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    ἐπικαλέω — ἔργον


    (1941) ἐπικαλέω, ἐπικαλῶ: 1 aorist ἐπεκαλεσα; (passive and middle, present ἐπικαλοῦμαι); perfect passive ἐπικέκλημαι; pluperfect 3 person singular ἐπεκέκλητο, and with neglect of augment (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 12, 5; Buttmann , 33 (29)) ἐπικεκλητο (Acts 26:32 Lachmann); 1 aorist passive ἐπεκλήθην; future middle ἐπικαλέσομαι; 1 aorist middle ἐπεκαλεσάμην; the Sept. very often for קָרָא;TGL ἐπικαλέω.2

    1. to put a name upon, to surname: τινα (Xenophon , Plato , others), Matthew 10:25 G T Tr WH (Rec. ἐκάλεσαν); passive ἐπικαλούμενος, he who is surnamed, Luke 22:3 R G L ; Acts 10:18; Acts 11:13; Acts 12:12; Acts 15:22 R G ; also ὅς ἐπικαλεῖται, Acts 10:5, Acts 10:32; ἐπικληθείς, Matthew 10:3 (R G ); Acts 4:36; Acts 12:25; equivalent to ὅς ἐπεκλήθη, Acts 1:23. Passive with the force of a middle (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 38, 3), to permit oneself to be surnamed: Hebrews 11:16; middle with τινα: 1 Peter 1:17 εἰ πατέρα ἐπικαλεῖσθε τόν etc. i. e. if ye call (for yourselves) on him as father, i. e. if ye surname him your father.TGL ἐπικαλέω.3

    2. ἐπικαλεῖται τό ὄνομα τίνος ἐπί τινα, after the Hebrew פ עַל פ... שֵׁם נִקְרָא..., "the name of one is named upon some one, i. e. he is called by his name or declared to be dedicated to him" (cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus iii., p. 1232a): Acts 15:17 from Amos 9:12 (the name referred to is the people of God); James 2:7 (the name οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ).TGL ἐπικαλέω.4

    3. τίνι with the accusative of the object; properly, to call something to one (cf. English to cry out upon (or against) one); "to charge something to one as a crime or reproach; to summon one on any charge, prosecute one for a crime; to blame one for, accuse one of" (Aristophanes pax 663; Thucydides 2, 27; 3, 36; Plato , legg. 6, 761 e.; 7, 809 e.; Dio Cass. 36, 28; 40, 41 and often in the orators (cf. under the word κατηγορέω)): εἰ τῷ οἰκοδεσπότῃ Βηλζεβουλ ἐπεκάλεσαν (i. e. accused of commerce with Beelzebul, of receiving his help, cf. Matthew 9:34; Matthew 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15), πόσῳ μᾶλλον τοῖς ὀικιακοις αὐτοῦ, Matthew 10:25 L WH marginal reading after Vat. (see 1 above), a reading defended by Rettig in the Studien und Kritiken for 1838, p. 477ff and by Alexander Buttmann (1873) in the same journal for 1860, p. 343, and also in his N. T. Gram. 151 (132); (also by Weiss in Meyer edition 7 at the passage). But this expression (Beelzebul for the help of Beelzebul) is too hard not to be suggestive of the emendation of some ignorant scribe, who took offence because (with the exception of this passage) the enemies of Jesus are nowhere in the Gospels said to have called him by the name of Beelzebul.TGL ἐπικαλέω.5

    4. to call upon (like German anrufen), to invoke; middle, to call upon for oneself, in one's behalf: anyone as a helper, Acts 7:59, where supply τόν κύριον Ἰησοῦν (βοηθόν, Plato , Euthyd., p. 297 c.; Diodorus 5, 79); τινα μάρτυρα, as my witness, 2 Corinthians 1:23 (Plato , legg. 2, 664 c.); as a judge, i. e. to appeal to one, make appeal unto: Καίσαρα, Acts 25:11; Acts 26:32; Acts 28:19; (τόν Σεβαστόν, Acts 25:25); followed by the infinitive passive Acts 25:21 (to be reserved).TGL ἐπικαλέω.6

    5. Hebraistically (like יְהוָה בְּשֵׁם קָרָא to call upon by pronouncing the name of Jehovah, Genesis 4:26; Genesis 12:8; 2 Kings 5:11, etc.; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 1231{b} (or his Hebrew Lexicon, under the word קָרָא); an expression finding its explanation in the fact that prayers addressed to God ordinarily began with an invocation of the divine name: Psalms 3:2; Psalms 6:2; Psalms 7:2, etc.) ἐπικαλοῦμαι τό ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου, I call upon (on my behalf) the name of the Lord, i. e. to invoke, adore, worship, the Lord, i. e. Christ: Acts 2:21 (from Joel 2:32 (Joel 3:5)); Acts 9:14,Acts 9:21; Acts 22:16; Romans 10:13; 1 Corinthians 1:2; τόν κύριον, Romans 10:12; 2 Timothy 2:22; (often in Greek writings ἐπικαλεῖσθαι τούς Θεούς, as Xenophon , Cyril 7, 1, 35; Plato , Tim., p. 27 c.; Polybius 15, 1, 13).TGL ἐπικαλέω.7


    (1942) ἐπικάλυμμα, -τος, τό, (ἐπικαλύπτω), a covering, veil; properly, in the Sept. : Exodus 26:14; Exodus 36:19 Complutensian [cf. 39:21 Tdf. ]; metaphorically, equivalent to a pretext, cloak: τῆς κακίας, 1 Peter 2:16 (πλοῦτος δὲ πολλῶν ἐπικαλυμμ’ ἐστὶ κακῶν, Menander quoted in Stobaeus, flor. 91, 19 [iii. 191, Gaisf. edition]; "quaerentes libidinibus suis patrocinium et velamentum, " Seneca, vita beata 12).TGL ἐπικάλυμμα.2


    (1943) ἐπικαλύπτω: [1 aorist ἐπεκαλύφθην]; to cover over: αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἐπικαλύπτονται, are covered over so as not to come to view, i. e. are pardoned, Romans 4:7 from Psalms 31:1 (Psalms 32:1).TGL ἐπικαλύπτω.2


    (1944) ἐπικατάρατος, -ον, (ἐπικαταράομαι to imprecate curses upon), only in biblical and ecclesiastical use, accursed, execrable, exposed to divine vengeance, lying under God's curse: John 7:49 R G; Galatians 3:10 (Deuteronomy 27:26); Galatians 3:13 (Deuteronomy 21:23); (Wis. 3:12 (Wisdom 3:13); Wisdom 14:8; 4 Macc. 2:19; in the Sept. often for אָרוּר).TGL ἐπικατάρατος.2

    Related entry: ἐπάρατος, -ον, (ἐπαράομαι [to call down curses upon]), accursed: John 7:49 L T Tr WH. (Thucydides, Plato, Aeschines, Dio Cassius, others.)TGL ἐπικατάρατος.3


    (1945) ἐπίκειμαι; imperfect ἐπεκειμην; to lie upon or over, rest upon, be laid or placed upon;TGL ἐπίκειμαι.2

    a. properly: ἐπί τινι, John 11:38; namely, on the burning coals, John 21:9.TGL ἐπίκειμαι.3

    b. figuratively,TGL ἐπίκειμαι.4

    α. of things: of the pressure of a violent tempest, χειμῶνος ἐπικειμένου, Acts 27:20 (Plutarch, Timol. 28, 7); ἀνάγκη μοι ἐπίκειται, is laid upon me, 1 Corinthians 9:16 (Homer, Iliad 6, 458); ἐπικείμενα, of observances imposed on a man by law, Hebrews 9:10 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 635 (589)].TGL ἐπίκειμαι.5

    β. of men; to press upon, to be urgent: with the dative of person Luke 5:1; ἐπέκειντο αἰτούμενοι, Luke 23:23 (πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐπέκειτο ἀξιῶν, Josephus, Antiquities 18, 6, 6; μᾶλλον ἐπέκειντο βλασφημοῦντες, 20, 5, 3).TGL ἐπίκειμαι.6


    (1946) Ἐπικούρειος [-ριος T WH; see Ι, ι], -ου, , Epicurean, belonging to the sect of Epicurus , the philosopher: Acts 17:18.TGL Ἐπικούρειος.2


    (1947) ἐπικουρία, -ας, , (ἐπικουρέω to aid), aid, succor: Acts 26:22. (Wis. 13:18; from Thucydides and Euripides down.)TGL ἐπικουρία.2


    (1948) ἐπικρινω: 1 aorist ἐπέκρινα; to adjudge, approve by one's decision, decree, give sentence: followed by the accusative with an infinitive, Luke 23:24. (Plato, Demosthenes, Plutarch, Herodian, others.)TGL ἐπικρίνω.2


    (1949) ἐπιλαμβάνω; 2 aorist middle ἐπελαβόμην; to take in addition (cf. ἐπί , D. 4), to take, lay hold of, take possession of, overtake, attain to. In the Bible only in the middle; the Sept. for אָחַז and הֶחֱזִיק;TGL ἐπιλαμβάνομαι.2

    a. properly, to lay hold of or to seize upon anything with the hands (German sichan etwas anhalten ): τῶν ἀφλαστων νηός, Herodotus 6, 114; hence, universally, to take hold of, lag hold of: with the genitive of person, Matthew 14:31; Luke 9:47. (Tr WH accusative); (Luke 23:26 R G ); Acts 17:19; Acts 21:30, Acts 21:33; with the accusative of person, Luke 23:26 L T Tr WH , but in opposition see Meyer; for where the participle ἐπιλαβόμενος is in this sense joined with an accusative, the accusative, by the σχῆμα ἀπό κοίνου, depends also upon the accompanying finite verb (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 9; (so Winer 's Grammar, (edited by Lünem.) 202 (190))): Acts 9:27; Acts 16:19; Acts 18:17, cf. Luke 14:4. with the genitive of a thing: τῆς χειρός τίνος, Mark 8:23; Acts 23:19; of a leader, and thus metaphorically, of God, Hebrews 8:9 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 571 (531); Buttmann , 316 (271)); with the genitive of a person and of a thing: ἐπιλαμβάνειν τίνος λόγου, ῤήματος, to take anyone in his speech, i. e. to lay hold of something said by him which can be turned against him, Luke 20:20 (Tr λόγον), 26 (WH Tr marginal reading τοῦ for αὐτοῦ); ἐπιλαμβάνειν τῆς αἰωνίου (others, ὄντως) ζωῆς, to seize upon, lay hold of, i. e. to struggle to obtain eternal life, 1 Timothy 6:12, 1 Timothy 6:19 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 312 (293)).TGL ἐπιλαμβάνομαι.3

    b. by a metaphor drawn from laying hold of another to rescue him from peril, to help, to succor (cf. German sicheines annehmen ): τίνος, Hebrews 2:16; in this sense used besides only in Sir. 4:11 and Schol. ad Aeschylus Pers. 739. In Appian . bel. civ. 4, 96 the active is thus used with the dative: ἡμῖν τό δαιμόνιον ἐπιλαμβανει.TGL ἐπιλαμβάνομαι.4


    (1950) ἐπιλανθάνομαι; perfect passive ἐπιλέλησμαι; 2 aorist middle ἐπελαθόμην; Sept. often for שָׁכַח; to forget: followed by the infinitive, Matthew 16:5; Mark 8:14; followed by an indirect question. James 1:24; in the sense of neglecting, no longer caring for: with the genitive, Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 13:2, Hebrews 13:16; with the accusative (cf. Winers Grammar § 30, 10 c.; Matthiae § 347 Anm. 2, ii., p. 820f), Philippians 3:13 (Philippians 3:14); with a passive signification (Isaiah 23:16; Sir. 3:14; Sir. 32:9 (Sir. 35:9); Wis. 2:4, etc. [cf. Buttmann, 52 (46)]): ἐπιλελησμένος forgotten, given over to oblivion, i. e. uncared for, ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ before God i. e. by God (Sir. 23:14), Luke 12:6. [(From Homer on.)]TGL ἐπιλανθάνομαι.2


    (1951) ἐπιλέγω: [present passive participle ἐπιλεγόμενος]; 1 aorist middle participle ἐπιλεξάμενος;TGL ἐπιλέγω.2

    1. to say besides [cf. ἐπί , D. 4] (Herodotus, and others.); to surname (Plato, legg. 3, p. 700 b.): in passive John 5:2 [Tdf. τό λεγ.], unless the meaning to name (put a name upon) be preferred here; cf. ἐπονομάζω .TGL ἐπιλέγω.3

    2. to choose for (Herodotus and following; Sept. ); middle to choose for oneself: Acts 15:40 (2 Samuel 10:9; Herodotus 3, 157; Thucydides 7, 19; Diodorus 3, 73 (74); 14, 12; Josephus, Antiquities 4, 2, 4, and others).TGL ἐπιλέγω.4


    (1952) ἐπιλείπω: future ἐπιλειψω; to fail, not to suffice for (any purpose, for the attainment of an end): τινὰ χρόνος, time fails one, Hebrews 11:32 and many like examples in Greek writings from Demosthenes down; see Bleek, Brief an d. Hebrews 2:2, p. 818.TGL ἐπιλείπω.2


    (1953) ἐπιλησμονή, -ῆς, , (ἐπιλήσμων forgetful [Winers Grammar, 93 (89)]), forgetfulness: ἀκροατὴς ἐπιλησμονῆς, a forgetful hearer [cf. Winers Grammar § 34, 3b.; Buttmann, 161 (140)], James 1:25. (Sir. 11:27 (25).)TGL ἐπιλησμονή.2


    (1954) ἐπίλοιπος, -ον, (λοιπός), remaining besides, left over, [cf. ἐπί , D. 4]: 1 Peter 4:2. (Sept. ; Greek writings from Herodotus down.)TGL ἐπίλοιπος.2


    (1955) ἐπίλυσις, -εως, , (ἐπιλύω, which see), a loosening, unloosing (German Auflösung); metaphorically, interpretation: 2 Peter 1:20, on which passage see γίνομαι , 5 e. α. (Genesis 40:8 Aq. ; Heliodorus 1, 18; but not Philo, vita contempl. § 10, where ἐπιδείξεως was long ago restored.)TGL ἐπίλυσις.2


    (1956) ἐπιλύω: imperfect ἐπέλυον; 1 future passive ἐπιλυθήσομαι;TGL ἐπιλύω.2

    a. properly, to unloose, untie (German auflösen) anything knotted or bound or sealed up; (Xenophon, Theocritus, Herodian).TGL ἐπιλύω.3

    b. to clear (a controversy), to decide, settle: Acts 19:39; to explain (what is obscure and hard to understand): Mark 4:34 (as in Genesis 41:12 variant; Philo, vita contempl. § 10; de agricult. § 3; Sextus Empiricus, 2, 246; γρίφους, Athen. 10, p. 449 e.; also in middle, Athen. 10, p. 450 f.; Josephus, Antiquities 8, 6, 5, and often by the Scholiasts).TGL ἐπιλύω.4


    (1957) ἐπιμαρτυρέω, -ῶ; to bear witness to, establish by testimony: followed by the accusative with an infinitive, 1 Peter 5:12. (Plato, Josephus, Plutarch, Lucian, others) [Compare: συνεπιμαρτυρέω.]TGL ἐπιμαρτυρέω.2


    (1958) ἐπιμέλεια, -ας, , (ἐπιμελής careful), care, attention: Acts 27:3. (Proverbs 3:8; 1 Macc. 16:14; 2 Macc. 11:23; very common in Greek prose writing, not used in the poets.)TGL ἐπιμέλεια.2


    (1959) ἐπιμελέομαι, -οῦμαι, and ἐπιμέλομαι: future ἐπιμελήσομαι; 1 aorist ἐπεμελήθην; with the genitive of the object, to take care of a person or thing (ἐπί denoting direction of the mind toward the object cared for [cf. ἐπί , D. 2]): Luke 10:34; 1 Timothy 3:5. (Genesis 44:21; 1 Macc. 11:37; 1 Esdr. 6:26; used by Greek writers especially of prose from Herodotus down.)TGL ἐπιμελέομαι.2


    (1960) ἐπιμελῶς, adverb, diligently, carefully: Luke 15:8.TGL ἐπιμελῶς.2


    (1961) ἐπιμένω; (imperfect ἐπέμενον); future ἐπιμένω; 1 aorist ἐπέμεινα; to stay at or with; to tarry still; still to abide, to continue, remain;TGL ἐπιμένω.2

    a. properly, of tarrying in a place: ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, 1 Corinthians 16:8; ἐν τῇ σαρκί, to live still longer on earth Philippians 1:24 (G T WH omit ἐν); αὐτοῦ, there, Acts 15:34 (Rec. ); Acts 21:4 (Lachmann αὐτοῖς); with the dative of thing: τῇ σαρκί, to abide as it were a captive to life on earth, Philippians 1:24 G T WH ; ἐπί τίνι, with one, Acts 28:14 (L T Tr WH παῥ); πρός τινα, with one, 1 Corinthians 16:7; Galatians 1:18; with specification of time how long: Acts 10:48; Acts 21:4, Acts 21:10; Acts 28:12, Acts 28:14; 1 Corinthians 16:7.TGL ἐπιμένω.3

    b. tropically, to persevere, continue; with the dative of the thing continued in (cf. Winer 's De verb. comp. etc. Part ii., p. 10f): τῇ ἁμαρτία, Romans 6:1; τῇ ἀπιστία, Romans 11:23; τῇ πίστει, Colossians 1:23; in the work of teaching, 1 Timothy 4:16 (τῷ μή ἀδικεῖν, Xenophon , oec. 14, 7; τῇ μνηστεία, Aelian v. h. 10, 15); with the dative of the blessing for which one keeps himself fit: τῇ χάριτι, Acts 13:43 Rec. ; τῇ χρηστότητι, Romans 11:22; with a participle denoting the action persisted in: John 8:7 Rec. ; Acts 12:16; cf. Buttmann , 299f (257); (Winer 's Grammar, § 54, 4).TGL ἐπιμένω.4


    (1962) ἐπινεύω: 1 aorist ἐπένευσα; from Homer down; to nod to; tropically, (by a nod) to express approval, to assent: Acts 18:20, as often in Greek writings.TGL ἐπινεύω.2


    (1963) ἐπίνοια, -ας, , (ἐπινοέω to think on, devise), thought, purpose: Acts 8:22. (Jeremiah 20:10; Wis. 6:17, etc.; often in Greek writings from Sophocles and Thucydides down.)TGL ἐπίνοια.2


    (1964) ἐπιορκέω, -ῶ: future ἐπιορκήσω, cf. Krüger § 40, under the word, and § 39, 12, 4; [Veitch, under the word; Buttmann, 53 (46)]; (ἐπίορκος, which see); to swear falsely, forswear oneself: Matthew 5:33. (Wis. 14:28; 1 Esdr. 1:46; by Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ἐπιορκέω.2


    (1965) ἐπίορκος, -ον, (from ἐπί [which see D. 7] against, and ὅρκος); [masculine as a substantive] a false swearer, a perjurer: 1 Timothy 1:10. (From Homer down.)TGL ἐπίορκος.2


    (1966) ἐπιοῦσα, see ἔπειμι .TGL ἔπειμι.2

    Related entry: ἔπειμι; (ἐπί and εἶμι to go); to come upon, approach; of time, to come on, be at hand; participle ἐπιών, -οῦσα, -όν, next, following: τῇ ἐπιούσῃ, namely ἡμέρᾳ, on the following day, Acts 16:11; Acts 20:15; Acts 21:18, (Polybius 2, 25, 11; 5, 13, 10; Josephus antiquities 3, 1, 6; [Proverbs 27:1]; etc.); with ἡμέρᾳ added (as in the earlier writings from Herodotus down), Acts 7:26; τῇ ἐπιούσῃ νυκτί Acts 23:11. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 464.TGL ἔπειμι.3


    (1967) ἐπιούσιος, ἐπιούσιον, a word found only in Matthew 6:11 and Luke 11:3, in the phrase ἄρτος ἐπιούσιος ([Peshitta] Syriac oNQNSd 4MXL [] the bread of our necessity, i. e. necessary for us (but the Curetonian (earlier) Syriac reads )NYM) [] continual; cf. Lightfoot as below, I. 3, p. 214ff; Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, p. 139f); Itala (Old Latin)panis quotidianus ). Origen testifies (de orat. 27) that the word was not in use in ordinary speech, and accordingly seems to have been coined by the Evangelists themselves. Many commentators, as Beza, Kuinoel, Tholuck, Ewald, Bleek, Keim , Cremer , following Origen , Jerome (who in Matt. only translates by the barbarous phrasepanis supersubstantialis ), Theophylact , Euthymius Zigabenus , explain the word by bread for sustenance, which serves to sustain life, deriving the word from οὐσία, after the analogy of ἐξουσιος, ἐνουσιος. But οὐσία very rarely, and only in philosophic language, is equivalent to ὕπαρξις, as in Plato , Theact., p. 185 c. (app. to τό μή εἶναι), Aristotle , de part. anim. i. 1 ( γάρ γένεσις ἕνεκα τῆς οὐσίας ἐστιν, ἀλλ' οὐχ οὐσία ἕνεκα τῆς γενέσεως; for other examples see Bonitz's Index to Aristotle , p. 544), and generally denotes either essence, real nature, or substance, property, resources. On this account Leo Meyer (in Kuhn, Zeitschr. f. vergleich. Sprachkunde, vii., pp. 401-430), Kamphausen (Gebet des Herrn, pp. 86-102), with whom Keim (ii. 278f. (English translation, iii. 340)), Weiss (Matthew, the passage cited), Delitzsch (Zeitschr. f. d. luth. Theol. 1876, p. 402), agree, prefer to derive the word from ἐπειναι (and in particular from the participle ἐπων, ἐπουσιος for ἐποντιος, see below) to be present, and to understand it bread which is ready at hand or suffices, so that Christ is conjectured to have said in Chaldean דְּחֻקָּנָא לַחְמָא (cf. חֻקִּי לֶחֶם my allowance of bread, Proverbs 30:8) or something of the sort. But this opinion, like the preceding, encounters the great objection (to mention no other) that, although the iota in ἐπί is retained before a vowel in certain words (as ἐπίορκος, ἐπιορκέω, ἐπιόσσομαι, etc. (cf. Lightfoot , as below, I. § 1)), yet in ἐπειναι and words derived from it, ἐπουσια, ἐπουσιωδης, it is always elided. Therefore much more correctly do Grotius, Scaliger, Wetstein , Fischer (De vitiis lexamples etc., p. 306ff), Valckenaer, Fritzsche (on Matthew, p. 267ff), Winer (97 (92)), Bretschneider, Wahl, Meyer (Lightfoot (Revision etc., Appendix)) and others, comparing the words ἑκούσιος, ἐθελούσιος, γερούσιος (from ἑκών, ἐθελων, γέρων, for ἑκοντιος, ἐθελοντιος, γεροντιος, cf. Kühner, 1: § 63, 3 and § 334, 1 Anm. 2), conjecture that the adjective ἐπιούσιος is formed from ἐπιών, ἐπιοῦσα, with reference to the familiar expression ἐπιοῦσα (see ἄπειμι ), and ἄρτος ἐπιούσιος is equivalent to ἄρτος τῆς ἐπιουσης ἡμέρας, food for (i. e. necessary or sufficient for) the morrow. Thus, ἐπιούσιον, and σήμερον, admirably answer to each other, and that state of mind is portrayed which, piously contented with food sufficing from one day to the next, in praying to God for sustenance does not go beyond the absolute necessity of the nearest future. This explanation is also recommended by the fact that in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, as Jerome testifies, the word ἐπιούσιος was represented by the Aramaic מְחַר, quod dicitur crastinus; hence, it would seem that Christ himself used the Chaldaic expression לִמְחַר דִי לַחְמָא. Nor is the prayer, so understood, at variance with the mind of Christ as expressed in Matthew 6:34, but on the contrary harmonizes with it finely; for his hearers are bidden to ask of God, in order that they may themselves be relieved of anxiety for the morrow. (See Lightfoot , as above, pp. 195-234; McClellan, The New Testament, etc., pp. 632-647; Tholuck, Bergpredigt, Matthew, the passage cited, for earlier references.)TGL ἐπιούσιος.2


    (1968) ἐπιπίπτω; 2 aorist ἐπέπεσον, 3 person plural ἐπέπεσαν, Romans 15:3 L T Tr WH [cf. ἀπέρχομαι at the beginning]; perfect participle ἐπιπεπτωκώς; [see πίπτω ]; Sept. for נָפַל; to fall upon; to rush or press upon;TGL ἐπιπίπτω.2

    a. properly: τινί, upon one, Mark 3:10; to lie upon one, Acts 20:10; ἐπὶ τὸν τράχηλόν τινος, to fall into one's embrace, Luke 15:20; Acts 20:37, (Genesis 46:29; Tobit 11:8, 12; 3 Macc. 5:49); to fall back upon, ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθός τινος, John 13:25 R G T.TGL ἐπιπίπτω.3

    b. metaphorically, ἐπί τινα, to fall upon one, i. e. to seize, take possession of him: φόβος, Luke 1:12; Acts 19:17 [L Tr ἔπεσεν]; Revelation 11:11 L T Tr WH; ἔκστασις, Acts 10:10 Rec. ; ἀχλύς, Acts 13:11 [R G]. used also of the Holy Spirit, in its inspiration and impulse: ἐπί τινι, Acts 8:16; ἐπί τινα, Acts 10:44 [Lachmann ἔπεσε]; Acts 11:15 (Ezekiel 11:5); of reproaches cast upon one: Romans 15:3. [Noteworthy is the absolutely use in Acts 23:7 WH marginal reading ἐπέπεσεν (others, ἐγένετο) στάσις. (From Herodotus down.)]TGL ἐπιπίπτω.4


    (1969) ἐπιπλήσσω: 1 aorist ἐπέπληξα;TGL ἐπιπλήσσω.2

    a. properly, to strike upon, beat upon: Homer, Iliad 10, 500.TGL ἐπιπλήσσω.3

    b. tropically, to chastise with words, to chide, upbraid, rebuke: 1 Timothy 5:1. (Homer, Iliad 12, 211; Xenophon, Plato, Polybius, others.)TGL ἐπιπλήσσω.4


    (1970) *For 1970 see Strong's entry Strong's 1909 and Strong's 4155.TGL ἐπιπνίγω.2


    (1971) ἐπιποθέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἐπεπόθησα; properly, πόθον ἔχω ἐπί τι [i. e. ἐπί is directive, not intensive; cf. ἐπί , D. 2] (cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i., p. 30f); to long for, desire: followed by the infinitive 2 Corinthians 5:2; ἰδεῖν τινα, Romans 1:11; 1 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:4; Philippians 2:26 L brackets WH text brackets; τί, 1 Peter 2:2 (ἐπί τι, Psalms 41:2 (Psalms 42:2)); τινά, to be possessed with a desire for, long for, [Winer's Grammar § 30, 10 b.], Philippians 2:26 R G T Tr WH marginal reading; to pursue with love, to long after: 2 Corinthians 9:14; Philippians 1:8, (τὰς ἐντολὰς θεοῦ, Psalm 118:131 (Psalms 119:131)); absolute to lust [i. e. harbor forbidden desire]: James 4:5, on which passage see φθόνος . (Herodotus, Plato, Diodorus, Plutarch, Lucian.)TGL ἐπιποθέω.2


    (1972) ἐπιπόθησις, -εως, , longing: 2 Corinthians 7:7, 2 Corinthians 7:11. (Ezekiel 23:11 Aq. ; Clement of Alexandria, strom. 4, 21, 131, p. 527 a.)TGL ἐπιπόθησις.2


    (1973) ἐπιπόθητος, -ον, longed for: Philippians 4:1. ([Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 65, 1; the Epistle of Barnabas 1, 3]; Appendix Hisp. 43; Eustathius; [cf. Winer's Grammar § 34, 3].)TGL ἐπιπόθητος.2


    (1974) ἐπιποθία [WH -πόθεια, see under the word εἰ , ], -ας, , longing: Romans 15:23; ἅπαξ λεγόμ. [On the passage cf. Buttmann, 294 (252).]TGL ἐπιποθία.2


    (1975) ἐπιπορεύομαι; to go or journey to: πρός τινα, Luke 8:4; (followed by ἐπί with the accusative Epistle of Jeremiah 61 (62); Polybius 4, 9, 2; frequently used by Polybius with the simple accusative of place: both to go to, traverse regions, cities (so τὴν γῆν, Ezekiel 39:14 for עָבַר; τὰς δυνάμεις, 3 Macc. 1:4), and also to make a hostile inroad, overrun, march over).TGL ἐπιπορεύομαι.2


    (1976) ἐπιρράπτω (T Tr WH ἐπιράπτω, see Ρ, ρ); (ῤάπτω to sew); to sew upon, sew to: ἐπί τινι [R G; others τινα], Mark 2:21.TGL ἐπιράπτω.2


    (1977) ἐπιρρίπτω (L T Tr WH ἐπιρίπτω, see Ρ, ρ): 1 aorist ἐπέρριψα; (ῤίπτω); to throw upon, place upon: τὶ ἐπί τι, Luke 19:35; (Vulg. projicere , to throw away, throw off): τὴν μέριμναν ἐπὶ θεόν, i. e. to cast upon, give up to, God, 1 Peter 5:7, from Psalm 54:23 [Psalms 55:22]. [Occasionally from Homer, Odyssey 5, 310 down.]TGL ἐπιρίπτω.2


    (1978) ἐπίσημος, -ον, (σῆμα a sign, mark);TGL ἐπίσημος.2

    1. properly, having a mark on it, marked, stamped, coined: ἀργύριον, χρυσός (Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Josephus).TGL ἐπίσημος.3

    2. tropically, marked (Latin insignis ), both in a good and bad sense; in a good sense, of note, illustrious: Romans 16:7 (Herodotus and following); in a bad sense, notorious, infamous: Matthew 27:16 (Euripides, Or. 249; Josephus, Antiquities 5, 7, 1; Plutarch, Fab. Max. 14; others).TGL ἐπίσημος.4


    (1979) ἐπισιτισμός, -οῦ, , (ἐπισιτίζομαι to provision oneself);TGL ἐπισιτισμός.2

    1. a foraging, providing food, (Xenophon, Plutarch, others).TGL ἐπισιτισμός.3

    2. supplies, provisions, food [A. V. victuals]: Luke 9:12 (Sept. , Xenophon, Demosthenes, Herodian, others).TGL ἐπισιτισμός.4


    (1980) ἐπισκέπτομαι; future 3 person singular ἐπισκέψεται, Luke 1:78 Tr marginal reading WH ; 1 aorist ἐπεσκεψάμην; from Herodotus down; the Sept. often for פָּקַד; to look upon or after, to inspect, examine with the eyes;TGL ἐπισκέπτομαι.2

    a. τινα, in order to see how he is, i. e. to visit, go to see one: Acts 7:23; Acts 15:36, (Judges 15:1); the poor and afflicted, James 1:27; the sick, Matthew 25:36, Matthew 25:43, (Sir. 7:35; Xenophon , mem. 3, 11, 10; Plutarch , mor., p. 129 c. (de sanirate praecept. 15 at the beginning); Lucian , philops. 6, and in medical writers).TGL ἐπισκέπτομαι.3

    b. Hebraistically, to look upon in order to help or to benefit, equivalent to to look after, have a care for, provide for, of God: τινα, Luke 7:16; Hebrews 2:6 (Genesis 21:1; Exodus 4:31; Psalms 8:5; Psalm 79:15 (Psalms 80:15); Sir. 46:14; Judith 8:33, etc.); followed by a telic infinitive Acts 15:14; absolutely (Sir. 32:21 (Sir. 35:21)) yet with a statement of the effect and definite blessing added, Luke 1:68; ἐπεσκέψατο (WH Tr marginal reading ἐπισκέψεται) ἡμᾶς ἀνατολή ἐξ ὕψους a light from on high hath looked (others, shall look) upon us (cf. our the sun looks down on us, etc.), i. e. salvation from God has come to us, Luke 1:78. (In the O. T. used also in a bad sense of God as punishing, Psalm 88:33 (Psalms 89:33); Jeremiah 9:25; Jeremiah 11:22, etc.)TGL ἐπισκέπτομαι.4

    c. to look (about) for, look out (one to choose, employ, etc.): Acts 6:3.TGL ἐπισκέπτομαι.5


    (1981) ἐπισκηνόω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἐπεσκήνωσα; to fix a tent or habitation on: ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκίας, to take possession of and live in the houses (of the citizens), Polybius 4, 18, 8; ταῖς οἰκίαις, 4, 72, 1; tropically, ἐπί τινα, of the power of Christ descending upon one, working within him and giving him help, [A. V. rest upon], 2 Corinthians 12:9.TGL ἐπισκηνόω.2


    (1982) ἐπισκιάζω; [imperfect ἐπεσκίαζον, Luke 9:34 L marginal reading T Tr text WH]; future ἐπισκιάσω; 1 aorist ἐπεσκίασα; to throw a shadow upon, to envelop in shadow, to overshadow: τινί, Acts 5:15. From a vaporous cloud that casts a shadow the word is transferred to a shining cloud surrounding and enveloping persons with brightness: τινά, Matthew 17:5; Luke 9:34; τινί, Mark 9:7. Tropically, of the Holy Spirit exerting creative energy upon the womb of the virgin Mary and impregnating it, (a use of the word which seems to have been drawn from the familiar O. T. idea of a cloud as symbolizing the immediate presence and power of God): with the dative Luke 1:35. (In secular authors generally with an accusative of the object and in the sense of obscuring: Herodotus 1, 209; Sophocles, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Philo, Lucian, Herodian, Geoponica. Sept. for סָבַךְ to cover, Psalms 90:4 (Psalms 91:4); Psalms 139:8 (Psalms 140:8); for שָׁכַן, Exodus 40:29 (Exodus 40:35) ἐπεσκίαζεν ἐπὶ τὴν σκηνήν νεφέλη; [cf. Winer's Grammar § 52, 4, 7].)TGL ἐπισκιάζω.2


    (1983) ἐπισκοπέω, -ῶ; to look upon, inspect, oversee, look after, care for: spoken of the care of the church which rested upon the presbyters, 1 Peter 5:2 [T WH omit] (with τὴν ἐκκλησίαν added, Ignatius ad Rom. 9, 1); followed by μή [which see II. 1 a.] equivalent to Latin caveo , to look carefully, beware: Hebrews 12:15. (Often by Greek writings from Aeschylus down.)TGL ἐπισκοπέω.2


    (1984) ἐπισκοπή, ἐπισκοπῆς, (ἐπισκοπέω), inspection, visitation (German Besichtigung);TGL ἐπισκοπή.2

    a. properly: εἰς ἐπισκοπήν τοῦ παιδός, to visit the boy, Lucian , dial. deor. 20, 6; with this exception no example of the word in secular writings has yet been noted.TGL ἐπισκοπή.3

    b. In biblical Greek, after the Hebrew פְּקֻדָּה, that act by which God looks into and searches out the ways, deeds, character, of men, in order to adjudge them their lot accordingly, whether joyous or sad; inspection, investigation, visitation (Vulg. usuallyvisitatio ): so universally, ἐν ἐπισκοπή ψυχῶν, when he shall search the souls of men, i. e. in the time of divine judgment, Wis. 3:13; also ἐν ὥρα ἐπισκοπῆς, Sir. 18:20 (19); so perhaps ἐν ἡμέρα ἐπισκοπῆς, 1 Peter 2:12 (see below); in a good sense, of God's gracious care: τόν καιρόν τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς σου, i. e. τόν καιρόν ἐν ἐπεσκέψατο σε Θεός, in which God showed himself gracious toward thee and offered thee salvation through Christ (see ἐπισκέπτομαι , b.), Luke 19:44; ἐν καιρῷ ἐπισκοπῆς, in the time of divine reward, 1 Peter 5:6 Lachmann; also, in the opinion of many commentators, 1 Peter 2:12 (others, associate this passage with Luke 19:44 above; cf. DeWette (edited by Brückner) or Huther at the passage); from the O. T. cf. Genesis 50:24; Job 34:9; Wis. 2:20 Wis. 3:7, etc. with a bad reference, of divine punishment: Exodus 3:16; Isaiah 10:3; Jeremiah 10:15; Wis. 14:11 Wis. 19:14 (15); (etc.; cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word).TGL ἐπισκοπή.4

    c. after the analogy of the Hebrew פְּקֻדָּה (Numbers 4:16; 1 Chronicles 24:19 (here the Sept. ἐπίσκεψις), etc.), oversight i. e. overseership, office, charge; Vulg. episcopatus : Acts 1:20, from Psalms 108:8 (Psalms 109:8); specifically, the office of a bishop (the overseer or presiding officer of a Christian church): 1 Timothy 3:1, and in ecclesiastical writingsTGL ἐπισκοπή.5


    (1985) ἐπίσκοπος, -ου, , (ἐπισκέπτομαι), an overseer, a man charged with the duty of seeing that things to be done by others are done rightly, any curator, guardian, or superintendent; Sept. for פָּקִיד, Judges 9:28; Nehemiah 11:9, Nehemiah 11:14, Nehemiah 11:22; 2 Kings 11:15, etc.; 1 Macc. 1:51. The word has the same comprehensive sense in Greek writings from Homer Odys. 8, 163; Iliad 22, 255 down; hence, in the N. T. ἐπίσκ. τῶν ψυχῶν, guardian of souls, one who watches over their welfare: 1 Peter 2:25 ([τὸν παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστην κ. ἐπίσκοπον, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 59, 3]; ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ προστάτης τῶν ψυχῶν ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦς Χρ., ibid. 61, 3; [cf. Sir. 1:6]), cf. Hebrews 13:17. specifically, the superintendent, head or overseer of any Christian church; Vulg. episcopus : Acts 20:28; Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:2; Titus 1:7; see πρεσβύτερος , 2 b.; [and for the later use of the word, see Dictionary of Christian Antiquities under the word Bishop].TGL ἐπίσκοπος.2


    (1986) ἐπισπάω, -ῶ: from Aeschylus down; to draw on: μὴ ἐπισπάσθω, namely, ἀκροβυστίαν, let him not draw on his foreskin (Hesychius μὴ ἐπισπάσθω· μὴ ἑλκυέτω τὸ δέρμα) [A. V. let him not become uncircumcised], 1 Corinthians 7:18. From the days of Antiochus Epiphanes [B. C. 175-164] down (1 Macc. 1:15; Josephus, Antiquities 12, 5, 1), there had been Jews who, in order to conceal from heathen persecutors or scoffers the external sign of their nationality, sought artificially to compel nature to reproduce the prepuce, by extending or drawing forward with an iron instrument the remnant of it still left, so as to cover the glans. The rabbis called such persons מְשׁוּכִים, from סָשַׁךְ to draw out, see Buxtorf, Lex. Talm., p. 1274 [(Fischer edition ii., 645f). Cf. BB. DD. under the word Circumcision, especially McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, ibid. II. 2.]TGL ἐπισπάω.2


    (1987) ἐπίσταμαι (seems to be the Ionic form of the middle of ἐφίστημι. Isocrates, Aristotle, others, also use ἐπίστῆσαι τὴν διάνοιαν, τὸν νοῦν, ἑαυτόν for to put one's attention on, fix one's thoughts on; indeed, the simple ἐπιστῆσαι is used in the same sense, by an ellipsis analogous to that of τὸν νοῦν with the verbs προσέχειν, ἐπέχειν, and of τὴν ὄψιν with προσβάλλειν; see Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 281f. Hence, ἐπίσταμαι is properly, to turn oneself or one's mind to, put one's thought upon a thing); from Homer down; Sept. chiefly for יָדַע; (cf. German sich worauf verstehen );TGL ἐπίσταμαι.2

    a. to be acquainted with: τί, Acts 18:25; James 4:14; Jude 1:10; τινά, Acts 19:15; with reference to what is said or is to be interpreted, to understand: Mark 14:68; 1 Timothy 6:4.TGL ἐπίσταμαι.3

    b. to know: περί τινος, Acts 26:26; followed by an accusative with a participle Acts 24:10 [Winers Grammar, 346 (324); Buttmann, 301 (258)]; followed by ὅτι, Acts 15:7; Acts 19:25; Acts 22:19; followed by ὡς, Acts 10:28; by πῶς, Acts 20:18; by ποῦ, Hebrews 11:8. [Synonym: see γινώσκω .]TGL ἐπίσταμαι.4


    (1988) ἐπιστάτης, -ου, , (ἐφίστημι), any sort of a superintendent or overseer (often so in secular writings, and several times in the Sept. , as Exodus 1:11; Exodus 5:14; 1 Kings 5:16; 2 Kings 25:19; Jeremiah 36:26 (Jeremiah 29:26); 2 Chronicles 2:2; 2 Chronicles 31:12); a master, used in this sense for רַבִּי by the disciples [cf. Luke 17:13] when addressing Jesus, who called him thus "not from the fact that he was a teacher, but because of his authority" (Bretschneider); found only in Luke 5:5; Luke 8:24, Luke 8:45; Luke 9:33, Luke 9:49; Luke 17:13.TGL ἐπιστάτης.2


    (1989) ἐπιστέλλω: 1 aorist ἐπέστειλα; properly, to send to one a message, command, (Herodotus and following); ἐπιστολάς, to send by letter, write a letter, Plato, epistles, p. 363 b., hence, simply to write a letter [cf. Winer's Grammar § 3, 1 b.]: τινί, Hebrews 13:22 (Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 7:1-40, 1 Corinthians 7:1; 47, 1 Corinthians 7:3; 62, 1 Corinthians 7:1; and often in Greek writings); to enjoin by letter, to write instructions: Acts 21:25 R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; followed by τοῦ with an infinitive expressing purpose [cf. Winers Grammar, 326 (306); Buttmann, 270 (232)]: Acts 15:20.TGL ἐπιστέλλω.2


    (1990) ἐπιστήμων, -ον, genitive -ονος, (ἐπίσταμαι), intelligent, experienced, [especially one having the knowledge of an expert; cf. Schmidt, chapter 13 §§ 10, 13): James 3:13. (From Homer down; Sept. .)TGL ἐπιστήμων.2


    (1991) ἐπιστηρίζω; 1 aorist ἐπεστήριξα; a later word; to establish besides, strengthen more; to render more firm, confirm: τινά, one's Christian faith, Acts 14:22; Acts 15:32, Acts 15:41; Acts 18:23 R G.TGL ἐπιστηρίζω.2


    (1992) ἐπιστολή, -ῆς, , (ἐπιστέλλω), a letter, epistle: Acts 15:30; Romans 16:22; 1 Corinthians 5:9, etc.; plural, Acts 9:2; 2 Corinthians 10:10, etc.; ἐπιστολαὶ συστατικαί, letters of commendation, 2 Corinthians 3:1 [Winers Grammar, 176 (165). On the possible use of the plural of this word interchangeably with the singular (cf. Thomas Magister, Ritschl edition, p. 113, 8), see Bp. Lightfoot and Meyer on Philippians 3:1. (Euripides, Thucydides, others)].TGL ἐπιστολή.2


    (1993) ἐπιστομίζω; (στόμα); properly, to bridle or stop up the mouth; metaphorically, to stop the mouth, reduce to silence: Titus 1:11. (Plato, Gorgias, p. 482 e.; Demosthenes 85, 4; often in Plutarch, and Lucian.)TGL ἐπιστομίζω.2


    (1994) ἐπιστρέφω; future ἐπιστρέψω; 1 aorist ἐπέστρεψα; 2 aorist passive ἐπεστραφην; from Homer down; the Sept. for הָפַך, סָבַב and הֵסֵב, פָּנָה, and times without number for שׁוּב and הֵשִׁיב;TGL ἐπιστρέφω.2

    1. transitively,TGL ἐπιστρέφω.3

    a. to turn to: ἐπί τόν Θεόν, to the worship of the true God, Acts 26:20.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.4

    b. to cause to return, to bring back; figuratively, τινα ἐπί κύριον τόν Θεόν, to the love and obedience of God, Luke 1:16; ἐπί τέκνα, to love for the children, Luke 1:17; ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων, that they may be in (R. V. to walk in) the wisdom of the righteous, Luke 1:17; τινα ἐπί τινα, supply from the context ἐπί τήν ἀλήθειαν and ἐπί τήν ὁδόν, James 5:19.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.5

    2. intransitive, (Winer s Grammar, § 38, 1 (compare p. 26; Buttmann , 144 (126f)));TGL ἐπιστρέφω.6

    a. to turn, to turn oneself: ἐπί τόν κύριον and ἐπί τόν Θεόν, of Gentiles passing over to the religion of Christ, Acts 9:35; Acts 11:21; Acts 14:15; Acts 15:19; Acts 26:20, cf. 1 Peter 2:25; πρός τί, Acts 9:40; πρός τόν Θεόν, 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 2 Corinthians 3:16; ἀπό τίνος εἰς τί, Acts 26:18.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.7

    b. to turn oneself about, turn back: absolutely, Acts 16:18; followed by an infinitive expressing purpose, Revelation 1:12.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.8

    c. to return, turn back, come back;TGL ἐπιστρέφω.9

    α. properly: Luke 2:20 Rec. ; Luke 8:55; Acts 15:36; with the addition of ὀπίσω (as in Aelian v. h. 1, 6 (variant)), followed by an infinitive of purpose, Matthew 24:18: followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, Matthew 12:44; (Luke 2:39 T WH Tr marginal reading); εἰς τά ὀπίσω, Mark 13:16; Luke 17:31; ἐπί τί, to, 2 Peter 2:22.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.10

    β. metaphorically: ἐπί τί, Galatians 4:9; ἐπί τινα, Luke 17:4 Rec. , but G omits ἐπί σε; πρός τινα, ibid. L T Tr WH ; ἐκ τῆς ἐντολῆς, to leave the commandment and turn back to a worse mental and moral condition, 2 Peter 2:21 R G ; absolutely, to turn back morally, to reform: Matthew 13:15; Mark 4:12; Luke 22:32; Acts 3:19; Acts 28:27.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.11

    In the middle and 2 aorist passiveTGL ἐπιστρέφω.12

    a. to turn oneself about, to turn around: absolutely, Matthew 9:22 R G ; Mark 5:30; Mark 8:33; John 21:20.TGL ἐπιστρέφω.13

    b. to return: followed by πρός (WH text ἐπί) τινα, Matthew 10:13 (on which passage see εἰρήνη , 3 at the end); ἐπί τόν Θεόν, 1 Peter 2:25 (see 2 a. above); to return to a better mind, repent, John 12:40 (R G ).TGL ἐπιστρέφω.14


    (1995) ἐπιστροφή, -ῆς, , (ἐπιστρέφω), conversion (of Gentiles from idolatry to the true God [cf. Winer's Grammar, 26]): Acts 15:3. (Cf. Sir. 49:2; Sir. 18:21 (Sir. 18:20); in Greek writings in many other senses.)TGL ἐπιστροφή.2


    (1996) ἐπισυνάγω; future ἐπισυνάξω; 1 aorist infinitive ἐπισυνάξαι; 2 aorist infinitive ἐπισυναγαγεῖν; passive, perfect participle ἐπισυνηγμένος; 1 aorist participle ἐπισυναχθείς; [future ἐπισυναχθήσομαι, Luke 17:37 T Tr WH]; Sept. several times for אָסַף, קָבַץ, קָהַל;TGL ἐπισυνάγω.2

    1. to gather together besides, to bring together to others already assembled, (Polybius).TGL ἐπισυνάγω.3

    2. to gather together against (Micah 4:11; Zechariah 12:3; Zechariah 1:1-21 Macc. 3:58, etc.).TGL ἐπισυνάγω.4

    3. to gather together in one place (ἐπί to): Matthew 23:37; Matthew 24:31; Mark 13:27; Luke 13:34; passive: Mark 1:33; Luke 12:1; Luke 17:37 T Tr WH (Psalm 101:23 (Psalms 102:23); Psalms 105:47 (Psalms 106:47); 2 Macc. 1:27, etc.; Aesop 142).TGL ἐπισυνάγω.5


    (1997) ἐπισυναγωγή, -ῆς, , (ἐπισυνάγω, which see);TGL ἐπισυναγωγή.2

    a. a gathering together in one place, equivalent to τὸ ἐπισυνάγεσθαι (2 Macc. 2:7): ἐπί τινα, to one, 2 Thessalonians 2:1.TGL ἐπισυναγωγή.3

    b. (the religious) assembly (of Christians): Hebrews 10:25.TGL ἐπισυναγωγή.4


    (1998) ἐπισυντρέχω; to run together besides (i. e. to others already gathered): Mark 9:25. Not used by secular writers.TGL ἐπισυντρέχω.2


    (1999) ἐπισύστασις, ἐπισυστασεως, (ἐπισυνισταμαι to collect together, conspire against) a gathering together or combining against or at. Hence,TGL ἐπίστασις.2

    1. a hostile banding together or concourse: ποιεῖν ἐπισύστασιν, to excite a riotous gathering of the people, make a mob, Acts 24:12 R G ; 1 Esdr. 5:70 Alex. ; Sextus Empiricus , adv. eth., p. 127 (p. 571, 20 edition, Bekker; cf. Philo in Flac. § 1); τίνος, against one, Numbers 26:9; a conspiracy, Josephus , contra Apion 1, 20.TGL ἐπίστασις.3

    2. a troublesome throng of persons seeking help, counsel, comfort: τίνος, thronging to one, 2 Corinthians 11:28 R G (see ἐπίστασις ); Luther,dass ich werde angelaufen .TGL ἐπίστασις.4


    (2000) ἐπισφαλής, -ές, (σφάλλω to cause to fall), prone to fall: πλοῦς, a dangerous voyage, Acts 27:9. (Plato, Polybius, Plutarch, others.)TGL ἐπισφαλής.2


    (2001) ἐπισχύω: [imperfect ἐπίσχυον];TGL ἐπισχύω.2

    1. transitive, to give additional strength; to make stronger, (Sir. 29:1; Xenophon, oec. 11, 13).TGL ἐπισχύω.3

    2. intransitive, to receive greater strength, grow stronger, (1 Macc. 6:6; Theophrastus, Diodorus): ἐπίσχυον λέγοντες, they were the more urgent saying, i. e. they alleged the more vehemently, Luke 23:5.TGL ἐπισχύω.4


    (2002) ἐπισωρεύω: future ἐπισωρεύσω; to heap up, accumulate in piles: διδασκάλους, to choose for themselves and run after a great number of teachers, 2 Timothy 4:3. (Plutarch, Athen. , Artemidorus Daldianus, others.)TGL ἐπισωρεύω.2


    (2003) ἐπιταγή, -ῆς, , (ἐπιτάσσω), an injunction, mandate, command: Romans 16:26; 1 Corinthians 7:25; 1 Timothy 1:1; Titus 1:3; μετὰ πάσης ἐπιταγῆς, with every possible form of authority, Titus 2:15; κατ’ ἐπιταγήν, by way of command, 1 Corinthians 7:6; 2 Corinthians 8:8. (Wis. 14:16, etc.; Polybius, Diodorus.)TGL ἐπιταγή.2


    (2004) ἐπιτάσσω; 1 aorist ἐπέταξα; (τάσσω); to enjoin upon, order, command, charge: absolutely, Luke 14:22; τίνι, Mark 1:27; Mark 9:25; Luke 4:36; Luke 8:25; τινί τὸ ἀνῆκον, Philemon 1:8; τινί followed by the infinitive, Mark 6:39; Luke 8:31; Acts 23:2; followed by an accusative and infinitive Mark 6:27; followed by direct discourse, Mark 9:25. (Several times in the Sept. ; Greek writings from Herodotus down.) [Synonym: see κελεύω , at the end.]TGL ἐπιτάσσω.2


    (2005) ἐπιτελέω, -ῶ; future ἐπιτελέσω; 1 aorist ἐπετέλεσα; [present middle and passive ἐπιτελοῦμαι];TGL ἐπιτελέω.2

    1. to bring to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, complete: substantively, τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Corinthians 8:11; τί, Luke 13:32 [R G]; Romans 15:28; 2 Corinthians 7:1; 2 Corinthians 8:6, 2 Corinthians 8:11; Philippians 1:6; Hebrews 8:5; τὰς λατρείας, to perform religious services, discharge religious rites, Hebrews 9:6 (similarly in secular writings, as θρησκείας, Herodotus 2, 37; ὁρτάς, 4, 186; θυσίαν, θυσίας, 2, 63; 4, 26; Herodian, 1. 5, 4 [2 edition, Bekker]; λειτουργίας, Philo de som. i. § 37). Middle (in Greek writings to take upon oneself: τὰ τοῦ γήρως, the burdens of old age, Xenophon, mem. 4, 8, 8; θάνατον, Xenophon, Apology 33; with the force of the act.: τί, Polybius 1, 40, 16; 2, 58, 10) to make an end for oneself, i. e. to leave off (cf. παύω ): τῇ σαρκί, so as to give yourselves up to the flesh, stop with, rest in it, Galatians 3:3 [others take it passively here: are ye perfected in etc., cf. Meyer].TGL ἐπιτελέω.3

    2. to appoint to, impose upon: τινὶ παθήματα, in passive 1 Peter 5:9 (τὴν δίκην, Plato, legg. 10 at the end).TGL ἐπιτελέω.4


    (2006) ἐπιτήδειος, -εία, -ειον, also -ος, -ον, [cf. Winer's Grammar § 11, 1], (ἐπιτηδές, adverb, enough; and this according to Buttmann from ἐπὶ τάδε [? cf. Vanicek, p. 271]);TGL ἐπιτήδειος.2

    1. fit, suitable, convenient, advantageous.TGL ἐπιτήδειος.3

    2. needful; plural τὰ ἐπιτήδεια especially the necessaries of life (Thucydides and following): with addition of τοῦ σώματος, James 2:16.TGL ἐπιτήδειος.4


    (2007) ἐπιτίθημι, 3 person plural ἐπιτιθεασι (Matthew 23:4; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 14, 1 b.; Buttmann , 44 (38); Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i., p. 505; Kühner, i., p. 643; (Jelf , § 274; and on this and following forms see Veitch , see under the words, τίθημι, τιθέω)), imperative ἐπιτίθει (1 Timothy 5:22; see Matthiae , § 210, 2 and 6; Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i., p. 508; Kühner, § 209, 5; (Jelf , § 274 obs. 4)); imperfect 3 person plural ἐπετίθουν (Acts 8:17 R G ), ἐπετίθεσαν, (ibid., L T Tr WH ; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i., p. 509; Buttmann , 45 (39)); future ἐπιθήσω; 1 aorist ἐπέθηκα; 2 aorist ἐπεθην, imperative ἐπίθες (Matthew 9:18; Genesis 48:18; Judges 18:19); middle (present ἐπιτίθεμαι); future ἐπιθήσομαι; 2 aorist ἐπεθεμην; (1 aorist passive ἐπετεθην (Mark 4:21 R G )); in the Sept. chiefly for נָתַן, שׂוּם and הֵשִׂים;TGL ἐπιτίθημι.2

    1. Active:TGL ἐπιτίθημι.3

    a. to put or lay upon: τί ἐπί τί, Matthew 23:4; Matthew 27:29 R G L ; Mark 4:21 R G ; Luke 15:5; John 9:1-41:(John 9:6 WH text Tr marginal reading), John 9:15; (John 19:2 L marginal reading, see below); Acts 15:10 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 318 (298); Buttmann , 261 (224)); Acts 28:3; τί ἐπί τίνος, the genitive of thing, Matthew 27:29 T Tr WH ; ἐν with the dative of thing, Matthew 27:29 L T Tr WH ; τήν χεῖρα (or τάς χεῖρας or χεῖρας) ἐπί τινα, Matthew 9:18; Mark 8:25 ((WH Tr text ἔθηκεν)); Mark 16:18; Acts 8:17; (Acts 9:17); Revelation 1:17 Rec. ; ἐπί τινα πληγάς, calamities, Revelation 22:18 (but see b. below); ἐπάνω τίνος, Matthew 21:7 R G ; Matthew 27:37; ἐπί τίνος, Luke 8:16 R G ; τί τίνι, Luke 23:26; John 19:2 (not L marginal reading, see above); Acts 15:28; τίνι ὄνομα, Mark 3:16; τίνι τάς χεῖρας, Matthew 19:13 (cf. Buttmann , 233 (201); Winer 's Grammar, 288 (270f)), 15; Mark 5:23; (Mark 8:23, here Tr marginal reading αὐτοῦ); Luke 4:40; Luke 13:13; Acts 6:6; Acts 8:19; Acts 13:3; Acts 19:6; Acts 28:8; 1 Timothy 5:22; (τίνι τήν χεῖρα, Mark 7:32); χεῖρα (R G , χεῖρας or τάς χεῖρας L T Tr WH ), Acts 9:12; τίνι πληγάς, to inflict blows, lay stripes on one, Luke 10:30; Acts 16:23.TGL ἐπιτίθημι.4

    b. to add to: Revelation 22:18 (opposed to ἀφαιρεῖν Revelation 22:19).TGL ἐπιτίθημι.5

    2. Middle;TGL ἐπιτίθημι.6

    a. to have put on, bid to be laid on; τί ἐπί τί (Xenophon , Cyril 8, 2, 4): τά πρός τήν χρείαν, namely, τίνι, to provide one with the things needed (others, put on board namely, the ship), Acts 28:10.TGL ἐπιτίθημι.7

    b. to lay or throw oneself upon; with the dative of person to attack one, to make an assault on one: Acts 18:10; Exodus 21:14; Exodus 18:11; 2 Chronicles 23:13, and often in secular writings; cf. Kuinoel at the passage; (Winer 's Grammar, 593 (552). Compare: συνεπιτίθημι.)TGL ἐπιτίθημι.8


    (2008) ἐπιτιμάω, ἐπιτίμω; imperfect 3 person singular ἐπετίμα, 3 person plural ἐπετίμων; 1 aorist ἐπετίμησα; the Sept. for גָּעַר; in Greek writingsTGL ἐπιτιμάω.2

    1. to show honor to, to honor: τινα, Herodotus 6, 39.TGL ἐπιτιμάω.3

    2. to raise the price of: σῖτος ἐπετιμηθη, Demosthenes 918, 22; others.TGL ἐπιτιμάω.4

    3. to adjudge, award (from τιμή in the sense of merited penalty): τήν δίκην, Herodotus 4, 43.TGL ἐπιτιμάω.5

    4. to tax with fault, rate, chide, rebuke, reprove, censure severely, (so Thucydides , Xenophon , Plato , Demosthenes , others): absolutely, 2 Timothy 4:2; τίνι, charge one with wrong, Luke (Luke 9:55); Luke 17:3; Luke 23:40; to rebuke — in order to curb one's ferocity or violence (hence, many formerly gave the word the meaning to restrain; against whom cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 325), Matthew 8:26; Matthew 17:18; Mark 4:39; Luke 4:39, Luke 4:41; Luke 8:24; Luke 9:42; Jude 1:9 (where Rec.elz strangely ἐπιτιμήσαι (1 aorist active infinitive) for ἐπιτιμμησαι (optative 3 person singular)); or to keep one away from another, Matthew 19:13; Luke 18:15; Mark 10:13; followed by ἵνα (with a verb expressing the opposite of what is censured): Matthew 20:31; Mark 10:48; Luke 18:39; with the addition of λέγων (καί λέγει, or the like) and direct discourse: Mark 1:25 (T omits; WH brackets λέγων); Mark 8:33; Mark 9:25; Luke 4:35; Luke 23:40 (cf. Psalms 105:9 (Psalms 106:9); Psalms 118:21 (Psalms 119:21); Zechariah 3:2; and the use of גָּעַר in Nahum 1:4; Malachi 3:11). Elsewhere in a milder sense, to admonish or charge sharply: τίνι, Matthew 16:22; Mark 8:30; Luke 9:21 (ἐπιτιμήσας αὐτοῖς παρήγγειλεν, followed by the infinitive), Luke 19:39; with ἵνα added, Matthew 16:20 L WH text; Mark 8:30; ἵνα μή, Matthew 12:16; Mark 3:12. (Cf. Trench , § iv; Schmidt , chapter 4, 11.)TGL ἐπιτιμάω.6


    (2009) ἐπιτιμία, -ας, , (ἐπιτιμάω), punishment (in Greek writings τὸ ἐπιτίμιον): 2 Corinthians 2:6; [Buttmann § 147, 29]. (Wis. 3:10; [others].)TGL ἐπιτιμία.2


    (2010) ἐπιτρέπω; 1 aorist ἐπέτρεψα; passive [present ἐπιτρέπομαι]; 2 aorist ἐπετράπην; perfect 3 person singular ἐπιτέτραπται (1 Corinthians 14:34 R G); from Homer down;TGL ἐπιτρέπω.2

    1. to turn to, transfer, commit, intrust.TGL ἐπιτρέπω.3

    2. to permit, allow, give leave: 1 Corinthians 16:7; Hebrews 6:3; τινί, Mark 5:13; John 19:38; with an infinitive added, Matthew 8:21; Matthew 19:8; Luke 8:32; Luke 9:59, Luke 9:61; Acts 21:39; 1 Timothy 2:12; and without the dative Mark 10:4; followed by an accusative with an infinitive Acts 27:3 (where L T Tr WH πορευθέντι); cf. Xenophon, an. 7, 7, 8; Plato, legg. 5, p. 730 d. Passive ἐπιτρέπεταί τινι, with an infinitive: Acts 26:1; Acts 28:16; 1 Corinthians 14:34.TGL ἐπιτρέπω.4


    (2011) ἐπιτροπή, -ῆς, , (ἐπιτρέπω), permission, power, commission: Acts 26:12. (From Thucydides down.)TGL ἐπιτροπή.2


    (2012) ἐπίτροπος, -ου, , (ἐπιτρέπω), universally, one to whose care or honor anything has been intrusted; a curator, guardian, (Pindar Ol. 1, 171, and others; Philo de mundo § 7 θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ καὶ τεχνίτης καὶ ἐπίτροπος τῶν ἐν οὐρανῷ τέ καὶ ἐν κόσμῳ). Specifically,TGL ἐπίτροπος.2

    1. a steward or manager of a household, or of lands; an overseer: Matthew 20:8; Luke 8:3; Xenophon, oec. 12, 2; 21, 9; (Aristotle, oec. 1, 5 [p. 1344a, 26] δούλων δὲ εἴδη δύο, ἐπίτροπος καὶ ἐργάτης).TGL ἐπίτροπος.3

    2. one who has the care and tutelage of children, either where the father is dead (a guardian of minors: 2 Macc. 11:1; 2 Macc. 13:2; ἐπίτροπος ὀρθάνων, Plato, legg. 6, p. 766 c.; Plutarch, Lyc. 3; Cam. 15), or where the father still lives (Aelian v. h. 3, 26): Galatians 4:2.TGL ἐπίτροπος.4

    Related entry: [ἐπιτροπεύω; (from Herodotus town); to be ἐπίτροπος or procurator: of Pontius Pilate in Luke 3:1 WH (rejected) marginal reading; see their appendix on the passage.]TGL ἐπίτροπος.5


    (2013) ἐπιτυγχάνω: 2 aorist ἐπέτυχον;TGL ἐπιτυγχάνω.2

    1. to light or hit upon any person or thing (Aristophanes, Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato).TGL ἐπιτυγχάνω.3

    2. to attain to, obtain: James 4:2; with the genitive of thing, Hebrews 6:15; Hebrews 11:33; with the accusative of thing: τοῦτο, Romans 11:7 (where Rec. τούτου). Cf. Matthiae § 328; [Winer's Grammar, 200 (188)].TGL ἐπιτυγχάνω.4


    (2014) ἐπιφαίνω; 1 aorist infinitive ἐπιφᾶναι (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 24ff; Winers Grammar, 89 (85); Buttmann, 41 (35); [Sept. Psalm 30:17 (Psalms 31:17); Psalm 117:27 (Psalms 118:27), cf. Psalms 66:2 (Psalms 67:2)]); 2 aorist passive ἐπεφάνην; from Homer down;TGL ἐπιφαίνω.2

    1. transitive, to show to or upon; to bring to light.TGL ἐπιφαίνω.3

    2. intransitive and in the passive to appear, become visible;TGL ἐπιφαίνω.4

    a. properly: of stars, Acts 27:20 (Theocritus, 2, 11); τινί, to one, Luke 1:79.TGL ἐπιφαίνω.5

    b. figuratively equivalent to to become clearly known, to show oneself: Titus 3:4; τινί, Titus 2:11.TGL ἐπιφαίνω.6


    (2015) ἐπιφάνεια, -ας, , (ἐπιφανής), an appearing, appearance (Tertullian apparentia ); often used by the Greeks of a glorious manifestation of the gods, and especially of their advent to help; in 2 Macc. of signal deeds and events betokening the presence and power of God as helper; cf. Grimm on Maccabees, p. 60f, 75, [but especially the thorough exposition by Prof. Abbot (on Titus 2:13 Note B) in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis, i., p. 16f (1882)]. In the N. T. the 'advent' of Christ — not only that which has already taken place and by which his presence and power appear in the saving light he has shed upon mankind, 2 Timothy 1:10 (note the word φωτίσαντος in this passage); but also that illustrious return from heaven to earth hereafter to occur: 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1, 2 Timothy 4:8; Titus 2:13 [on which see especially Prof. Abbot as above]; ἐπιφάνεια (i. e. the breaking forth) τῆς παρουσίας αὐτοῦ, 2 Thessalonians 2:8. [Cf. Trench § 94.]TGL ἐπιφάνεια.2


    (2016) ἐπιφανής, -ές, (ἐπιφαίνω), conspicuous, manifest, illustrious: Acts 2:20 [Tdf. omits] from Joel 2:31 (Joel 3:4); the Sept. here and in Judges 13:6 [Alex. ]; Habakkuk 1:7; Malachi 1:14 thus render the word נורָא terrible, deriving it incorrectly from רָאָה and so confounding it with נִרְאֶה.TGL ἐπιφανής.2


    (2017) ἐπιφαύσκω (equivalent to the ἐπιφώσκω of Greek writings, cf. Winers Grammar, 90 (85); Buttmann, 67 (59)): future ἐπιφαύσω; to shine upon: τινί, Ephesians 5:14, where the meaning is, Christ will pour upon thee the light of divine truth as the sun gives light to men aroused from sleep. (Job 25:5; Job 31:26; [Job 41:9]; Acta Thomae § 34.)TGL ἐπιφαύσκω.2


    (2018) ἐπιφέρω; [imperfect ἐπέφερον]; 2 aorist infinitive ἐπενεγκεῖν; [present passive ἐπιφέρομαι];TGL ἐπιφέρω.2

    1. to bring upon, bring forward: αἰτίαν, of accusers (as in Herodotus 1, 26, and in Attic writings from Thucydides down; Polybius 5, 41, 3; 40, 5, 2; Josephus, Antiquities 2, 6, 7; 4, 8, 23; Herodian, 3, 8, 13 (6 edition, Bekker)), Acts 25:18 (where L T Tr WH ἔφερον); κρίσιν, Jude 1:9.TGL ἐπιφέρω.3

    2. to lay upon, to inflict: τὴν ὀργήν, Romans 3:5 (πληγήν, Josephus, Antiquities 2, 14, 2).TGL ἐπιφέρω.4

    3. to bring upon i. e. in addition, to add, increase: θλῖψιν τοῖς δεσμοῖς, Philippians 1:16-17 Rec. , but on this passage see ἐγείρω , 4 c.; (πῦρ ἐπιφέρειν πυρί, Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 18; [cf. Winer's Grammar § 52, 4, 7]).TGL ἐπιφέρω.5

    4. to put upon, cast upon, impose, (φάρμακον, Plato, epistle 8, p. 354 b.): τὶ ἐπί τινα, in passive, Acts 19:12, where L T Tr WH ἀποφέρεσθαι, which see.TGL ἐπιφέρω.6


    (2019) ἐπιφωνέω, -ῶ: [imperfect ἐπεφώνουν]; to call out to, shout: followed by direct discourse, Luke 23:21; Acts 12:22; followed by the dative of a person, Acts 22:24; τί, Acts 21:34 L T Tr WH. [(Sophocles on.)]TGL ἐπιφωνέω.2


    (2020) ἐπιφώσκω; [imperfect ἐπέφωσκον]; to grow light, to dawn [cf. Buttmann, 68 (60)]: Luke 23:54; followed by εἰς, Matthew 28:1, on which see εἰς , A. II. 1.TGL ἐπιφώσκω.2


    (2021) ἐπιχειρέω, -ῶ: imperfect ἐπεχείρουν; 1 aorist ἐπεχείρησα; (χείρ);TGL ἐπιχειρέω.2

    1. properly, to put the hand to (Homer, Odyssey 24, 386, 395).TGL ἐπιχειρέω.3

    2. often from Herodotus down, to take in hand, undertake, attempt (anything to be done), followed by the infinitive: Luke 1:1; Acts 9:29; Acts 19:13; (2 Macc. 2:29; 2 Macc. 7:19). Grimm treats of this word more at length in the Jahrbb. f. deutsche Theol. for 1871, p. 36f.TGL ἐπιχειρέω.4


    (2022) ἐπιχέω; from Homer down; to pour upon: τί, Luke 10:34 (namely, ἐπὶ τὰ τραύματα; Genesis 28:18; Leviticus 5:11).TGL ἐπιχέω.2


    (2023) ἐπιχορηγέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist imperative ἐπιχορηγήσατε; passive [present ἐπιχορηγοῦμαι]; 1 future ἐπιχορηγηθήσομαι; (see χορηγέω ); to supply, furnish, present, (German darreichen): τινί τι, 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5; equivalent to to show or afford by deeds: τὴν ἀρετήν, 2 Peter 1:5; in passive, εἴσοδος, furnished, provided, 2 Peter 1:11; passive to be supplied, ministered unto, assisted (so the simple χορηγεῖσθαι in Xenophon, rep. Athen. 1, 13; Polybius 3, 75, 3; 4, 77, 2; 9, 44, 1; Sir. 44:6; 3 Macc. 6:40): Colossians 2:19, where Vulg. sabministratum . (Rare in secular writings as Dionysius Halicarnassus 1, 42; Phalaris , epistle 50; Diogenes Laërtius 5, 67; [Alexander Aphrodisiensis probl. 1, 81].)TGL ἐπιχορηγέω.2


    (2024) ἐπιχορηγία, -ας, , (ἐπιχορηγέω, which see), (Vulg. subministratio ), a supplying, supply: Ephesians 4:16; Philippians 1:19. (Ecclesiastical writers.)TGL ἐπιχορηγία.2


    (2025) ἐπιχρίω: 1 aorist ἐπέχρισα; to spread on, anoint: τὶ ἐπί τι, anything upon anything, John 9:6 [WH text Tr marginal reading ἐπέθηκεν]; τί, to anoint anything (namely, with anything), ibid. 11. (Homer, Odyssey 21, 179; Lucian, hist. scrib. 62.)TGL ἐπιχρίω.2


    (2026) ἐποικοδομέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἐπῳκοδόμησα, and without augment ἐποικοδόμησα (1 Corinthians 3:14 T Tr WH; cf. Tdf. 's note on Acts 7:47, [see οἰκοδομέω ]); passive, present ἐποικοδομοῦμαι; 1 aorist participle ἐποικοδομηθέντες; in the N. T. only in the figurative which likens a company of Christian believers to an edifice or temple; to build upon, build up (Vulg. superaedifico ); absolute [like our English build up ] viz. 'to finish the structure of which the foundation has already been laid,' i. e. in plain language, to give constant increase in Christian knowledge and in a life conformed thereto: Acts 20:32 (where L T Tr WH οἰκοδ. [Vulg. aedifico ]); 1 Corinthians 3:10; (l Pet. 2:5 Tdf. ); ἐπὶ τὸν θεμέλιον, 1 Corinthians 3:12; τί, 1 Corinthians 3:14; ἐν Χριστῷ, with the passive, in fellowship with Christ to grow in spiritual life, Colossians 2:7; ἐποικοδομηθ. ἐπὶ θεμελίῳ τῶν ἀποστόλων, on the foundation laid by the apostles, i. e. (dropping the figurative) gathered together into a church by the apostles' preaching of the gospel, Ephesians 2:20; ἐποικοδόμειν ἑαυτὸν τῇ πίστει, Jude 1:20, where the sense is, 'resting on your most holy faith as a foundation, make progress, rise like an edifice higher and higher.' (Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, others.)TGL ἐποικοδομέω.2


    (2027) ἐποκέλλω: 1 aorist ἐπώκειλα; to drive upon, strike against: τὴν ναῦν [i. e. to run the ship ashore], Acts 27:41 R G; see ἐπικέλλω . (Herodotus 6, 16: 7, 182; Thucydides 4, 26.)TGL ἐπικέλλω.2

    Related entry: ἐπικέλλω: [1 aorist ἐπέκειλα]; to run a ship ashore, to bring to land; so from Homer Odyssey 9, 148 down; ἐπέκειλαν (R G ἐπώκειλαν) τὴν ναῦν, Acts 27:41 L T Tr WH; but in opposition see Meyer at the passage. [Cf. B. D. American edition p. 3009.]TGL ἐπικέλλω.3


    (2028) ἐπονομάζω: [present passive ἐπονομάζομαι]; from Herodotus down; Sept. for קָרָא; to put a name upon, name; passive to be named: Romans 2:17; cf. Fritzsche at the passage.TGL ἐπονομάζω.2


    (2029) ἐποπτεύω [participle 1 Peter 2:12 L T Tr WH]; 1 aorist participle ἐποπτεύσαντες;TGL ἐποπτεύω.2

    1. to be an overseer (Homer, Hesiod).TGL ἐποπτεύω.3

    2. universally, to look upon, view attentively; to watch (Aeschylus, Demosthenes, others): τί, 1 Peter 3:2; ἔκ τινος, namely, τὴν ἀναστροφήν, 1 Peter 2:12.TGL ἐποπτεύω.4


    (2030) ἐπόπτης, -ου, , (from unused ἐπόπτω);TGL ἐπόπτης.2

    1. an overseer, inspector, see ἐπίσκοπος ; (Aeschylus, Pindar, others; of God, in 2 Macc. 3:39; 2 Macc. 7:35; 3 Macc. 2:21; Additions to Esther 5:1; ἀνθρωπίνων ἔργων, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 59, 3).TGL ἐπόπτης.3

    2. a spectator, eye-witness of anything: so in 2 Peter 1:16; inasmuch as those were called ἐπόπται by the Greeks who had attained to the third [i. e. the highest] grade of the Eleusinian mysteries (Plutarch, Alcib. 22, and elsewhere), the word seems to be used here to designate those privileged to be present at the heavenly spectacle of the transfiguration of Christ.TGL ἐπόπτης.4


    (2031) ἔπος, -εος (-ους), τό, a word: ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν (see εἶπον , 1 a., p. 181a), Hebrews 7:9. [Synonym: ἔπος seems primarily to designate a word as an articulate manifestation of a mental state, and so to differ from ῥῆμα (which see), the mere vocable; for its relation to λόγος see λόγος I. 1.]TGL ἔπος.2


    (2032) ἐπουράνιος, ἐπουράνιον (οὐρανός), properly, existing in or above heaven, heavenly;TGL ἐπουράνιος.2

    1. existing in heaven: πατήρ ἐπουράνιος, i. e. God, Matthew 18:35 Rec. (Θεοί, Θεός, Homer , Odyssey 17, 484; Iliad 6, 131, etc.; 3Macc. 6:28 3Macc. 7:6); οἱ ἐπουράνιοι the heavenly beings, the inhabitants of heaven, (Lucian , dial. deor. 4, 3; of the gods, in Theocritus , 25, 5): of angels, in opposition to ἐπιγειοι and καταχθονιοι, Philippians 2:10; Ignat. ad Trall. 9 [ET], (cf. Polycarp , ad Philipp. 2 [ET]); σώματα, the bodies of the stars (which the apostle, according to the universal ancient conception, seems to have regarded as animate (cf. Lightfoot on Colossians, p. 376; Gfrorer, Philo etc. 2te Aufl., p. 349f; Siegfried, Philo von Alex., p. 306; yet cf. Meyer ed. Heinrici, at the passage), cf. Job 38:7; Enoch 18:14ff) and of the angels, 1 Corinthians 15:40; βασιλεία ἐπουράνιος (on which see p. 97), 2 Timothy 4:18; substantially the same as πατρίς ἐπουράνιος Hebrews 11:16 and Ἱερουσαλήμ ἐπουρανίῳ, Hebrews 12:22; κλῆσις, a calling made (by God) in heaven, Hebrews 3:1 (others would include a reference to its end as well as to its origin; cf. Lunem. at the passage), cf. Philippians 3:14 (Lightfoot cites Philo , plant. Noe § 6). The neut. τά ἐπουράνια denotes (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 34, 2)TGL ἐπουράνιος.3

    a. the things that take place in heaven, i. e. the purposes of God to grant salvation to men through the death of Christ: John 3:12 (see ἐπίγειος ).TGL ἐπουράνιος.4

    b. the heavenly regions, i. e. heaven itself, the abode of God and angels: Ephesians 1:3, Ephesians 1:20 (where Lachmann text οὐρανοῖς); Ephesians 2:6; Ephesians 3:10; the lower heavens, or the heaven of the clouds, Ephesians 6:12 (cf. B. D. American edition, under the word ).TGL ἐπουράνιος.5

    c. the heavenly temple or sanctuary: Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 9:23.TGL ἐπουράνιος.6

    2. of heavenly origin and nature: 1 Corinthians 15:48 (opposite to χοϊκός); δωρεά ἐπουράνιος. Hebrews 6:4.TGL ἐπουράνιος.7


    (2033) ἑπτά, οἱ, αἱ, τά, seven: Matthew 12:45; Matthew 15:34; Mark 8:5; Luke 2:36; Acts 6:3, etc.; often in the Apocalypse; οἱ ἑπτά, namely, διάκονοι, Acts 21:8. In Matthew 18:22 it is joined (instead of ἑπτάκις) to the numeral adverb ἑβδομηκοντάκις, in imitation of the Hebrew שֶׁבַע, Psalm 118:164 (Psalms 119:164); Proverbs 24:16; [see ἑβδομηκοντάκις , and cf. Keil, Commentary on Matthew, the passage cited].TGL ἑπτά.2


    (2034) ἑπτάκις, (ἑπτά), seven times: Matthew 18:21; Luke 17:4. [(Pindar, Aristophanes, others.)]TGL ἑπτάκις.2


    (2035) ἑπτακισχίλιοι, -αι, , seven thousand: Romans 11:4. [(Herodotus)]TGL ἑπτακισχίλιοι.2


    (2036) ἔπω see εἶπον.TGL εἶπον.2

    Related entry: εἶπον, 2 aor. act. fr. an obsol. pres. ΕΠΩ [late Epic and in composition; see Veitch] (cf. ἔπος [Curtius § 620]), Ion. ΕΙΠΩ (like ἐρωτάω, εἰρωτ.; ἑλίσσω, εἱλίσσ.); subjune. εἴπω, impv. εἵπέ, inf. εἰπεῖν, ptep. εἰπών; 1 aor. εἶπα (John 10:34 R G T Tr WH, fr. Psalms 81:1-16) 6; Acts 26:15 L T Tr WH; Hebrews 3:10 Lchm. fr. Psalms 94:1-23 Psalms 94:10 add [Mark 9:18 T WH Tr thx.]; Job 29:18; Job 32:8, etc.; Sir. 24:31 (29); 1 Macc. 6:11, etc.; cf. Kühner i. 817, [esp. Veitch s. v. pp. 232, 233]), 2 pers. plur. εἶπας (Matthew 26:25, [64]; Mark 7:32 [not T WH; John 4:17 where T WH again -πες; Luke 20:39]) 3 pers. plur. εἶαν (often in L T Tr WH [i. e. out of the 127 instances in which the choice lies between 3 pers. plur. -πον of the Rec. and -παν, the latter ending has been adopted by L in 56, by T in 82, by Tr in 74, by WH in 104, cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 123], e. g. Matthew 12:2; Matthew 27:6; John 18:30, etc.); impv. εἰπόν (Mark 13:4 L T Tr WH; Luke 10:40 T WH Tr mrg.; Acts 28:26 G L T Tr WH, [also Matthew 4:3 WH; Matthew 18:17 T WH; Matthew 17:17 T WH Tr mrg.; Matthew 24:3 WH; Luke 20:2 T Tr WH; Luke 22:66-67 T Tr WH; John 10:24 T WH], for the Attic εἶπον, cf. W. § 6, 1 k.; [Chandler § 775]; Fritzsche on Mark p. 515 sqq.; [but Win. (p. 85 (81)) regards εἰπόν as impv. of the 2nd aor.; cf., too, Lob. ad Phryn. p. 348; B. 57 (50); esp. Fritz. l. c.]), in the remaining persons εἰπάτω (Revelation 22:17), εἴπατε ([Matthew 10:27; Matthew 21:15]; Matthew 22:4; Matthew 26:18, etc.; [Mark 11:3]; Mark Mark 14:14; Mark 16:7; [Luke 10:10; Luke 13:32; Luke 20:3; Colossians 4:17]), εἰπάτωσαν (Acts 24:20) also freq. in Attic, [Veitch s. v.; WH. App. p. 164; Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 219]; ptep., after the form chiefly Ion., εἴπας ([John 11:28; Tr WH]; Acts 7:37 L T Tr WH [also Acts 22:24; Acts 24:22; Acts 27:35]); the fut. ἐρῶ is from the Epic pres. εἴρω [cf. Lob. Technol. p. 137]; on the other hand, from ΡΕΩ come pf. εἴρηκα, 3 pers. plur. εἰρἠκασιν (Acts 17:28), εἴρηκαν (Revelation 19:3; see λίνομαι), inf. εἰρηκέναι, Hebrews 10:15 L T Tr WH; Pass., pf. 3 pers. sing. εἴρηται ptep. εἰρημένον; plpf. εἰρήκειν; 1 aor. ἐρρέθην (Revelation 6:11; Revelation 11:4 and R G T WH in Matthew 5:21 sqq.; L T Tr WH in Romans 9:12,Romans 9:26; Galatians 3:16), [“strict” (cf. Veitch p. 575)] Attic ἐρρήθην (Matthew 5:21 sqq.; L Tr; R G in Romans 9:12,Romans 9:26; Galatians 3:16; [cf. B. 57 (50); WH. App. p. 166]), ptep. ῥηθείς, ῥηθέν; Sept. for אָתַר; to speak, say, wheather orally or by letter; 1. with an accus. of the obj.; a. with acc. of the thing: εἰπεῖν λόγον, Matthew 8:8 Rec.; John 2:22 [L T Tr WH]; John 7:36; John 18:9,John 18:32; ῥῆμα, Mark 14:72 [Knapp et al.]; εἰπεῖν λόγον εἴς τινα, i. q. βλασφημεῖν, Luke 12:10; also κατά τινος, Matthew 12:32; ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, so to say (a phrase freq. in class. Grk., cf. Weiske, De pleonasmis gr. p. 47; Matthiae § 545; Delitzsch on Hebrews as below; [Kühner § 585, 3; Krüger § 55, 1, 2; Goodwin § 100; W. 449 (419); 317 (298)], Hebrews 7:9, (opp. to ἀκριβεῖ λόγῳ, Plat. rep. 1, 341 b.); τὴν ἀλήθειαν, Mark 5:33; ἀλήθειαν ἐρῶ, 2 Corinthians 12:6; τοῦτο ἀληθὲς εἴρηκας, John 4:18 [W. 464 (433) n.]; τί εἴπω; what shall I say? (the expression of one who is in doubt what to say), John 12:27; πῶς ἐρεῖ τὸ ἀμὴν…; 1 Corinthians 14:16; τί ἐροῦμεν; or τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; what shall we say? i. e. what reply can we make? or, to what does that bring us? only in the Epistle to the Romans [W. § 40, 6] viz. Romans 3:5; Romans 6:1; Romans 7:7; Romans 9:14,Romans 9:30; with πρὸς ταῦτα added, Romans 8:31; εἰπεῖν τι περί τινος, John 7:39; John 10:41. Sayings fromthe Old Testament which are quoted in the New Testament are usually introduced as follows: τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοὑ [L T Tr WH om. τοῦ] κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Matthew 2:17 L T Tr WH, Matthew 2:23; Matthew 4:14; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Matthew 13:35; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 27:9; τὸ εἰρημένον διὰ τοῦ προφ. Acts 2:16; τὸ εἰρημένον, Luke 2:24; Acts 13:40; Romans 4:18; ἐρρέθη Matthew 5:21, etc.; καθὼς εἴρηκεν, Hebrews 4:3. b. with acc. of the pers. to speak of, designate by words: ὅν εἶπον, John 1:15 [(not WH txt.); B. 377 (323); cf. Romans 4:1 WH txt. (say of)]; ὁ ῥηθείς, Matthew 3:3. εἰπεῖν τινα καλῶς, to speak well of one, praise him, Luke 6:26, (εὖ εἰπεῖν τινα, Home. Od. 1, 302); κακῶς, to speak ill of one, Acts 23:5 fr. Exodus 22:28; cf. Kühner § 409, 2; 411, 5; [W. § 32, 1 b. β.; B. 146 (128)]. c. with an ellipsis of the acc. αὐτό (see αὐτός, II. 3) Luke 22:67; John 9:27; John 16:4, etc. σὺεἶπας (sc. αὐτό), i. e. you have just expressed it in words; that's it; it is just as you say: Matthew 26:25,Matthew 26:64; [a rabbinical formula; for exx. cf. Schoettgen or Wetstein on verse Matthew 26:25; al. seem to regard the answer as non-committal, e. g. Origen on verse Matthew 26:64 (opp. iii. 910 De la Rue); Wünsche, Erläut. der Evang. aus Talmud usw. on verse Matthew 26:25; but cf. the ἐγώ εἰμι of Mark 14:62; in Matthew 26:64 WH mrg. take it interrogatively]. 2. the person, to whom a thing is said, is indicated a. by a dat.: εἰπεῖν τί τινι, Luke 7:40, and very often; εἶπον ὑμῖν sc. αὐτό, I (have just) told it you; this is what I mean; let this be the word: Matthew 28:7; cf. Bnhdy. p. 381; Jelf § 403, 1; Goodwin § 19, 5; esp. (for exx.) Herm. Vig. p. 746]. τινὶ περι τινος [cf. W. § 47, 4], Matthew 17:13; John 18:34. to say anything to one by way of censure, Matthew 21:3; to cast in one's teeth, ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολήν, Luke 4:23 to tell what anything means, e. g. τὸ μυστὴριον, Revelation 17:7. b. by the use of a prep.: πρός τινα [cf. B. 172 (150); Krüger § 48, 7, 13], to say (a thing) to one, as Luke 4:23, Luke 5:4, Luke 12:16, and many other places in Luke; to say a thing in reference to one [W. 405 (378)], Mark 12:12; Luke 18:9; Luke 20:19. 3. εἶπον, to say, speak, simply and without an acc. of the obj. i. e. merely to declare in words, to use language; a. with the addition of an adverb or of some other adjunct: ὁμοίως, Matthew 26:35; ὡσαύτως, Matthew 21:30; καθώς, Matthew 28:6; Luke 24:24; John 1:23; John 7:38; εἶπε διὰ παραβολῆς, making use of parable [see διὰ, A. III. 3] he spake, Luke 8:4; ἐν παραβολαῖς, Matthew 22:1; with an instrumental dative: εἶπε λόγῳ, say in (using only) a (single) word, sc. that my servant shall be heald, Matthew 8:8 (where Rec. λόγον); Luke 7:7. b. with the words spoken added in direct discourse; so a hundred times in the historical books of the New Testament, as Matthew 9:4 sq.; Matthew 8:32; [Matthew 15:4 L Tr WH], etc.; 1 Corinthians 12:15; [2 Corinthians 4:6 L text T Tr WH, (cf. 4 below)]; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 3:10; Hebrews 10:7, [Hebrews 10:15 L T Tr WH], Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 12:21; James 2:3, James 2:11; Jude 1:9; Revelation 7:14; πέμψας εἶπεν he said by a messenger or messengers, Matthew 11:2 sq. The following and other phrases are freq. in the Synoptic Gospels: ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν, as Matthew 4:4; Matthew 15:13; καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν, Matthew 24:4; ἀποκριθεῖσα ἡ μήτηρ εἶπεν, Luke 1:60; ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Σίμων εἶπεν, Luke 7:43, etc.; ἀποκριθέντες δὲ εἶπεν [-παν T Tr WH], Luke 20:24; but John usually writes ἀπεκρίθη καὶ εἶπεν: John 1:48 (John 1:49); John 2:19; John 3:10; John 4:10,John 4:13,John 4:17; John 6:26,John 6:29; John 8:16,John 8:20 [R G], John 8:52; John 9:11 [R G L br.] John 9:30,John 9:36 [L Tr mrg. om. WH br. κ. εἶπ.]; John 13:7; John 14:23; John 18:30; — [εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες, Mark 8:28 T WH Tr mrg., cf. Mark 12:26]. c. followed by ὅτι: Matthew 28:7; Mark 16:7; John 6:36; John 7:42; John 8:55; John 11:40; John 16:15; John 18:8; 1 John 1:6,1 John 1:8,1 John 1:10; 1 Corinthians 1:15; 1 Corinthians 14:23 1 Corinthians 15:27 [L br. WH mrg. om. ὅτι]. d. followed by acc. and inf.: τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν Ἀβραὰμ τὸν πατέρα ἡμῶν εὑρηκέναι [WH txt. om. Tr mrg. br. ευρηκ.; cf. 1 b. above] κατὰ σάρκα; Romans 4:1. 4. εἰπεῖν sometimes involves in it the idea of commanding [ cf. B. 275 sq. (237)]: followed by the inf., εἶπε δοθῆναι αὐτῇ φαγεῖν, Mark 5:43; εἰπὲ τῷ ἀδελφῷ μου μερίσασφαι μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ τὴν κληρονομίαν, Luke 12:13; ὅσα ἄν εἴπωσιν ὑμῖν (sc. τηρεῖν [inserted in R G]), τηρεῖτε, Matthew 23:3 (Sap. ix. 8). followed by the acc. and inf., ὁ εἰπὼν ἐκ σκότους φῶς λάμψαι, 2 Corinthians 4:6 [R G L mrg., cf. B. 273 sq. (235); but L txt. T Tr WH read λάμψει, thus changing the construction from the acc. with infin. to direct discourse, see 3 b. above]; εἶπεν αὐτῷ (for ἑαυτῷ, see αὑτοῦ) φωνηθῆναι τοὺς δούλους τούτους, he commanded to be called for him (i. e. to him) these servants, Luke 19:15; cf. W. § 44, 3 b.; Krüger § 55, 3, 13. followed by ἵνα with the subjunc.: Matthew 4:3; Matthew 20:21; Luke 4:3; to εἰπείν is added a dat. of the pers. bidden to do something, Mark 3:9; Luke 10:40; cf. Luke 4:3; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:4. “Moreover, notice that ἵνα and ὄφρα are often used by the later poets after verbs of commanding;” Hermann ad Vig. p. 849; cf. W. § 44, 8; [B. 237 (204)]. 5. By a Hebraism εἰπεῖν ἐν ἑαυτῷ (like בְּלִבּוֹ אָתַר Deuteronomy 8:17; Psalms 10:6 (Psalms 10:6); Psalms 8:1; (Psalms 14:1-7.); Esther 6:6) is equiv. to to think (because thinking is a silent soliloquy): Matthew 9:3; Luke 7:39; Luke 16:3; Luke 18:4 (elsewhere also λέγενι ἐν ἑαυτῷ); and εἰπεῖν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ amounts to the same, Luke 12:45; Romans 10:6; but in other passages εἶπoν, ἔλεγον, ἐν ἑαυτῷ is i. q. ἐν ἀλλήλοις: Matthew 21:38; see λέγω, II. 1 d. 6. εἰπεῖν τινα with a predicate accus. to call, style, one: ἐκείνους εἶπε θεούς, John 10:35; ὑμᾶς εἴρηκα φἰλους John 15:15; (Home. Od. 19, 334; Xen. apol. Sorc. § 15; Lcian. Tim. § 20). [Compare: ἀντ-, ἀπ-, προ- εῖπον.]TGL εἶπον.3


    (2037) Ἔραστος, -ου, , Erastus, (ἐραστός beloved, [cf. Chandler § 325; Lipsius, Gram. Untersuch., p. 30]), the name of two Christians:TGL Ἔραστος.2

    1. the companion of the apostle Paul, Acts 19:22;TGL Ἔραστος.3

    2. the city treasurer of Corinth, Romans 16:23.TGL Ἔραστος.4

    Which of the two is meant in 2 Timothy 4:20 cannot be determined.TGL Ἔραστος.5


    (2038) ἐργάζομαι; deponent middle; imperfect ἐιργαζομην (ἠργαζομην, Acts 18:3 L T Tr WH ; (so elsewhere at times; this variant in augment is found in the aorist also); cf. Winer s Grammar, sec 12, 8; Buttmann , 33 (29f); Stephanus Thesaurus iii. 1970 c.; (Curtius , Das Verbum, i. 124; Cramer, Anecd. 4, 412; Veitch , under the word)); 1 aorist εἰργασάμην (ἠργάσατο, Matthew 25:16; (Matthew 26:10); Mark 14:6, in T WH , (add, 2 John 1:8 WH and Hebrews 11:33 T Tr WH ; cf. references as above)); pf. εἴργασμαι, in a pass. sense (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 38, 7 e.), John 3:21, as often in Greek writings (cf. Veitch , under the word); (ἔργον); Sept. for פָּעַל, עָבַד, sometimes for עָשָׂה.;TGL ἐργάζομαι.2

    1. absolutely,TGL ἐργάζομαι.3

    a. to work, labor, do work: it is opposite to inactivity or idleness, Luke 13:14; John 5:17; John 9:4; 2 Thessalonians 3:10; with addition of ταῖς χερσί, 1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:11; with the accusative of time: νύκτα καί ἡμέραν, 2 Thessalonians 3:8 (but L text T Tr WH the genitive, as in 1 Thessalonians 2:9 (see ἡμέρα , 1 a.); cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 11 and Ellic. on 1 Timothy 5:5); with the predominant idea of working for pay, Matthew 21:28 (ἐν τῷ ἀμπελῶνι); Acts 18:3; 1 Corinthians 9:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:12; according to the conception characteristic of Paul, ἐργαζόμενος he that does works conformed to the law (Germ.der Werkthatige ): Romans 4:4.TGL ἐργάζομαι.4

    b. to trade, to make gains by trading, (cf. our do business): ἐν τίνι, with a thing, Matthew 25:16 (often so by Demosthenes ).TGL ἐργάζομαι.5

    2. transitive,TGL ἐργάζομαι.6

    a. (to work, i. e.) to do, work out: τί, Colossians 3:23; 2 John 1:8 (with which (according to reading of L T Tr text) cf. 1 Corinthians 15:58 end); μηδέν, 2 Thessalonians 3:11 ἔργον, Acts 13:41 (פֹּעַל פָּעַל, Habakkuk 1:5); ἔργον καλόν εἰς τινα, Matthew 26:10; ἐν τίνι (the dative of person (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 218 (205))), Mark 14:6 (Rec. εἰς ἐμέ); ἔργα, wrought, passive, John 3:21; τά ἔργα τοῦ Θεοῦ, what God wishes to be done, John 6:28; John 9:4; τοῦ κυρίου, to give one's strength to the work which the Lord wishes to have done, 1 Corinthians 16:10; τό ἀγαθόν, (Romans 2:10); Ephesians 4:28; πρός τινα, Galatians 6:10; κακόν τίνι τί, Romans 13:10 (τινα τί is more common in Greek writings. (Kühner, § 411, 5)); τί εἰς τινα, 3 John 1:5, with the accusative of virtues or vices, (to work, i. e.) to exercise, perform, commit": δικαιοσύνην, Acts 10:35; Hebrews 11:33, (Psalms 14:2 (Psalms 15:2); Zephaniah 2:3); τήν ἀνομίαν, Matthew 7:23 (Psalms 5:6 and often in Sept.); ἁμαρτίαν, James 2:9. σημεῖον, bring to pass, effect, John 6:30; τά ἱερά, to be busied with the holy things, i. e. to administer those things that pertain to worship, which was the business of priests and among the Jews of the Levites also, 1 Corinthians 9:13; τήν θάλασσαν literally, work the sea (mare exerceo , Justin Martyr , hist. 43, 3), i. e. to be employed on (cf. do business on, Psalms 107:23) and make one's living from it, Revelation 18:17 (so of sailors and fishermen also in native Greek writings, as Aristot. probl. 38, 2 (p. 966{b}, 26); Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 3, 46; App. Punic. 2; (Lucian , de elect. 5; Winer s Grammar, 223 (209))). to cause to exist, produce: τί, so (for R G κατεργάζεται) 2 Corinthians 7:10 L T Tr WH ; James 1:20 L T Tr WH .TGL ἐργάζομαι.7

    b. to work for, earn by working, to acquire, (cf. Germ.erarbeiten ): τήν βρῶσιν, John 6:27 (χρήματα, Herodotus 1, 24; τά ἐπιτήδεια, Xenophon , mem. 2, 8, 2; Demosthenes 1358, 12; ἀργύριον, Plato , Hipp., major edition, p. 282 d.; βίον, Andocides () myst. (18, 42) 144 Bekker; θησαυρούς, Theod. , Proverbs 21:6; βρῶμα, Palaeph. 21, 2; others); according to many interpreters also 2 John 1:8; but see 2 a. above. (Compare: κατεργάζομαι, περιεργάζομαι, προσεργάζομαι.)TGL ἐργάζομαι.8


    (2039) ἐργασία, -ας, , (ἐργάζομαι);TGL ἐργασία.2

    1. equivalent to τὸ ἐργάζεσθαι, a working, performing: ἀκαθαρσίας, Ephesians 4:19.TGL ἐργασία.3

    2. work, business: Acts 19:25 (Xenophon, oec. 6, 8, and others).TGL ἐργασία.4

    3. gain got by work, profit: Acts 16:19; παρέχειν ἐργασίαν τινί, Acts 16:16; Acts 19:24 [yet others refer this to 2 above]; (Xenophon, mem. 3, 10, 1; cyneg. 3, 3; Polybius 4, 50, 3).TGL ἐργασία.5

    4. endeavor, pains [A. V. diligence]: δίδωμι ἐργασίαν, after the Latinism operam do , Luke 12:58 (Hermog. de invent. 3, 5, 7).TGL ἐργασία.6


    (2040) ἐργάτης, -ου, , (ἐργάζομαι);TGL ἐργάτης.2

    1. as in Greek writings a workman, a laborer: usually one who works for hire, Matthew 10:10; Luke 10:7; 1 Timothy 5:18; especially an agricultural laborer, Matthew 9:37; Matthew 20:1, Matthew 20:8; Luke 10:2; James 5:4 (Wis. 17:16); those whose labor artificers employ [i. e. workmen in the restricted sense], Acts 19:25 (opposed to τοῖς τεχνίταις [A. V. craftsmen], Acts 19:24), cf. Bengel at the passage; those who as teachers labor to propagate and promote Christianity among men: 2 Corinthians 11:13; Philippians 3:2; 2 Timothy 2:15, cf. Matthew 9:37; Luke 10:2.TGL ἐργάτης.3

    2. one who does, a worker, perpetrator: τῆς ἀδικίας, Luke 13:27 (τῆς ἀνομίας, 1 Macc. 3:6; τῶν καλῶν καὶ σεμνῶν, Xenophon, mem. 2, 1, 27).TGL ἐργάτης.4


    (2041) ἔργον, ἔργου, τό, anciently Φεργον (German Werk, (English work; cf. Vanicek , p. 922)); the Sept. for פֹּעַל, עֲבֹדָה and countless times for מְלָאכָה and מַעֲשֶׂה; work, i. e.TGL ἔργον.2

    1. business, employment, that with which anyone is occupied: Mark 13:34 (διδόναι τίνι τό ἔργον αὐτοῦ); Acts 14:26 (πληροῦν); 1 Timothy 3:1; thus of the work of salvation committed by God to Christ: διδόναι and τελειουν, John 17:4; of the work to be done by the apostles and other Christian teachers, as well as by the presiding officers of the religious assemblies, Acts 13:2; Acts 15:38; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; Philippians 1:22; τό ἔργον τίνος, genitive of the subjunctive, the work which one does, service which one either performs or ought to perform, 1 Thessalonians 5:13; ἔργον ποιεῖν τίνος to do the work of one (i. e. incumbent upon him), εὐαγγελιστοῦ, 2 Timothy 4:5; τό ἔργον τίνος i. e. assigned by one and to be done for his sake: τό ἔργον τοῦ Θεοῦ τελειουν, used of Christ, John 4:34; (τοῦ) Χριστοῦ (WH text Tr marginal reading κυρίου), Philippians 2:30; τοῦ κυρίου, 1 Corinthians 15:58; 1 Corinthians 16:10; with genitive of thing, εἰς ἔργον διακονίας, Ephesians 4:12, which means either to the work in which the ministry consists, the work performed in undertaking the ministry, or to the execution of the ministry. of that which one undertakes to do, enterprise, undertaking: Acts 5:38 (Deuteronomy 15:10; Wis. 2:12).TGL ἔργον.3

    2. any product whatever, anything accomplished by hand, art, industry, mind (equivalent to ποίημα, κτίσμα): 1 Corinthians 3:13-15; with the addition of τῶν χειρῶν, things formed by the hand of man, Acts 7:41; of the works of God visible in the created world, Hebrews 1:10, and often in the Sept. ; τά ἐν τῇ γῆ ἔργα, the works of nature and of art (Bengel), 2 Peter 3:10; of the arrangements of God for men's salvation: Acts 15:18 Rec. ; τό ἔργον τοῦ Θεοῦ, what God works in man, i. e. a life dedicated to God and Christ, Romans 14:20; to the same effect, substantially, ἔργον ἀγαθόν, Philippians 1:6 (see ἀγαθός , 2); τά ἔργα τοῦ διαβόλου, sins and all the misery that springs from them, 1 John 3:8.TGL ἔργον.4

    3. an act, deed, thing done: the idea of working is emphasized in opposed to that which is less than work, James 1:25; Titus 1:16; τό ἔργον is distinguished from λόγος: Luke 24:19; Romans 15:18; 2 Corinthians 10:11; Colossians 3:17; 2 Thessalonians 2:17; 1 John 3:18 (Sir. 3:8); plural ἐν λόγοις καί ἐν ἔργοις, Acts 7:22 (4 Macc. 5:38 (37); for the same or similar contrasts, common in Greek writings, see Fritzsche on Romans, iii., p. 268f; Bergler on Alciphron , p. 54; Bornemann and Kühner, on Xenophon , mem. 2, 3, 6; Passow , under the word, p. 1159; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, I. 4; Lob. Paralip., pp. 64f, 525f)). ἔργα is used of the acts of God — both as creator, Hebrews 4:10; and as governor, John 9:3; Acts 13:41; Revelation 15:3; of sundry signal acts of Christ, to rouse men to believe in him and to accomplish their salvation: Matthew 11:2 (cf. ἔργα τῆς σοφίας Matthew 11:19 T WH Tr text), and especially in the Gospel of John, as John 5:20, John 5:36; John 7:3; John 10:38; John 14:11; John 15:24, (cf. Grimm, Instit. theol. dogmat., p. 63, edition 2); they are called τά ἔργα τοῦ πατρός, i. e. done at the bidding and by the aid of the Father, John 10:37; John 9:3, cf. John 10:25, John 10:32; John 14:10; καλά, as beneficent, John 10:32; and connected with the verbs δεικνύναι, ποιεῖν, ἐργάζεσθαι, τελειουν. ἔργα is applied to the conduct of men, measured by the standard of religion and righteousness — whether bad, Matthew 23:3; Luke 11:48; John 3:20; Revelation 2:6; Revelation 16:11, etc.; or good, John 3:21; James 2:14, James 2:17, James 2:20-22, James 2:24-26; James 3:13; Revelation 2:5, Revelation 2:9 (Rec. ),Revelation 2:19; Revelation 3:8; νόμος ἔργων, the law which demands good works, Romans 3:27; with a suggestion of toil, or struggle with hindrances, in the phrase καταπαύειν ἀπό τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ, Hebrews 4:10; to recompense one κατά τά ἔργα αὐτοῦ, Romans 2:6; 2 Timothy 4:14; Revelation 2:23 (Psalm 61:13 (Ps. 62:13)), cf. 2 Corinthians 11:15; Revelation 18:6; Revelation 20:12; the singular τό ἔργον is used collectively of an aggregate of actions (German das Handeln ), James 1:4; τίνος, the genitive of person and subjunctive, his whole way of feeling and acting, his aims and endeavors: Galatians 6:4; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 22:12; τό ἔργον τοῦ νόμου, the course of action demanded by the law, Romans 2:15. With epithets: ἀγαθόν ἔργον, i. e. either a benefaction, 2 Corinthians 9:8; plural Acts 9:36; or every good work springing from piety, Romans 2:7; Colossians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:17; Titus 1:16; 2 Timothy 2:21; 2 Timothy 3:17; Hebrews 13:21 (T WH omit ἔργον); plural Ephesians 2:10; or what harmonizes with the order of society, Romans 13:3; Titus 3:1; ἔργον καλόν, a good deed, noble action (see καλός , b. and c.): Matthew 26:10; Mark 14:6; plural (often in Attic writings), Matthew 5:16; 1 Timothy 5:10, 1 Timothy 5:25; 1 Timothy 6:18; Titus 2:7; Titus 3:8, Titus 3:14; Hebrews 10:24; 1 Peter 2:12; τά ἔργα τά ἐν δικαιοσύνη equivalent to τά δίκαια, Titus 3:5; τά ἔργα τοῦ Θεοῦ, the works required and approved by God, John 6:28 (Jeremiah 31:10 (Jeremiah 48:10); 1 Esdr. 7:9, 15), in the same sense ἔργα μου i. e. of Christ, Revelation 2:26; ἔργον πίστεως, wrought by faith, the course of conduct which springs from faith, 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:11; ἔργα ἄξια τῆς μετανοίας, Acts 26:20; ἔργα πεπληρωμένα ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Revelation 3:2; ἔργα πονηρά, Colossians 1:21; 2 John 1:11, cf. John 3:19; John 7:7; 1 John 3:12; ἔργα νεκρά, works devoid of that life which has its source in God, works so to speak unwrought, which at the last judgment will fail of the approval of God and of all reward: Hebrews 6:1; Hebrews 9:14; ἄκαρπα, Ephesians 5:11 (ἄχρηστα, Wis. 3:11; the wicked man μετά τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ συναπολειται, the Epistle of Barnabas 21, 1 [ET]); ἄνομα, 2 Peter 2:8; ἔργα ἀσεβείας, Jude 1:15; τοῦ σκότους, done in darkness, Romans 13:12; Ephesians 5:11; (opposed to ἔργα τοῦ φωτός, Romans 13:12 L marginal reading); in Paul's writings ἔργα νόμου, works demanded by and agreeing with the law (cf. Wieseler, commentary iib. d. Br. an d. Gal., p. 194ff): Romans 3:20, Romans 3:28; Romans 9:32 Rec. ; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:2, Galatians 3:5, Galatians 3:10; and simply ἔργα: Romans 4:2, Romans 4:6; Romans 9:12 (11); Romans 9:32 G L T Tr WH ; Romans 11:6; Ephesians 2:9; 2 Timothy 1:9 (see δικαιόω , 3 b.). τά ἔργα τίνος ποιεῖν, to do works the same as or like to those of another, to follow in action another's example: Abraham's, John 8:39; that of the devil, John 8:41.TGL ἔργον.5

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