 (αὐτὸς σώσει HE and no other); Matthew 5:4-10 (αὐτοί); Matthew 6:4 [R G]; Matthew 17:5 (αὐτοῦ ἀκούετε); Luke 6:35; Luke 17:16; Luke 24:21; John 9:21 (αὐτὸς [T Tr WH omit]... αὐτὸν... αὐτός); Acts 10:42 [L text Tr text WH οὗτος]; Galatians 4:17 (αὐτούς); Ephesians 2:10 (αὐτοῦ); Colossians 1:17; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:5; James 2:6. So in Greek writings also from Homer down; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 734 v. It is used with the same force after relative sentences, where Greek prose uses οὗτος: Matthew 12:50 (ὅστις ἄν ποιήσῃ..., αὐτός μου ἀδελφός ἐστιν, where in Mark 3:35 οὗτος); Matthew 26:48; Mark 14:44; cf. Buttmann, 107f (94f). Less emphatically, αὐτός is put before subjects, serving to recall them again: Matthew 3:4 (αὐτὸς δὲ Ἰωάννης now he, whom I spoke of, John); Mark 6:17 (αὐτὸς γὰρ Ἡρώδης); Romans 8:16 (αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα).TGL αὐτός.11

    b. it points out some one as chief, leader, master of the rest (often so in Greek, as in the well-known phrase of the Pythagoreans, αὐτὸς ἔφα [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 22, 3, 4 and, p. 150 (142)]): of Christ, Matthew 8:24; Mark 4:38; Mark 6:47; Mark 8:29; Luke 5:16; Luke 9:51; Luke 10:38; of God, Luke 6:35; Hebrews 13:5; 1 John 4:19 [not Lachmann].TGL αὐτός.12

    c. it answers to our very, just, exactly (German eben, gerade ): Romans 9:3 (αὐτὸς ἐγώ I myself, the very man who seems to be inimical to the Israelites); 2 Corinthians 10:1 (I myself, who bore myself lowly in your presence, as ye said); αὐτὰ τὰ ἔργα, John 5:36; often in Luke ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ or ὥρᾳ, αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ, in that very day, hour, season: Luke 2:38; Luke 10:21; Luke 12:12; Luke 13:1, Luke 13:31; Luke 20:19; Luke 23:12; Luke 24:13, Luke 24:33; Acts 16:18. In the writings of Paul αὐτὸ τοῦτο this very thing: Galatians 2:10; 2 Corinthians 7:11; Philippians 1:6; εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο for this very purpose, on this very account: Romans 9:17; Romans 13:6; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 6:22; Colossians 4:8; and in the same sense [for this very thing] the simple accusative (as in Attic, cf. Matth. § 470, 7; Kühner, 2:267 Anm. 6; Winer's Grammar, § 21 N. 2) τοῦτο αὐτό, 2 Corinthians 2:3 [but see Meyer at the passage], and αὐτὸ τοῦτο, 2 Peter 1:5 [Lachmann reads here αὐτοί].TGL αὐτός.13

    d. even, Latin vel , adeo (in Homer; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 733 ii.): καὶ αὐτὴ κτίσις, Romans 8:21; οὐδὲ φύσις αὐτή, 1 Corinthians 11:14; καὶ [Tr omits; L WH brackets καὶ] αὐτὸς υἱός, 1 Corinthians 15:28; καὶ αὐτὴ Σάρρα even Sarah herself, although a feeble old woman, Hebrews 11:11 [yet WH marginal reading reads the dative αὐτῇ Σάρρα; see καταβολή , 1].TGL αὐτός.14

    II. αὐτός has the force of a simple personal pronoun of the third person, answering to our unemphatic he, she, it; and thatTGL αὐτός.15

    1. as in classic Greek, in the oblique cases, him, her, it, them, etc.: numberless instances — as in the genitive absolute, e. g. αὐτοῦ ἐλθόντος, λαλήσαντος, etc.; or in the accusative with infinitive, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἀναπολογήτους, Romans 1:20; or after prepositions, ἐξ αὐτοῦ, ἐν αὐτῷ, etc.; or where it indicates the possessor, πατὴρ αὐτοῦ; or a person as the (direct or indirect) object of an active verb, as ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ, Matthew 7:9; ἀσπάσασθε αὐτήν, Matthew 10:12; ἀφεὶς αὐτούς, Matthew 26:44; ἦν διανεύων αὐτοῖς, Luke 1:22; οὐκ εἴα αὐτὰ λαλεῖν, Luke 4:41; σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβε, John 1:5. But see αὑτοῦ below.TGL αὐτός.16

    2. Contrary to Greek usage, in the N. T. even in the nominative it is put for a simple personal pronoun of the third person, where the Greeks say οὗτος or δέ, or use no pronoun at all. This has been convincingly shown by Buttmann, 107ff (93ff); and yet some of the examples adduced by him are not decisive, but either must be or can be referred to the usage illustrated under I. 1; — those in which αὐτός is used of Christ, apparently to I. 1 b. But, in my opinion, the question is settled even by the following: αὐτός, Matthew 14:2; Mark 14:15; Luke 1:22; Luke 15:14; so too in the Sept. (cf. Thiersch, De Pentat. vers. Alex., p. 98); Sir. 49:7; Tobit 6:11; αὐτοί, Mark 2:8 (οὕτως αὐτοὶ διαλογίζονται in Griesbach); Luke 9:36; Luke 14:1; Luke 22:23; αὐτό, Luke 11:14 [Tr marginal reading WH omits; Tr text brackets]. Whether αὐτή and αὐταί also are so used, is doubtful; cf. Buttmann, 109 (95).TGL αὐτός.17

    3. Sometimes in the oblique cases the pronoun is omitted, being evident from the context: Mark 6:5 (ἐπιθείς, namely, αὐτοῖς); John 3:34 (δίδωσι, namely, αὐτῷ); John 10:29 (δέδωκέ μοι, namely, αὐτούς); Acts 13:3 (ἀπέλυσαν, namely, αὐτούς); Revelation 18:21 (ἔβαλεν, namely, αὐτόν), etc.TGL αὐτός.18

    4. Not infrequently αὐτός in the oblique cases is added to the verb, although the case belonging to this very verb has preceded: Matthew 8:1 (καταβάντι δὲ αὐτῷ [L Tr WH genitive absolutely] ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄρους ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ); Matthew 4:16; Matthew 5:40; Matthew 8:23, Matthew 8:28 [R G]; Matthew 9:28; Matthew 25:29 (ἀπὸ [ommitted by L T Tr WH] τοῦ μὴ ἔχοντος... ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ); Matthew 26:71 [R G L brackets T]; Mark 5:2 [R G]; Mark 9:28 [R G]; John 15:2 (πᾶν κλῆμα... αἴρει αὐτό); Acts 7:21 [R G]; James 4:17; Revelation 2:7; Revelation 6:4 [L Tr marginal reading brackets]; cf. Winers Grammar, § 22, 4 a.; Buttmann, 142 (125). Doubtless the writer, while writing the earlier words with the intention of joining them to the leading verb to follow, marked off these very words as a clause by themselves, as if they formed a protasis; and so, when he came to the leading verb, he construed it just as though it were to form an apodosis.TGL αὐτός.19

    5. By a Hebraism αὐτός is used redundantly in relative sentences: ἧς εἴχετὸ θυγάτριον αὐτῆς, Mark 7:25; οὗ τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ, 1 Peter 2:24 (R G T, but Tr marginal reading brackets αὐτοῦ); especially in the Apocalypse: ἥν οὐδεὶς δύναται κλεῖσαι αὐτήν, Revelation 3:8 (according to the true text); οἷς ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς, Revelation 7:2; add Revelation 7:9; Revelation 13:12; Revelation 17:9; far more often in the Sept. ; rare in Greek writings [from Callimachus, epistle 44]; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 709; [Buttmann, § 143, 1]; Winers Grammar, § 22, 4 b. where add to the examples Herodian, 8, 6, 10 [5 Bekker] οἷς ἐπιφοιτῶσι αὐτοῖς τὰς λοιπὰς πόλεις πύλαι ἀνοίγνυντο. But to this construction must not be referred Matthew 3:12 οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ, nor 1 Peter 2:24 ὅς τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν. For in the latter passage αὐτός is in contrast with us, who must otherwise have paid the penalty of our sins; and in the former the sense is, 'he holds his winnowing-shovel in his hand.'TGL αὐτός.20

    6. Very often αὐτός is used rather laxly, where the subject or the object to which it must be referred is not expressly indicated, but must be gathered especially from some preceding name of a province or city, or from the context: Matthew 4:23 (περιῆγεν τὴν Γαλιλαίαν διδάσκων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν, i. e. of the Galilaeans); Acts 8:5 (Σαμαρείας ἐκήρυσσεν αὐτοῖς, i. e. τοῖς Σαμαρείταις); Acts 20:2 (αὐτούς, i. e. the inhabitants τῶν μερῶν ἐκείνων); 2 Corinthians 2:13 (αὐτοῖς, i. e. the Christians of Troas); Matthew 19:2 (ὄχλοι πολλοὶ καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτούς, i. e. their sick); 1 Peter 3:14 (φόβον αὐτῶν, i. e. of those who may be able κακῶσαι you, 1 Peter 3:13); Luke 23:51 (τῇ βουλῇ αὐτῶν, i. e. of those with whom he had been a βουλευτής); Hebrews 8:8 (αὐτοῖς [L T WH Tr marginal reading αὐτούς; see μέμφομαι ] i. e. τοῖς ἔχουσι τὴν διαθήκην τὴν πρώτην); Luke 2:22 (τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν, of the purification prescribed by the law of Moses to women in child-bed); John 8:44 (ψεύστης ἐστὶν καὶ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ, i. e. of the liar; cf. Baumg.-Crusius and Meyer at the passage). By this rather careless use of the pronoun it came about that at length αὐτοί alone might be used for ἄνθρωποι: Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14, Luke 5:17 [here T WH Tr marginal reading αὐτόν]; cf. Winers Grammar, § 22, 3; Buttmann, § 127, 8.TGL αὐτός.21

    7. Sometimes, in relative sentences consisting of several members, the second member is not joined to the first by the relative ὅς, but by a loose connection proceeds with καὶ αὐτός; as, Luke 17:31; Acts 3:13 (ὅν ὑμεῖς παρεδώκατε καὶ ἠρνήσασθε αὐτόν [L T WH omit; Tr brackets αὐτόν]); 1 Corinthians 8:6 (ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, for καὶ εἰς ὅν ἡμεῖς); 2 Peter 2:3. This is the usage likewise of Greek as well as of Hebrew; cf. Winers Grammar, 149 (141); [Buttmann, 283 (243)]; Bernhardy, p. 304.TGL αὐτός.22

    III. αὐτός, αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό, with the article, the same;TGL αὐτός.23

    1. without a noun: αὐτός, immutable, Hebrews 1:12; Hebrews 13:8 (Thucydides 2, 61); τὸ αὐτό: — ποιεῖν, Matthew 5:46 [R G T WH text, 47 L T Tr WH]; Luke 6:33; λέγειν, to profess the same opinion, 1 Corinthians 1:10; ὀνειδίζειν, not in the same manner but reproached him with the same, cast on him the same reproach, Matthew 27:44 (ὀνειδίζειν τοιαῦτα, Sophocles Oed. Col. 1002). τὰ αὐτά: Acts 15:27; Romans 2:1; Ephesians 6:9. ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό [Rec.st passim ἐπιτοαυτό] (Hesychius ὁμοῦ, ἐπὶ τὸν αὐτὸν τόπον), to the same place, in the same place: Matthew 22:34; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1; 1 Corinthians 11:20; 1 Corinthians 14:23 (Psalms 2:2; 2 Samuel 2:13; 3 Macc. 3:1; Susanna 14); together: Luke 17:35; Acts 3:1 [L T Tr WH join it to Acts 2:1-47; 1 Corinthians 7:5]; κατὰ τὸ αὐτό (Vulg. simul ), together: Acts 14:1 (for יַחַד, Exodus 26:24; 1 Kings 3:18; examples from Greek writings are given by Kypke, Observations, ii., p. 69ff). Like adjective of equality αὐτός is followed by the dative: ἕν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ τῇ ἐξυρημένῃ, 1 Corinthians 11:5 (Wis. 18:11; 4 Macc. 8:5; 10:2, 13; and often in Greek writings, cf. Winer's Grammar, 150 (141)).TGL αὐτός.24

    2. With a noun added: Matthew 26:44; Mark 14:39 (τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον); Luke 6:38 [R G L marginal reading] (τῷ αὐτῷ μέτρῳ); Philippians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 1:10 (ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ νοὶ); 1 Corinthians 12:4 (τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα), etc. τὰ αὐτά (with the force of a substantive: the same kind) τῶν παθημάτων, 1 Peter 5:9. [Cf. ταὐτά .]TGL αὐτός.25

    Related entry: [ἐπιτοαυτό, Rec.st in Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1; etc.; see αὐτός, III. 1, and cf. Lipsius, Gramm. Unters. p. 125f.]TGL αὐτός.26


    (847) αὐτοῦ, properly, neuter genitive of the pronoun αὐτός, in that place, there, here: Matthew 26:36; [Luke 9:27 (R L ὧδε)]; Acts 15:34 (a spurious verse [see WH's Appendix, at the passage]); Acts 18:19. (L Tr marginal reading ἐκεῖ); Acts 21:4 (Lachmann αὐτοῖς).TGL αὐτοῦ.2


    (848) αὑτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ, of himself, herself, itself, equivalent to ἑαυτοῦ, which see. It is very common in the editions of the N. T. by the Elzevirs, Griesbach, Knapp, others; but Bengel, Matthaei, Lachmann, Tdf. , Trg. have everywhere substituted αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ, etc. for αὑτοῦ, αὑτῷ, etc. "For I have observed that the former are used almost constantly [not always then? Grimm] not only in uncial manuscripts of the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries, but also in many others (and not N. T. manuscripts alone). That this is the correct mode of writing is proved also by numerous examples where the pronoun is joined to prepositions; for these last are often found written not εφ, αφ, μεθ, καθ, ανθ, etc., but επ, απ, μετ, κατ, αντ." Tdf., Proleg. ad N. T., 2nd edition, p. 26 [ed. 8, p. 126]; cf. his Proleg. ad Sept. , edition 1, p. 70 [ed. 4, p. 33 (not in edition 6)]. Bleek entertains the same opinion and sets it forth at length in his note on Hebrews 1:3, vol. ii. 1, p. 67ff. The question is hard to decide, not only because the breathings and accents are lacking in the oldest manuscripts, but also because it often depends upon the mere preference of the writer or speaker whether he will speak in his own person, or according to the thought of the person spoken of. Certainly in the large majority of the passages in the N. T. αὐτοῦ is correctly restored; but apparently we ought to write δἰ αὑτοῦ (Rec. ἑαυτοῦ [so L marginal reading T WH]), Romans 14:14 [L text Tr δἰ αὐτ.]; εἰς αὑτόν, Colossians 1:20 [others, εἰς αὐτ.]; αὐτὸς περὶ αὑτοῦ [T Tr text WH ἑαυτοῦ), John 9:21. Cf. Winers Grammar, 151 (143); [Buttmann, 111f (97f); Bp. Lightfoot on Col. l. c, and see especially Hort in Westcott and Hort's Greek New Testament, Appendix, p. 144f; these editors have introduced the aspirated form into their text 'nearly twenty times' (e. g. Matthew 6:34; Luke 12:17, Luke 12:21; Luke 23:12; Luke 24:12; John 2:24; John 13:32; John 19:17; John 20:10; Acts 14:17; Romans 1:27; 2 Corinthians 3:5; Ephesians 2:15; Philippians 3:21; 1 John 5:10; Revelation 8:6; Revelation 18:7; cf. Scrivener's Greek Testament (1887) p. v. note). Tr reads αὑτῶν in Revelation 7:11. Cf. Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 432].TGL αὑτοῦ.2


    (849) αὐτόχειρ, -ρος, , (αὐτός and χείρ, cf. μακρόχειρ, ἀδικόχειρ), doing a thing with one's own hand: Acts 27:19. (Often in the tragedians and Attic orators.)TGL αὐτόχειρ.2


    (850) αὐχμηρός, -ά, -όν, (αὐχμέω to be squalid), squalid, dirty (Xenophon, Plato, and following), and since dirty things are destitute of brightness, dark: 2 Peter 1:19, Aristotle, de color. 3 τὸ λαμπρὸν στίλβον... τοὐναντίον ἀυχμηρὸν καὶ ἀλαμπές. (Hesychius, Suidas, Pollux.)TGL αὐχμηρός.2


    (851) ἀφαιρέω, -ῶ; future ἀφαιρήσω (Revelation 22:19 Rec. [from Erasmus, apparently on no Ms. authority; see Tdf. 's note]), and ἀφελῶ (ibid. G L T Tr WH; on this rarer future cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 100); 2 aorist ἀφεῖλον; 1 future passive ἀφαιρεθήσομαι; middle, present ἀφαιροῦμαι; 2 aorist ἀφειλόμην; [see αἱρέω ]; in Greek writings from Homer down; to take from, take away, remove, carry off: τί, Luke 1:25; to cut off, τὸ ὠτίον, Matthew 26:51; Mark 14:47 [L T Tr WH τὸ ὠτάριον]; Luke 22:50 [τὸ οὖς], (τὴν κεφαλήν τινος, 1 Macc. 7:47; for כָּרַת, 1 Samuel 17:51); to take away, τὶ ἀπό with the genitive of a thing, Revelation 22:19; τὶ ἀπό with the genitive of person Luke 10:42 [T WH omit; L Tr brackets ἀπό] (Genesis 31:31; Job 36:7; Proverbs 4:16 [Alex. ], etc.); middle (properly, to take away or bear off for oneself), Luke 16:3 (Leviticus 4:10; Micah 2:8; in Greek writings with a simple genitive for ἀπό τινος); ἀφαιρεῖν τὰς ἁμαρτίας to take away sins, of victims expiating them, Hebrews 10:4 (Jeremiah 11:15; Sir. 47:11); middle of God putting out of his sight, remembering no more, the sins committed by men, i. e., granting pardon for sins (see ἁμαρτία , 2 a.): Romans 11:27.TGL ἀφαιρέω.2


    (852) ἀφανής, -ές (φαίνω), not manifest, hidden: Hebrews 4:13. (Often in Greek writings from [Aeschylus and] Herodotus down.) [Cf. δῆλος , and Schmidt, chapter 130.]TGL ἀφανής.2


    (853) ἀφανίζω; [passive, present ἀφανίζομαι]; 1 aorist ἠφανίσθην; (ἀφανής);TGL ἀφανίζω.2

    a. to snatch out of sight, to put out of view, to make unseen (Xenophon, an. 3, 4, 8 ἥλιον νεφέλη παρακαλύψασα ἠφάνισε namely, τὴν πόλιν, Plato, Phil. 66 a. ἀφανιζοντες κρύπτομεν).TGL ἀφανίζω.3

    b. to cause to vanish away, to destroy, consume: Matthew 6:19 (often so in Greek writings and the Sept. [cf. Buttmann, § 130, 5]); passive to perish: Acts 13:41 (Luth. vor Schrecken vergehen ); to vanish away, James 4:14 (Herodotus 7, 6; 167; Plato and following).TGL ἀφανίζω.4

    c. to deprive of lustre, render unsightly; to disfigure: τὸ πρόσωπον, Matthew 6:16.TGL ἀφανίζω.5


    (854) ἀφανισμός, -οῦ, , (ἀφανίζω, which see), disappearance; destruction: Hebrews 8:13. (Theophrastus, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, Lucian, others; often in the Sept. , particularly for שַׁמָּה and שְׁמָמָה.)TGL ἀφανισμός.2


    (855) ἄφαντος, -ον, (from φαίνομαι), taken out of sight, made invisible: ἄφαντος ἐγένετο ἀπ’ αὐτῶν, he departed from them suddenly and in a way unseen, he vanished, Luke 24:31. (In poets from Homer down; later in prose writings also; Diodorus 4, 65 ἐμπεσὼν εἰς τὸ χάσμα... ἄφαντος ἐγένετο, Plutarch, orac. def. c. 1. Sometimes angels, withdrawing suddenly from human view, are said ἀφανεῖς γίνεσθαι: 2 Macc. 3:34; Acta Thom. §§ 27 and 43.)TGL ἄφαντος.2


    (856) ἀφεδρών, -ῶνος, , apparently a word of Macedonian origin, which Suidas calls 'barbarous'; the place into which the alvine discharges are voided; a privy, sink; found only in Matthew 15:17; Mark 7:19. It appears to be derived not from ἀφ’ ἑδρων, a podicibus , but from ἄφεδρος, the same Macedonian word which in Leviticus 12:5; Leviticus 15:19 answers to the Hebrew נִדָּה sordes menstruorum . Cf. Fischer's full discussion of the word in his De vitiis lexx. N. T., p. 698ffTGL ἀφεδρών.2

    Related entry: [ὀχετός, -οῦ, ,TGL ἀφεδρών.3

    1. a water-pipe, duct.TGL ἀφεδρών.4

    2. the intestinal canal: Mark 7:19 WH (rejected) marginal reading (others ἀφεδρών).]TGL ἀφεδρών.5


    (857) ἀφειδία (ἀφείδεια Lachmann, see under the word ει , ι), -ας, , (the disposition of a man who is ἀφειδής, unsparing), unsparing severity: with the genitive of the object, τοῦ σώματος, Colossians 2:23 (τῶν σωμάτων ἀφειδεῖν, Lysias 2, 25 (193, 5); Diodorus 13, 60; 79 etc. [see Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited]; in Plato, defin., p. 412 d. ἀφειδία means liberality).TGL ἀφειδία.2


    (858) ἀφελότης, -ητος, , (from ἀφελής without rock, smooth, plain, and this from φελλεύς rocky land), simplicity [A. V. singleness]: καρδίας, Acts 2:46 (found only here [and in ecclesiastical writings]. The Greeks used ἀφέλεια).TGL ἀφελότης.2


    (859) ἄφεσις, -εως, , (ἀφίημι);TGL ἄφεσις.2

    1. release, as from bondage, imprisonment, etc.: Luke 4:18 (Luke 4:19) (Isaiah 61:1; Polybius 1, 79, 12, etc.).TGL ἄφεσις.3

    2. ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν forgiveness, pardon, of sins (properly, the letting them go, as if they had not been committed [see at length Trench, § xxxiii.]), remission of their penalty: Matthew 26:28; Mark 1:4; Luke 1:77; Luke 3:3; Luke 24:47; Acts 2:38; Acts 5:31; Acts 10:43; Acts 13:38; Acts 26:18; Colossians 1:14; τῶν παραπτωμάτων, Ephesians 1:7; and simply ἄφεσις: Mark 3:29; Hebrews 9:22; Hebrews 10:18 (φόνου, Plato, legg. 9, p. 869 d.; ἐγκλημάτων, Diodorus 20, 44 [so Dionysius Halicarnassus 50:8 § 50, see also 7, 33; 7, 46; especially 7, 64; ἁμαρτημάτων, Philo, vit. Moys. 3:17; others.]).TGL ἄφεσις.4


    (860) ἁφή, -ῆς, , (ἅπτω to fasten together, to fit) (Vulg. junctura [and nexus ]), bond, connection [A. V. joint (see especially Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians as below)]: Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 2:19. (Plutarch, Anton c. 27.)TGL ἁφή.2


    (861) ἀφθαρσία, -ας, , (ἄφθαρτος, cf. ἀκαθαρσία ) (Tertullian and subsequent writings incorruptibilitas , Vulg. incorruptio [and incorruptela ]), incorruption, perpetuity: τοῦ κόσμου, Philo de incorr. mund. § 11; it is ascribed to τὸ θεῖον in Plutarch, Aristotle, c. 6; of the body of man exempt from decay after the resurrection, 1 Corinthians 15:42 (ἐν ἀφθ., namely, ὄν), 50, 53f; of a blessed immortality (Wis. 2:23; Wis. 6:19; 4 Macc. 17:12), Romans 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:10. τινὰ ἀγαπᾶν ἐν ἀφθαρσίᾳ to love one with never diminishing love, Ephesians 6:24 [cf. Meyer at the passage. The word seems to have the meaning purity, sincerity, incorruptness in Titus 2:7 Rec.st ].TGL ἀφθαρσία.2


    (862) ἄφθαρτος, -ον, (φθείρω), uncorrupted, not liable to corruption or decay, imperishable: of things, 1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Peter 1:4, 1 Peter 1:23; 1 Peter 3:4; [ἄφθ. κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας, Mark 16:1-20 WH in (rejected) 'Shorter Conclusion']. immortal: of the risen dead, 1 Corinthians 15:52; of God, Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17. (Wis. 12:1; Wis. 18:4. [Aristotle], Plutarch, Lucian, others. [Cf. Trench, § lxviii.])TGL ἄφθαρτος.2


    (863) ἀφίημι; present 2 person singular ἀφείς (from the form ἀφέω, Revelation 2:20 for Rec. ἐᾷς) [3 person plural ἀφίοῦσιν Revelation 11:9: Tdf. editions 2, 7, from a form ἀφιέω; cf. Buttmann, 48 (42)]; imperfect 3 person singular ἤφιε, with the augment before the preposition, Mark 1:34; Mark 11:16, from the form ἀφίω; whence also present 1 person plural ἀφίομεν Luke 11:4 L T Tr WH for ἀφίεμεν Rec. and 3 person ἀφίουσιν Revelation 11:9 L T Tr WH; [see WH's Appendix, p. 167]; future ἀφήσω; 1 aorist ἀφῆκα, 2 person singular -κες Revelation 2:4 T Tr WH [cf. κοπιάω ]; 2 aorist imperative ἄφες, ἄφετε, subjunctive 3 person singular ἀφῇ, 2 person plural ἀφῆτε, [infinitive ἀφεῖναι (Matthew 23:23 L T Tr WH; Luke 5:21 L text T Tr WH) ], participle ἀφείς, ἀφέντες; passive, present ἀφίεμαι [yet 3 person plural ἀφίονται John 20:23 WH marginal reading etc.; cf. ἀφίω above]; perfect 3 person plural ἀφέωνται (a Doric form [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 14, 3 a.; Buttman, 49 (42); Kühner, § 285, 4], Matthew 9:2, Matthew 9:5; Mark 2:5, [Mark 2:9] — in both these Gospels L [except in Mark marginal reading] T Tr WH have restored the present 3 person plural ἀφίενται; Luke 5:20, Luke 5:23; Luke 7:47 [Luke 7:48]; John 20:23 L text T Tr text WH text; 1 John 2:12); 1 aorist ἀφέθην; future ἀφεθήσομαι; cf. Winers Grammar, § 14, 3; Buttmann, 48 (42); [WHs Appendix, p. 167; Veitch, under the word ἵημι]; (from ἀπό and ἵημι); [from Homer down]; to send from (ἀπό) oneself;TGL ἀφίημι.2

    1. to send away;TGL ἀφίημι.3

    a. to bid go away or depart: τοὺς ὄχλους, Matthew 13:36 [others refer this to 3 below]; τὴν γυναῖκα, of a husband putting away his wife, 1 Corinthians 7:11-13 (Herodotus 5, 39; and a substantive, ἄφεσις, Plutarch, Pomp c. 42, 6).TGL ἀφίημι.4

    b. to send forth, yield up, emit: τὸ πνεῦμα, to expire, Matthew 27:59 (τὴν ψυχήν, Genesis 35:18; Herodotus 4, 190 and often in other Greek writings [see πνεῦμα , 2]), φωνήν to utter a cry (emittere vocem , Livy 1, 58), Mark 15:37 (Genesis 45:2 and often in Greek writings; [cf. Heinichen on Eusebius, h. e. 8, 14, 17]).TGL ἀφίημι.5

    c. to let go, let alone, let be;TGL ἀφίημι.6

    α. to disregard: Matthew 15:14.TGL ἀφίημι.7

    β. to leave, not to discuss now, a topic, used of tethers, writers, speakers, etc.: Hebrews 6:1 (Euripides, Andr. 392; Theophrastus, char. praef. § 3; for other examples from Greek writings see Bleek on Heb. vol. 2:2, p. 144f) [others take the word in Hebrews, the passage cited as expressive of the duty of the readers, rather than the purpose of the writer; and consequently refer the passage to 3 below].TGL ἀφίημι.8

    γ. to omit, neglect: Matthew 23:23 [Luke 11:42 R G]; Mark 7:8; Romans 1:27.TGL ἀφίημι.9

    d . to let go, give up, a debt, by not demanding it (opposed to κρατεῖν, John 20:23), i. e. to remit, forgive: τὸ δάνειον, Matthew 18:27; τὴν ὀφειλήν, Matthew 18:32; τὰ ὀφειλήματα, Matthew 6:12; τὰ παραπτώματα, Matthew 6:14; Mark 11:25. [T Tr WH omit Mark 11:26]; τὰς ἁμαρτίας, τὰ ἁμαρτήματα, τάς ἀνομίας, Matthew 9:2, Matthew 9:5; Matthew 12:31; Mark 2:5, Mark 2:7; Mark 3:28; Luke 5:20, Luke 5:23; Romans 4:7 (from Psalms 31:1 (Psalms 32:1)); 1 John 1:9; James 5:15 (Isaiah 22:14; Isaiah 33:24, etc.); τ. ἐπίνοιαν τῆς καρδίας, Acts 8:22, (τὴν αἰτίαν, Herodotus 6, 30; τὰ χρέα, Aelian v. h. 14, 24); absolutely, ἀφιέναι τινί to forgive one: Matthew 12:32; Matthew 18:21, Matthew 18:35; Mark 4:12; Luke 11:4; Luke 12:10; Luke 17:3; Luke 23:34 [L brackets WH reject the passage].TGL ἀφίημι.10

    e. to give up, keep no longer: τὴν πρώτην ἀγάπην, Revelation 2:4.TGL ἀφίημι.11

    2. to permit, allow, not to hinder;TGL ἀφίημι.12

    a. followed by a present infinitive [Buttmann, 258 (222)]: Mark 10:14; Luke 18:16 ἄφετε ἔρχεσθαι καὶ μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά, Matthew 13:30; Mark 1:34; John 11:44; John 18:8. by the aorist infinitive: Matthew 8:22; Matthew 23:13 (Matthew 23:14); Mark 5:37; Mark 7:12, Mark 7:27; Luke 8:51; Luke 9:60; Luke 12:39; Revelation 11:9.TGL ἀφίημι.13

    b. without an infinitive: Matthew 3:15 (ἄφες ἄρτι permit it just now). with an accusative of the person or thing permitted: Matthew 3:15 τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτόν, Mark 5:19; Mark 11:6; Mark 14:6; Luke 13:8; John 12:7 R G; John 11:48; Acts 5:38 (L T Tr WH; R G ἐάσατε); Revelation 2:20 (Rec. ἐᾷς).TGL ἀφίημι.14

    c. ἀφίημι τινί τι, to give up a thing to one: Matthew 5:40 (ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον).TGL ἀφίημι.15

    d. followed by ἵνα: Mark 11:16; John 12:7 L T Tr WH, a later construction, cf. Winers Grammar, § 44, 8; Buttmann, 238 (205).TGL ἀφίημι.16

    e. followed by the simple hortative subjunctive: Matthew 7:4; Luke 6:42 (ἄφες ἐκβάλω); Matthew 27:49; Mark 15:36 (ἄφετε ἴδωμεν); Epictetus diss. 1, 9, 15 ἄφες δείξωμεν, 3, 12, 15 ἄφες ἴδω. Cf. Buttmann, 209f (181f); Winer's Grammar, 285 (268).TGL ἀφίημι.17

    3. to leave, go away from one; to depart from anyone,TGL ἀφίημι.18

    a. in order to go to another place: Matthew 22:22; Matthew 26:44; Mark 8:13 (Matthew 16:4 καταλιπών); Mark 12:12; Mark 13:34; John 4:3; John 16:28.TGL ἀφίημι.19

    b. to depart from one whom one wishes to quit: Matthew 4:11; so of diseases departing, ἀφῆκέν τινα πυρετός, Matthew 8:15; Mark 1:31; Luke 4:39; John 4:52.TGL ἀφίημι.20

    c. to depart from one and leave him to himself, so that all mutual claims are abandoned: τὸν πατέρα, Matthew 4:22; Mark 1:20; Matthew 18:12 (Luke 15:4 καταλείπει). Thus also ἀφιέναι τὰ ἑαυτοῦ to leave possessions, home, etc.: Matthew 4:20; Matthew 19:27, Matthew 19:29; Mark 1:18; Mark 10:28; Luke 5:11; Luke 18:28.TGL ἀφίημι.21

    d. to desert one (wrongfully): Matthew 26:56; Mark 14:50; John 10:12.TGL ἀφίημι.22

    e. to go away leaving something behind: Matthew 5:24; John 4:28.TGL ἀφίημι.23

    f. to leave one by not taking him as a companion: opposed to παραλαμβάνειν, Matthew 24:40: Luke 17:34.TGL ἀφίημι.24

    g. to leave on dying, leave behind one: τέκνα, γυναῖκα, Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:20, Mark 12:22 (Luke 20:31 καταλείπω).TGL ἀφίημι.25

    h. to leave so that what is left may remain, leave remaining: οὐ μὴ ἀφεθῇ ὧδε λίθος ἐπὶ λίθον [or λίθῳ], Matthew 24:2; Mark 13:2; Luke 21:6.TGL ἀφίημι.26

    i. ἀφιέναι followed by the accusative of a noun or pronoun with an accusative of the predicate [Buttmann, § 144, 18]: Luke 10:30 (ἡμιθανῆ); John 14:18 (τινὰ ὀρθανόν); Matthew 23:38; Luke 13:35 (but Lachmann omits ἔρημος in both passages, WH text omits in Matthew, G T Tr WH omit in Luke; that being omitted, ἀφιέναι means to abandon, to leave destitute of God's help); Acts 14:17 (ἀμάρτυρον ἑαυτόν [L T Tr αὐτόν (WH αὑτ. which see)]).TGL ἀφίημι.27


    (864) ἀφικνέομαι, -οῦμαι: 2 aorist ἀφικόμην; (ἱκνέομαι to come); very often in Greek writings from Homer down; to come from (ἀπό) a place (but often the preposition has almost lost its force); to come to, arrive at; in the N. T. once, tropically: Romans 16:19 (ὑμῶν ὑπακοὴ εἰς πάντας ἀφίκετο your obedience has reached the ears of [A. V. is come abroad unto] all men; Sir. 47:16 εἰς νήσους ἀφίκετο τὸ ὄνομά σου. Josephus, Antiquities 19, 1, 16 εἰς τὸ θέατρον... ἀφίκετο λόγος).TGL ἀφικνέομαι.2


    (865) ἀφιλάγαθος, -ον, (α privative and φιλάγαθος), opposed to goodness and good men [R. V. no lover of good]; found only in 2 Timothy 3:3.TGL ἀφιλάγαθος.2


    (866) ἀφιλάργυρος, -ον, (α privative and φιλάργυρος), not loving money, not avaricios; only in the N. T., twice viz. 1 Timothy 3:3; Hebrews 13:5. [Cf. Trench, § xxiv.]TGL ἀφιλάργυρος.2


    (867) ἄφιξις, -εως, , (ἀφικνέομαι), in Greek writings generally arrival; more rarely departure, as Herodotus 9, 17; Demosthenes 1463, 7; [1484, 8]; Josephus, Antiquities 4, 8, 47; 3 Macc. 7:18; and so in Acts 20:29.TGL ἄφιξις.2


    (868) ἀφίστημι: 1 aorist ἀπέστησα; 2 aorist ἀπέστην; middle, present ἀφισταμαι, imperative ἀφίστασο (1 Timothy 6:5 Rec. ; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 14, 1 e.); [imperfect ἀφιστάμην]; future ἀποστήσομαι;TGL ἀφίστημι.2

    1. transitively, in present, imperfect, future, 1 aorist active, to make stand off, cause to withdraw, to remove; tropically, to excite to revolt: Acts 5:37 (ἀπέστησε λαὸν... ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ drew away after him; τινὰ ἀπό τινος, Deuteronomy 7:4, and in Greek writings from Herodotus 1, 76 down).TGL ἀφίστημι.3

    2. intransitively, in perfect, pluperfect, 2 aorist active, to stand off, stand aloof, in various senses [as in Greek writings] according to the context: ἀπό with the genitive of person to go away, depart, from anyone, Luke 13:27 (from Psalms 6:9; cf. Matthew 7:23 ἀποχωρεῖτε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ); Acts 12:10; Acts 19:9; to desert, withdraw from, one, Acts 15:38; to cease to vex one, Luke 4:13; Acts 5:38; Acts 22:29; 2 Corinthians 12:8; to fall away, become faithless, ἀπὸ θεοῦ, Hebrews 3:12; to shun, flee from, ἀπὸ τῆς ἀδικίας, 2 Timothy 2:19. Middle, to withdraw oneself from: absolutely, to fall away, Luke 8:13; [τῆς πίστεως, 1 Timothy 4:1, cf. Winers Grammar, 427, 428 (398)]; to keep oneself away from, absent oneself from, Luke 2:37 (οὐκ ἀφίστατο ἀπὸ [T Tr WH omit ἀπὸ] τοῦ ἱεροῦ, she was in the temple every day); from anyone's society or fellowship, 1 Timothy 6:5 Rec.TGL ἀφίστημι.4


    (869) ἄφνω, adverb (akin to αἴφνης, see in αἰφνίδιος above), suddenly: Acts 2:2; Acts 16:26; Acts 28:6. (Sept. ; [Aeschylus], Thucydides and subsequent writings.)TGL ἄφνω.2


    (870) ἀφόβως, adverb (φόβος), without fear, boldly: Luke 1:74; Philippians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 16:10; Jude 1:12. [From Xenophon down.]TGL ἀφόβως.2


    (871) ἀφομοιόω, -ῶ: [perfect passive participle ἀφωμοιωμένος (on augment see WH's Appendix, p. 161)]; to cause a model to pass off (ἀπό) into an image or shape like itto express itself in it (cf. ἀπεικάζειν, ἀπεικονίζειν, ἀποπλάσσειν, ἀπομιμεῖσθαι); to copy; to produce a facsimile: τὰ καλὰ εἴδη, of painters, Xenophon, mem. 3, 10, 2; often in Plato. Passive to be made like, rendered similar: so Hebrews 7:3. (Epistle Jeremiah 4 (5), 62 (63), 70 (71); and in Plato.)TGL ἀφομοιόω.2


    (872) ἀφοράω, -ῶ; to turn the eyes away from other things and fix them on something; cf. ἀποβλέπω . Tropically, to turn one's mind to: εἴς τινα, Hebrews 12:2 [Winer's Grammar, § 66, 2 d.] (εἰς θεόν, 4 Macc. 17:10; for examples from Greek writings cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. ii. 2, p. 862). Further, cf. ἀπεῖδον .TGL ἀφοράω.2


    (873) ἀφορίζω; imperfect ἀφώριζον; Attic future ἀφοριῶ Matthew 25:32 (T WH ἀφορίσω); Matthew 13:49, [Winers Grammar, § 13, the passage cited; Buttmann, 37 (32)]; 1 aorist ἀφώρισα; passive, perfect participle ἀφωρισμένος; 1 aorist imperative ἀφορίσθητε; (ὁρίζω to make a ὅρος or boundary); to mark off from (ἀπό) others by boundaries, to limit, to separate: ἑαυτόν, from others, Galatians 2:12; τοὺς μαθητάς, from those unwilling to obey the gospel, Acts 19:9; ἐκ μέσου τινῶν, Matthew 13:49; ἀπό τινος, Matthew 25:32. Passive in a reflexive sense: 2 Corinthians 6:17. absolutely: in a bad sense, to exclude as disreputable, Luke 6:22; in a good sense, τινὰ εἴς τι, to appoint, set apart, one for some purpose (to do something), Acts 13:2; Romans 1:1; τινά followed by a telic infinitive, Galatians 1:15 [(?) see the commentaries at the passage]. ([Sophocles], Euripides, Plato, Isocrates, Demosthenes, Polybius, others; very often in the Sept. especially for הִבְדִּיל, הֵנִיף, הֵרִים, סָגַר, etc.)TGL ἀφορίζω.2


    (874) ἀφορμή, -ῆς, , (ἀπό and ὁρμή which see);TGL ἀφορμή.2

    1. properly, a place from which a movement or attack is made, a base of operations: Thucydides 1, 90 (τὴν Πελοπόννησον πᾶσιν ἀναχώρησίν τε καὶ ἀφορμὴν ἱκανὴν εἶναι); Polybius 1, 41, 6.TGL ἀφορμή.3

    2. metaphorically, that by which endeavor is excited and from which it goes forth; that which gives occasion and supplies matter for an undertaking, the incentive; the resources we avail ourselves of in attempting or performing anything: Xenophon, mem. 3, 12, 4 (τοῖς ἑαυτῶν παισὶ καλλίους ἀφορμὰς εἰς τὸν βίον καταλείπουσι), and often in Greek writings; λαμβάνειν, to take occasion, find an incentive, Romans 7:8, Romans 7:11 διδόναι, 2 Corinthians 5:12; 1 Timothy 5:14 (3 Macc. 3:2; both phrases often also in Greek writings); 2 Corinthians 11:12; Galatians 5:13. On the meanings of this word see Viger. edition Herm., p. 81f; Phryn. ed. Lob., p. 223f; [Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 304].TGL ἀφορμή.4


    (875) ἀφρίζω; (ἀφρός); to foam: Mark 9:18, Mark 9:20. (Sophocles El. 719; Diodorus 3, 10; Athen. 11, 43, p. 472 a.; [others].) [Compare: ἐπαφρίζω.]TGL ἀφρίζω.2


    (876) ἀφρός, -οῦ, , foam: Luke 9:39. (Homer, Iliad 20, 168; [others].)TGL ἀφρός.2


    (877) ἀφροσύνη, -ης, , (ἄφρων), foolishness, folly, senselessness: 2 Corinthians 11:1, 2 Corinthians 11:17, 2 Corinthians 11:21; thoughtlessness, recklessness, Mark 7:22. [From Homer down.]TGL ἀφροσύνη.2


    (878) ἄφρων, -ονος, , , -ον, τό, (from α privative and φρήν, cf. εὔφρων, σώφρων ) [from Homer down], properly, without reason ([εἴδωλα, Xenophon, mem. 1, 4, 4]; of beasts, ibid. 1, 4, 14), senseless, foolish, stupid; without refection or intelligence, acting rashly: Luke 11:40; Luke 12:20; Romans 2:20; 1 Corinthians 15:36; 2 Corinthians 11:16, 2 Corinthians 11:19 (opposed to φρόνιμος, as in Proverbs 11:29); 2 Corinthians 12:6, 2 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 5:17 (opposed to συνιέντες); 1 Peter 2:15. [A strong term; cf. Schmidt, chapter 147 § 17.]TGL ἄφρων.2


    (879) ἀφυπνόω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἀφύπνωσα; (ὑπνόω to put to sleep, to sleep);TGL ἀφυπνόω.2

    a. to awaken from sleep (Anthol. Pal. 9, 517, 5).TGL ἀφυπνόω.3

    b. to fall asleep, to fall off to sleep: Luke 8:23; for this the ancient Greeks used καθυπνόω; see Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 224. [Hermas, vis. 1, 1.]TGL ἀφυπνόω.4


    (880) ἄφωνος, -ον, (φωνή), voiceless, dumb; without the faculty of speech; used of idols, 1 Corinthians 12:2 (cf. Psalms 115:5 (Psalm 113:13); Habakkuk 2:18); of beasts, 2 Peter 2:16. 1 Corinthians 14:10 τοσαῦτα γένη φωνῶν καὶ οὐδὲν αὐτῶν [L T Tr WH omit αὐτ.] ἄφωνον, i. e. there is no language destitute of the power of language [R. V. text no kind (of voice) is without signification] (cf. the phrases βίος ἀβίωτος a life unworthy of the name of life, χάρις ἄχαρις). used of one that is patiently silent or dumb: ἀμνός, Acts 8:32 from Isaiah 53:7. (In Greek writings from [Theog.], Pindar, Aeschylus down.)TGL ἄφωνος.2


    (881) Ἄχαζ [WH Ἄχας), , (so Sept. for אָחָז possessing, possessor; in Josephus, Ἀχάζης, -ου, ), Ahaz, king of Judah, [from circa B. C. 741 to circa B. C. 725; cf. B. D. under the word Israel, kingdom of], (2 Kings 16:1; 2 Chronicles 28:16; Isaiah 7:1): Matthew 1:9.TGL Ἀχάζ.2

    Related entry: [Ἄχας, Matthew 1:9 WH; see Ἄχαζ.]TGL Ἀχάζ.3


    (882) Ἀχαΐα [WH Ἀχαία (see Ι, ι)], -ας, , Achaia;TGL Ἀχαΐα.2

    1. in a restricted sense, the maritime region of northern Peloponnesus.TGL Ἀχαΐα.3

    2. in a broader sense, from B. C. 146 on [yet see Dict. of Geog. under the word], a Roman province embracing all Greece except Thessaly. So in the N. T.: Acts 18:12, Acts 18:27; Acts 19:21; Romans 15:26; Romans 16:5 Rec. ; 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 9:2; 2 Corinthians 11:10; 1 Thessalonians 1:7 [B. D. under the word.]TGL Ἀχαΐα.4


    (883) Ἀχαϊκός, -οῦ, , Achaicus, the name of a Christian of Corinth: 1 Corinthians 16:17.TGL Ἀχαϊκός.2


    (884) ἀχάριστος, -ον, (χαρίζομαι), ungracious;TGL ἀχάριστος.2

    a. unpleasing (Homer, Odyssey 8, 236; 20, 392; Xenophon, oec. 7, 37; others).TGL ἀχάριστος.3

    b. unthankful (so in Greek writings from Herodotus 1, 90 down): Luke 6:35; 2 Timothy 3:2. (Sir. 29:17; Wis. 16:29.)TGL ἀχάριστος.4


    (885) Ἀχείμ, , Achim, proper name of one of the ancestors of Christ, not mentioned in the O. T.: Matthew 1:14.TGL Ἀχείμ.2


    (886) ἀχειροποίητος, -ον, (χειροποίητος, which see), not made with hands: Mark 14:58; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Colossians 2:11 [where cf. Bp. Lightfoot]. (Found neither in secular authors nor in the Sept. [Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3].)TGL ἀχειροποίητος.2


    (887) ἀχλύς, -ύος, , a mist, dimness (Latin caligo ), especially over the eyes (a poetic word, often in Homer; then in Hesiod, Aeschylus; in prose writings from [Aristotle, meteor. 2, 8, p. 367b, 17 etc. and] Polybius 34, 11, 15 on; [of a cataract, Dioscorides Cf. Trench, § c.]): Acts 13:11. (Josephus, Antiquities 9, 4, 3 τὰς τῶν πολεμίων ὄψεις ἀμαυρῶσαι τὸν θεὸν παρεκάλει ἀχλὺν αὐταῖς ἐπιβαλόντα. Metaphorically, of the mind, Clement of Rome, 2 Cor. 1, 6 ἀχλύος γέμειν.)TGL ἀχλύς.2


    (888) ἀχρεῖος, -ον, (χρεῖος useful), useless, good for nothing: Matthew 25:30 (δοῦλος, cf. Plato, Alc. 1:17, p. 122 b. τῶν οἰκετῶν τὸν ἀχρειότατον); by an hyperbole of pious modesty in Luke 17:10 'the servant' calls himself ἀχρεῖον, because, although he has done all, yet he has done nothing except what he ought to have done; accordingly he possesses no merit, and could only claim to be called 'profitable,' should he do more than what he is bound to do; cf. Bengel, at the passage. (Often in Greek writings from Homer down; Xenophon, mem. 1, 2, 54 ἀχρεῖον καὶ ἀνωφελές. Sept. 2 Samuel 6:22 equivalent to שָׁפָל low, base.) [Synonyms: cf. Tittmann ii., p. 11f; Ellicott on Philemon 1:11.]TGL ἀχρεῖος.2


    (889) ἀχρειόω, -ῶ: 1 aorist passive ἠχρειώθην; (ἀχρεῖος, which see); to make useless, render unserviceable: of character, Romans 3:12 (from Psalms 13:3 (Psalms 14:3), where L marginal reading T Tr WH read ἠχρεώθησαν from the rarer ἄχρεος equivalent to ἀχρεῖος. (Several times properly, in Polybius)TGL ἀχρειόω.2


    (890) ἄχρηστος, -ον, (χρηστός, and this from χράομαι), useless, unprofitable: Philemon 1:11 (here opposed to εὔχρηστος). (In Greek writings from Homer [i. e. Batrach. 70; Theognis] down.) [Synonyms: cf. Tittmann ii. 11f; Trench, § c. 17; Ellicott on Philemon 1:11.]TGL ἄχρηστος.2


    (891) ἄχρι and ἄχρις (the latter of which in the N. T. is nowhere placed before a consonant, but the former before both vowels and consonants, although euphony is so far regarded that we almost constantly find ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας, ἄχρις οὗ, cf. Buttmann, 10 (9); [Winer's Grammar, 42]; and ἄχρι οὗ is not used except in Acts 7:18 and Revelation 2:25 by L T Tr WH and Luke 21:24 by T Tr WH; [to these instances must now be added 1 Corinthians 11:26 T WH; 1 Corinthians 15:25 T WH; Romans 11:25 WH (see their Appendix, p. 148); on the usage in secular authors ('where -ρι is the only Attic form, but in later authors the epic -ρις prevailed', Liddell and Scott, under the word) cf. Lobeck, Pathol. Elementa, vol. ii., p. 210f; Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 64; further, Klotz ad Devar. vol. ii. 1, p. 230f]); a particle indicating the terminus ad quem. (On its use in the Greek writings cf. Klotz as above, p. 224ff). It has the force now of a preposition now of a conjunction, even to; until, to the time that; (on its derivation see below).TGL ἄχρι.2

    1. as a preposition it takes the genitive [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 54, 6], and is usedTGL ἄχρι.3

    a. of place: Acts 11:5; Acts 13:6; Acts 20:4 [T Tr marginal reading WH omit; Tr text brackets]; Acts 28:15; 2 Corinthians 10:13; Hebrews 4:12 (see μερισμός , 2); Revelation 14:20; Revelation 18:5.TGL ἄχρι.4

    b. of Time: ἄχρι καιροῦ, until a season that seemed to him opportune, Luke 4:13 [but cf. καιρός , 2 a.]; until a certain time, for a season, Acts 13:11; [ἄχρι (vel μέχρι, which see 1 a.) τοῦ θερισμοῦ, Matthew 13:30 WH marginal reading cf. ἕως , II. 5]; ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας until the day that etc. Matthew 24:38; Luke 1:20; Luke 17:27; Acts 1:2; [ἄχρι (Rec. et al. ἕως) τῆς ἡμέρας ἧς, Acts 1:22 Tdf. ]; ἄχρι ταύτης τῆς ἡμέρας and ἄχρι τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης, Acts 2:29; Acts 23:1; Acts 26:22; ἄχρι [-ρις R G] ἡμερῶν πέντε even to the space of five days, i. e. after [A. V. in] five days, Acts 20:6; ἄχρις [-ρι T Tr WH] αὐγῆς, Acts 20:11; ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν, Romans 8:22; Philippians 1:5; ἄχρι τέλους, Hebrews 6:11; Revelation 2:26; see besides, Acts 3:21; [Acts 22:22]; Romans 1:13; Romans 5:13; 1 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 3:14; Galatians 4:2; Philippians 1:6 [-ρι L T WH].TGL ἄχρι.5

    c. of Manner and Degree: ἄχρι θανάτου, Acts 22:4 (even to delivering unto death); Revelation 2:10 (to the enduring of death itself); Revelation 12:11; and, in the opinion of many interpreters, Hebrews 4:12 [see μερισμός , 2].TGL ἄχρι.6

    d. joined to the relative οὗ (ἄχρις οὗ for ἄχρι τούτου, ) it has the force of a conjunction, until, to the time that: followed by the indicative preterite, of things that actually occurred and up to the beginning of which something continued, Acts 7:18 (ἄχρις οὗ ἀνέστη βασιλεύς); Acts 27:33. followed by a subjunctive aorist having the force of a future perfect, Luke 21:24 L T Tr WH; Romans 11:25; 1 Corinthians 11:26 [Rec. ἄχρις οὗ ἄν]; Galatians 3:19 [not WH text (see 2 below)]; Galatians 4:19 [T Tr WH μέχρις]; Revelation 7:3 Rec.elz G; ἄχρις οὗ ἄν until, whenever it may be [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 42, 5 b.], 1 Corinthians 15:25 [Rec. ]; Revelation 2:25. with indicative present as long as: Hebrews 3:13; cf. Bleek at the passage and Buttmann, 231 (199).TGL ἄχρι.7

    2. ἄχρις without οὗ has the force of a simple conjunction, until, to the time that: followed by subjunctive aorist, Luke 21:24 R G; Revelation 7:3 L T Tr WH; Revelation 15:8; [Revelation 17:17 Rec. ]; Revelation 20:3 [Revelation 20:5 G L T Tr WH]; with indicative future, Revelation 17:17 [L T Tr WH]; [ἄχρις ἄν followed by subjunctive aorist, Galatians 3:19 WH text (see 1 d. above)]. Since ἄχρι is akin to ἀκή and ἀκρός [but cf. Vanicek, p. 22; Curtius, § 166], and μέχρι to μῆκος, μακρός, by the use of the former particle the reach to which a thing is said to extend is likened to a height, by the use of μέχρι, to a length; ἄχρι, indicating ascent, signifies up to; μέχρι, indicating extent, is unto, as far as; cf. Klotz as above, p. 225f. But this primitive distinction is often disregarded, and each particle used of the same thing; cf. ἄχρι τέλους, Hebrews 6:11; μέχρι τέλους, Hebrews 3:6, Hebrews 3:14; Xenophon, symp. 4, 37 περίεστί μοι καὶ ἐσθίοντι ἄχρι τοῦ μὴ πεινῆν ἀφικέσθαι καὶ πίνοντι μέχρι τοῦ μὴ διψῆν. Cf. Fritzsche on Romans 5:13, vol i., p. 308ff; [Ellicott on 2 Timothy 2:9. Ἄχρι occurs 20 times in the writings of Luke; elsewhere in the four Gospels only in Matthew 24:38.].TGL ἄχρι.8


    (892) ἄχυρον, -ου, τό, a stalk of grain from which the kernels have been beaten out; straw broken up by a threshing-machine, chaff: Matthew 3:12; Luke 3:17. (In Greek writings from Herodotus 4, 72; Xenophon, oec. 18. 1, 2, 6 down; mostly in plural τὰ ἄχυρα; in Job 21:18 Sept. also of the chaff accustomed to being driven away by the wind.)TGL ἄχυρον.2


    (893) ἀψευδής, -ές (ψεῦδος), without lie, truthful: Titus 1:2. (In Greek writings from Hesiod theog. 233 down.)TGL ἀψευδής.2


    (894) ἄψινθος, -ου, , wormwood, Absinthe: Revelation 8:11; ἄψινθος ibid. is given as a proper name to the star which fell into the waters and made them bitter.TGL ἀψίνθιον.2


    (895) ἄψυχος, -ον, (ψυχή), without a soul, lifeless: 1 Corinthians 14:7. (In Greek writings from [Archilochus, Simonides and] Aeschylus down.)TGL ἄψυχος.2

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