Larger font
Smaller font
Thayer's Greek Lexicon - Contents
  • Results
  • Related
  • Featured
No results found for: "".
  • Weighted Relevancy
  • Content Sequence
  • Relevancy
  • Earliest First
  • Latest First
    Larger font
    Smaller font

    Φορτουνᾶτος — φωτισμός


    (5415) Φορτουνᾶτος (or Φουρτουνατος R G ), Φορτουνάτου, (a Latin name, 'happy'), Fortunatus, a Christian of Corinth (cf. Lightfoot on Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 59(65 [ET])): 1 Corinthians 16:17.TGL Φορτουνᾶτος.2


    (5416) φραγέλλιον, φραγελλιου, τό (Latinflagellum ; Buttmann , 18 (16)), a scourge: John 2:15.TGL φραγέλλιον.2


    (5417) φραγελλόω, φραγέλλω: 1 aorist participle φραγελλώσας; (Latinflagello ); to scourge: τινα, Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15. (Ecclesiastical writings.)TGL φραγελλόω.2


    (5418) φραγμός, φραγμοῦ, (φράσσω to fence round), a hedge, a fence: Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1; Luke 14:23; tropically, that which separates, prevents two from coming together, Ephesians 2:14 (A. V. partition), see μεσότοιχον . (The Sept. , Sir. 36:30(27); Herodotus , Sophocles , Thucydides , Plutarch , others.)TGL φραγμός.2


    (5419) φράζω: 1 aorist imperative φράσον; from Homer down; to indicate plainly, make known, declare, whether by gesture (φωνῆσαι μέν οὐκ εἶχε, τῇ δέ χειρί ἐφραζεν Herodotus 4, 113), or by writing or speaking, or in other ways; to explain: τίνι τήν παραβολήν, the thought shadowed forth in the parable, Matthew 13:36 (R G T Tr text); Matthew 15:15. (Twice in the Sept. for הֵבִין, Job 6:24; הורָה, Job 12:8.)TGL φράζω.2


    (5420) φράσσω: 1 aorist ἔφραξα; passive, 2 aorist subjunctive 3 person singular φραγῇ; 2 future 3 person singular φραγήσεται (2 Corinthians 11:10 Rbez elz G L T Tr WH ); ((allied with Latinfarcio , German Berg, English borough; cf. Vanicek , p. 614); from Homer down); to fence in, block up, stop up, close up (τά ὦτα τοῦ μή ἀκοῦσαι, Proverbs 21:13; τήν ὁδόν ἐν σκόλοψιν, Hosea 2:6; πηγήν, Proverbs 25:26; στόματα λεόντων, Hebrews 11:33): καύχησις αὕτη οὐ φραγήσεται, this glorying shall not be stopped, i. e. no one shall get from my conduct an argument to prove that it is empty, 2 Corinthians 11:10 (on the reading of Rec.st (σφραγίσεται) see σφραγίζω , at the beginning); tropically, to put to silence (A. V. stop): τό στόμα, Romans 3:19.TGL φράσσω.2


    (5421) φρέαρ, φρεαρατος, τό, from the Homer hymn Cer. 99 and Herodotus 6, 119 down; the Sept. for בְּאֵר and (in 1 Samuel 19:22; 2 Samuel 3:26; Jeremiah 48:7, Jeremiah 48:9 (Jeremiah 41:7,Jeremiah 41:9) בּור (a pit, cistern), a well: Luke 14:5; John 4:11; φρέαρ τῆς ἀβύσσου, the pit of the abyss (because the nether world is thought to increase in size the further it extends from the surface of the earth and so to resemble a cistern, the orifice of which is narrow), Revelation 9:1.TGL φρέαρ.2


    (5422) φρεναπατάω, φρεναπάτω; (φρεναπάτης, which see): τινα, to deceive anyone's mind, Galatians 6:3 ("more is implied by this word than by ἀπαταν, for it brings out the idea of subjective fancies" (Lightfoot ad loc.); cf. Green , Critical Notes at the passage). (Ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.)TGL φρεναπατάω.2


    (5423) φρεναπάτης, φρεναπατου, (φρήν and ἀπάτη), a mind-deceiver; Vulg. seductor ; (A. V. deceiver): Titus 1:10. (Several times in ecclesiastical writings.)TGL φρεναπάτης.2


    (5424) φρήν, φρενος, , plural φρένες, from Homer down, the Sept. several times in Proverbs for לֵב:TGL φρήν.2

    1. the midriff or diaphragm, the parts about the heart.TGL φρήν.3

    2. the mind; the faculty of perceiving and judging: also in the plural; as, 1 Corinthians 14:20.TGL φρήν.4


    (5425) φρίσσω; very often in Greek writings from Homer down; to be rough, Latinhorreo, horresco , i. e.TGL φρίσσω.2

    1. to bristle, stiffen, stand up: ἔφριξαν μου τρίχες, Job 4:15 the Sept. ; with ὀρθαί added, Hesiod , Works, 510; ὀρθάς... φρισσει τρίχας (cognate accusative of the part affected), Hesiod scut. 391; with cold, διά τό ψῦχος, Plutarch , quaest. nat. 13, 2, p. 915 b.TGL φρίσσω.3

    2. to shudder, to be struck with extreme fear, to be horrified: absolutely, James 2:19; James 4:1-17 Macc. 14:9; like the Latinhorreo, horresco , construction with an accusative of the object exciting the fear, Homer , Iliad 11,383, and often.TGL φρίσσω.4


    (5426) φρονέω, φρόνῳ; imperfect, 1 person singular ἐφρόνουν, 2 person plural ἐφρονεῖτε; future 2 person plural φρονήσετε; present passive imperative 3 person singular φρονείσθω, Philippians 2:5 R G (see 3 below); (φρήν); from Homer down;TGL φρονέω.2

    1. to have understanding, be wise (Homer , others).TGL φρονέω.3

    2. to feel, to think: absolutely ὡς νήπιος ἐφρόνουν, 1 Corinthians 13:11; to have an opinion of oneself, think of oneself: μή ὑπερφρονεῖν παῥ δεῖ φρονεῖν, Romans 12:3 (μεῖζον φρονεῖν κατ' ἄνδρα, Sophocles Ant. 768); φρονεῖν εἰς τό σωφρονεῖν (R. V. so to think as to think soberly), to be modest, not to let one's opinion (though just) of himself exceed the bounds of modesty, ibid.; ὑπέρ γέγραπται, in one's opinion of oneself to go beyond the standard prescribed in Scripture, 1 Corinthians 4:6 R G (cf. Buttmann , 394f (338); Winer s Grammar, § 64,4). with an accusative of the thing, to think, judge: φρονεῖς, what your opinion is, Acts 28:22; οὐδέν ἄλλο, Galatians 5:10; τί ἑτέρως, Philippians 3:15; several persons are said φρονεῖν τό αὐτό, to be of the same mind, i. e. to agree together, cherish the same views, be harmonious: 2 Corinthians 13:11; Philippians 2:2; Philippians 3:16 Rec. ; Philippians 4:2; with ἐν ἀλλήλοις added, Romans 15:5; also τό ἕν φρονοῦντες, having that one mind, Philippians 2:2 (the phrase τό ἕν having reference to τό αὐτό; see Meyer (but cf. Lightfoot ) at the passage); τί ὑπέρ τίνος, to hold some opinion, judge, think, concerning one, Philippians 1:7; τό αὐτό εἰς ἀλλήλους to be of the same mind toward one another, Romans 12:16.TGL φρονέω.4

    3. to direct one's mind to a thing, to seek or strive for; τά τίνος, to seek one's interests or advantage; to be of one's party, side with him (in public affairs, Additions to Esther 8:5 [Esther 8:208:12c ]; 1 Macc. 10:20; Dio Cass. 51, 4; Herodian , 8, 6, 14 (6); for other examples from Xenophon , (or Herodotus 1, 162 at the end) down see Passow , under the word, II.; (Liddell and Scott, II. 2 c.); hence) τά τοῦ Θεοῦ and τά τῶν ἀνθρώπων, to be intent on promoting what God wills (specifically, his saving purposes), and what pleases men, Matthew 16:28; Mark 8:33; τά τῆς σαρκός and τά τοῦ πενυματος (σάρξ (which see 4) and πνεῦμα (which see, p. 522{a}) being personified), to pursue those things which gratify the flesh,... the Holy Spirit, Romans 8:5, cf. Romans 8:6. τά ἐπίγεια, Philippians 3:19; τά ἄνω and τά ἐπί τῆς γῆς, Colossians 3:2 (ἀνθρώπινα, θνητά, Aristotle , eth. Nic. 10, 7, p. 1177b, 32); τοῦτο φρονεῖτε (present imperative) ἐν ὑμῖν (R. V. have this mind in you), be intent within yourselves on this, Philippians 2:5 L T Tr WH ; passive, φρονειτα τί ἐν τίνι, some habit of thought (expressed by deeds) exists in one, Philippians 2:5 R G (A. V. let this mind be in you); ὑψηλά (see ὑψηλός , b.). φρονεῖν ἡμέραν, to regard a day, observe it as sacred, Romans 14:6; φρονεῖν ὑπέρ τίνος, to take thought, have a care, for one, Philippians 4:10 (see ἀναθάλλω , at the end Compare: καταφρονέω, παραφρονέω, περιφρονέω, ὑπερφρονέω.)TGL φρονέω.5


    (5427) φρόνημα, φρονηματος, τό (φρονέω, which see), what one has in mind, the thoughts and purposes (A. V. mind): Romans 8:6, Romans 8:27. (Hesychius φρόνημα. βούλημα, θέλημα. In various other senses also from Aeschylus down.)TGL φρόνημα.2


    (5428) φρόνησις, φρονήσεως, (φρονέω), understanding: joined with σοφία (as 1 Kings 4:25 (29); Daniel 1:17, Theod. ; σοφία ἀνδρί τίκτει φρόνησιν, Proverbs 10:23), Ephesians 1:8 (A. V. prudence; see σοφία , at the end); specifically, knowledge and holy love of the will of God (A. V. wisdom), Luke 1:17 (Wis. 3:15; the Sept. for בִּינָה, תְּבוּנָה, חָכְמָה; used variously by Greek writers from Sophocles and Euripides down).TGL φρόνησις.2


    (5429) φρόνιμος, φρόνιμον (φρονέω);TGL φρόνιμος.2

    a. intelligent, wise (so A. V. uniformly): 1 Corinthians 10:15; opposed to μωρός, 1 Corinthians 4:10; opposed to Ἄφρον, 2 Corinthians 11:19; φρόνιμος παῥ ἑαυτῷ, one who deems himself wise (A. V. wise in one's own conceits), Romans 11:25; Romans 12:16, (Proverbs 3:7).TGL φρόνιμος.3

    b. prudent, i. e. mindful of one's interests: Matthew 10:16; Matthew 24:45; Luke 12:42; opposed to μωρός, Matthew 7:24 (cf. Matthew 7:26); Matthew 25:2,Matthew 25:4,Matthew 25:8 comparitive φρονιμώτερος, Luke 16:8. (From Sophocles , Xenophon , Plato down; the Sept. for נָבון, חָכָם, מֵבִין.) (Synonym: see σοφός , at the end.)TGL φρόνιμος.4


    (5430) φρονίμως, adverb, prudently, wisely: Luke 16:8. (From Aristophanes down.)TGL φρονίμως.2


    (5431) φροντίζω; (φροντίς (`thought', from φρονέω)); from Theognis , and Herodotus down; to think, to be careful; to be thoughtful or anxious: followed by an infinitive Titus 3:8.TGL φροντίζω.2


    (5432) φρουρέω, φρούρω: imperfect ἐφρουρουν; future φρουρήσω; passive, present participle φρουρουμενος; imperfect ἐφρουρουμην; (φρουρός, contracted from πρωρος from πρωράω to see before, foresee); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down;TGL φρουρέω.2

    1. to guard, protect by a military guard, either in order to prevent hostile invasion, or to keep the inhabitants of a besieged city from flight; (often so from Thucydides down): τήν πόλιν, i. e. not he surrounded the city with soldiers, but by posting sentries he kept the gates guarded, 2 Corinthians 11:32 (R. V. guarded), cf. Acts 9:24.TGL φρουρέω.3

    2. metaphorically: τινα, passive, ὑπό νόμον, under the control of the Mosaic law, that we might not escape from its power, with συγκεκλεισμένοι (συν῾γ᾿κλειόμενοι L T Tr WH ) added, Galatians 3:23 (R. V. kept in ward; cf. Plutarch , de defect. orac. § 29; Wis. 17:15); to protect by guarding (Sophocles O. R. 1479), to keep: τάς καρδίας ἐν Χριστῷ, i. e. in close connection with Christ, Philippians 4:7; τινα εἰς τί, by watching and guarding to preserve one for the attainment of something (R. V. guarded unto etc.), passive, 1 Peter 1:5.TGL φρουρέω.4


    (5433) φρυάσσω: 1 aorist 3 person plural ἐφρύαξαν; (everywhere in secular authors and also in Macc. as a deponent middle φρυάσσομαι (Winer s Grammar, 24)); to neigh, stamp the ground, prance, snort; to be high-spirited: properly, of horses (Anthol. 5, 202, 4; Callimachus () lav. Pallad. verse 2); of men, to take on lofty airs, behave arrogantly (2 Macc. 7:34; 3Macc. 2:2, Anthol. , Diodorus , Plutarch , others; (cf. Wetstein on Acts as below)); active for רָגַשׁ, to be tumultuous, to rage, Acts 4:25 from Psalms 2:1.TGL φρυάσσω.2


    (5434) φρύγανον, φρυγανου, τό (from φρύγω or φρύσσω, φρύττω, to dry, parch; cf. Latin frigo, frux, fructus), a dry stick, dry twig; generally in the plural this word comprises all dry sticks, brush-wood, fire-wood, or similar material used as fuel: Acts 28:3. (Herodotus 4, 62; Arstph, Thucydides , Xenophon , Philo , others; the Sept. for קַשׁ, straw, stubble, Isaiah 40:24; Isaiah 41:2; Isaiah 47:14; for חָרוּל, bramble, Job 30:7.)TGL φρύγανον.2


    (5435) Φρυγία, φρυγίας, , Phrygia, a region of Asia Minor, hounded by Bithynia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Lydia, and Mysia. Those of its cities mentioned in the N. T. are Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colossae: Acts 2:10; Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23. (B. D. , under the word; Lightfoot on Colossians, Introduction, diss. i., especially, pp. 17f, 23f)TGL Φρυγία.2


    (5436) Φύγελλος and (L T Tr WH (see WH 's Appendix, p. 159)) Φύγελος, Φυγελλου, , Phygellus (better Phyg'-elus), a Christian, who was with Paul at Rome and deserted him (see B. D. under the word and the commentaries): 2 Timothy 1:15.TGL Φύγελλος.2


    (5437) φυγή, φυγῆς, (φεύγω), from Homer down, flight: Matthew 24:20; Mark 13:18 Rec.TGL φυγή.2


    (5438) φυλακή, φυλακῆς, (φυλάσσω), from Homer down, the Sept. for מִשְׁמֶרֶת, מִשְׁמָר, מַטָּרָה (a prison), כֶּלֶא (enclosure, confinement), guard, watch, i. e.TGL φυλακή.2

    a. in an active sense, a watching, keeping watch: φυλάσσειν φυλακάς, to keep watch, Luke 2:8 (often in the Greek writings from Xenophon , an. 2, 6, 10, etc.; Plato legg. 6, p. 758 d. down; (cf. φυλακάς ἔχειν, etc. from Homer (Iliad 9, 1 etc.) on); often also in the Sept. for מִשְׁמָרות שָׁמַר).TGL φυλακή.3

    b. like the Latincustodia and more frequently the pluralcustodiae (see Klotz, Hdwrbch. (or Harpers' Latin Dict.) under the word), equivalent to persons keeping watch, a guard, sentinels: Acts 12:10 (here A. V. ward) (and very often in secular authors from Homer down).TGL φυλακή.4

    c. of the place where captives are kept, a prison: Matthew 14:10; Matthew 25:36,(39),43f; Mark 6:17, Mark 6:27(28); Luke 3:20; Luke 21:12; Luke 22:33; Acts 5:19, Acts 5:22; Acts 8:3; Acts 12:5, Acts 12:17; Acts 16:27, Acts 16:40; Acts 22:4; Acts 26:10; 2 Corinthians 6:5 (here, as in Hebrews 11:36, A. V. imprisonment); 2 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Peter 3:19; Revelation 18:2 (twice; rendered in A. V. hold and cage (R. V. hold)); Revelation 20:7 (Herodotus 3, 152; Thucydides 3, 34; Plutarch , others; the Sept. for מַטָּרָה, כֶּלֶא בֵּית, and הַכֶּלֶא בֵּית, מִשְׁמָר); βάλλειν or τιθέναι τινα εἰς (τήν) φυλακήν or ἐν (τῇ) φυλακή: Matthew 5:25; Matthew 14:3 (R G , others, ἀπέθετο); Matthew 18:30; Luke 12:58; Luke 23:19, Luke 23:25; John 3:24; Acts 5:25; Acts 8:3 (here παραδιδόναι εἰς φυλακήν); Acts 12:4; Acts 16:23,Acts 16:37; Revelation 2:10.TGL φυλακή.5

    d. of the time (of night) during which guard was kept, a watch i. e. the period of time during which a part of the guard were on duty, and at the end of which others relieved them. As the earlier Greeks divided the night commonly into three parts (see Liddell and Scott, under the word I. 4), so, previously to the exile, the Israelites also had three watches in a night; subsequently, however, after they became subject to Rome, they adopted the Roman custom of dividing the night into four watches: Matthew 24:43; ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ, τρίτῃ, Luke 12:38; τετάρτῃ, Matthew 14:25; Mark 6:48. Cf. Winer 's RWB under the word Nachtwache; (McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word ; B. D. under the phrase, ).TGL φυλακή.6


    (5439) φυλακίζω; (φυλακή (or φύλαξ)); to cast into prison, imprison: Acts 22:19. (Wis. 18:4; ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.)TGL φυλακίζω.2


    (5440) φυλακτήριον, φυλακτηριου, τό (neuter of the adjective φυλακτηριος, φυλακτήρια, φυλακτήριον, from φυλακτήρ (`poetic for φύλαξ'));TGL φυλακτήριον.2

    1. a fortified place provided with a garrison, a station for a guard or garrison.TGL φυλακτήριον.3

    2. a preservative or safeguard, an amulet: Demosthenes , p. 71, 24; Dioscorides (?) 5, 158f (159f), often in Plutarch . The Jews gave the name of φυλακτήρια (in the Talm. תְּפִלִּין, prayer-fillets, German Gebetsriemen; (cf. O. T. 'frontlets')) to small strips of parchment on which were written the following passages from the law of Moses, Exodus 13:1-10, Exodus 13:11-16; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Deuteronomy 11:13-21, and which, enclosed in little cases, they were accustomed when engaged in prayer to wear fastened by a leather strap to the forehead and to the left arm over against the heart, in order that they might thus be solemnly reminded of the duty of keeping the commands of God in the head and in the heart, according to the directions given in Exodus 13:16; Deuteronomy 6:8; Deuteronomy 11:18; (cf. Josephus , Antiquities 4, 8, 13). These scrolls were thought to have power, like amulets, to avert various evils and to drive away demons (Targ. on Song of Solomon 8:3); hence, their Greek name. (But see Ginsburg in Alex.'s Kitto, see under the words, Phylacteries (under the end) and Mezuza.) The Pharisees were accustomed τά φυλακτήρια αὐτῶν πλατύνειν, to widen, make broad, their phylacteries, that they might render them more conspicuous and show themselves to be more eager than the majority to be reminded of God's law: Matthew 23:5. Cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Phylakterien; Leyrer in Herzog xi., 639ff; Kneucker in Schenkel 1:601f; Delitzsch in Riehm 270f; (Edersheim, Jewish Social Life etc., p. 220ff; B. D. under the word Frontlets; especially Hamburger , Real-Encycl., under the word Tephillin, vol. ii, p. 1203f; Ginsburg in Alex.'s Kitto as above).TGL φυλακτήριον.4


    (5441) φύλαξ, φυλακός, (φυλάσσω), a guard, keeper: Acts 5:23; Acts 12:6, Acts 12:19. (From Homer down; the Sept. for שֹׁמֵר.)TGL φύλαξ.2


    (5442) φυλάσσω; future φυλάξω; 1 aorist ἐφύλαξα; middle, present φυλάσσομαι; 1 aorist ἐφυλαξάμην; present passive φυλάσσομαι; from Homer down; the Sept. times too many to count for שָׁמַר, occasionally for נָצַר (etc.):TGL φυλάσσω.2

    1. Active, to guard (Latin custodio ); i. e.,TGL φυλάσσω.3

    a. to watch, to keep watch: with φυλακήν, added, Luke 2:8 (see φυλακή , a.).TGL φυλάσσω.4

    b. to guard or watch, have an eye upon: τινα, one, lest he escape, Acts 12:4; Acts 28:16; passive, Acts 23:35; Luke 8:29; τί, anything, lest it be carried off: τά ἱμάτια, Acts 22:20.TGL φυλάσσω.5

    c. to guard a person (or thing) that he may remain safe, i. e. lest he suffer violence, be despoiled, etc., equivalent to to protect: τήν αὐλήν, Luke 11:21; ἀπό τίνος, to protect one from a person or thing, 2 Thessalonians 3:3 (see πονηρός , p. 531a) (Xenophon , Cyril 1, 4, 7; Psalms 140:9 (Psalms 141:9); cf. Buttmann , § 147, 3; (Winer 's Grammar, 223 (209))); τήν παραθήκην (or παρακαταθήκην), to keep from being snatched away, preserve safe and unimpaired, 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 1:14; with the addition of εἰς τινα ἡμέραν, i. e. that it may be forthcoming on that day, 2 Timothy 1:12; to guard from being lost or perishing, i. e. (with the predominant idea of a happy issue), to preserve: τινα, John 17:12 (where ἐφύλαξα is explained by the following οὐδείς ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀπώλετο (cf. τηρέω , at the end)); 2 Peter 2:5; τινα with a predicate accusative, Jude 1:24; φυλάξει (opposed to ἀπολέσει) τήν ψυχήν εἰς ζωήν αἰών. i. e. will keep it with the result that lie will have life eternal, John 12:25; ἑαυτόν ἀπό τόν to guard oneself from a thing, 1 John 5:21 (where cf. Westcott).TGL φυλάσσω.6

    d. to guard, i. e. to care for, take care not to violate; to observe: τόν νόμον, Acts 7:53; Acts 21:24; Galatians 6:13 (Leviticus 19:37, etc.; Sophocles Trach. 616; others; νόμους, Xenophon , Hell. 1, 7, 30; Plato , de rep. 6, p. 484 b.; polit., p. 292 a.); single precepts of the Mosaic law, Matthew 19:20 L T Tr WH ; Mark 10:20 Lachmann; Luke 18:21 L T Tr text WH ; (τά δικαιώματα τοῦ νόμου, Romans 2:26); τόν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Luke 11:28; τά ῤήματα of Jesus, John 12:47 L T Tr WH ; apostolic directions, Acts 16:4; 1 Timothy 5:21.TGL φυλάσσω.7

    2. MiddleTGL φυλάσσω.8

    a. to observe for oneself something to escape, i. e. to avoid, shun, flee from: by a use common in Greek writings from Aeschylus and Herodotus down, with an accusative of the object, τί, Acts 21:25 (A. V. keep themselves from); τινα, 2 Timothy 4:15 (A. V. be thou ware of); ἀπό τίνος, to keep oneself from a thing, Luke 12:15 (Xenophon , Cyril 2, 3, 9; (Hell. 7, 2, 10)); ἵνα μή, 2 Peter 3:17 (ὅπως μή, Xenophon , mem. 1, 2, 37; other examples in Passow , under the word, p. 2360{a}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, C. II.)).TGL φυλάσσω.9

    b. by a usage foreign to Greek writings but very frequent in the Sept. (cf. Winer s Grammar, 253 (238)), to guard for oneself (i. e. for one's safety's sake) so as not to violate, i. e. to keep, observe: ταῦτα πάντα (the precepts of the Mosaic law), Matthew 19:20 R G ; Mark 10:20 R G T Tr WH ; Luke 18:21 R G Tr marginal reading (Exodus 12:17; Leviticus 18:4; Leviticus 20:8, Leviticus 20:22; Leviticus 26:3, and many other passages). (Compare: διαφυλάσσω. Synonym: see τηρέω , at the end.)TGL φυλάσσω.10


    (5443) φυλή, φυλῆς, (from φύω), from Pindar and Herodotus down;TGL φυλή.2

    1. a tribe; in the N. T. all the persons descended from one of the twelve sons of the patriarch Jacob (the Sept. for מַטֵּה and שֵׁבֶט; also for מִשְׁפָּחָה, see πατριά , 2): Hebrews 7:13; with the addition of the genitives Ασηρ, Βενιαμίν, etc., Luke 2:36; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5; Revelation 5:5; Revelation 7:5-8; δώδεκα φυλάς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30; James 1:1; Revelation 21:12; (πᾶσα φυλή υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, Revelation 7:4).TGL φυλή.3

    2. a race, nation, people: Matthew 24:30; Rev. (Revelation 1:7); Revelation 5:9; Revelation 7:9; (Revelation 11:9); Revelation 13:7; Revelation 14:6.TGL φυλή.4


    (5444) φύλλον, φύλλου, τό (φύω), a leaf: Matthew 21:19; Matthew 24:32; Mark 11:13; Mark 13:28; Revelation 22:2. (From Homer down.)TGL φύλλον.2


    (5445) φύραμα, φυράματος, τό (φυράω to mix), any substance mixed with water and kneaded; a mass, lump: of dough (Numbers 15:20; (plural, Exodus 8:3; Exodus 12:34); Aristotle , probl. 21, 18, p. 929{a}, 25; Plutarch , quaest. conv. 6, 7, 2, 15, p. 693 e.), 1 Corinthians 5:6; Galatians 5:9 (on the meaning of which passages see ζύμη ); Romans 11:16; of clay (Plutarch , praec. ger. reip. 15, 4, p. 811 c.), Romans 9:21 (cf. Buttmann , § 140, 3 Rem.).TGL φύραμα.2


    (5446) φυσικός, φυσικη, φυσικον (φύσις), natural; i. e.,TGL φυσικός.2

    a. produced by nature, inborn (very often so from Xenophon , (mem. 3, 9, 1) down).TGL φυσικός.3

    b. agreeable to nature (Dionysius Halicarnassus , Plutarch , others): opposed to παρά φύσιν, Romans 1:26,(27).TGL φυσικός.4

    c. governed by (the instincts of) nature: ζῷα γεγεννημένα φυσικά, 2 Peter 2:12 (R. V. born mere animals).TGL φυσικός.5


    (5447) φυσικῶς, adverb, in a natural manner, by nature, under the guidance of nature: by the aid of the bodily senses, Jude 1:10. ((Aristotle , Philo , others.))TGL φυσικῶς.2


    (5448) φυσιόω, φυσιω; passive, present φυσιοῦμαι; perfect participle πεφυσιωμενος; 1 aorist ἐφυσιωθην;TGL φυσιόω.2

    1. (from φύσις), to make natural, to cause a thing to pass into nature (Clement of Alexandria ; Simplicius ).TGL φυσιόω.3

    2. equivalent to φυσάω, φυσιάω (from φῦσα a pair of bellows), to inflate, blow up, blow out, to cause to swell up; tropically, to puff up, make proud: 1 Corinthians 8:1; passive, to be puffed up, to bear oneself loftily, be proud: 1 Corinthians 4:18; 1 Corinthians 5:2; 1 Corinthians 13:4; ὑπό τοῦ νως τῆς σαρκός αὐτοῦ, Colossians 2:18; ὑπέρ τίνος (see ὑπέρ , I. 2 (and cf. 5)) κατά τίνος, 1 Corinthians 4:6 (see ἵνα , II. 1 d.). (Ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.)TGL φυσιόω.4


    (5449) φύσις, φύσεως, (from φύω, which see, as Latin nature from nascor, ingenium from geno, gigno), from Homer , Odyssey 10, 303 down; nature, i. e.TGL φύσις.2

    a. the nature of things, the force, laws, order, of nature; as opposed to what is monstrous, abnormal, perverse: , , τό παρά φύσιν, that which is contrary to nature's laws, against nature, Romans 1:26 (οἱ παρά φύσιν τῇ Ἀφροδιτη χρώμενοι, Athen. 13, p. 605; παιδεραστής... τήν παρά φύσιν ἡδονήν διώκει, Philo de spec. legg. i., § 7); as opposed to what has been produced by the art of man: οἱ κατά φύσιν κλάδοι, the natural branches, i. e. branches by the operation of nature, Romans 11:21, Romans 11:24 (Winer 's Grammar, 193 (182)), contrasted with οἱ ἐγκεντρισθεντες παρά φύσιν, contrary to the plan of nature, cf. 24; κατά φύσιν ἀγριέλαιος, ibid.; as opposed to what is imaginary or fictitious: οἱ μή φύσει ὄντες θεοί, who are gods not by nature, but according to the mistaken opinion of the Gentiles (λεγόμενοι θεοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5), Galatians 4:8; nature, i. e. natural sense, native conviction or knowledge, as opposed to what is learned by instruction and accomplished by training or prescribed by law: φύσις (i. e. the native sense of propriety) διδάσκει τί, 1 Corinthians 11:14; φύσει ποιεῖν τά τοῦ ναμου, natura magistra, guided by their natural sense of what is right and proper, Romans 2:14.TGL φύσις.3

    b. birth, physical origin: ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι, we so far as our origin is considered, i. e. by birth, are Jews, Galatians 2:15 (φύσει νεώτερος, Sophocles O. C. 1295; τῷ μέν φύσει πατρίς, τόν δέ νόμῳ πολίτην ἐπεποιηντο, Isocrates Evagr. 21; φύσει βάρβαροι ὄντες, νόμῳ δέ Ἕλληνες, Plato , Menex., p. 245 d.; cf. Grimm on Wis. 13:1); ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία, who by birth is uncircumcised or a Gentile (opposed to one who, although circumcised, has made himself a Gentile by his iniquity and spiritual perversity), Romans 2:27.TGL φύσις.4

    c. a mode of feeling and acting which by long habit has become nature: ἦμεν φύσει τέκνα ὀργῆς, by (our depraved) nature we were exposed to the wrath of God, Ephesians 2:3 (this meaning is evident from the preceding context, and stands in contrast with the change of heart and life wrought through Christ by the blessing of divine grace; φύσει πρός τάς κολασεις ἐπιεικῶς ἔχουσιν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, Josephus , Antiquities 13, 10, 6. (Others (see Meyer) would lay more stress here upon the constitution in which this 'habitual course of evil' has its origin, whether that constitution be regarded (with some) as already developed at birth, or (better) as undeveloped; cf. Aristotle , pol. 1, 2, p. 1252{b}, 32f οἷον ἕκαστον ἐστι τῆς γενέσεως τελεσθεισης, ταύτην φαμέν τήν φύσιν εἶναι ἑκάστου, ὥσπερ ἀνθρώπου, etc.; see the examples in Bonitz's index under the word. Cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31, 6a.)).TGL φύσις.5

    d. the sum of innate properties and powers by which one person differs from others, distinctive native peculiarities, natural characteristics: φύσις θηρίων (the natural strength, ferocity and intractability of beasts (A. V. (every) kind of beasts)), φύσις ἀνθρωπίνῃ (the ability, art, skill, of men, the qualities which are proper to their nature and necessarily emanate from it), James 3:7 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 10); θείας κοινωνοί φύσεως, (the holiness distinctive of the divine nature is specially referred to), 2 Peter 1:4 (Ἀμενωφει... θείας δοκουντι μετεσχηκεναι φύσεως κατά τέ σοφίαν καί πρόγνωσιν τῶν, ἐσομενων, Josephus , contra Apion 1, 26).TGL φύσις.6


    (5450) φυσίωσις, φυσιωσεως, (φυσιόω, which see) (Vulg. inflatio ), a puffing up of soul, loftiness, pride: plural (A. V. swellings) 2 Corinthians 12:20. (Ecclesiastical writings.)TGL φυσίωσις.2


    (5451) φυτεία, φυτείας, (φυτεύω, which see);TGL φυτεία.2

    1. a planting (Xenophon , Theophrastus , Plutarch , Aelian , others).TGL φυτεία.3

    2. thing planted, a plant (equivalent to φύτευμα): Matthew 15:13 (Athen. 5, p. 207 d.; Boeckh, Corpus inscriptions No. 4521 vol. iii., p. 240).TGL φυτεία.4


    (5452) φυτεύω; imperfect ἐφύτευον; 1 aorist ἐφύτευσα; perfect passive participle πεφυτευμενος; 1 aorist passive imperative 2 person singular φυτεύθητι; (φυτόν); from Homer down; the Sept. for נָטַע, several times for שָׁתַל; to plant: absolutely, Luke 17:28; 1 Corinthians 3:6-8; φυτείαν, Matthew 15:13; ἀμπελῶνα, Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1; Luke 20:9; 1 Corinthians 9:7; τί ἐν, with a dative of the place, passive, Luke 13:6; Luke 17:6.TGL φυτεύω.2


    (5453) φύω; 2 aorist passive (ἐφυην) participle φυέν (for which the Attic writings more common use the 2 aorist active ἐφυν with the participle φύς, φυν, in a passive or intransitive sense; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii, p. 321; Krüger , § 40 under the word; Kühner, § 343, under the word; (Veitch , under the word); Winer s Grammar, § 15, under the word; (Buttmann , 68 (60))); (cf. Latinfui, fore , etc.; Curtius , § 417); from Homer down;TGL φύω.2

    1. to beget, bring forth, produce; passive, to be born, to spring up, to grow: Luke 8:6, Luke 8:8;TGL φύω.3

    2. intransitive, to shoot forth, spring up: Hebrews 12:15 (Winer 's Grammar, 252 (237). Compare: ἐκφύω,TGL φύω.4


    (5454) φωλεός, φωλεου, , a lurking-hole, burrow; a lair: of animals, Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58. (Aristotle , Aelian , Plutarch , Geoponica , others.)TGL φωλεός.2


    (5455) φωνέω, φώνω; imperfect 3 person singular ἐφώνει; future φωνήσω; 1 aorist ἐφώνησα; 1 aorist infinitive passive, φωνηθῆναι; (φωνή);TGL φωνέω.2

    1. as from Homer down, intransitive, to sound, emit a sound, to speak: of a cock, to crow, Matthew 26:34, Matthew 26:74; Mark 14:30, Mark 14:68 (L brackets; WH omits the clause (see the latter's Appendix at the passage)), 72; Luke 22:34, Luke 22:60; John 13:38; John 18:27 (of the cries of other animals, Isaiah 38:14; Jeremiah 17:11; Zephaniah 2:14; rarely so in secular authors as (Aristotle (see Liddell and Scott, under I. 2)), Aesop fab. 36 (225 edition Halm)); of men, to cry, cry out, cry aloud, speak with a loud voice: followed by the words uttered, Luke 8:8; with φωνή μεγάλη added ((cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 32, 2 at the end), Mark 1:26 T Tr WH ); Acts 16:28; ἐφώνησε λέγων, Luke 8:54; φωνήσας εἶπεν, Luke 16:24; φωνήσας φωνή μεγάλη... εἶπεν, Luke 23:46; ἐφώνησεν ἐν κραυγή (L T Tr WH φωνή) μεγάλη... λέγων, Revelation 14:18; (φωνήσαντες ἐπυνθάνοντο (WH text ἐπυθοντο), Acts 10:18).TGL φωνέω.3

    2. as from (Homer , Odyssey 24, 535) Sophocles down, transitive,TGL φωνέω.4

    a. to call, call to oneself: τινα — either by one's own voice, Matthew 20:32; Matthew 27:47; Mark 9:35; Mark 10:49 (cf. Buttmann , § 141, 5 at the end); Mark 15:35; John 1:48(John 1:49); John 2:9; John 4:16; John 10:3 L T Tr WH ; John 11:28; John 18:33; Acts 9:41; Acts 10:7; — or through another; to send for, summon: Mark 3:31 R G ; Luke 16:2; John 9:18, John 9:24; John 11:28; εἶπε φωνηθῆναι αὐτῷ τούς κτλ., Luke 19:15; ἐφώνησεν τινα... ἐκ, with a genitive of the place, to call out of (i. e. bid one to quit a place and come to one), John 12:17.TGL φωνέω.5

    b. to invite: Luke 14:12.TGL φωνέω.6

    c. equivalent to to address, accost, call by a name: τινα, followed by a nominative of the title (see Winer s Grammar, § 29, 1; (Buttmann , § 131, 8)), John 13:13. (Compare: ἀναφωνέω, ἐπιφωνέω, προσφωνέω, συμφωνέω.)TGL φωνέω.7


    (5456) φωνή, φωνῆς, (φάω) to shine, make clear (cf. Curtius , § 407; Liddell and Scott, under the word φάω)), from Homer down, Hebrew קול:TGL φωνή.2

    1. a sound, tone: of inanimate things, as of musical instruments, Matthew 24:31 (T omits φωνῆς, WH give it only in marginal reading; cf. Buttmann , § 132, 10); 1 Corinthians 14:7; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 18:22 (Isaiah 18:3; Isaiah 24:8; Sir. 50:16; 1 Macc. 5:31; ὀργάνων, Plato , de rep. 3, p. 397a; συριγγων, Euripides , Tro. 127; ψαλτηρίου καί αὐλοῦ, Plutarch , mor., p. 713 c.); of wind, John 3:8; Acts 2:6; of thunder, Revelation 6:1; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6, cf. Revelation 4:5; Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:18; noise, of a millstone, Revelation 18:22; of a thronging multitude, Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:6; of chariots, Revelation 9:9; of wings, whir (Ezekiel 1:24), ibid.; of waters (Ezekiel 1:24; Ezekiel 4:1-17 Esdr. 6:17 [2 Ezra 6:17]), Revelation 1:15; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6; also with the genitive of a thing implying speech, the sound (A. V. voice): τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ, Luke 1:44; ῤημάτων, Hebrews 12:19; the cry (of men), φωνή μεγάλη, a loud cry, Mark 15:37; the clamor of men making a noisy demand, Luke 23:28, cf. Acts 19:34; absolutely, a cry i. e. wailing, lamentation, Matthew 2:18 (from Jeremiah 38:15 (Jeremiah 31:15)).TGL φωνή.3

    2. a voice, i. e. the sound of uttered words: λαλεῖν φωνάς, Revelation 10:3; those who begin to cry out or call to anyone are said τήν φωνήν αἴρειν, Luke 17:13; πρός τινα, Acts 4:24; φωνήν ἐπαίρειν, Luke 11:27; Acts 2:14; Acts 14:11; Acts 22:22; (φωνῆς... ἐκέκραξα (or ἐκκράζειν), Acts 24:21 (cf. Buttmann , § 143, 11)); φωνή μεγάλη added to verbs: to λέγειν, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 8:13; (ἐν φωνή μεγάλη Revelation 14:7 (Lachmann omits ἐν; Revelation 14:9)); to εἰπεῖν, Luke 8:28; Acts 14:10; to φάναι, Acts 26:24; to αἰνεῖν τόν Θεόν, Luke 19:37; with verbs of crying out, shouting: ἀναβοαν, Matthew 27:46 (R G L text T ); βοᾶν (Matthew 27:46 L marginal reading Tr WH ); Mark 15:34; Acts 8:7; φώνειν, (Mark 1:26 T Tr WH ); Luke 23:46; Acts 16:28; (Revelation 14:18 L T Tr WH ); ἀναφωνεῖν, Luke 1:42 (R G L Tr marginal reading); κηρύσσειν (ἐν φωνή μεγάλη), Revelation 5:2 (Rec. omits ἐν); κραυγάζειν, John 11:43; ἀνακράζειν, Luke 4:33; κράζειν. Matthew 27:50; Mark 1:26 (R G L ); Mark 5:7; Acts 7:57, Acts 7:60; Revelation 6:10; Revelation 7:2, Revelation 7:10; Revelation 10:3; (Revelation 18:2 Rec. ); Revelation 19:17; κράζων ἐν φωνή μεγάλη Revelation 14:15; ἐν ἰσχυρά φωνή, Revelation 18:2 (G L T Tr WH ); μετά φωνῆς μεγάλης δοξάζων τόν Θεόν, Luke 17:15; of declarations from heaven, heard through no speaker is seen: ἰδού φωνή λέγουσα, Matthew 3:17; Matthew 17:5; ἔρχεται φωνή, Mark 9:7 (R G L Tr text); John 12:28; ἐξέρχεται, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 19:5; γίνεται φωνή, Mark 1:11 (T omits; WH brackets ἐγένετο; Mark 9:7 T Tr marginal reading WH ); Luke 3:22; Luke 9:35; John 12:30; (Acts 7:31 (where Rec. adds πρός αὐτόν)); πρός τινα, Acts 10:13, Acts 10:15; (φωνῆς ἐνεχθείσης αὐτῷ, 2 Peter 1:17); ἐγένοντο φωναί μεγάλαι, Revelation 11:15; (ἀπεκρίθη φωνή, Acts 11:9); ἀκούειν φωνήν (cl. Buttmann , §§ 132, 17; 144, 16 α.), Acts 9:4; Acts 22:9,(14); Acts 26:14; 2 Peter 1:18; Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1 (Buttmann , § 129, 8 b.); Revelation 6:6 (here L T Tr WH insert ὡς), Revelation 6:7 (here G omits; Tr brackets φωνήν); Revelation 9:13 (Buttmann , as above); Revelation 10:4,Revelation 10:8; Revelation 11:12 (R G L WH marginal reading); Revelation 12:10; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 18:4; Revelation 19:6; ἀκούειν φωνῆς (Buttmann , § 132, 17; Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 7d.), Acts 9:7; Acts 11:7; Acts 22:7; Rev. (Revelation 11:12 T Tr WH text); Revelation 14:13; Revelation 16:1; Revelation 21:3; βλέπειν τήν φωνήν, i. e. the one who uttered the voice, Revelation 1:12. φωνή with a genitive of the subject: βοῶντος, Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23, all from Isaiah 40:3; (ἀγγέλου ὅταν μέλλῃ σαλπίζειν, Revelation 10:7); φωνή τίνος, the natural (familiar) sound of one's voice, Acts 12:14; Revelation 3:20 (Song of Solomon 5:2); the manner of speaking, as a shepherd's (cry or call to iris sheep), John 10:3-5; to such 'voices' Jesus likens his precepts approved (`heard') by all the good, John 10:16, John 10:27, cf. John 18:37; ἀνθρώπου, human utterance, 2 Peter 2:16; φωνή τίνος, the voice of a clamorous person, Matthew 12:19 (Isaiah 42:2); of one exulting, jubilant, John 3:29; Revelation 18:23; ἀγγέλων πολλῶν, singing the praises of Christ, Revelation 5:11; the sound of the words of Christ as he shall recall the dead to life (the Resurrection-cry), John 5:25, John 5:28; ἀρχαγγέλου, the awakening shout of the archangel, the leader of the angelic host, 1 Thessalonians 4:16; τοῦ Θεοῦ, of God — teaching, admonishing, whether in the O. T. Scriptures or in the gospel, John 5:37; Hebrews 3:7, Hebrews 3:15; Hebrews 4:7; shaking the earth, Hebrews 12:26; the speech, discourse, Θεοῦ... οὐκ ἀνθρώπου, Acts 12:22; (τάς φωνάς τῶν προφητῶν, the predictions (`read every sabbath'), Acts 13:27); ἀλλάξαι τήν φωνήν. (See ἀλλάσσω ), Galatians 4:20. Galatians 4:3. speech, i. e. a language, tongue: 1 Corinthians 14:10 (Josephus , contra Apion 1, 1; (1, 9, 2; 1, 14, 1, etc.); Cebes () tab. 33; Aelian v. h. 12, 48; (Diogenes Laërtius 8, 3; for other examples from Greek writings see Passow , under the word, p. 2377{b}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 3); Genesis 11:1; Deuteronomy 28:49; τῇ Ἑβραΐδι φωνή, 4 Macc. 12:7; τῇ πατρίῳ φωνή, 2 Macc. 7:8, 21, 27). (Synonym: cf. Schmidt , chapter 1 § 27; Trench , § lxxxix.; and see λαλέω , at the beginning.)TGL φωνή.4


    (5457) φῶς, φωτός, τό (contracted from φάος, from φάω to shine), from Homer (who (as well as Pindar ) uses the form φάος) down, Hebrew אור, light (opposed to τό σκότος, σκοτία);TGL φῶς.2

    1. properly,TGL φῶς.3

    a. universally: Θεός εἰπών ἐκ σκότους φῶς λάμψαι, 2 Corinthians 4:6 (Genesis 1:3); λευκά ὡς τό φῶς, Matthew 17:2; νεφέλη φωτός (Griesbach text) i. e. consisting of light, equivalent to φωτεινεη in R L T Tr WH , Matthew 17:5; τό φῶς τοῦ κόσμου, of the sun, John 11:9; τό φῶς οὐκ ἐστιν ἐν αὐτῷ, the light (i. e. illumining power) is not in him, consequently he does not see or distinguish the filings about him, John 11:10; the light emitted by a lamp, Luke 8:16; (Luke 11:33 L Tr text WH ). a heavenly light, such as surrounds angels when they appear on earth: hence, ἄγγελος φωτός, 2 Corinthians 11:14, and illumines the place where they appear, Acts 12:7; a light of this kind shone around Paul when he was converted to Christ, Acts 22:6, (Acts 22:9), Acts 22:11 (Winer 's Grammar, 371 (348)); with the addition of οὐρανόθεν, Acts 26:13; of ἀπό (or ἐκ) τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Acts 9:3.TGL φῶς.4

    b. by metonymy, anything emitting light: a heavenly luminary (or star), plural James 1:17 (see πατήρ , 3 a.); fire, because it is light and gives light: Luke 22:56; θερμαίνεσθαι πρός τό φῶς, Mark 14:54 (1 Macc. 12:29; Xenophon , Hell. 6, 2, 29; Cyril 7, 5, 27); a lamp or torch: plural φῶτα, Acts 16:29 (φῶς ἔχειν, Xenophon , Hell. 5, 1, 8; in plural often in Plutarch ).TGL φῶς.5

    c. light i. e. brightness (Latinsplendor ) (see a. above), ἡλίου, Revelation 22:5; of a lamp, John 5:35 (where it symbolizes his rank, influence, worth, mighty deeds); with the addition of λύχνου, Revelation 18:23 (Jeremiah 25:10); of the divine Shechinah (see δόξα , III. 1), Revelation 21:24 (Psalms 88:16 (Psalms 89:16); Isaiah 60:1, Isaiah 60:19).TGL φῶς.6

    2. φῶς is often used in poetic discourse, in metaphor, and in parable;TGL φῶς.7

    a. The extremely delicate, subtile, pure, brilliant quality of light has led to the use of φῶς as an appellation of God, i. e. as by nature incorporeal, spotless, holy (cf. Westcott, Epistles of St. John, p. 15ff): 1 John 1:5 (Wis. 7:26 where cf. Grimm); he is said εἶναι ἐν τῷ φωτί, in a state of supreme sanctity, 1 John 1:7; φῶς οἴκων ἀπρόσιτον, a figure describing his nature as alike of consummate majesty and inaccessible to human comprehension, 1 Timothy 6:16 (Psalms 103:2 (Psalms 104:2)); used of that heavenly state, consummate and free from every imperfection, to which the true disciples of Christ will be exalted, equivalent to the kingdom of light, Colossians 1:12.TGL φῶς.8

    b. By a figure frequently in the N. T. (cf. in classic Greek τῆς ἀληθείας τό φῶς, Euripides , L T. 1046 etc.; see Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 2), φῶς is used to denote truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity congruous with it (opposed to τό σκότος b., σκοτία, which see): ζωή ἦν τό φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, had the nature of light in men, i. e. became the source of human wisdom, John 1:4; especially the saving truth embodied in Christ and by his love and effort imparted to mankind, Matthew 4:16; John 1:5; John 3:19-21; Acts 26:18, Acts 26:23; 2 Corinthians 6:14; Ephesians 5:13{a} (cf. below); τό φῶς τό ἀληθινόν, 1 John 2:8; τό θαυμαστόν τοῦ Θεοῦ φῶς, 1 Peter 2:9 (Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 36, 2 [ET] cf. 59, 2 [ET]); τό φῶς ὑμῶν, the divine truth with which ye are imbued, Matthew 5:16; ἔχειν τό φῶς τῆς ζωῆς, the light by which the true life is gained, John 8:12; τά ὅπλα (Lachmann marginal reading ἔργα) τοῦ φωτός, Romans 13:12; καρπός τοῦ φωτός, Ephesians 5:9 G L T Tr WH ; ἐν τῷ φωτί περιπατεῖν, to live agreeably to saving wisdom, 1 John 1:7; ἐν τῷ φωτί εἶναι, to be imbued with saving wisdom, μένειν, to continue devoted to it, to persevere in keeping it, 1 John 2:9; οἱ υἱοί τοῦ φωτός (see υἱός , 2, p. 635{a}), Luke 16:8; John 12:36; 1 Thessalonians 5:5; τέκνα φωτός (see τέκνον , c. β., p. 618^a), Ephesians 5:8. by metonymy, φῶς; is used of one in whom wisdom and spiritual purity shine forth, and who imparts the same to others: φῶς τῶν ἐν σκότει, Romans 2:19; (φῶς ἐθνῶν, Acts 13:47); in a pre-eminent sense is Jesus the Messiah called φῶς and τό φῶς: Luke 2:32; John 1:7; John 12:35, John 12:46; τό φῶς τοῦ κόσμου, John 8:12; John 9:5 (τό φῶς τοῦ κόσμου τό δοθέν ἐν ὑμῖν εἰς φωτισμόν παντός ἀνθρώπου, Test xii. Patr. test. Levi § 14); τό φῶς τό ἀληθινόν, John 1:9; by the same name the disciples of Jesus are distinguished, Matthew 5:14; Christians are called φῶς ἐν κυρίῳ, having obtained saving wisdom in communion with Christ, Ephesians 5:8. πᾶν τό φανερούμενον φῶς ἐστιν, everything made manifest by the aid of Christian truth has taken on the nature of light, so that its true character and quality are no longer hidden, Ephesians 5:13{b} (others take φῶς here in an outward or physical sense, and regard the statement as a general truth confirmatory of the assertion made respecting spiritual 'φωτός just before (cf. above)).TGL φῶς.9

    c. By a figure borrowed from daylight φῶς is used of that which is exposed to the view of all: ἐν τῷ φωτί (opposed to ἐν τῇ σκοτία), openly, publicly (ἐν φαει, Pindar Nem. 4, 63), Matthew 10:27; Luke 12:3.TGL φῶς.10

    d. reason, mind; the power of understanding especially moral and spiritual truth: τό φῶς τό ἐν σοι, Matthew 6:23; Luke 11:35. (Synonym: see φέγγος , at the end.)TGL φῶς.11


    (5458) φωστήρ, φωστηρος, (φῶς, φώσκω);TGL φωστήρ.2

    1. that which gives light, an illuminator (Vulg. luminar ): of the stars (luminaries), Philippians 2:15 (Wis. 13:2; Sir. 43:7; Genesis 1:14, Genesis 1:16; Heliodorus 2, 24; (Anthol. Pal. 15, 17; of sun and moon, Test xii. Patr. test. Leviticus 14:1-57); ecclesiastical writings.)TGL φωστήρ.3

    2. light, brightness: Revelation 21:11 (Anthol. 11, 359) (others refer this to 1; cf. Trench , § xlvi.).TGL φωστήρ.4


    (5459) φωσφόρος, φωσφορον (φῶς and φέρω), light-bringing, giving light (Aristophanes , Euripides , Plato , Plutarch , others); as a substantive, φωσφόρος (LatinLucifer ), the planet Venus, the morning-star, day-star (Plato , Tim. Locr., p. 96 e.; Plutarch , others): 2 Peter 1:19, on the meaning of this passage, see λύχνος .TGL φωσφόρος.2


    (5460) φωτεινός (WH φωτινος, see Iota), φωτεινή, φωτεινόν (φῶς), light, i. e. composed of light, of a bright character: νεφέλη, Matthew 17:5 (not Griesbach); οἱ ὀφθαλμοί κυρίου μυριοπλασίως ἡλίου φωτεινότεροι, Sir. 23:19. full of light, well lighted, opposed to σκοτεινός, Matthew 6:22; Luke 11:34, Luke 11:36, (τά σκοτεινά καί τά φωτεινα σώματα, Xenophon , mem. 3, 10, 1).TGL φωτεινός.2


    (5461) φωτίζω; future φωτίσω (Revelation 22:5 L WH ; 1 Corinthians 4:5), Attic φωτιῶ (Revelation 22:5 G T Tr ); 1 aorist ἐφωτισα; perfect passive participle πεφωτισμενος; 1 aorist passive ἐφοτίσθην;TGL φωτίζω.2

    1. intransitive, to give light, to shine (Aristotle , Theophrastus , Plutarch , others; the Sept. for אור, Numbers 8:2, etc.): ἐπί τινα, Revelation 22:5 (Rom. WH brackets ἐπί).TGL φωτίζω.3

    2. transitive,TGL φωτίζω.4

    a. properly, to enlighten, light up, illumine: τινα, Luke 11:36: τήν πόλιν, Revelation 21:23 (ἀκτισι τόν κόσμον, of the sun, Diodorus 3, 48; the Sept. for הֵאִיר); γῆ ἐφωτίσθη ἐκ τῆς δόξης (A. V. was lightened) shone with his glory, Revelation 18:1.TGL φωτίζω.5

    b. to bring to light, render evident: τά κρυπτά τοῦ σκότους, 1 Corinthians 4:5; (Ephesians 3:9 according to the reading of T L brackets WH text (but see c.)) (τήν αἵρεσιν τίνος, the preference, opinion, of one, Polybius 23, 3, 10; τήν ἀλήθειαν, Epictetus diss. 1, 4, 31; πεφωτισμενων τῶν πραγματον ὑπό τῆς ἀληθείας, Lucian , cal. non tem. cred. 32); to cause something to exist and thus to come to light and become clear to all: ζωήν καί ἀφθαρσίαν διά τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, opposed to καταργῆσαι τόν θάνατον, 2 Timothy 1:10.TGL φωτίζω.6

    c. by a use only Biblical and ecclesiastical, to enlighten spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge: τινα, John 1:9; with a saving knowledge of the gospel: hence, φωτισθέντες of those who have been made Christians, Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32; followed by an indirect question Ephesians 3:9 (see b. above) (Sir. 45:17; for הֵאִיר, Psalm 118:130 (Psalms 119:130; for הורָה, to instruct, inform, teach, Judges 13:8, Alex. ; 2 Kings 12:2; φωτιοῦσιν αὐτούς τό κρίμα τοῦ Θεοῦ τῆς γῆς, 2 Kings 17:27 (cf. 1 Kings 17:28; others)); to give understanding to: πεφωτίσμενοι τούς ὀφθαλμούς τῆς καρδίας (Rec. διανοίας), as respects the eyes of your soul, Ephesians 1:18 (Buttmann , § 145, 6); ((cf. Sir. 31:20 (Sir. 34:20), etc.)).TGL φωτίζω.7


    (5462) φωτισμός, φωτισμου, (φωτίζω);TGL φωτισμός.2

    a. the act of enlightening, illumination: πρός φωτισμόν τῆς γνώσεως, equivalent to πρός τό φωτίζειν τήν γνῶσιν, that by teaching we may bring to light etc. 2 Corinthians 4:6 (on which passage, see πρόσωπον , 1 a. sub at the end, p. 551{b} top).TGL φωτισμός.3

    b. brightness, bright light (ἐξ ἡλίου, Sextus Empiricus , p. 522, 9; ἀπό σελήνης, Plutarch (de fac. in orb. lun. § 16, 13), p. 929 d. (ibid., § 18, 4, p. 931 a.); the Sept. for אור, Psalms 26:1 (Psalms 27:1); Psalms 43:4 (Psalms 44:4); Psalms 77:14 (Psalms 78:14); Job 3:9; for מָאור, Psalms 89:8 (Psalms 90:8)): εἰς τό μή αὐγάσαι (καταυγασαι, L marginal reading Tr marginal reading) τόν φωτισμόν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, that the brightness of the gospel might not shine forth (R. V. dawn (upon them)), i. e. (dropping the figure) that the enlightening truth of the gospel might not be manifest or be apprehended, 2 Corinthians 4:4.TGL φωτισμός.4

    Larger font
    Smaller font