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    ἔα — εἴ τις


    (1436) ἔα, an interjection expressive of indignation, or of wonder mixed with fear (derived apparently from the imperative present of the verb ἐάν [according to others a natural instinctive, sound]), frequent in the Attic poets, rare in prose writings (as Plato, Prot., p. 314 d.), Ha! Ah!: Mark 1:24 R G; Luke 4:34; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 32f.TGL ἔα.2


    (1437) ἐάν;TGL ἐάν.2

    I. a conditional particle (derived from εἰ ἄν), which makes reference to time and to experience, introducing something future, but not determining, before the event, whether it is certainly to take place; if, in case, (Latin si ; German wenn; im Fall, dass; falls; wofern); cf., among others, Hermann ad Viger., p. 832; Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 450ff; Winers Grammar, 291f (273f). It is connected:TGL ἐάν.3

    1. with the subjunctive, according to the regular usage of the more ancient and elegant classic writers.TGL ἐάν.4

    a. with the subjunctive present: Matthew 6:22 (ἐὰν οὖν ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς , if it be the case, as to which I do not know, that thine eye etc.); Matthew 6:23; Matthew 17:20; Luke 10:6; John 7:17; John 8:54 [R G L marginal reading]; John 9:31; John 11:9,John 11:10; Acts 5:38; Acts 13:41; Romans 2:25; 1 Corinthians 9:16; Galatians 5:2; 1 Timothy 1:8 [not Lachmann]; Hebrews 13:23; 1 John 1:9; 1 John 2:3, 1 John 2:15 etc.TGL ἐάν.5

    b. with the subjunctive aorist, corresponding to the Latin future perfect: Matthew 4:9 (ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς μοι, if thou shalt have worshipped me); Matthew 5:46; Matthew 9:21; Mark 3:24; Mark 9:50; Luke 14:34; Luke 17:4; Luke 20:28; John 5:43; John 11:57; Romans 7:2; Romans 10:9; 1 Corinthians 7:8, 1 Corinthians 7:39; 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 Corinthians 16:10 (ἐὰν ἔλθῃ Τιμόθεος; for although he was already on his way to Corinth, yet some hindrance might still prevent his arriving); 2 Corinthians 9:4; Galatians 6:1; James 2:2; 1 John 5:16 [Lachmann present]; Revelation 3:20, and often; also in the oratio obliqua, where the better Greek writers use the optative: John 9:22; John 11:57; Acts 9:2 (Winers Grammar, 294 (276); [cf. Buttmann, 224 (193)]). The difference between the present and the aorist may be seen especially from the following passages: 2 Timothy 2:5 ἐὰν δὲ καὶ ἀθλῇ τις, οὐ στεφανοῦται, ἐὰν μὴ νομίμως ἀθλήσῃ, 1 Corinthians 14:23 ἐὰν οὖν συνέλθῃ ἐκκλησία... καὶ πάντες γλώσσαις λαλῶσιν, εἰσέλθωσι δὲ ἰδιῶται ἀπιστοι, 1 Corinthians 14:24 ἐὰν δὲ πάντες προφητεύωσιν, εἰσέλθῃ δέ τις ἄπιστος, Matthew 21:21 ἐὰν ἔχητε πίστιν καὶ μὴ διακριθῆτε. Also εἰ ("quod per se nihil significat praeter conditionem ," Klotz, the passage cited, p. 455) and ἐάν are distinguished in propositions subjoined the one to the other [Winer's Grammar, 296 (277f)]: John 13:17 εἰ ταῦτα οἴδατε, μακάριοί ἐστε, ἐὰν ποιῆτε αὐτά, John 3:12; 1 Corinthians 7:36; in statements antithetic, Acts 5:38; or parallel, Mark 3:24-26. Finally, where one of the evangelists uses εἰ, another has ἐάν, but so that each particle retains its own force, inasmuch as one and the same thing is differently conceived of by the different minds: Mark 9:43 ἐὰν σκανδαλίζῃ [-λίσῃ L marginal reading T WH text] χείρ σου, and Mark 9:47 ἐὰν ὀφθαλμός σου σκανδαλίζῃ σε, i. e. if so be that, etc.; on the other hand, Matthew, in Matthew 18:8 and Matthew 5:29 concerning the same thing says εἰ.TGL ἐάν.6

    c. irregularly, but to be explained as an imitation of the Hebrew אִם which is also a particle of time (cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, under the word, 4), ἐάν with the subjunctive aorist is used of things which the speaker or writer thinks will certainly take place, where ὅταν, when, whenever, should have been used: ἐὰν ὑψωθῶ, John 12:32; ἐὰν πορευθῶ, John 14:3; ἐὰν φανερωθῇ, 1 John 2:28 (L T Tr WH, for ὅταν R G); 1 John 3:2; ἐὰν ἀκούσητε, Hebrews 3:7 from Psalms 94:8 (Psalms 95:8); (ἐὰν εἰσέλθῃς εἰς τὸν νυμφῶνα, Tobit 6:17 (Tobit 6:16) [others, ὅταν]; ἐὰν ἀποθάνω, θάψον με, Tobit 4:3, cf. Tobit 4:4 ὅταν ἀποθάνῃ, θάψον αὐτήν; for אִם when, Isaiah 24:13; Amos 7:2).TGL ἐάν.7

    d. sometimes when the particle is used with the subjunctive aorist the futurity of a thing is not so much affirmed as imagined, it being known to be something which never could happen: ἐὰν εἴπῃ ποῦς, if the foot should say, or were to say, 1 Corinthians 12:15; ἐὰν ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς γλώσσαις λαλῶν, 1 Corinthians 14:6.TGL ἐάν.8

    2. By a somewhat negligent use, met with from the time of Aristotle on, ἐάν is connected also with the indicative [cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 468ff; Kühner, § 575 Anm. 5; Winers Grammar, 295 (277); Buttmann, 221f (191f); Tdf. Proleg., p. 124f; WHs Appendix, p. 171; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word; Vincent and Dickson, Modern Greek, 2nd edition, Appendix, § 77]; andTGL ἐάν.9

    a. with the future indicative, in meaning akin, as is well known, to the subjunctive: [ἐὰν δύο συμφωνήσουσιν, Matthew 18:19 T Tr]; ἐὰν οὗτοι σιωπήσουσι, Luke 19:40 L T Tr WH; ἐὰν... ὁδηγήσει, Acts 8:31 T Tr WH, (ἐὰν βεβηλώσουσιν αὐτά, Leviticus 22:9); but alsoTGL ἐάν.10

    b. with the present indicative: ἐὰν δανείζετε, Luke 6:34 L marginal reading Tr text; ἐὰν στήκετε, 1 Thessalonians 3:8 T Tr text WH; ἐάν τε ἀποθνήσκομεν, Romans 14:8 Lachmann with an preterite indicative, but one having the force of a present: ἐὰν [Lachmann ἂν] οἴδαμεν, 1 John 5:15 without variant.TGL ἐάν.11

    3. ἐάν joined with other particles;TGL ἐάν.12

    a. ἐὰν δὲ καί, but if also, but even if, [A. V. but and if (retained by R. V. in 1 Cor.)]; with the subjunctive: Matthew 18:17; 1 Corinthians 7:11, 1 Corinthians 7:28; 2 Timothy 2:5.TGL ἐάν.13

    b. ἐὰν καί: Galatians 6:1.TGL ἐάν.14

    c. ἐὰν μή, if not, unless, except; with the subjunctive present: Matthew 10:13; Luke 13:3 [Lachmann text aorist]; Acts 15:1 [Rec. ]; 1 Corinthians 8:8; 1 Corinthians 9:16 [R G L marginal reading T WH marginal reading]; James 2:17; 1 John 3:21; with the subjunctive aorist: Matthew 6:15; Matthew 18:35; Mark 3:27; John 3:3; John 8:24; 1 Corinthians 14:6, 1 Corinthians 14:9; Romans 10:15; [Romans 11:23 R L]; 2 Timothy 2:5; Revelation 2:5, Revelation 2:22 [R L], and often with the indicative present: ἐὰν μὴ πιστεύετε, John 10:38 Tdf. In some passages, although the particles ἐὰν μή retain their native force of unless, if not, yet, so far as the sense is concerned, one may translate them, but that, without: Matthew 26:42 (the cup cannot pass by without my drinking. it); οὐ γάρ ἐστιν κρυπτόν, ἐὰν μή φανερωθῇ (Treg. ), there is nothing hid, but that it shall be made manifest (properly, nothing whatever is hid, except that it should be made manifest), Mark 4:22; οὐδείς ἐστιν, ὃς ἀφῆκεν οἰκίαν... ἐὰν μὴ λάβῃ, but that shall receive (properly, unless he shall receive... it cannot be said that anyone has left), Mark 10:29, Mark 10:30; [cf. Buttmann, § 149, 6. On the supposed use of ἐὰν μή (εἰ μή) as equivalent to ἀλλά, cf. Meyer on Matthew 12:4; Galatians 1:7; Galatians 2:16; Fritzsche on Romans 14:14 at the end; Ellicott and Lightfoot on Galatians, at the passages cited. See εἰ , III. 8 c. β.]TGL ἐάν.15

    d. ἐάνπερ [L Tr separately, ἐάν περ] if only, if indeed: Hebrews 3:6 (where L brackets περ, and T Tr WH read ἐάν), Hebrews 3:14; Hebrews 6:3; it occurs neither in the Sept. nor in the O. T. Apocrypha; on its use in Greek writings cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 483f.TGL ἐάν.16

    e. ἐάν τε... ἐάν τε, sive ... sive , whether... or: Romans 14:8; (often in Sept. for אִם... אִם, as Exodus 19:13; Leviticus 3:1; Deuteronomy 18:3). Cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 479f; Kühner, § 541; [Buttmann, 221 (191)].TGL ἐάν.17

    f. κἄν for καὶ ἐάν, see κἄν .TGL ἐάν.18

    II. The classic use of the conditional particle ἐάν also in the contracted form ἄν (see p. 34b above) seems to have led the biblical writers of both Testaments to connect ἐάν, with relative pronouns and adverbs instead of the potential particle ἄν, as ὃς ἐάν [so Tdf. in 12 places], ἐάν [so Tdf. uniformly], etc. (this use among secular writings is very doubtful, cf. Winers Grammar, p. 310 (291); Buttmann, 72 (63)): Matthew 5:19; Matthew 10:14 [R G]; Matthew 15:5; Mark 6:22; Luke 9:48 [WH ἄν]; Luke 17:33; Acts 7:7 [R G T]; 1 Corinthians 6:18; Ephesians 6:8 [R G L text]; 3 John 1:5, etc.; ὅπου ἐάν, Matthew 8:19; Matthew 26:13; Mark 6:10 [L Tr ἄν]. ὁσάκις ἐάν, Revelation 11:6. οὗ ἐάν, 1 Corinthians 16:6 (1 Macc. 6:36). καθὸ ἐάν, 2 Corinthians 8:12 [Tdf. ἄν; ὅστις ἐάν, Galatians 5:10 T Tr WH; ἥτις ἐάν, Acts 3:23 Tdf. For many other examples see Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, ἐάν, 3.] In many places the manuscripts vary between ἐάν and ἄν; cf. ἄν , II., p. 34; [and especially Tdf. Proleg., p. 96].TGL ἐάν.19

    Related entry: ἐάνπερ, see ἐάν, I. 3 d.TGL ἐάν.20


    (1438) ἑαυτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ, etc. or (contracted) αὑτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ (see p. 87); plural ἑαυτῶν; dative -οῖς, -αῖς, -οῖς, etc.; reflexive pronoun of the 3rd person. It is used:TGL ἑαυτοῦ.2

    1. of the 3rd person singular and plural, to denote that the agent and the person acted on are the same; as, σώζειν ἑαυτόν, Matthew 27:42; Mark 15:31; Luke 23:35; ὑψοῦν ἑαυτόν, Matthew 23:12, etc. ἑαυτῷ, ἑαυτόν are also often added to middle verbs: διεμερίσαντο ἑαυτοῖς, John 19:24 (Xenophon, mem. 1, 6, 13 ποιεῖσθαι ἑαυτῷ φίλον); cf. Winers Grammar, § 38, 6; [Buttmann, § 135, 6]. Of the phrases into which this pronoun enters we notice the following: ἀφ’ ἑαυτοῦ, see ἀπό , II. 2 d. aa.; δἰ ἑαυτοῦ, of itself, i. e. in its own nature, Romans 14:14 [Tr L text read αὐτ.]; ἐν ἑαυτῷ, see in διαλογίζεσθαι, λέγειν, εἰπεῖν. εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἔρχεσθαι to come to oneself, to a better mind, Luke 15:17 (Diodorus 13, 95). καθ’ ἑαυτόν, by oneself, alone: Acts 28:16; James 2:17. παρ’ ἑαυτῷ, by him, i. e. at his home, 1 Corinthians 16:2 (Xenophon, mem. 3, 13, 3). πρὸς ἑαυτόν, to himself i. e. to his home, Luke 24:12 [R G; T omits, WH (but with αὑτ.) reject, L Tr (but the latter with αὐτ.) brackets, the verse]; John 20:10 [T Tr αὐτ. (see αὑτοῦ )]; with [cf. our to] himself, i. e. in his own mind, προσεύχεσθαι, Luke 18:11 [Tdf. omits], (2 Macc. 11:13); in the genitive, joined with a noun, it has the force of a possessive pronoun, as τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεκρούς: Matthew 8:22; Luke 9:60.TGL ἑαυτοῦ.3

    2. It serves as reflexive also to the 1st and 2nd person, as often in classic Greek, when no ambiguity is thereby occasioned; thus, ἐν ἑαυτοῖς equivalent to ἐν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, Romans 8:23; ἑαυτούς equivalent to ἡμᾶς αὐτούς, 1 Corinthians 11:31; ἀφ’ ἑαυτοῦ equivalent to ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ [read by L Tr WH], John 18:34; ἑαυτόν equivalent to σεαυτόν [read by L T Tr WH], Romans 13:9; ἑαυτοῖς for ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς, Matthew 23:31, etc.; cf. Matthiae, § 489 II.; Winers Grammar, § 22, 5; [Buttmann, § 127, 15].TGL ἑαυτοῦ.4

    3. It is used frequently in the plural for the reciprocal pronoun ἀλλήλων, ἀλλήλοις, ἀλλήλους, reciprocally, mutually, one another: Matthew 16:7; Matthew 21:38; Mark 10:26 [Tr marginal reading WH αὐτόν]; Mark 16:3; Luke 20:5; Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 3:13, Colossians 3:16; 1 Peter 4:8, 1 Peter 4:10; see Matthiae § 489 III.; Kühner, ii., p. 497f; Bernhardy (1829), p. 273; [Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians 3:13].TGL ἑαυτοῦ.5


    (1439) ἐάω, -ῶ; imperfect εἴων; future ἐάσω; 1 aorist εἴασα; from Homer down;TGL ἐάω.2

    1. to allow, permit, let: followed by the infinitive, οὐκ ἂν εἴασε διορυγῆναι [T Tr WH -χθῆναι], Matthew 24:43; by the accusative of the person and the infinitive, Luke 4:41 (οὐκ εἴα αὐτὰ λαλεῖν); Acts 14:16; Acts 23:32; Acts 27:32; Acts 28:4; 1 Corinthians 10:13; by the accusative alone, when the infinitive is easily supplied from the context, οὐκ εἴασεν αὐτούς, namely, πορευθῆναι, Acts 16:7; οὐκ εἴων αὐτόν, namely, εἰσελθεῖν, Acts 19:30; [cf. Winer's Grammar, 476 (444)].TGL ἐάω.3

    2. τινά, to suffer one to do what he wishes, not to restrain, to let alone: Revelation 2:20 Rec. ; Acts 5:38 R G; ἐᾶτε namely, αὐτούς, is spoken by Christ to the apostles, meaning, 'do not resist them, let them alone,' (the following ἕως τούτου is to be separated from what precedes; [others connect the words closely, and render 'suffer them to go even to this extreme'; but cf. Meyer at the passage, Weiss edition]), Luke 22:51.TGL ἐάω.4

    3. To give up, let go, leave: τὰς ἀγκύρας... εἴων εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, they let down into the sea [i. e., abandoned; cf. B. D. American edition, p. 3009a bottom], Acts 27:40. [Compare: προσεάω.]TGL ἐάω.5


    (1440) ἑβδομήκοντα, οἱ, αἱ, τά, [from Herodotus down], seventy: Acts 7:14 [here Recelz ἑβδομηκονταπέντε]; Acts 23:23; Acts 27:37; οἱ ἑβδομήκοντα [ἑβδ. δύο, L brackets WH brackets], the seventy disciples whom Jesus sent out in addition to the twelve apostles: Luke 10:1, Luke 10:17. [B. D. American edition, under the phrase Seventy Disciples.]TGL ἑβδομήκοντα.2

    Related entry: [ἑβδομηκονταέξ for ἑβδομηκοντα ἕξ, seventy-six: Acts 27:37 Rec.]TGL ἑβδομήκοντα.3

    Related entry: [ἑβδομηκονταπέντε, seventy-five: Acts 7:14 Recelz (Genesis 25:7; Exodus 39:6 (Exodus 38:27); 1 Esdr. 5:12)]TGL ἑβδομήκοντα.4


    (1441) ἑβδομηκοντάκις, [Genesis 4:24], seventy times: ἑβδομηκοντάκις ἑπτά, seventy times seven times, i. e. countless times, Matthew 18:22 [cf. Winers Grammar, § 37, 5 Note 2; Buttmann, 30 (26) and see ἑπτά , at the end; others (cf. R. V. marginal reading) seventy-seven times, see Meyer at the passage].TGL ἑβδομηκοντάκις.2


    (1442) ἕβδομος, , -ον, seventh: John 4:52; Hebrews 4:4; Jude 1:14; Revelation 8:1; Revelation 11:15, etc. [From Homer down.]TGL ἕβδομος.2


    (1443) Ἐβέρ [Rst G], more correctly [L T WH] Ἔβερ [on the accent in manuscripts see Tdf. Proleg., p. 103; Treg. Ἔβ., cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 107; WH. Introductory § 408; cf. B. D. under the word Heber], , Eber or Heber, indeclinable proper name of a Hebrew: Luke 3:35 (Genesis 10:24).TGL Ἐβέρ.2


    (1444) Ἑβραϊκός, , -όν, Hebrew: Luke 23:38 (R G L brackets Tr marginal reading brackets).TGL Ἑβραϊκός.2


    (1445) Ἑβραῖος [WH Ἐβρ., see their Introductory § 408], -ου, , a Hebrew (עִבְרִי a name first given to Abraham, Genesis 14:13, afterward transferred to his posterity descended from Isaac and Jacob; by it in the O. T. the Israelites are both distinguished from and designated by foreigners, as afterward by Pausanias, Plutarch, others.TGL Ἑβραῖος.2

    The name is now generally derived from עֵבֶר for הַנָּהָר עֵבֶר, i. e. of the region beyond the Euphrates, whence עִבְרִי equivalent to one who comes from the region beyond the Euphrates; Genesis 14:13 Sept. περάτης. Cf. Gesenius, Gesch. d. hebr. Sprache u. Schrift, p. 11f; Thesaurus, ii., p. 987; Knobel, Völkertafel der Genesis, p. 176ff; Bleek, Einl. in d. A. T. edition 1, p. 73f. [English translation, i. 76f]; [B. D. under the word Hebrew. For Synonym: see Ἰουδαῖος .]).TGL Ἑβραῖος.3

    In the N. T.TGL Ἑβραῖος.4

    1. anyone of the Jewish or Israelitish nation: 2 Corinthians 11:22; Philippians 3:5. (In this sense Euseb. h. e. 2, 4, 3 calls Philo the Alexandrian Jew, Ἑβραῖος, although his education was Greek, and he had little [if any] knowledge even of the Hebrew language; and in Praep. evang. 8, 8, 34 he applies the same word to Aristobulus, who was both an Alexandrian, and a Greek-speaking Jew.)TGL Ἑβραῖος.5

    2. In a narrower sense those are called Ἑβραῖοι, who lived in Palestine and used the language of the country, i. e. Chaldee; from whom are distinguished οἱ Ἑλληνισταί, which see. That name adhered to them even after they had gone over to Christianity: Acts 6:1. (Philo in his de conf. lingg. § 26 makes a contrast between Ἑβραῖοι and ἡμεῖς; and in his de congr. erud. grat. § 8 he calls Greek ἡμετέρα διάλεκτος. Hence, in this sense he does not reckon himself as a Hebrew.)TGL Ἑβραῖος.6

    3. All Jewish Christians, whether they spoke Aramaic or Greek, equivalent to πιστοὶ ἐξ Ἑβραίων; so in the heading of the Epistle to the Hebrews; called by Eusebius, h. e. 3, 4, 2 οἱ ἐξ Ἑβραίων ὄντες. [Cf. K. Wieseler, Unters. u. d. Hebräerbrief, 2te Hälfte. Kiel, 1861, pp. 25-30.]TGL Ἑβραῖος.7


    (1446) Ἑβραΐς [WH Ἐβρ., see their Introductory § 408], -ίδος, , Hebrew, the Hebrew language; not that however in which the O. T. was written, but the Chaldee (not Syro-Chaldaic, as it is commonly but incorrectly called; cf. A. Th. Hoffmann, Grammat. Syriac., p. 14), which at the time of Jesus and the apostles had long superseded it in Palestine: Acts 21:40; Acts 22:2; Acts 26:14; Ἑβραΐς φωνή, 4 Macc. 12:7; 16:15. [Cf. B. D. , under the phrase, Shemitic Languages etc.; ibid. American edition, under the phrase, Language of the New Testament, Kautzsch p. 17f.; Neubauer in Studia Biblica (Oxford, 1885) pp. 39-74.]TGL Ἑβραΐς.2


    (1447) Ἑβραϊστί [WH Ἐβρ., see their Introductory § 408], adverb, (ἑβραΐζω), in Hebrew, i. e. in Chaldee (see the foregoing word and references): John 5:2; John 19:13, John 19:17, John 19:20; [John 20:16 T Tr WH L brackets]; Revelation 9:11; Revelation 16:16. [Sir. prol. line 13.]TGL Ἑβραϊστί.2


    (1448) ἐγγίζω; imperfect ἤγγιζον; Attic future ἐγγιῶ (James 4:8 [Buttmann 37 (32); Winer's Grammar § 13, 1 c.]); 1 aorist ἤγγισα; perfect ἤγγικα (ἐγγύς); in Greek writings from Polybius and Diodorus on; Sept. for נִגַשׁ and קָרַב.TGL ἐγγίζω.2

    1. transitive, to bring near, to join one thing to another: Polybius 8, 6, 7; Sept. , Genesis 48:10; Isaiah 5:8.TGL ἐγγίζω.3

    2. intransitive, to draw or come near, to approach; absolutely, Matthew 21:34; Luke 18:40; [Luke 19:41]; Luke 21:28; Luke 22:1; Luke 24:15; Acts 7:17; Acts 21:33; Acts 23:15; [Hebrews 10:25]; perfect ἤγγικε, has come nigh, is at hand: βασιλ. τοῦ θεοῦ, Matthew 3:2; Matthew 4:17; Matthew 10:7; Mark 1:15; Luke 10:11; with the addition ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς, Luke 10:9; ἐρήμωσις, Luke 21:20; ὥρα, Matthew 26:45; παραδιδούς με, Matthew 26:46; [Mark 14:42 (where Tdf. ἤγγισεν)]; καιρός, Luke 21:8; ἡμέρα, Romans 13:12; τὸ τέλος, 1 Peter 4:7; παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου, James 5:8. Construed with the dative of the person or the place approached: Luke 7:12; Luke 15:1, Luke 15:25; Luke 22:47: Acts 9:3; Acts 10:9; Acts 22:6; ἐγγίζειν τῷ θεῷ (in the Sept. used especially of the priests entering the temple to offer sacrifices or to perform other ministrations there, Exodus 19:22; Exodus 34:30; Leviticus 10:3, etc.): to worship God, Matthew 15:8 Rec. , from Isaiah 29:13; to turn one's thoughts to God, to become acquainted with him, Hebrews 7:19; James 4:8; θεὸς ἐγγίζει τινί, God draws near to one in the bestowment of his grace and help, James 4:8. Followed by εἰς and the accusative of the place: Matthew 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 18:35; Luke 19:29; Luke 24:28; [followed by πρός with the dative, Luke 19:37, see Buttmann, § 147, 28; others regard this as a pregnant construction, cf. Winer's Grammar, §§ 48, e.; 66, 2 d.]; μέχρι θανάτου ἤγγισε, to draw nigh unto, be at the point of, death, Philippians 2:30 (ἐγγίζειν εἰς θάνατον, Job 33:22); with an adverb of place, ὅπου κλέπτης οὐκ ἐγγίζει, Luke 12:33.TGL ἐγγίζω.4

    [Compare: προσεγγίζω.]TGL ἐγγίζω.5


    (1449) ἐγγράφω [T WH ἐνγρ., see ἐν , III. 3]: perfect passive ἐγγέγραμμαι; [from Aeschylus and Herodotus down]; to engrave; inscribe, write in or on: τί, passive with the dative of the means [with] and followed by ἐν, with the dative of the place (in minds, tablets), 2 Corinthians 3:2, 2 Corinthians 3:3; to record, enrol: τὰ ὀνόματα, passive Luke 10:20 T Tr WH.TGL ἐγγράφω.2


    (1450) ἔγγυος, -ου, , , a surety, (Cicero and Vulg. sponsor): κρείττονος διαθήκης ἔγγυος, he by whom we get full assurance of the more excellent covenant made by God with us, and of the truth and stability of the promises connected with it, Hebrews 7:22. (2 Macc. 10:28; Sir. 29:15f; Xenophon, vect. 4, 20; Aeschines Epistles 11, 12, p. 128 a.; Aristotle, oec. 2, 22 [vol. 2, p. 1350a, 19], Polybius, Diodorus, others.)TGL ἔγγυος.2


    (1451) ἐγγύς, adverb, (from ἐν and γυῖον [limb, hand], at hand; [but rather allied with ἄγχι, ἄγχω, anxious, anguish, etc.; see Curtius § 166; Vanicek p.22]), [from Homer down], Sept. for קָרוֹב; near;TGL ἐγγύς.2

    1. of place and postition;TGL ἐγγύς.3

    a. proper: absolute John 19:42, [cf. also John 19:20 G L T Tr WH (but see below)]; with genitive (Matthiae § 339, 1 p. 812; Winer's Grammar 195 (183); [471 (439); Buttmann § 132, 24]), Luke 19:11; John 3:23; John 6:19, John 6:23; John 11:18, John 11:54; John 19:20 [Rec., but see above]; Acts 1:12; with dative (Matthiae § 386, 6; Kuhner § 423, 13; [Jelf § 592, 2]), Acts 9:38; Acts 27:8.TGL ἐγγύς.4

    b. tropically; οἱ ἐγγύς, those who are near of access to God i. e. Jews, and οἱ μακράν, those who are alien from the true God and the blessings of the theocracy, i. e. Gentiles: Ephesians 2:17 (cf. Isaiah 57:19); ἐγγὺς γίνεσθαι, to be brought near, namely to the blessings of the kingdom of God, Ephesians 2:13, (so with the Rabbins not infrequently to make nigh is equivalent to to make a proselyte, cf. Wetstein at the passage; [Schöttgen, Horae etc. 1:761f; Valck. Schol. 1:363]); ἐγγύς σου τὸ ῥῆμά ἐστιν, near thee i. e. at hand, already, as it were, in thy mind, Romans 10:8 from Deuteronomy 30:14, [cf. Buttmann § 129, 11; Winer's Grammar 465 (434)].TGL ἐγγύς.5

    2. of time; concerning things imminent and soon to come to pass: Matthew 24:32; Matthew 26:18; Mark 13:28; Luke 21:30-31; John 2:13; John 6:4; John 7:2; John 11:55; Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:10; of the near advent of persons: κύριος ἐγγύς, of Christ's return from heaven, Philippians 4:5 (in another sense, of God in Psalm 144:18 (Psalms 145:18)); with the addition ἐπὶ θύραις, at the door, Matthew 24:33; Mark 13:29; ἐγγὺς κατάρας, near to being cursed, Hebrews 6:8; ἀφανισμοῦ, soon to vanish, Hebrews 8:13.TGL ἐγγύς.6


    (1452) ἐγγύτερον, neuter of the comparitive ἐγγύτερος (from ἐγγύς), used adverbially, nearer: Romans 13:11.TGL ἐγγύτερον.2


    (1453) ἐγείρω; future ἐγερῶ; 1 aorist ἤγειρα; passive, present ἐγείρομαι, imperative 2 person singular ἐγείρου (Mark 2:9 Tr WH), Luke 8:54 (where L Tr WH ἔγειρε), 2 person plural ἐγείρεσθε; perfect ἐγήγερμαι; 1 aorist ἠγέρθην [cf. Buttmann, 52 (45); Winer's Grammar, § 38, 1]; 1 future ἐγερθήσομαι; middle, 1 aorist imperative ἔγειραι Rec. ; but, after good manuscripts, Griesbach has in many passages and lately L T Tr WH have everywhere in the N. T. restored ἔγειρε, present active imperative used intransitively and employed as a formula for arousing; properly, rise, i. e. Up! Come! cf. ἄγε ; so in Euripides, Iph. A. 624; Aristophanes ran. 340; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 55; [Buttmann, 56 (49), 144f (126f); Kühner, § 373, 2]; Sept. generally for הֵעִיר and הֵקִים; to arouse, cause to rise;TGL ἐγείρω.2

    1. as in Greek writings from Homer down, to arouse from sleep, to awake: Acts 12:7; [Mark 4:38 T Tr WH]; passive to be awaked, wake up, [A. V. arise, often including thus the subsequent action (cf. 3 below)]: Matthew 25:7; Mark 4:27; [ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕπνου, Matthew 1:24 L T Tr WH]; ἐγερθείς with the imperative Matthew 2:13, Matthew 2:20; with a finite verb, Matthew 2:14, Matthew 2:21; Matthew 8:26; [Luke 8:24 R G L Tr marginal reading]; ἐγείρεσθε, Matthew 26:46; Mark 14:42. Metaphorically, ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι, to arise from a state of moral sloth to an active life devoted to God, Romans 13:11; likewise ἔγειρε [Rec. -ραι] arise, καθεύδων, Ephesians 5:14.TGL ἐγείρω.3

    2. to arouse from the sleep of death, to recall the dead to life: with νεκρούς added, John 5:21; Acts 26:8; 2 Corinthians 1:9. ἔγειρε [Rec. -ραι] arise, Mark 5:41; passive ἐγείρου, Luke 8:54 [R G T]; ἐγέρθητι, arise from death, Luke 7:14; ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροί, Matthew 11:5; Luke 7:22; Luke 20:37; 1 Corinthians 15:15, 1 Corinthians 15:16, 1 Corinthians 15:29, 1 Corinthians 15:32 (Isaiah 26:19); ἐγείρειν ἐκ νεκρῶν, from the company of the dead [cf. Winers Grammar, 123 (117); Buttmann, 89 (78)], John 12:1, John 12:9; Acts 3:15; Acts 4:10; Acts 13:30; Romans 4:24; Romans 8:11; Romans 10:9; Galatians 1:1; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 2:12; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; Hebrews 11:19; 1 Peter 1:21; passive, Romans 6:4, Romans 6:9; Romans 7:4; 1 Corinthians 15:12, 1 Corinthians 15:20; John 2:22; John 21:14; Mark 6:16 [T WH omits; Tr brackets ἐκ νεκρ.]; Luke 9:7; [Matthew 17:9 L T Tr WH text]; ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν, Matthew 14:2; Matthew 27:64; Matthew 28:7 (νεκρὸν ἐκ θανάτου καὶ ἐξ ᾅδου, Sir. 48:5; for הֵקִיץ, 2 Kings 4:31); ἐγείρειν simply: Acts 5:30; Acts 10:40; Acts 13:37; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 2 Corinthians 4:14; passive, Matthew 16:21; Matthew 17:23 [L WH marginal reading ἀναστήσεται]; [Matthew 20:19 T Tr text WH text]; Matthew 26:32; Matthew 27:63; [Mark 6:16 T WH (see above)]; Mark 16:6; Luke 24:6 [WH reject the clause], Luke 24:34; Romans 4:25; 1 Corinthians 15:4, etc.TGL ἐγείρω.4

    3. in later usage generally to cause to rise, raise, from a seat, bed, etc.; passive and middle to rise, arise; usedTGL ἐγείρω.5

    a. of one sitting: ἐγείρεται [L Tr WH ἠγέρθη] ταχύ, John 11:29, cf. John 11:20; present active imperative ἔγειρε (see above), Mark 10:49 [not Rec. ], cf. Mark 10:46; hence (like the Hebrew קוּם, Genesis 22:3; 1 Chronicles 22:19), in the redundant manner spoken of under the word ἀνίστημι, II. 1 c. it is used before verbs of going, etc.: ἐγερθεὶς ἠκολούθει [-ησεν R G] αὐτῷ, Matthew 9:19; ἔγειρε [R G -ραι] καὶ μέτρησον, Revelation 11:1.TGL ἐγείρω.6

    b. of one reclining: ἐγείρεται ἐκ τοῦ δείπνου, John 13:4; ἐγείρεσθε, John 14:31.TGL ἐγείρω.7

    c. of one lying, to raise up: ἤγειρεν αὐτόν, Acts 10:26; ἐγέρθητε arise, Matthew 17:7; ἔγειρε (see above) Acts 3:6 [L Tr text brackets]; ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, he rose from the earth, Acts 9:8; to [raise up, i. e.] draw out an animal from a pit, Matthew 12:11.TGL ἐγείρω.8

    d. of one 'down' with disease, lying sick: active, Mark 9:27; Acts 3:7; ἐγερεῖ αὐτὸν κύριος, will cause him to recover, James 5:15; passive Matthew 8:15; ἔγειρε ([Rec. -ραι, so Griesbach (doubtfully in Matthew)], see above) arise: Matthew 9:5; John 5:8; Acts 3:6 [T WH omit; Tr brackets].TGL ἐγείρω.9

    4. To raise up, produce, cause to appear;TGL ἐγείρω.10

    a. to cause to appear, bring before the public (anyone who is to attract the attention of men): ἤγειρε τῷ Ἰσραὴλ σωτῆρα, Acts 13:23 Rec. ; ἤγειρεν αὐτοῖς τὸν Δαυεὶδ εἰς βασιλέα, Acts 13:22 (so הֵקִים, Judges 2:18; Judges 3:9, Judges 3:15); passive ἐγείρομαι, to come before the public, to appear, arise: Matthew 11:11; Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; Luke 7:16; John 7:52 [cf. Winers Grammar, 266 (250); Buttmann, 204 (177)]; contextually, to appear before a judge: Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31.TGL ἐγείρω.11

    b. ἐπί τινα to raise up, incite, stir up, against one; passive to rise against: Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:10.TGL ἐγείρω.12

    c. to raise up i. e. cause to be born: τέκνα τινί, Matthew 3:9; Luke 3:8; κέρας σωτηρίας, Luke 1:69 (see ἀνίστημι , I c. ἐξανίστημι, 1); θλῖψιν τοῖς δεσμοῖς μου, to cause affliction to arise to my bonds, i. e. the misery of my imprisonment to be increased by tribulation, Philippians 1:16-17 L T Tr WH.TGL ἐγείρω.13

    d. of buildings, to raise, construct, erect: τὸν ναόν, John 2:19 (so הֵקִים, Deuteronomy 16:22; 1 Kings 16:32. Aelian de nat. an. 11, 10; Josephus, Antiquities 4, 6, 5; Herodian, 3, 15, 6 [3rd edition, Bekker]; 8, 2, 12 [5th edition, Bekker]; Lucian, Pseudomant. § 19; Anthol. 9, 696. 1 Esdr. 5:43; Sir. 49:13; Latin excito turrem , Caesar b. g. 5, 40; sepulcrum , Cicero, legg. 2, 27, 68). [Ammonius : ἀναστῆναι καὶ ἐγερθῆναι διαφέρει· ἀναστῆναι μὲν γὰρ ἐπὶ ἔργον, ἐγερθῆναι δὲ ἐξ ὕπνου; cf. also Thomas Magister, Ritschl edition, p. 14, 10f. But see examples above. Compare: δι-, ἐξ-, ἐπ-, συνεγείρω.]TGL ἐγείρω.14


    (1454) ἔγερσις, -εως, , (ἐγείρω) a rousing, excitation: τοῦ θυμοῦ, Plato, Tim., p. 70 c.; a rising up, Psalms 138:2 (Psalms 139:2); resurrection from death; Matthew 27:53.TGL ἔγερσις.2


    (1455) ἐγκάθετος [T WH ἐνκ., see ἐν , III. 3], -ου, , , (ἐγκαθίημι [to send down in (secretly)]), suborned to lie in wait; a lier-in-wait, spy, [cf. Latin insidiator ; English insidious ]: used in Luke 20:20 of one who is suborned by others to entrap a man by crafty words. (Plato, Ax., p. 368 e.; Demosthenes, p. 1483, 1; Josephus, b. j. 6, 5, 2; Polybius 13, 5, 1, others; Sept. , [Job 19:12]; Job 31:9.)TGL ἐγκάθετος.2


    (1456) ἐγκαίνια [T WH ἐνκ., see ἐν , III. 3], -ων, τά, (from ἐν and καινός); only in Biblical and ecclesiastical writings [on the plural cf. Winers Grammar, § 27, 3; Buttmann, 23 (21)]; dedication, consecration; thus, in 2 Esdr. 6:16, 17; Nehemiah 12:27 for חֲנֻכָּה; in particular [Vulg. encaeaium , i. e. renovation ], an annual feast celebrated eight days beginning on the 25th of Chislev (middle of our December), instituted by Judas Maccabaeus [B. C. 164] in memory of the cleansing of the temple from the pollutions of Antiochus Epiphanes (αἱ ἡμέραι ἐγκαινισμοῦ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, 1 Macc. 4:59): John 10:22. Cf. Winers RWB [also Riehm, HWB] under the word Kirchweihfest; Oehler in Herzog iv., p. 389; Grimm on 1 Macc. 1:54; 1 Macc. 4:52; Dillmann in Schenkel 3:534f; [BB. DD. (especially Kitto) under the word Dedication, Feast of the].TGL ἐγκαίνια.2


    (1457) ἐγκαινίζω [T WH ἐνκ., see ἐν , III 3]: 1 aorist ἐνεκαίνισα; perfect passive ἐγκεκαίνισμαι; a word exclusively Biblical and ecclesiastical [Winers Grammar, 33]; to innovate, i. e.:TGL ἐγκαινίζω.2

    1. to renew: 2 Chronicles 15:8.TGL ἐγκαινίζω.3

    2. to do anew, again: σημεῖα, Sir. 33:6 (Sir. 36:6).TGL ἐγκαινίζω.4

    3. to initiate, consecrate, dedicate, (Deuteronomy 20:5; 1 Kings 8:63; 1 Samuel 11:14, etc.): διαθήκην, Hebrews 9:18; ὁδόν, Hebrews 10:20.TGL ἐγκαινίζω.5


    (1458) ἐγκαλέω [see ἐν , III. 3] ; future ἐγκαλέσω; imperfect ἐνεκάλουν; [present passive ἐγκαλοῦμαι]; properly, to call (something) in someone (ἐν [i. e. probably in his case; or possibly, as rooted in him]); hence, to call to account, bring a charge against, accuse: as in classic Greek followed by the dative of the person [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30, 9 a.], Acts 19:38; Acts 23:28, (Sir. 46:19); κατά with the genitive of the person to come forward as accuser against, bring a charge against: Romans 8:33. Passive to be accused (cf. Buttmann, § 134, 4 [§ 133, 9; yet cf. Meyer on Acts as below, Winer's Grammar, as above]); with the genitive of the thing: στάσεως, Acts 19:40, (ἀσεβείας ἐς τὸν Τιβέριον ἐγκληθείς, Dio Cassius, 58, 4; active with the dative of the person and the genitive of the thing, Plutarch, Aristotle 10, 9; see Winers Grammar, as above; Matthiae, § 369); περὶ τούτων, ὧν ἐγκαλοῦμαι, unless this is to be resolved into περὶ τούτων , etc., according to the well-known construction ἐγκαλεῖν τινί τι, Acts 26:2; περί τινος (active, Diodorus 11, 83) Acts 23:29; Acts 26:7 [Buttmann, § 133, 9]. (In Greek writings from Sophocles and Xenophon down.) [Synonym: see κατηγορέω , at the end.]TGL ἐγκαλέω.2


    (1459) ἐγκαταλείπω [Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31, T WH ἐνκ.; T also in Romans 9:29, see his note and cf. ἐν , III. 3]; [imperfect ἐγκατέλειπον (WH text in 2 Timothy 4:10, 2 Timothy 4:16)]; future ἐγκαταλείψω; 2 aorist ἐγκατέλιπον; passive [present ἐγκαταλείπομαι] 1 aorist ἐγκατελείφθην; Sept. for עָזַב;TGL ἐγκαταλείπω.2

    1. to abandon, desert (ἐν equivalent to ἔν τινι, in some place or condition), i. e. to leave in straits, leave helpless, (colloquial, leave in the lurch): τινά, Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34 from Psalms 21:2 (Psalms 22:2); Hebrews 13:5; passive 2 Corinthians 4:9; after the Hebrew עָזַב with לְ, τινὰ εἰς ᾅδου [or ᾅδην], by forsaking one to let hlm go into Hades, abandon unto Hades, Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31 (not R). to desert, forsake: τινά, 2 Timothy 4:10, 2 Timothy 4:16; τὴν ἐπισυναγωγήν, Hebrews 10:25.TGL ἐγκαταλείπω.3

    2. to leave behind among, to leave surviving: ἡμῖν σπέρμα, Romans 9:29 from Isaiah 1:9. (Hesiod, Works, 376; Thucydides, and following.)TGL ἐγκαταλείπω.4


    (1460) ἐγκατοικέω [T WH ἐνκ., see ἐν , III. 3], -ῶ; to dwell among: ἐν αὐτοῖς, among them, 2 Peter 2:8. (Very rare in secular writings as [Herodotus 4, 204]; Euripides, fragment [188] quoted in Dio Chrysostom or. 73 fin.; Polybius 18, 26, 13.)TGL ἐγκατοικέω.2


    (1461) ἐγκεντρίζω [T WH ἐνκ., see ἐν , III. 3]: 1 aorist ἐνεκεντρισα; passive, 1 aorist ἐνεκεντρίσθην; 1 future ἐγκεντρισθήσομαι; to cut into for the sake of inserting a scion; to inoculate, ingraft, graft in, (Aristotle quoted in Athen. 14, 68 [p. 653 d.]; Theophrastus, h., p. 2, 2, 5; Antoninus 11, 8): τινά, Romans 11:17, Romans 11:19, Romans 11:23, Romans 11:24 [cf. Winers Grammar, § 52, 4, 5]; in these passages Paul likens the heathen who by becoming Christians have been admitted into fellowship with the people for whom the Messianic salvation is destined, to scions from wild trees inserted into a cultivated stock; [cf. Beet on verse 24; B. D. under the word Olive].TGL ἐγκεντρίζω.2


    (1462) ἔγκλημα [see ἐν , III. 3], -τος, τό, (ἐγκαλέω), accusation: the crime of which one is accused, Acts 25:16; ἔγκλημα ἔχειν, to have laid to one's charge, be accused of a crime, Acts 23:29. (Often in Attic writings from Sophocles and Thucydides on.)TGL ἔγκλημα.2

    [Synonyms: see κατηγορέω; cf. Isocrates 16,2 τὰς μὲν γὰρ δίκας ὑπὲρ τῶν ἰδίων ἐγκλημάτων λαγχάνουσι τὰς δὲ κατηγορίας ὑπὲρ τῶν τῆς πόλεως πραγμάτων ποιοῦνται καὶ πλείω χρόνον διατρίβουσι τὸν πατέρα μου διαβάλλοντες κτλ.]TGL ἔγκλημα.3


    (1463) ἐγκομβόομαι [see ἐν , III. 3], -οῦμαι: [1 aorist middle ἐνεκομβωσάμην]; (from ἐν and κομβόω, to knot, tie, and this from κόμβος, knot, band (German Schleife), by which two things are fastened together), to fasten or gird on oneself; the ἐγκόμβωμα was the white scarf or apron of slaves, which was fastened to the girdle of the vest [ἐξωμίς], and distinguished slaves from freemen; hence, 1 Peter 5:5, τὴν ταπεινοφρ. ἐγκομβώσασθε, gird yourselves with humility as your servile garb (ἐγκόμβωμα) i. e. by putting on humility show your subjection one to another. That this idea lies in the phrase is shown by C. F. A. Fritzsche, with his usual learning, in Fritzschiorum Opuscc., p. 259ff.TGL ἐγκομβόομαι.2


    (1464) ἐγκοπή [WH ἐνκ. T ἐκκ., see ἐν , III. 3], -ῆς, , (ἐγκόπτω), properly, a cutting (made in the road to impede an enemy in pursuit [(?)], hence), a hindrance: 1 Corinthians 9:12. (Diodorus 1, 32; Dionysius Halicarnassus, de comp. verb., p. 157, 15 (22); Longinus, de sublim. 41, 3; [others].)TGL ἐγκοπή.2

    Related entry: ἐκκοπή, -ῆς, , [Polybius, Plutarch, others], see ἐγκοπή.TGL ἐγκοπή.3


    (1465) ἐγκόπτω [in Acts T WH ἐνκ., so T in 1 Pet. where R ἐκκ.; see ἐν , III. 3]; 1 aorist ἐνέκοψα; passive [present ἐγκόπτομαι]; imperfect ἐνεκοπτόμην; to cut into, to impede one's course by cutting off his way; hence, universally, to hinder (Hesychius: ἐμποδίζω, διακωλύω); with the dative of the object, Polybius 24, 1, 12; in the N. T. with the accusative of the object, 1 Thessalonians 2:18; followed by an infinitive, Galatians 5:7 (see ἀνακόπτω ); an infinitive preceded by τοῦ, Romans 15:22; εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐγκόπτεσθαι τὰς προσευχὰς ὑμῶν, that ye be not hindered from praying (together), 1 Peter 3:7; equivalent to to detain [A. V. to be tedious unto] one, Acts 24:4 [cf. Valcken. Schol. 1:600f].TGL ἐγκόπτω.2


    (1466) ἐγκράτεια [see ἐν , III. 3], -ας, , (ἐγκρατής), self-control, Latin continentia, temperantia , (the virtue of one who masters his desires and passions, especially his sensual appetites): Acts 24:25; Galatians 5:23 (Galatians 5:22); 2 Peter 1:6. (Xenophon, Plato, and following; Sir. 18:29; 4 Macc. 5:34.)TGL ἐγκράτεια.2


    (1467) ἐγκρατεύομαι [see ἐν , III. 3]; deponant middle; to be self-controlled, continent (ἐγκρατής); to exhibit self-government, conduct oneself temperately: [used absolutely in Genesis 43:30]; with the dative of respect, τῇ γλώσσῃ, Sir. 19:6 variant; πάντα, in everything, every way, 1 Corinthians 9:25 (in a figure drawn from athletes, who in preparing themselves for the games abstained from unwholesome food, wine, and sexual indulgence); οὐκ ἐγκρατεύεσθαι, said of those who cannot curb sexual desire, 1 Corinthians 7:9. Though this word does not occur in the earlier Greek writings that have come down to us [except in Aristotle, eth. Eudem. 2, 7, p. 1223b, 13th edition, Bekker], yet its use is approved of by Phrynichus; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 442; [Winer's Grammar, 25].TGL ἐγκρατεύομαι.2


    (1468) ἐγκρατής [see ἐν , III. 3], -ές, (κράτος);TGL ἐγκρατής.2

    1. properly, equivalent to ἐν κράτει ὤν, strong, robust: Aeschylus, Thucydides, and following.TGL ἐγκρατής.3

    2. having power over, possessed of (a thing), with a genitive of the object; so from [Sophocles and] Herodotus down.TGL ἐγκρατής.4

    3. mastering, controlling, curbing, restraining: ἀφροδισιων, Xenophon, mem. 1, 2, 1; ἠδωνης, ibid. 4, 5, 10; ἑαυτοῦ, Plato; absolutely (without a genitive), controlling oneself, temperate, continent, ([Aristotle, eth. Nic. 7, 4, p. 1146b, 10ff]; Sir. 26:15; Wis. 8:21; Philo de Jos. § 11): Titus 1:8.TGL ἐγκρατής.5


    (1469) ἐγκρίνω [T WH ἐνκ., see ἐν , III. 3]: [1 aorist ἐνεκρινα]; to reckon among, judge among: τινά τινι, to judge one worthy of being admitted to a certain class [A. V. to number with], 2 Corinthians 10:12. (From Xenophon, and Plato down.)TGL ἐγκρίνω.2


    (1470) ἐνκρύπτω: 1 aorist ἐνεκρυψα; to conceal in something, τὶ εἴς τι (Diodorus 3, 63; Apollodorus 1, 5, 1 § 4); contextually, to mingle one thing with another: Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21 here T Tr WH ἔκρυψεν. (τί τινι, Homer, Odyssey 5, 488.)TGL ἐγκρύπτω.2


    (1471) ἔγκυος [WH ἔνκ., see ἐν , III. 3.], -ον, for the more usual ἐγκύμων, (from ἐν and κύω), big with child, pregnant: Luke 2:5. (Herodotus 1, 5 etc.; Diodorus 4, 2; Josephus, Antiquities 4, 8, 33.)TGL ἔγκυος.2


    (1472) ἐγχρίω [see ἐν , III. 3]: 1 aorist active imperative ἔγχρισον, middle (in T Tr) ἔγχρισαι [but L WH 1 aorist active infinitive ἐγχρῖσαι, (Griesbach ἐγχρίσαι; cf. Veitch, under the word χρίω, at the end)]; to rub in, besmear, anoint; middle to anoint for oneself: τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς, Revelation 3:18 [cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) 149f, 131); Winer's Grammar, § 32, 4 a.]. (Tobit 6:9; Tobit 11:7; Strabo, Anthol. , Epictetus, others.)TGL ἐγχρίω.2


    (1473) ἐγώ, genitive ἐμοῦ, enclitic μοῦ; dative ἐμοί, enclitic μοί; accusative ἐμέ, enclitic μέ; plural ἡμεῖς, etc.; personal pronoun,TGL ἐγώ.2

    I.TGL ἐγώ.3

    1. The nominatives ἐγώ and ἡμεῖς, when joined to a verb, generally have force and emphasis, or indicate antithesis, as Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16 (ἐγὼ μέν... δέ); Matthew 3:14 (ἐγὼ... ἔχω, καὶ σύ); Matthew 5:22, Matthew 5:28, Matthew 5:39, and often; ἡμεῖς, contrasted with God, Matthew 6:12; ἡμεῖς κ. οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, Matthew 9:14; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 22, 6. But sometimes they are used where there is no emphasis or antithesis in them, as Matthew 10:16; John 10:17; and in many editions in Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27; cf. Buttmann, § 129, 12. ἰδοὺ ἐγώ, הִנֵּנִי, behold me, here am I: Acts 9:10 (1 Samuel 3:8). ἐγώ, like אֲנִי, I am: John 1:23; Acts 7:32 [cf. Winers Grammar, 585 (544); Buttmann, 125 (109)].TGL ἐγώ.4

    2. The enclitic (and monosyllabic) genitive, dative, and accusative are connected with nouns, verbs, adverbs, but not with prepositions: ἔμπροσθέν μου, John 1:15; ὀπίσω μου, Matthew 3:11; ἰσχυρότερός μου, ibid.; τίς μου ἥψατο, Mark 5:31; λέγει μοι, Revelation 5:5; ἀρνήσηταί με, Matthew 10:33; Luke 12:9 (on the accent in these expressions cf. Winers Grammar, § 6, 3; [Lipsius, Gram. Untersuch., p. 59ff; Lob. Path. Elementa ii., p. 323f; Tdf. N. T. edition 7, Proleg., p. 61f; edition 8, p. 104]); but δἰ ἐμοῦ, κατ’ ἐμοῦ, πρὸ ἐμοῦ, etc., σὺν, ἐν ἐμοί, περὶ, δἰ, ἐπ’, κατ’, εἰς ἐμέ. The only exception is πρός, to which the enclitic μέ is generally joined, Matthew 25:36; Mark 9:19, and very often; very rarely πρὸς ἐμέ, John 6:37a, and according to L T Tr WH in Acts 22:8, Acts 22:13; Acts 24:19; [also Acts 23:22 T Tr WH; John 6:35 and John 6:45 T Tr text WH; Luke 1:43 T WH; Matthew 19:14; John 6:37b, John 6:65, Tdf. ; John 6:44 Tr text WH marginal reading; 1 Corinthians 16:11 L Tr; but πρὸς μέ, Matthew 3:14 Tdf. and Matthew 11:28 Griesbach; cf. Lipsius as above, p. 61 note]. Moreover, the full forms ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμέ are used in case of emphasis or antithesis; thus, ἐμοῦ, Luke 10:16; ἐμοί, John 7:23; John 10:38, etc.; ἐμέ, Mark 14:7; John 7:7, etc.TGL ἐγώ.5

    3. As in classic Greek, μοῦ and ἡμῶν are very often used for the possessive pronouns ἐμός and ἡμέτερος [Buttmann, § 127, 21]; and when so used,TGL ἐγώ.6

    a. they are generally placed after their substantives, as οἶκός μου, ζωὴ ἡμῶν, etc. — the fuller form ἐμοῦ only for the sake of distinction or antithesis [cf. Buttmann § 127, 22], as μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐμοῦ, Romans 16:13; πίστεως ὑμῶν τέ καί ἐμοῦ, Romans 1:12.TGL ἐγώ.7

    b. But they are sometimes placed before substantives, even which have the article, when no emphasis resides in the pronoun or antithesis is involved in its use [Winers Grammar, § 22, 7 N. 1; Buttmann, as above]: μου τοὺς λόγους, Matthew 7:24, Matthew 7:26; even before prepositions, μου ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην, Matthew 8:8; less frequently ἡμῶν, as ἡμῶν τὴν πόλιν, Acts 16:20; it is prefixed for emphasis in ἡμῶν τὸ πολίτευμα, Philippians 3:20, cf. Winers Grammar, as above; Rost § 99, 4, p. 452ff 7th edition adduces a multitude of examples from Greek authors; [cf. Krüger, § 47, 9, 12 who states the rule as follows: when joined to a substantive having the article the reflexive genitive, with αὐτοῦ ipsius , and ἀλλήλων, requires the attributive position, the personal genitive, and αὐτοῦ ejus , the partitive position].TGL ἐγώ.8

    4. τί ἐμοὶ (ἡμῖν) καὶ σοί (ὑμῖν); what have I (we) to do with thee (you)? [cf. Buttmann, 138 (121); Winer's Grammar, 211 (198); 585 (544)]: Matthew 8:29; Mark 1:24; Mark 5:7; Luke 8:28; John 2:4; Heb. וָלָך מַה־לִּי, Judges 11:12; 2 Kings 3:13; 2 Samuel 16:10; 2 Chronicles 35:21; 2 Chronicles 1:1-17 Esdr. 1:24; also in classic Greek; cf. Aulus Gellius n. a. 1, 2; Epictetus diss. 2, 9, 16; τί ἡμῖν κ. αὐτῷ, ibid. 1, 1, 16; τί ἐμοὶ καὶ αὐτοῖς, ibid. 1, 27, 13; 22, 15. τί γάρ μοι, what does it concern me? what have I to do etc.: 1 Corinthians 5:12; cf. Bos, Ellipses Graec., p. 599, Schaefer edition; Bernhardy, p. 98; Krüger, § 48, 3, 9; Kühner, 2:364f; [Buttmann, as above, also 394 (337); Winers Grammar, 586 (545)].TGL ἐγώ.9


    (1474) ἐδαφιζω: Attic future ἐδαφιῶ [Buttmann, 37 (32); Winers Grammar, § 13, 1 c.]; (see ἔδαφος ); to throw to the ground — both of cities, buildings, to raze, level with the earth, and of men; in both applications in Luke 19:44 [by zeugma (?) cf. Winer's Grammar, § 66, 2 e.]. (Psalms 136:9 (Psalms 137:9); Isaiah 3:26; Ezekiel 31:12; Hosea 14:1 (Hosea 13:16); Amos 9:14 [Ald. ]; rare in secular writings, as [Aristotle, probl. 23, 29]; Polybius 6, 33, 6.)TGL ἐδαφίζω.2


    (1475) ἔδαφος, -εος, (-ους), τό, bottom, base, ground: πίπτειν εἰς τὸ ἔδαφος, Acts 22:7. (Sept. ; in classical writings from Homer down.)TGL ἔδαφος.2


    (1476) ἑδραῖος, (rarely feminine -αια [Winer's Grammar, § 11, 1]), -αῖον, (ἕδρα, seat, chair);TGL ἑδραῖος.2

    1. sitting, sedentary, (Xenophon, Plato, others).TGL ἑδραῖος.3

    2. firm, immovable, steadfast, (Euripides, Plato, others); in the N. T. metaphorically, of those who are fixed in purpose: 1 Corinthians 15:58; Colossians 1:23; ἕστηκεν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ, 1 Corinthians 7:37.TGL ἑδραῖος.4


    (1477) ἑδραίωμα, -τος, τό, (ἑδραιόω, to make stable, settle firmly), a stay, prop, support, (Vulg. firmamentum ): 1 Timothy 3:15 [A. V. ground]. (Ecclesiastical writings.)TGL ἑδραίωμα.2


    (1478) Ἐζεκίας [WH Ἑζ-; L -κείας, see Tdf. Proleg., p. 85], (הִזְקִיָה, strength of Jehovah, i. e. strength given by Jehovah; Germ Gotthard ; Sept. Ἐζεκίας), [genitive -ου, cf. Buttmann, 17 (16) no. 8], Hezekiah, king of Judah (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Kings 20:1; Isaiah 38:1): Matthew 1:9, Matthew 1:10.TGL Ἑζεκίας.2


    (1479) ἐθελοθρησκεία [T WH -κία, see Ι, ι], -ας, , (from ἐθέλω and θρησκεία, which see [cf. Winers Grammar, 100 (95)]), voluntary, arbitrary worship, (Vulg. superstitio ), [A. V. will-worship], i. e. worship which one devises and prescribes for himself, contrary to the contents and nature of the faith which ought to be directed to Christ; said of the misdirected zeal and practices of ascetics: Colossians 2:23; Suidas ἐθελοθρησκεῖ· ἰδίῳ θελήματι σέβει τὸ δοκοῦν. Cf. ἐθελόδουλος, ἐθελοδουλεία, ἐθελοπρόξενος, one who acts the part of a proxenus without having been appointed to the office, etc. The explanation of others: simulated, counterfeit religion (cf. in Greek lexicons ἐθελοφιλόσοφος, ἐθελόκωφος, etc.), does not square so well with the context. (The word is found besides in Mansi, Collect. Concil. vol. iv., p. 1380, and in Theodoret , vol. iv., epistle 161, p. [1460 b., Migne edition] 1331, Halle edition; [Eusebius, h. e. 6, 12, 1; Jerome, epistle 121, vol. 1:1034, Migne edition]. Epiphanius haer. 1, 16 [i., p. 318, 3rd edition, Dindorf] attributes ἐθελοπερισσοθρησκεία to the Pharisees.)TGL ἐθελοθρησκία.2


    (1480) ἐθίζω: (ἔθος, which see); to accustom; passive to be accustomed; perfect preposition τὸ εἰθισμένον, usage, custom: τοῦ νόμου, prescribed by the law, Luke 2:27. (Euripides, [Aristophanes], Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, others.)TGL ἐθίζω.2


    (1481) ἐθνάρχης, -ου, , (from ἔθνος and ἄρχω), [equivalent to founder of a nation, Philo, quis rer. div. her. § 56], an ethnarch, one set over a people as ruler, but without the authority and name of king (Lucian, in Macrobius , § 17 ἀντὶ ἐθναρχου βασιλεὺς ἀναγορευθεὶς Βοσπόρου; so the governor whom the Alexandrian Jews used to have was called ἐθνάρχης, of whom Josephus says, Antiquities 14, 7, 2, ὃς διοικεῖ τε τὸ ἔθνος καὶ δίαιτᾷ κρίσεις καὶ συμβολαίων ἐπιμελεῖται καὶ προσταγμάτων, ὡς ἄν πολιτείας ἄρχων αὐτοτελοῦς; likewise Simon Maccabaeus, 1 Macc. 14:47; 1 Macc. 15:1, 2; Josephus, Antiquities 13, 6, 6; cf. [19, 5, 2]; b. j. 2, 6, 3): 2 Corinthians 11:32 ἐθνάρχης Ἀρέτα τοῦ βασιλέως, the governor of Damascene Syria, ruling in the name of king Aretas [(which see); cf. B. D. under the word Governor, 11].TGL ἐθνάρχης.2


    (1482) ἐθνικός, , -όν, (ἔθνος);TGL ἐθνικός.2

    1. adapted to the genius or customs of a people, peculiar to a people, national: Polybius, Diodorus, others.TGL ἐθνικός.3

    2. suited to the manners or language of foreigners, strange, foreign; so in the grammarians [cf. our 'gentile'].TGL ἐθνικός.4

    3. in the N. T. savoring of the nature of pagans, alien to the worship of the true God, heathenish; substantively, ἐθνικός, the pagan, the Gentile: Matthew 18:17; plural, Matthew 5:47 G L T Tr WH; Matthew 6:7; and 3 John 1:7 L T Tr WH.TGL ἐθνικός.5


    (1483) ἐθνικῶς, adverb, (see ἐθνικός ), like the Gentiles: Galatians 2:14, [Winers Grammar, 463 (431). Apollonius Dyscolus, p. 190, 5; Diogenes Laërtius 7, 56].TGL ἐθνικῶς.2


    (1484) ἔθνος, -ους, τό;TGL ἔθνος.2

    1. a multitude (whether of men or of beasts) associated or living together; a company, troop, swarm: ἔθνος ἑταίρων, ἔθνος Ἀχαιων, ἔθνος λαῶν, Homer, Iliad; ἔθνος μελισσάων, 2, 87; μυιάων ἔθνεα, ibid. 469.TGL ἔθνος.3

    2. a multitude of individuals of the same nature or genus (τὸ ἔθνος τὸ θῆλυ τὸ ἄρρεν, Xenophon, oec. 7, 26): πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων, the human race, Acts 17:26 [but this seems to belong under the next entry].TGL ἔθνος.4

    3. race, nation: Matthew 21:43; Acts 10:35, etc.; ἔθνος ἐπὶ ἔθνος, Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8: οἱ ἄρχοντες, οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν, Matthew 20:25; Luke 22:25; used [in the singular] of the Jewish people, Luke 7:5; Luke 23:2; John 11:48, John 11:50-53; John 18:35; Acts 10:22; Acts 24:2 (Acts 24:3), Acts 24:10; Acts 26:4; Acts 28:19.TGL ἔθνος.5

    4. (τά) ἔθνη, like הַגויִם in the O. T., foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles, [cf. Trench, § 98]: Matthew 4:15 (Γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν), Matthew 6:32; [3 John 1:7 R G; cf. Revelation 15:3 G L T Tr WH marginal reading after John 10:7], and very often; in plain contradistinction to the Jews: Romans 3:29; Romans 9:24; [1 Corinthians 1:23 G L T Tr WH]: Galatians 2:8, etc.; λαὸς (τοῦ θεοῦ, Jews) καὶ τὰ ἔθνη, Luke 2:32; Acts 26:17, Acts 26:23; Romans 15:10.TGL ἔθνος.6

    5. Paul uses τὰ ἔθνη even of Gentile Christians: Romans 11:13; Romans 15:27; Romans 16:4; Galatians 2:12 (opposite Galatians 2:13 to οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, i. e. Jewish Christians), Galatians 2:14; Ephesians 3:1, cf. Ephesians 4:17 [Winers Grammar, § 59, 4 a.; Buttmann, 130 (114)].TGL ἔθνος.7


    (1485) ἔθος, -εος (-ους), [cf. ἦθος], τό, from Aeschylus [Agam. 728 (?); better from Sophocles] down, custom: Luke 22:39; ἔθος ἐστί τινι followed by an infinitive, John 19:40; Acts 25:16; Hebrews 10:25; contextually, usage prescribed by law, institute, prescription, rite: Luke 1:9; Luke 2:42; Acts 16:21; Acts 21:21; Acts 26:3; Acts 28:17; περιτέμνεσθαι τῷ ἔθει Μωϋσέως, Acts 15:1; ἀλλάξει τὰ ἔθη παρέδωκε Μωϋσῆς, Acts 6:14.TGL ἔθος.2


    (1486) ἔθω (of the present only the participle ἔθῶν is used, in Homer): perfect εἴωθα, to be accustomed, used, wont; [pluperfect as imperfect (Winer's Grammar, 274 (257f)) εἰώθειν]; followed by an infinitive: Matthew 27:15; Mark 10:1. Participle τὸ εἰωθός in a passive sense, that which is wont; usage, custom: κατὰ τὸ εἰωθός τινι, as one's custom is, as is his wont, Luke 4:16; Acts 17:2.TGL ἔθω.2

    Related entry: εἴωθα, see ἔθω.TGL ἔθω.3


    (1487) [εἰ, : εἰ and are frequent interchanged in N. T. spelling. This is due partly to itacism, partly to the endeavor to mark the sound as long or short. See the remarks on this subject in WHs Appendix, p. 152f (cf. Introductory § 399); Tdf. Proleg., p. 83f; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word εἰ. The use of for εἰ is noticed under the word Ι, ἰ; instances in which εἰ is substituted for are the following: Ἀβειληνή WH; Ἀδδεί T Tr WH; Ἀντείπας T; Ἀρεοπαγείτης T; Βενιαμείν L T Tr WH; Δαυείδ L T Tr WH; Ἐζεκείας L; Ἐλαμείτης T WH; Ἐλεισάβετ WH; Ἐσλεί T Tr WH; Ἐυνείκη Rec.st ; Ἡλεί T Tr WH; Ἠλείας T WH; Ἱερειχώ T WH; Ἱεροσολυμείτης T WH; Ἰσραηλείτης T WH, so Tr in John 1:47 (John 1:48); Ἰωσείας L T Tr WH; Κείς L T Tr WH; Κυρεῖνος Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; Λευείς T WH, so Tr except in Mark 2:14; Λευείτης T WH, so Tr except in Acts 4:36; Λευειτικός T WH; Μελχεί T Tr WH; Νηρεί T Tr WH; Νινευείτης T WH, so Tr in Matthew 12:41; Ὀζείας L T Tr WH; Πειλᾶτος T WH; Σεμεείν T Tr WH; Ταβειθά WH; Χερουβείν L T Tr WH (-βίμ R G); Χοραζείν T Tr WH; ἀφείδεια L; ἐιδέα T Tr WH; ἐπαρχεία T WH; ἐπιπόθεια WH; ἡλεί T; πανοικεί T WH; ῥαββεί T WH; ῥαββουνεί WH; σαβαχθανεί T Tr WH; ταλειθά WH; τάχειον WH; τραπεζείτης T WH.]TGL εἰ.2

    εἰ, is first a conditional particle, if (Latin si ); secondly, an interrogative particle, whether, (Latin an, num, ne ).TGL εἰ.3

    I. εἰ Conditional (on the difference between it and ἐάν, see ἐάν , I. 1 b.) is connected, according to the variety of conditions, with various tenses and moods; viz.TGL εἰ.4

    1. with the indicative of all tenses, when anything is simply and generally assumed to be, or to be done, or to have been done, or to be about to be, (Winers Grammar, § 41 b., 2; cf. 42, 2; [Buttmann, 220 (190)]).TGL εἰ.5

    a. with the indicative present;TGL εἰ.6

    α. following in the apodosis by the indicative present: Matthew 19:10 (εἰ οὕτως ἐστὶν αἰτία... οὐ συμφέρει γαμῆσαι); Matthew 11:14; Romans 7:16, Romans 7:20; Romans 8:25; Romans 14:15; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:18; Galatians 5:18; Hebrews 12:8; James 2:8, etc.TGL εἰ.7

    β. followed by an imperative in the apodosis — either the present, as [Matthew 19:17 L Tr text WH text]; Mark 4:23; Mark 7:16 R G L; John 15:18; Acts 13:15; Acts 25:5; 1 Corinthians 7:12, 1 Corinthians 7:15; James 3:14, etc.; or the aorist, as Matthew 5:29, Matthew 5:30; Matthew 8:31; Matthew 19:17 [R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading]; Mark 9:22 [cf. Buttmann, 55 (48)]; Luke 22:67 (Luke 22:66); 1 Corinthians 7:9.TGL εἰ.8

    γ. followed by the future in the apodosis: Luke 16:31; Acts 5:39 L T Tr WH; Acts 19:39; Romans 8:11, Romans 8:13; 2 Corinthians 11:30, etc.TGL εἰ.9

    δ. followed by the perfect or the aorist in the apodosis, where it is declared that, if this or that is, something else has or has not occurred: Matthew 12:26, Matthew 12:28; Luke 11:20; 1 Corinthians 15:16; Galatians 2:21; Romans 4:14; 2 Peter 2:20.TGL εἰ.10

    ε. followed by the imperfect, either with or without ἄν, where in the protasis something is simply assumed to be, but the apodosis shows that what has been assumed cannot be the case. Three passages falling under this head have a doubtful or disputed text: εἰ ἔχετε (T Tr WH, for the R G L εἴχετε)... ἐλέγετε ἄν, etc. Luke 17:6; εἰ... μνημονεύουσιν (T Tr, for R G L WH ἐμνημόνευον)... εἶχον ἄν, Hebrews 11:15 (where by the present tense the writer refers to the language of the Jewish Fathers as at present recorded in the sacred Scriptures; cf. τοιαῦτα λέγοντες Luke 17:14); εἰ τέκνα τοῦ Ἀβρ. ἐστε (G L T Tr WH, for R ἦτε)... ἐποιεῖτε ([WH text ποι.] R L add ἄν), John 8:39; cf. Buttmann in Studien und Kritiken for 1858, p. 474ff [N. T. Gram. § 139, 26; but cf. Meyer on Luke, the passage cited]. But 2 Corinthians 11:4 εἰ... κηρύσσει... ἀνείχεσθε G T Tr WH marginal reading (ἀνέχεσθε L WH text) must not be referred to this head; here Paul in the protasis supposes something which actually occurred, in the apodosis censures a thing which actually occurred viz. the readiness with which his readers gave ear continually (this is indicated by the imperfect) to false teachers. On the difficulty of the passage cf. Holsten in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1874, p. 1ff; [cf. also Buttmann, 226 (195); but Winer's Grammar, 306 (287) and Meyer at the passage].TGL εἰ.11

    ζ. with a question as the apodosis: Matthew 6:23; John 5:47; John 7:23; John 8:46; 1 Peter 2:20.TGL εἰ.12

    b. with the indicative future: Matthew 26:33; James 2:11 R G; 1 Peter 2:20.TGL εἰ.13

    c. with the indicative perfect: John 11:12; Acts 16:15; Romans 6:5; Romans 11:6 (where after εἰ supply λεῖμμα γέγονεν from what precedes), 2 Corinthians 2:5; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 7:14.TGL εἰ.14

    d. with the indicative aorist — followed by the present in the apodosis, Luke 19:8; Romans 4:2; Romans 15:27; followed by a question in the apodosis, Luke 16:11, Luke 16:12; John 18:23; 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 9:11; followed by the aorist in the apodosis, Revelation 20:15; by the imperfect in the apodosis, John 18:23; John 20:15; Romans 11:17; 1 Timothy 5:9, 1 Timothy 5:10; Philemon 1:18; by the future in the apodosis, John 13:32; John 15:20; Hebrews 12:25 (where supply οὐκ ἐκφευξόμεθα in the apodosis).TGL εἰ.15

    2. Not infrequently, when a conclusion is drawn from something that is quite certain, εἰ with the indicative is used argumentatively so as to be equivalent in sense to ἐπεί (cf. the use of German wenn) [cf. Winer's Grammar, 448 (418)]: Matthew 12:28; Luke 23:31; John 7:4; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:5; Romans 8:31; Romans 11:6, Romans 11:12; Colossians 2:20; Colossians 3:1, etc.TGL εἰ.16

    3. When it is said what would have been, or what would be now or in the future, if something else were or had been, εἰ is used with the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist indicative; in the apodosis it is followed in direct discourse by ἄν with the imperfect or the pluperfect or the aorist; sometimes ἄν is omitted, (on the causes of the omission, see Buttmann, § 139, 27); sometimes the apodosis is made a question [cf. Winers Grammar, 304f (285f)].TGL εἰ.17

    a. εἰ with the imperfect, followed in the apodosis by ἄν with the imperfect: Matthew 23:30; Luke 7:39 (εἰ οὗτος ἦν προφήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἄν, if this man were a prophet, he would know); John 5:46; John 8:42; John 9:41; John 15:19; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Galatians 1:10; Hebrews 8:4, Hebrews 8:7 (if... were, etc., there would not be sought, etc., viz. in the O. T. passage quoted Hebrews 8:8); by a question in the apodosis: 1 Corinthians 12:19; Hebrews 7:11; by ἄν with the aorist, where the Latin uses the pluperfect subjunctive: John 11:32 (εἰ ἦς ὧδε if thou hadst been here, οὐκ ἄν ἀπέθανέ μου ἀδελφός my brother would not have died [when he did (cf. below); Buttmann, § 139, 25 regards the imperfect in protasis as expressing duration]); John 4:10; John 18:30 (εἰ μή ἦν οὗτος κακοποιός, οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν, we would not have delivered him to thee); Acts 18:14; by ἄν with the pluperfect: John 11:21 (εἰ ἦς ὧδε... οὐκ ἄν ἐτεθνήκει, would not have died [and be now dead; cf. Winers Grammar, 304 (285) and see above; but L T Tr text WH read the aorist here also]); 1 John 2:19.TGL εἰ.18

    b. εἰ with the pluperfect, followed in the apodosis by ἄν with the pluperfect or the aorist, in the sense of the Latin pluperfect subjunctive: Matthew 12:7 (εἰ ἐγνώκειτε, if ye had understood, i. e., if ye knew, οὐκ ἄν κατεδικάσατε τοὺς ἀναιτίους ye would not have condemned the guiltless); Matthew 24:43 and Luke 12:39, (εἰ ᾔδει if he had perceived, i. e., if he knew, ἐγρηγόρησεν ἄν he would have watched, namely, before the thief had approached [Tr text WH omit ἄν in Luke, the passage cited]); John 4:10; John 8:19; John 14:7 [R G L].TGL εἰ.19

    c. with the aorist in the same sense as the Latin pluperfect subjunctive: εἰ ἐδόθη νόμος... ὄντως ἂν ἐκ νόμου ἦν δικαιοσύνη, if a law had been given, righteousness would in truth come from the law, Galatians 3:21; εἰ αὐτοὺς Ἰησοῦς κατέπαυσεν if Joshua had given them rest, οὐκ ἄν περὶ ἄλλης ἐλάλει, he would not be speaking, namely, in the passage quoted, Hebrews 4:8; apodosis without ἄν, John 15:22, see ἄν I. 3, p. 33f.TGL εἰ.20

    4. As in classic Greek, εἰ with the indicative is often joined to verbs expressing wonder, surprise, or other strong emotion (where ὅτι might have been expected), when the thing spoken of is either not quite certain, or, although certain, yet in accordance with the well-known Greek urbanity is represented as not quite free from doubt (Matthiae, ii., p. 1474f; Kühner, ii., p. 887f; [Jelf, § 804, 9]; Winers Grammar, § 60, 6; [Buttmann, § 139, 52]). Thus, it is joined — to the verb, θαυμάζω: ἐθαύμαζεν, εἰ ἤδη τέθνηκε, for the matter had not yet been investigated; hence, it is added ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν, εἰ ἤδη [R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading πάλαι] ἀπέθανεν, Mark 15:44; μὴ θαυμάζετε, εἰ μισεῖ ὑμᾶς κόσμος (the thing is certain) 1 John 3:13; to the phrase ἄπιστον κρίνεται: Acts 26:8 (with παράδοξον preceding, Lucian, dial. mort. 13, 1); to καλόν ἐστιν and λυσιτελεῖ: Mark 9:42 and Luke 17:2 (Matthew 18:6 has συμφέρει, ἵνα); Matthew 26:24 and Mark 14:21; to μέγα ἐστί: 1 Corinthians 9:11 (on which see 8 below); 2 Corinthians 11:15; τί θέλω, εἰ ἤδη ἀνήφθη (τὸ πῦρ), how would I if (i. e., that) it were already kindled (but it has not yet been kindled), Luke 12:49 (others besides, but cf. Meyer at the passage; [so Buttmann the passage cited; cf. Winers Grammar, 448 (418); see τίς , 1 e. γ. at the end]; Sir. 23:14 θελήσεις, εἰ μή ἐγεννήθης; [in addition to the other interpretations noticed by Winer's and Meyer the passages cited mention may be made of that which takes θέλω as subjunctive: what am I to choose if (as I may well assume) it has already been kindled; cf. Green, 'Critical Notes' at the passage]).TGL εἰ.21

    5. Contrary to Greek usage, in imitation of the Hebrew אִם, εἰ, with the indicative is so used in oaths and asseverations that by aposiopesis the formula of imprecation [constituting the apodosis] is suppressed (Winers Grammar, § 55 at the end; Buttmann, § 149, 4): ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ δοθήσεται... σημεῖον (fully expressed, 'may God punish me, if it shall be given,' i. e. it shall by no means be given), Mark 8:12; ὤμοσα, εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου (fully, 'let my name no longer be Jehovah, if they shall enter,' etc.), Hebrews 3:11; Hebrews 4:3, from Psalms 94:11 (Psalms 95:11) Sept. (Hebrew אִם, Genesis 14:23; Numbers 14:30; 1 Samuel 14:45, etc.; we have the full expression in 1 Samuel 3:17; Song of Solomon 2:7, etc.).TGL εἰ.22

    6. Sometimes, as in classic Greek, after a protasis with εἰ and the indicative, the apodosis is suppressed on account of mental agitation and left to be supplied by the reader or the hearer from the context (cf. Winer's Grammar, 599f (557)): εἰ βούλει παρενεγκεῖν τὸ ποτήριον τοῦτο (namely, παρένεγκε [but here L Tr WH adopt the imperative in place of the infinitive; yet cf. Buttmann, 396 (339)]), Luke 22:42; εἰ δὲ πνεῦμα ἐλάλησεν αὐτῷ ἄγγελος, supply in place of an apodosis the question what then? Acts 23:9 (the apodosis added in Rec. , μὴ θεομαχῶμεν, is spurious); εἰ ἔγνως... τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην σου, namely, ἐπίστευες ἄν ἐμοί, Luke 19:42 [Buttmann, 396 (339)].TGL εἰ.23

    7. The conditional εἰ is joined with the optative, to indicate that the condition is merely thought of or stated as a possibility, (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 491ff; Winers Grammar, 293f (275f); Buttmann, § 139, 24). No example of this construction is found in the Gospels; very few in the rest of the N. T.TGL εἰ.24

    a. universally, in short intercalated clauses: εἰ τύχοι, if it so chance, it may be, (see τυγχάνω , 2), 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:37; εἰ θέλοι τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, 1 Peter 3:17 (Rec. θέλει).TGL εἰ.25

    b. where it indicates that something may occur repeatedly (cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 492f): εἰ καὶ πάσχοιτε, 1 Peter 3:14 [cf. Winers Grammar, as above].TGL εἰ.26

    c. where the condition represents the mind and judgment of others: εἰς ὂν ἐβουλεύοντο [R G -σαντο], εἰ δύναιντο ἐξῶσαι [WH text ἐκσῶσαι (which see)] τὸ πλοῖον, into which bay [or rather 'upon which beach'; see ἐξωθέω ] they determined to run the ship, if they could; as though the navigators had said among themselves, ἐξώσομεν, εἰ δυνάμεθα, Acts 27:39; so also εἴ τι ἔχοιεν πρός με, if they think they have anything against me, Acts 24:19.TGL εἰ.27

    8. with the subjunctive, when it is assumed that something may take place, but whether it will in reality is unknown before the event, in order to make the event seem to be more certain than if ἐάν were used (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 500ff; Winers Grammar, 294f (276f); Buttmann, § 139, 22): εἰ... θερίσωμεν, 1 Corinthians 9:11 Tdf. editions 2, 7 [Lachmann marginal reading; others, -σομεν]; (Sept. Genesis 43:3; Sir. 22:26; 4 Macc. 6:20). But see III. below, under εἰ μή, εἰ μήτι, εἴ πως, εἴτε... εἴτε, εἴ τις.TGL εἰ.28

    II. εἰ Interrogative, whether. "The conditional particle gets this force if a question is asked about anything, whether it is or is not so, and that about which the question is put is uttered as it were conditionally" (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 508; [Winers Grammar, § 57, 1; Buttmann 248ff (214ff); 254f (218f)]).TGL εἰ.29

    1. As in Greek writings in an indirect question after verbs of seeing, asking, deliberating, knowing, saying, etc.TGL εἰ.30

    a. with the indicative present: as ὀυδ’ εἰ πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἔστιν, ἠκούσαμεν (properly, according to the conditional force of the particle, 'if there is [i. e. has appeared, been given; cf. εἰμί , I. 2] a Holy Spirit, we did not even hear'), Acts 19:2; ἴδωμεν, εἰ ἔρχεται, Matthew 27:49; Mark 15:36; βουλεύεται [T WH L marginal reading -σεται], εἰ δυνατός ἐστιν, Luke 14:31; ἵνα εἴπῃς, εἰ σὺ εἶ, Matthew 26:63; [ἵνα γνῶ τὴν δοκιμὴν ὑμῶν εἰ (WH marginal reading )... ὑπήκοοί ἐστε, 2 Corinthians 2:9 (see WH. Introductory § 404)]; after οὐκ οἶδα, John 9:25; after κρίνατε, Acts 4:19; δοκιμάζετε [(?), πειράζετε], 2 Corinthians 13:5.TGL εἰ.31

    b. with the indicative future [cf. Winers Grammar, 300 (282); Buttmann, § 139, 61 b.]: δεήθητι, εἰ ἄρα ἀφεθήσεταί σοι, Acts 8:22; τί οἶδας, εἰ... σώσεις, 1 Corinthians 7:16; παρετήρουν, εἰ θεραπεύσει [Tdf. -πεύει], Mark 3:2 and in Luke 6:7 [R G WH marginal reading]; ἦλθεν (namely, to see), εἰ ἄρα τι εὑρήσει, Mark 11:13.TGL εἰ.32

    c. with the indicative aorist: οὐκ οἶδα, εἴ τινα ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα, whether I baptized, 1 Corinthians 1:16; ἐπηρώτησαν, εἰ πάλαι [L Tr text WH text ἤδη] ἀπέθανεν, whether he were long dead, Mark 15:44; εἰπέ μοι, εἰ... ἀπέδοσθε, Acts 5:8.TGL εἰ.33

    d. with the subjunctive aorist [cf. Buttmann, 255f (220); Winer's Grammar, 298f (280f)]: διώκω, εἰ καὶ καταλάβω, I press on (namely, πειρώμενος or σκοπῶν, trying to see), whether I may also lay hold, Philippians 3:12. So si is used in Latin, e. g. Nepos, vit. Hann. 8 Hannibal... Africam accessit in finibus Cyrenaeorum (namely, experturus ), si forte Carthaginienses ad bellum possent induci; Caesar b. g. 1, 8, 4 si perrumpere possent, conati; add Caesar b. g. 2, 9, 1. Cf. Kühner, ii., p. 1032f; [Jelf, § 877 b.].TGL εἰ.34

    2. Contrary to the usage of Greek authors, like the Hebrew אִם and the interrogative ה, it is used in the Sept. and the N. T. (especially by Luke) also in direct questions (cf. the colloquial use of the German ob; e. g. ob ich's wohl thun soll?); cf. Winers Grammar, § 57, 1; Buttmann, 248 (214), and, in opposition to those who have striven to absolve the sacred writers from this misuse of the particle (especially Fritzsche and Meyer [see the latter's note on Matthew 12:10 and Luke 13:23; he quotes with approval the language of Ast (Platonic Lexicon, vol. i. 601), 'dubitanter interrogat, ita ut interrogatio videatur directa esse ']), cf. Lipsius, Paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, p. 30ff: — εἶπέ τις αὐτῷ, κύριε, εἰ ὀλίγοι οἱ σωζόμενοι; Luke 13:23; κύριε, εἰ πατάξομεν ἐν μαχαίρα [-ρῃ T Tr WH]; Luke 22:49; κύριε, εἰ... ἀποκαθιστάνεις τ. βασιλείαν; Acts 1:6; cf. besides, Matthew 12:10; Matthew 19:3; Mark 8:23 (according to the reading of [Tdf. 2, 7] Tr [marginal reading WH text] εἴ τι βλέπεις for R G L T Tr text WH marginal reading βλέπει); Acts 19:2, etc. (Genesis 17:17; Genesis 43:6; 1 Samuel 10:24, etc.; in the O. T. Apocrypha, 2 Macc. 7:7; 2 Macc. 15:3; 4 Macc. 18:17 from Ezekiel 37:3 Sept. ; Tobit 5:5).TGL εἰ.35

    III. εἰ with other particles and with the indefinite pronoun τὶς, τὶ.TGL εἰ.36

    1. εἰ ἄρα, see ἄρα , 1.TGL εἰ.37

    2. εἴγε, see γέ , 3 c.TGL εἰ.38

    3. εἰ δὲ καί,TGL εἰ.39

    a. but if also, so that καί belongs to some word that follows: Luke 11:18 (but if Satan also).TGL εἰ.40

    b. but though, but even if, so that καί belongs to εἰ: 1 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Corinthians 5:16 [R G; others omit δέ]; 2 Corinthians 11:6; see 6 below.TGL εἰ.41

    4. εἰ δὲ μή, but if not; if it is or were otherwise, [Buttmann, 393 (336f), cf. 345 (297); Winer's Grammar, as below]: John 14:2 (εἰ δὲ μή, namely, οὕτως ἦν), John 14:11 (εἰ δὲ μή namely, ἐμοὶ πιστεύετε, i. e. my words). As in these passages so generally the phrase stands where a word or clause must be repeated in thought from what immediately precedes; it thus has the force of the Latin alioquin , otherwise, or else, [Winer's Grammar, 583 (543)]: Revelation 2:5, Revelation 2:16; also after negative declarations, Mark 2:21; cf. Matthiae, § 617 b.TGL εἰ.42

    5. εἰ δὲ μήγε, see γέ , 3 d.TGL εἰ.43

    6. εἰ καί,TGL εἰ.44

    a. if even, if also, (cf. εἰ δὲ καί, 3 a., [and 7 below]): 1 Corinthians 7:21 [cf. Meyer at the passage; Bp. Lightfoot on Philemon, p. 324]; 2 Corinthians 11:15.TGL εἰ.45

    b. though, although: Luke 11:8; 2 Corinthians 4:16; 2 Corinthians 7:8, 2 Corinthians 7:12; Philippians 2:17; Colossians 2:5 [εἰ γὰρ καί]; Hebrews 6:9; with the optative, 1 Peter 3:14; see I. 7 b. above.TGL εἰ.46

    7. καὶ εἰ, even if: Mark 14:29 [T Tr WH εἰ καί]; 1 Peter 3:1; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 519 [who says, "In εἰ καί the conditional particle εἰ has the greater force; in καὶ εἰ the conjunctive particle καί. Hence, καὶ εἰ is used of what is only assumed to be true; εἰ καί, on the other hand, of what is as it is said to be." Bäumlein (Griech. Partikeln, p. 151) says, "In εἰ καί the καί naturally belongs to the conditional clause and is taken up into it, if even; in the combination καὶ εἰ the καί belongs to the consequent clause, even if. Sometimes however the difference disappears." Krüger (§ 65, 5, 15): "with καὶ εἰ, the leading clause is regarded as holding under every condition, even the one stated, which appears to be the most extreme; with εἰ καί the condition, which may also come to pass, is regarded as a matter of indifference in reference to the leading clause;" Sauppe (on Demosthenes, Ol. 2 § 20) is very explicit: "καὶ εἰ and εἰ καί both indicate that something conflicts with what is expressed in the leading clause, but that that is (or is done) notwithstanding. καὶ εἰ, however, represents the thing adduced in the conditional sentence to be the only thing conflicting; but when the conditional particle precedes (εἰ καί), the representation is that something which is (or may be) accompanied by many others (καί) conflicts ineffectually. Accordingly, the phrase καὶ εἰ greatly augments the force of what follows, εἰ καί lays less emphasis upon it; although it is evident that εἰ καί can often be substituted for καὶ εἰ." Cf. Herm. Vig., p. 829f; Winer's Grammar, 444 (413); Ellicott on Philippians 2:17; Schmalfeld, Griech. Syntax, § 41; Paley, Greek Particles, p. 31].TGL εἰ.47

    8. εἰ μή,TGL εἰ.48

    a. in a conditional protasis, with the same sequence of moods and tenses as the simple εἰ see I. above, if not, unless, except, [Winers Grammar, 477ff (444ff); Buttmann, 345 (297)]: Matthew 24:22; John 9:33; John 15:22, John 15:24; Romans 7:7, etc.TGL εἰ.49

    b. it serves, with the entire following sentence, to limit or correct what has just been said, only, save that, (Latin nisi quod ), [Buttmann, 359 (308)]: Mark 6:5; 1 Corinthians 7:17 (where Paul by the addition εἰ μὴ ἑκάστῳ κτλ. strives to prevent anyone in applying what had been said a little while before, viz. οὐ δεδούλωται... ἐν τοιούτοις to his own case, from going too far); in ironical answers, unless perchance, save forsooth that, (Kühner, § 577, 7; [Jelf, § 860, 5 Obs.]): εἰ μὴ χρῄζομεν κτλ., 2 Corinthians 3:1 Rec.TGL εἰ.50

    c. εἰ μή very often coalesce into one particle, as it were, which takes the same verb as the preceding negation: unless, equivalent to except, save, [Kühner, § 577, 8; Buttmann, 359 (308)];TGL εἰ.51

    α. universally: Matthew 11:27; Matthew 12:39; Mark 2:26; Mark 8:14; John 3:13; Romans 7:7; Romans 13:1, Romans 13:8; 1 Corinthians 8:4; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Corinthians 12:5, etc. as in classic Greek, μόνος, μόνον, is added pleonastically: Matthew 17:8; Matthew 21:19; Matthew 24:36; Acts 11:19; Philippians 4:15; Revelation 13:17, etc.TGL εἰ.52

    β. after negatives joined to nouns it is so used as to refer to the negative alone (hence, many have regarded it as used for ἀλλά [i. e. as being not exceptive but adversative]), and can be rendered in Latin sed tantum , but only: Matthew 12:4 (οὐκ ἐξὸν ἦν αὐτῷ φαγεῖν οὐδὲ τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ, εἰ μὴ τοῖς ἱερεῦσι μόνοις, as if οὐκ ἐξὸν ἦν φαγεῖν alone preceded); Luke 4:26; Romans 14:14; Revelation 9:4; Revelation 21:27 (ἐὰν μή is so used in Galatians 2:16; on Galatians 1:19 see Ἰάκωβος , 3); cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. iii., p. 195; [see ἐάν , I. 3 c. and references].TGL εἰ.53

    γ. when preceded by the interrogative τίς in questions having a negative force: Mark 2:7; Luke 5:21; Romans 11:15; 1 Corinthians 2:11; 2 Corinthians 2:2; 2 Corinthians 12:13; Hebrews 3:18; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:5; (Xenophon, oec. 9, 1; Aristophanes eqq. 615).TGL εἰ.54

    δ. with other conjunctions: εἰ μὴ ἵνα, John 10:10; εἰ μὴ ὅταν, Mark 9:9; τί ἐστιν, εἰ μὴ ὅτι etc., 2 Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 4:9.TGL εἰ.55

    ε. it has its own verb, and makes a phrase by itself: οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο, εἰ μή τινές εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες ὑμᾶς which means nothing else, save that there are some who trouble you, Galatians 1:7 [so Winer (commentary at the passage) and others; but see Meyer].TGL εἰ.56

    d. ἐκτὸς εἰ μή, arising from the blending of the two expressions εἰ μή and ἐκτὸς εἰ, like the Latin nisi si equivalent to praeterquam si , except in case, except: 1 Timothy 5:19; with the indicative aorist, 1 Corinthians 15:2; with the subjunctive present 1 Corinthians 14:5; (Lucian, de luctu c. 19; dial. meret. 1, 2, etc.). Cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 459; Winers Grammar, § 65, 3 c.; [Buttmann, index under the word ἐκτὸς εἰ μή].TGL εἰ.57

    9. εἰ μήν, assuredly, surely, in oaths: Hebrews 6:14 L T Tr WH (for R G μήν [which see]) and several times in the Sept. as Ezekiel 33:27; Ezekiel 34:8; [cf. Ezekiel 36:5; Ezekiel 38:19; 1 Kings 21:23 (1 Kings 20:23)], etc.; here, if εἰ did not come from by itacism, εἰ μήν must be explained as confusion of the Hebraisic εἰ μή (see I. 5 above) and the Greek formula of asseveration μήν; cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. 2:2, p. 248ff, and what Fritzsche says on the other side, commentary on Baruch 2:29; Judith 1:12; [cf. Kneucker on Baruch, the passage cited; Buttmann, 359 (308); Tdf. Proleg., p. 59; WHs Appendix, p. 151; B. D. under the word New Testament, I. 31].TGL εἰ.58

    10. εἰ μή τι or μήτι, unless in some respect, unless perchance, unless indeed: ironically, with the indicative present, 2 Corinthians 13:5; hesitatingly, with the subjunctive aorist Luke 9:13; Meyer at the passage [also Winers Grammar, 294 (276); Buttmann, 221 (191)]; τί ἄν: 1 Corinthians 7:5, see ἄν , IV.TGL εἰ.59

    11. εἰ οὐ (fully discussed by Winers Grammar, § 55, 2 c. and Buttmann, 345ff (297ff)), if not; this combination is used much more frequently in the N. T. than in the more elegant Greek authors; it differs from εἰ μή in this, that in the latter μή belongs to the particle εἰ, while in εἰ οὐ the οὐ refers to some following word and denies it emphatically, not infrequently even coalescing with it into a single idea.TGL εἰ.60

    a. when the idea to which οὐ belongs is antitheticTGL εἰ.61

    α. to a positive term, either preceding or following: εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύεις φονεύεις δέ, James 2:11 [in R G the future]; εἰ γὰρ θεὸς... οὐκ ἐφείσατο,... ἀλλὰ... παρέδωκεν εἰς κρίσιν, 2 Peter 2:4; εἰ καὶ οὐ δώσει... διά γε... δώσει, Luke 11:8; εἰ οὐ ποιῶ... εἰ δέ ποιῶ, John 10:37; εἰ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετε..., εἰ δὲ... οὐ πιστεύετε, John 5:46; add, Mark 11:26 R G L; Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 9:2; 1 Corinthians 11:6; James 3:2.TGL εἰ.62

    β. to some other idea which is negative (formally or virtually): εἰ... οὐκ ἀκούουσιν, οὐδὲ... πεισθήσονται, Luke 16:31; εἰ... οὐκ ἐφείσατο, οὐδὲ σου φείσεται [Rec. -σηται], Romans 11:21; add, 1 Corinthians 15:13, 1 Corinthians 15:15-17; 2 Thessalonians 3:10; followed in the apodosis by a question having the force of a negative: Luke 16:11; John 3:12; 1 Timothy 3:5.TGL εἰ.63

    γ. the οὐ denies with emphasis the idea to which it belongs: καλὸν ἦν αὐτῷ, εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη, good were it for him not to have been born, Matthew 26:24; Mark 14:21.TGL εἰ.64

    δ. the whole emphasis is placed on the negative itself: εἰ σὺ οὐκ εἶ Χριστός, John 1:25.TGL εἰ.65

    b. the οὐ coalesces, as it were, with the word to which it belongs into a single idea: εἰ δὲ οὐκ ἐγκρατεύονται if they are incontinent, 1 Corinthians 7:9; εἴ τίς τῶν ἰδίων οὐ προνοεῖ [or -εῖται T Tr text WH marginal reading], neglects, 1 Timothy 5:8; add, Luke 14:26; 1 Corinthians 16:22; Revelation 20:15, etc.TGL εἰ.66

    12. εἰ οὖν, if then: Matthew 6:23; Matthew 7:11; Luke 11:13, Luke 11:36; John 13:14; John 18:8; Acts 11:17; Colossians 3:1; Philemon 1:1. [On εἰ μὲν οὖν see μέν II. 4.]TGL εἰ.67

    13. εἴπερ [so T WH (except in 2 Corinthians 5:3 marginal reading), but L Tr εἴ περ; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 123], (εἰ and πέρ, and this apparently from περί), properly, if on the whole; if only, provided that, is used "of a thing which is assumed to be, but whether rightly or wrongly is left in doubt" (Herm. ad Vig., p. 831, [so Winers Grammar, 448 (417); but cf. Bäumlein, Griech. Partikeln, p. 202 (cf. 64 bottom); Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 528, and especially under the word εἴγε (in γέ, 3 c.) and the references to Meyer, Lightfoot, Ellicott, there given]): Romans 8:9, Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 8:5; 1 Corinthians 15:15; 1 Peter 2:3 (where L T Tr WH εἰ); by a species of rhetorical politeness it is used of that about which there is no doubt: 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Romans 3:30 L T Tr WH; 2 Corinthians 5:3 L Tr WH marginal reading.TGL εἰ.68

    14. εἴ πως [L Tr WH] or εἴπως [G T], if in any way, if by any means, if possibly: with the optative present (see I. 7 above), Acts 27:12; interrogatively, with the indicative future, Romans 1:10; with the subjunctive aorist, so that before εἰ the word σκοπῶν or πειρώμενος must be mentally supplied (see II. 1 d. above): Romans 11:14; Philippians 3:11.TGL εἰ.69

    15. εἴτε... εἴτε,TGL εἰ.70

    a. whether... or [as disjunction conjunction, sive... sive ; cf. Winers Grammar, 440 (409f); Buttmann, 221 (191)], without a verb following: Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 8:5; 2 Corinthians 5:9; Philippians 1:18, Philippians 1:20, Philippians 1:27; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; Colossians 1:16, Colossians 1:20; 1 Peter 2:13; εἴτε οὖν... εἴτε, 1 Corinthians 15:11; followed by the indicative present, 1 Corinthians 12:26; 1 Corinthians 13:8; 2 Corinthians 1:6; followed by the subjunctive present 1 Thessalonians 5:10, where the use of the subjunctive was occasioned by the subjunctive ζήσωμεν in the leading clause; cf. Winers Grammar, 294 (276); Buttmann, 221 (191).TGL εἰ.71

    b. whether... or [as indirect interrogatives, utrum... an ; cf. Buttmann, 250 (215)] (see examples from Greek authors in Matthiae, p. 1476f): after οὐκ οἶδα, 2 Corinthians 12:2.TGL εἰ.72

    16. εἴ τις, εἴ τι: examples of this combination have already been given among the preceding; here may be added εἴ τις ἕτερος, εἴ τι ἕτερον and if (there be) any other person or thing — a phrase used as a conclusion after the mention or enumeration of several particulars belonging to the same class (in the classics εἴ τις ἄλλος, εἰ καί τις ἄλλος, καὶ εἴ τι ἄλλο, etc., in Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato, others): Romans 13:9; 1 Timothy 1:10; εἴ τις with subjunctive present Revelation 11:5 Rec. ; with the subjunctive aorist, ibid. T Tr WH text.TGL εἰ.73

    Related entry: [εἴγε, see γέ, 3 c.]TGL εἰ.74

    Related entry: εἴπερ, see εἰ, III. 13.TGL εἰ.75

    Related entry: εἴτε, see εἰ, III. 15.TGL εἰ.76


    (1488) *For 1488 see Strong's Definition. Related entry: Strong's 1510TGL εἶ.2


    (1489) [εἴγε, see γέ , 3 c.] Strong's entry Strong's 1487 and Strong's 1065.TGL εἴγε.2

    εἰ δὲ μή (γε)

    (1490) (No entry.)TGL εἰ δὲ μή (γε).2


    (1491) εἶδος, -ους, τό, (ΕΙΔΩ), in the Sept. chiefly for מַרְאֶה and תֹּאַר; properly, that which strikes the eye, which is exposed to view;TGL εἶδος.2

    1. the external appearance, form, figure, shape, (so from Homer down): John 5:37; σωματικῷ εἴδει, Luke 3:22; τὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ, Luke 9:29; διὰ εἴδους, as encompassed with the visible appearance (of eternal things), (see διά , A. I. 2), 2 Corinthians 5:7, — commonly explained, by sight i. e. beholding (Luth.: im Schauen ); but no example has yet been adduced from any Greek writings in which εἶδος is used actively, like the Latin species , of vision; (στόμα κατὰ στόμα, ἐν εἴδει, καὶ οὐ δἰ ὁραμάτων καὶ ἐνυπνίων, Clement. homil. 17, 18; cf. Numbers 12:8 Sept. ).TGL εἶδος.3

    2. form, kind: ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ ἀπέχεσθε, i. e. from every kind of evil or wrong, 1 Thessalonians 5:22 [cf.πονηρός, under the end]; (Josephus, Antiquities 10, 3, 1 πᾶν εἶδος πονηρίας. The Greeks, especially Plato, oppose τὸ εἶδος to τὸ γένος, as the Latin does species to genus . Cf. Schmidt, chapter 182, 2).TGL εἶδος.4


    (1492) εἴδω, ἴδω, Latin video , [Sanskrit vid , perfect vêda know, vind-â-mi find, (cf. Vedas); Curtius, § 282], an obsolete form of the present tense, the place of which is supplied by ὁράω. The tenses coming from εἴδω and retained by usage form two families, of which one signifies to see, the other to know.TGL εἴδω.2

    I. 2 aorist εἶδον, the common form, with the term. of the 1 aorist (see references under the word ἀπέρχομαι, at the beginning) εἶδα, Revelation 17:3 L, 6 L T Tr; 1 person plural εἴδαμεν, L T Tr WH in Acts 4:20; Mark 2:12; Tr WH in Matthew 25:37; WH in Matthew 25:38; Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49; Luke 3:1-38 person plural εἶδαν, T WH in Luke 9:32; Tr WH in Luke 10:24; Acts 6:15; Acts 28:4; T Tr WH in Mark 6:50; L T Tr WH in John 1:39 (John 1:40); Acts 9:35; Acts 12:16; WH in Mark 6:33; add ἴδαν Tdf. in Matthew 13:17; Luke 10:24; ἴδον (an epic form, cf. Matthiae, i., p. 564; [Veitch, p. 215]; very frequent in the Sept. and in 1 Macc., cf. Grimm on 1 Macc., p. 54; on the frequent interchange of ἴδον and εἶδον in manuscripts, cf. Jacobs ad Achilles Tatius 2, 24; [WHs Appendix, pp. 162, 164; Tdf. Sept. Proleg., p. 60; N. T. Proleg., p. 89; Buttmann, 39 (34)]), Tdf. in Revelation 4:1; Revelation 6:1, Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:5, Revelation 6:8, Revelation 6:9, Revelation 6:12; Revelation 7:1, etc.; 3 person singular ἴδεν, Tdf. in Luke 5:2; Revelation 1:2; 2 person plural ἴδετε, Philippians 1:30 Rec. ; 3 person plural ἴδον, Tdf. in [Luke 2:20]; John 19:6; subjunctive ἴδω; imperative ἴδε (Attic ἰδέ cf. Winers Grammar, § 6, 1 a.; [Buttmann, 62 (54); Göttling, Accentl. 52]), [2 person plural ἴδετε, John 1:39-40R G L]; infinitive ἰδεῖν; participle ἰδών; (Sept. mostly for רָאָה sometimes for חָזָה and יָדַע ); to see (have seen), be seeing (saw), i. e.TGL εἴδω.3

    1. to perceive (with the eyes; Latin conspicere , German erblicken);TGL εἴδω.4

    a. universally, τινά or τί: Matthew 2:2; Matthew 4:16; Matthew 14:14; Matthew 28:6; Mark 1:10, Mark 1:16; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:26; Luke 7:22; John 1:47 (John 1:48); John 6:26; John 19:6; Acts 9:35; Acts 12:16; Galatians 1:19; 1 Timothy 6:16, and very often. οὐδέποτε οὕτως εἴδομεν we never saw in such fashion, i. e. such a sight never befell us, Mark 2:12, old German also hat man nicht gesehen, seit etc.; cf. Kuinoel ad Mat., p. 280 edition 4. ἰδεῖν τι and ἀκοῦσαί τι are conjoined in Luke 7:22; Acts 22:14; 1 Corinthians 2:9; James 5:11; ἰδεῖν and ἰδεῖν τι are also used by those to whom something is presented in vision, as the author of the Apocalypse relates that he saw this or that: Revelation 1:12, Revelation 1:17; Revelation 4:1 [here εἶδον κ. ἰδού a formula peculiar to Rev.; see ἰδού , at the end]; Revelation 5:1,Revelation 5:6,Revelation 5:11; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 7:1,Revelation 7:9, etc.; John 12:41; ἰδεῖν ὅραμα Acts 10:17; Acts 16:10; ἰδεῖν ἐν ὁράματι, Acts 9:12 [R G]; Acts 10:3; ἐν τῇ ὁράσει, Revelation 9:17; elliptically ἰδεῖν τι ἔκ τινος namely, ἐκπορευθέν, Revelation 16:13, cf. Revelation 1:16; Hebraistically (on which see Winers Grammar, § 45, 8; Buttmann, § 144, 30) ἰδὼν εἶδον I have surely seen: Acts 7:34 after Exodus 3:7. Frequent in the historical books of the N. T. is the participle ἰδών, ἰδόντες, continuing the narrative, placed before a finite verb, and either having an accusative added, as in Matthew 2:10; Matthew 3:7; Matthew 5:1; Matthew 8:34; Mark 5:22; Mark 9:20; Luke 2:48; Luke 7:13; John 5:6; John 6:14; Acts 13:12; Acts 14:11, etc.; or the accusative is omitted, as being evident from the context: Matthew 9:8, Matthew 9:11; Matthew 21:20; Mark 10:14; Luke 1:12; Luke 2:17; Acts 3:12; Acts 7:31, etc.TGL εἴδω.5

    b. with the accusative of a person or a thing, and a participle [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 45, 4 a.]: Matthew 3:7, Matthew 3:16; Matthew 8:14; Mark 1:16; Mark 6:33; Luke 9:49; Luke 21:2; John 1:33, John 1:47 (John 1:48); Acts 3:9; Acts 11:13; 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 John 5:16; Revelation 9:1, and often.TGL εἴδω.6

    c. followed by ὅτι: Mark 2:16 L T Tr WH; Mark 9:25; John 6:22, John 6:24, etc.TGL εἴδω.7

    d. followed by an indirect question with the indicative: with τίς, Luke 19:3; with τί, Mark 5:14; with πηλίκος, Galatians 6:11.TGL εἴδω.8

    e. ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε, a formula of invitation, the use of which leaves the object of the seeing to be inferred by the hearers from the matter under consideration: John 11:34 (John 11:35); John 1:46 (John 1:47) (here ἴδε is equivalent to by seeing learn, namely, that Jesus is the Messiah), and Griesbach in Revelation 6:1, Revelation 6:5; plural John 1:39 (John 1:40) (where T Tr WH ἔρχ. κ. ὄψεσθε). The Rabbis use the phrases וחזי תא and וראה בא to command attention.TGL εἴδω.9

    f. ἰδεῖν used absolutely and πιστεύειν are contrasted in John 20:29.TGL εἴδω.10

    2. like the Latin video , to perceive by any of the senses: Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39; Luke 17:15.TGL εἴδω.11

    3. universally, to perceive, notice, discern, discover: τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν, Matthew 9:2; τὰς ἐνθυμήσεις αὐτῶν, Matthew 9:4 (where L Tr WH text εἰδώς for ἰδών); τ. διαλογισμὸν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, Luke 9:47 [T WH text Tr marginal reading εἰδώς]; ἴδε with the accusative of the thing, Romans 11:22; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 27:3, Matthew 27:24; Acts 12:3; Acts 14:9; Acts 16:19; Galatians 2:7, Galatians 2:14; ἴδε, ὅτι, John 7:52; ἰδεῖν τινα, ὅτι, Mark 12:34 [Tr brackets the accusative].TGL εἴδω.12

    4. to see, i. e. to turn the eyes, the mind, the attention to anything;TGL εἴδω.13

    a. to pay attention, observe: followed by εἰ interrogative Matthew 27:49; by ποταπός, 1 John 3:1.TGL εἴδω.14

    b. περί τινος (cf. Latin videre de allqua re ), to see about something [A. V. to consider of], i. e. to ascertain what must be done about it, Acts 15:6.TGL εἴδω.15

    c. to inspect, examine: τί, Luke 14:18.TGL εἴδω.16

    d. τινά, to look at, behold: John 21:21; Mark 8:33.TGL εἴδω.17

    5. to experience, τί, any state or condition [cf. Winer's Grammar, 17]: as τὸν θάνατον, Luke 2:26; Hebrews 11:5, (Josephus, Antiquities 9, 2, 2 [οἶδεν] cf. John 8:51 (Psalm 88:49 (Psalms 89:49); τὴν διαφθοράν, to pass into a state of corruption, be dissolved, Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31; Acts 13:35-37 (Psalm 15:10 (Psalms 16:10)); τὴν βασιλ. τ. θεοῦ, to partake of salvation in the kingdom of God, John 3:3; πένθος, Revelation 18:7; τὴν δόξαν τοῦ θεοῦ, by some marvellous event get a signal experience of the beneficent power of God, John 11:40; στενοχωρίας, 1 Macc. 13:3 (ἀλοχου χάριν, Homer, Iliad 11, 243); on the same use of the verb רָאָה and the Latin videre , cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus 3, p. 1246. ἡμέραν, to live to see a day (a time) and enjoy the blessings it brings: ἡμέρας ἀγαθάς, 1 Peter 3:10 from Psalms 33:13 (Psalms 34:13); τὴν ἡμέραν ἐμήν (Christ's language) the time when I should exercise my saving power on earth, John 8:56; εἶδε namely, τ. ἡμ. ἐμήν, from the abode of the blessed in paradise he in spirit saw my day, ibid. (see ἀγαλλιάω , under the end); ἐπιθυμήσετε μίαν τῶν ἡμερῶν... ἰδεῖν, ye will wish that even a single day of the blessed coming age of the Messiah may break upon your wretched times, Luke 17:22; so in Greek writings, especially the poets, ἦμαρ, ἡμέραν ἰδεῖν, in Latin videre diem ; cf. Kuinoel on John 8:56.TGL εἴδω.18

    6. with the accusative of person to see i. e. have an interview with, to visit: Luke 8:20; John 12:21; Acts 16:40; Acts 28:20; Romans 1:11; 1 Corinthians 16:7; Philippians 1:27; 1 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:4; 3 John 1:14; τὸ πρόσωπον τίνος: 1 Thessalonians 2:17; 1 Thessalonians 3:10 (Lucian, dial. d. 24, 2 [cf. Rutherford on Babrius 11, 9]); with an accusative of place, to visit, go to: Acts 19:21.TGL εἴδω.19

    [Synonyms: 'When εἶδον, ἰδεῖν are called "momentary preterites," it must not be supposed that thereby a quickly-past action is designated; these forms merely present the action without reference to its duration... The unaugmented moods, too, are not exclusively past, but present or future as well — the last most decidedly in the imperative. Now it is obvious that when a perception is stated without regard to its duration, its form or mode cannot have prominence; hence ἰδεῖν is much less physical than ὁρᾶν. ἰδεῖν denotes to perceive with the eyes; ὁρᾶν [which see], on the other hand, to see, i. e. it marks the use and action of the eye as the principal thing. Perception as denoted by ἰδεῖν when conceived of as completed, permits the sensuous element to be forgotten and abides merely as an activity of the soul; for οἶδα, εἰδέναι, signifies not "to have seen," but "to know" Schmidt, chapter 11. Compare: ἀπ-, ἐπ-, προ-, συν-, ὑπερεἶδον.]TGL εἴδω.20

    II. 2 perfect οἶδα, οἶδας (1 Corinthians 7:16; John 21:15, for the more common οἶσθα), οἴδαμεν (for ἴσμεν, more common in Greek), οἴδατε (ἴστε, the more usual classic form, is found only in Ephesians 5:5 G L T Tr WH and Hebrews 12:17, [probably also in James 1:19 according to the reading of L T Tr WH; but see below]), οἴδασι (and once the Attic ἴσασι, Acts 26:4), imperative ἴστε, once, James 1:19 L T Tr WH, [but see above], subjunctive εἰδῶ, infinitive εἰδέναι, participle εἰδώς, εἰδυῖα (Mark 5:33; Acts 5:7); pluperfect ᾔδειν, 2 person everywhere ᾔδεις, 3 person ᾔδει, plural 2 person ᾔδειτε, 3 person ᾔδεισαν (for the more common ἠδεσαν [Veitch, p. 218; Buttmann, 43 (38)]); future ἐιδήσω (Hebrews 8:11); cf. Winers Grammar, 84 (81); Buttmann, 51 (44); Sept. chiefly for יָרִע; like the Latin novi it has the signification of a present to know, understand; and the pluperfect the significance of an imperfect; [cf. Winer's Grammar, 274 (257)].TGL εἴδω.21

    1. to know: with the accusative of the thing, Matthew 25:13; Mark 10:19; John 10:4; John 13:17; John 14:4; Acts 5:7; Romans 7:7; 1 Corinthians 2:2; Revelation 2:2, Revelation 2:9, etc.; τοῦτο [Rec. ; others have πάντα] followed by ὅτι, etc. Jude 1:5; with the accusative of person, Matthew 26:72, Matthew 26:74; John 1:31; John 6:42; Acts 3:16; 2 Corinthians 5:16, etc.; τὸν θεόν, Titus 1:16, cf. John 8:19; John 15:21; Gentiles are called οἱ μὴ εἰδότες τ. θεόν in 1 Thessalonians 4:5; 2 Thessalonians 1:8, cf. Galatians 4:8; the predicate of the person is added (as often in Attic), εἰδὼς αὐτὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον, namely, ὄντα, Mark 6:20 [Buttmann, 304 (261)]; in the form of a participle 2 Corinthians 12:2. to an accusative of the object by attraction (Winers Grammar, § 66, 5 a.; Buttmann, 377 (323)) an epexegetical clause is added [cf. especially Buttmann, 301 (258)], with ὅτι, 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians 12:3; Acts 16:3; or an indirect question [Buttmann, 250f (215f)], Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27; John 7:27; John 9:29. εἰδέναι is used with the accusative and infinitive in Luke 4:41; 1 Peter 5:9; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 9:6; John 19:35; Acts 2:30; Romans 5:3, and very often; οἴδαμεν followed by ὅτι is not infrequently, so far as the sense is concerned, equivalent to it is well known, acknowledged: Matthew 22:16; Luke 20:21; John 3:2; John 9:31; Romans 2:2; Romans 3:19; Romans 7:14; Romans 8:22, Romans 8:28; 2 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Timothy 1:8; 1 John 3:2; 1 John 5:20; cf. Lightfoot [in his Horae Hebrew et Talm.] and Baumg.-Crusius on John 3:2. frequent, especially in Paul, is the interrogative formula οὐκ οἴδατε and οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι, by which something well known is commended to one for his thoughtful consideration: Romans 11:2; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 5:6; 1 Corinthians 6:2, 1 Corinthians 6:9, 1 Corinthians 6:15, 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 9:13, 1 Corinthians 9:24; οὐκ οἴδατε followed by an indirect question. Luke 9:55 [Rec. ]; οὐκ οἶδας ὅτι, John 19:10; οὐκ ᾔδειτε, Luke 2:49; εἰδέναι followed by an indirect question. [cf. Buttmann, as above], Matthew 26:70; John 9:21, John 9:25, John 9:30; John 14:5; John 20:13; 1 Corinthians 1:16; 1 Corinthians 7:16; 2 Corinthians 12:2; Romans 8:26; Ephesians 6:21; 1 Timothy 3:15, and very often.TGL εἴδω.22

    2. to know, i. e. get knowledge of, understand, perceive;TGL εἴδω.23

    a. any fact: as, τὰς ἐνθυμήσεις, Matthew 12:25; τὴν ὑπόκρισιν, Mark 12:15; τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς αὐτῶν, Luke 6:8; Luke 11:17; with the addition of ἐν ἑαυτῷ followed by ὅτι, John 6:61.TGL εἴδω.24

    b. the force and meaning of something, which has a definite meaning: 1 Corinthians 2:11; τὴν παραβολήν, Mark 4:13; μυστήρια, 1 Corinthians 13:2; followed by an indirect question. Ephesians 1:18.TGL εἴδω.25

    c. as in classical Greek, followed by an infinitive in the sense of to know how (Latin calleo , to be skilled in): Matthew 7:11; Luke 11:13; Luke 12:56; Philippians 4:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:4; 1 Timothy 3:5; James 4:17; 2 Peter 2:9; ὡς οἴδατε, namely, ἀσφαλίσασθαι, Matthew 27:65.TGL εἴδω.26

    3. Hebraistically, εἰδέναι τινά to have regard for one, cherish, pay attention to: 1 Thessalonians 5:12 (Sept. Genesis 39:6 for יָדַע ). [Synonym: see γινώσκω .]TGL εἴδω.27

    Related entry: οἶδα, see εἴδω, II. p. 174.TGL εἴδω.28


    (1493) εἰδωλεῖον [-λιον T WH; see Ι, ι], -ου, τό, (εἴδωλον, which see; cf. 'Ἀσκληπεῖον, Ἀπολλωνεῖον, Ἡρακλεῖον, etc. [Winers Grammar, 95 (90)]), an idol's temple, temple consecrated to idols: 1 Corinthians 8:10 (1 Macc. 1:47; 1 Macc. 10:83; 1 Esdr. 2:9; not found in secular authors; for in the fragment from Sophocles [152 Dindorf] in Plutarch, de amico et adul. c. 36 ἑδωλια has of late been restored).TGL εἰδωλεῖον.2


    (1494) εἰδωλόθυτος, -ον, (εἴδωλον and θύω), a Biblical and ecclesiastical word [Winers Grammar, 26; 100 (94)], sacrificed to idols; τὸ εἰδωλόθυτον and τὰ εἰδωλόθυτα denote the flesh left over from the heathen sacrifices; it was either eaten at feasts, or sold (by the poor and the miserly) in the market: Acts 15:29; Acts 21:25; 1 Corinthians 8:1, 1 Corinthians 8:4, 1 Corinthians 8:7, 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 Corinthians 10:19, 1 Corinthians 10:28 (here L text T Tr WH read ἱερόθυτον, which see); Revelation 2:14, Revelation 2:20. [Cf. Lightfoot on Galatians, p. 308f.]TGL εἰδωλόθυτος.2

    Related entry: ἱερόθυτος, -ον, (from ἱερός and θύω, cf. εἰδωλόθυτος), sacrificed, offered in sacrifice, to the gods; as in Plutarch symp. 8, 8, 3 initially used of the flesh of animals offered in sacrifice: 1 Corinthians 10:28 L text T Tr WH. On the use of the word in Greek writings cf. Lob. ad Phyrn. p. 159.TGL εἰδωλόθυτος.3


    (1495) εἰδωλολατρεία [-τρία WH; see Ι, ι], -ας, (εἴδωλον, which see, and λατρεία), (Tertullian, others have idololatria ), the worship of false gods, idolatry: Galatians 5:20; used of the formal sacrificial feasts held in honor of false gods, 1 Corinthians 10:14; of avarice, as a worship of Mammon [which see], Colossians 3:5 [Bp. Lightfoot at the passage]; in plural, the vices springing from idolatry and peculiar to it, 1 Peter 4:3. (Ecclesiastical writings [cf. Winer's Grammar, 26].)TGL εἰδωλολατρία.2


    (1496) εἰδωλολάτρης, -ου, , (εἴδωλον, and λάτρις i. e. a hireling, servant, slave), a worshipper of false gods, an idolater, (Tertullian idololatres ): 1 Corinthians 5:10; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15; anyone, even a Christian, participant in any way in the worship of heathen, 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 6:9; especially one who attends their sacrificial feasts and eats of the remains of the offered victims, 1 Corinthians 10:7; a covetous man, as a worshipper of Mammon, Ephesians 5:5; cf. Meyer at the passage (Ecclesiastical writings [cf. Winer's Grammar, 100 (94f)].)TGL εἰδωλολάτρης.2


    (1497) εἴδωλον, -ου, τό, (εἶδος [cf. Winers Grammar, 96 (91); Etym. Magn. 296, 9]), in Greek writings from Homer down, an image, likeness, i. e. whatever represents the form of an object, either real or imaginary; used of the shades of the departed (in Homer), of apparitions, spectres, phantoms of the mind, etc.; in Biblical writings [an idol, i. e.]:TGL εἴδωλον.2

    1. the image of a heathen god: Acts 7:41; 1 Corinthians 12:2; Revelation 9:20, (Isaiah 30:22; 2 Chronicles 23:17, etc.; θεῶν δαιμόνων εἴδωλα, Polybius 31, 3, 13);TGL εἴδωλον.3

    2. a false god: Acts 15:20 (on which see ἀλίσγημα ); Romans 2:22; 1 Corinthians 8:4, 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 10:19; 2 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9 (often in the Sept. ); φυλάσσειν ἑαυτὸν ἀπὸ τ. εἰδώλων, to guard oneself from all manner of fellowship with heathen worship, 1 John 5:21.TGL εἴδωλον.4


    (1498) *For 1498 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἴην.2

    εἰ καί

    (1499) *For 1499 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἰ καί.2


    (1500) εἰκῇ (L WH Relz εἰκῇ; cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 342; Buttmann, 69 (61); [Winers Grammar, § 5, 4 e.; Jelf, § 324 Obs. 6; Kühner, § 336 Anm. 7; especially Etym. Magn. 78, 26f; and references under the word Ι, ι]), adverb; in Greek writings from Aeschylus down;TGL εἰκῇ.2

    1. inconsiderately, without purpose, without just cause: Matthew 5:22 R G Tr brackets; Romans 13:4 (i. e. 'not to hide it in the scabbard, but to draw it' Fritzsche); Colossians 2:18.TGL εἰκῇ.3

    2. in vain; without success or effect: 1 Corinthians 15:2; Galatians 3:4; Galatians 4:11. [From Xenophon, Aeschylus down.]TGL εἰκῇ.4


    (1501) εἴκοσι [or -σιν; Tdf. uses σι ten times before a consonant, and says -σι "etiam ante vocalem fere semper in manuscripts antiquiss. " Proleg., p. 98; WH everywhere -σι, cf. their Appendix, p. 148; Buttmann, 9], οἱ, αἱ, τά, twenty: Luke 14:31; Acts 1:15, etc. [From Homer down.]TGL εἴκοσι.2


    (1502) εἴκω: 1 aorist εἶξα; to yield, [A. V. give place]: τινί, Galatians 2:5. (From Homer down.) [Compare: ὑπείκω.]TGL εἴκω.2


    (1503) ΕΙΚΩ: whence 2 perfect ἔοικα with the force of a present [Winers Grammar, 274 (257)]; to be like: τινί, James 1:6, James 1:23. [From Homer down.]TGL εἴκω.2

    Related entry: ἔοικα, see ΕΙΚΩ.TGL εἴκω.3


    (1504) εἰκών, -όνος, (accusative εἰκόναν, Revelation 13:14 Lachmann; see ἄρσην ), (ΕΙΚΩ which see); [from Aeschylus and Herodotus down]; Sept. mostly for צֶלֶם; an image, figure, likeness;TGL εἰκών.2

    a. Matthew 22:20; Mark 12:16; Luke 20:24; Romans 1:23; 1 Corinthians 15:49; Revelation 13:14; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4; εἰκὼν τῶν πραγμάτων, the image of the things (namely, the heavenly things), in Hebrews 10:1, is opposed to σκιά, just as in Cicero, de off. 3, 17 solida et expressa effigies is opposed to umbra ; εἰκὼν τ. θεοῦ is used of the moral likeness of renewed men to God, Colossians 3:10; εἰκὼν τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ the image of the Son of God, into which true Christians are transformed, is likeness not only to the heavenly body (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:49; Philippians 3:21), but also to the most holy and blessed state of mind, which Christ possesses: Romans 8:29; 2 Corinthians 3:18.TGL εἰκών.3

    b. metonymically, εἰκών τινος, the image of one; one in whom the likeness of anyone is seen: εἰκὼν θεοῦ is applied to man, on account of his power of command (see δόξα , III. 3 a. α.), 1 Corinthians 11:7; to Christ, on account of his divine nature and absolute moral excellence, Colossians 1:15; 2 Corinthians 4:4; [cf. Bp. Lightfoot and Meyer on Colossians, the passage cited].TGL εἰκών.4

    [Synonyms: εἰκών, ὁμοίωμα: δμ. denotes often note mere similarity but likeness (see δμοίωμα, b. and cf. Meyer on Romans 1:23), visible conformity to its object; εἰκ, adds to the idea of likeness the suggestions of representation (as a derived likeness) and manifestation. Cf. Trench § 15; Lightfoot as above.]TGL εἰκών.5


    (1505) εἰλικρίνεια (-ία T [WH, see Ι, ι; on the breathing see WH's Appendix, p. 144]), -ας, , (εἰλικρινής, which see), purity, sincerity, ingenuousness: 1 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 2:17; τοῦ θεοῦ, which God effects by the Holy Spirit, 2 Corinthians 1:12 [Winers Grammar, § 36, 3 b.]. (Theophrastus, Sextus Empiricus, Stobaeus)TGL εἰλικρίνεια.2


    (1506) εἰλικρινής, -ές, ([on the breathing see WH's Appendix, p. 144; Liddell and Scott, under the word, at the end]; commonly supposed to be from εἴλη or ἕλη, sunlight, and κρίνω, properly, found pure when unfolded and examined by the sun's light; hence, some write εἰλ. [see references above]; according to the conjecture of others from εἶλος, εἰλειν, properly, sifted and cleansed by rapid movement or rolling to and fro), pure, unsullied, sincere; of the soul, an εἰλικρινής man: Philippians 1:10; διάνοια, 2 Peter 3:1. (Wis. 7:25, where cf. Grimm, Exgt. Hdb.; [see, on the word, also Trench, § 85]; [Hippocrates], Xenophon, Plato, [Aristotle, Plutarch], Polybius, Philo, [others].)TGL εἰλικρινής.2

    [Synonyms: εἰλικρινής, καθαρός: According to Trench as above the former word expresses freedom from the falsehoods, the latter from the defilements, of the flesh and of the world.]TGL εἰλικρινής.3


    (1507) εἱλίσσω, Ionic and poetic and occasional in later prose for ἑλίσσω [Winer's Grammar, § 2, 1 a.]: [present passive ἑιλίσσομαι]; εἴλω to press close, to roll up, [cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, at the end]), to roll up or together: Revelation 6:14 R G; but L T Tr WH have restored ἑλισσόμ. (From Homer down.)TGL εἱλίσσω.2

    εἰ μή

    (1508) *For 1508 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἰ μή.2

    εἰ μήτι

    (1509) *For 1509 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἰ μήτι.2


    (1510) εἰμί εἰμί (from ἕω, whence ἐμί in inscriptions [?]; Aeolic, ἐμμἰ [Curtius, (yet ἐμμι, so G. Meyer) § 564; Veitch, p. 228]), imperative ἴσθι, ἔστω, less usual ἤτω, 1 Corinthians 16:22; James 5:12; Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 48, 5; [1 Macc. 10:31; Psalm 103:31 (Psalms 104:31)]; Plato, rep. 2, p. 361 c. [here it has given place to ἔστω (or ἴτω), see Stallb. at the passage; Veitch, p. 200f; 3 person plural ἔστωσαν, Luke 12:35; 1 Timothy 3:12], infinitive εἶναι; imperfect — accusative to the more ancient and elegant form, ἦν, 2 person ἦσθα (Matthew 26:69; Mark 14:67), rarer form ἦς (Matthew 25:21, Matthew 25:23; John 11:21, John 11:32; John 21:18; Revelation 3:15 G L T Tr WH), 3 person ἦν, 1 person plural ἦμεν, — according to the middle form, common in later Greek [cf. Veitch, p. 226], ἤμην (Matthew 25:35; [on Acts 11:11 cf. WH. Introductory § 404]; Galatians 1:10, etc.), plural ἤμεθα (Matthew 23:30 G L T Tr WH; Acts 27:37 L T Tr WH; [Galatians 4:3 T WH Tr marginal reading; Ephesians 2:3 T Tr WH; Baruch 1:19]); cf. Lob. ad Phryn., pp. 149, 152; future ἔσομαι; cf. Winers Grammar, § 14, 2; Buttmann, 49f (43); to be;TGL εἰμί.2

    I. εἰμί has the force of a predicate [i. e. is the substantive verb]: to be, i. e.TGL εἰμί.3

    1. to exist;TGL εἰμί.4

    a. passages in which the idea of the verb preponderates, and some person or thing is said to exist by way of distinction from things non-existent: ἔστιν θεός, Hebrews 11:6; ὢν καὶ ἦν [Winers Grammar, 68 (66), cf. 182 (172); Buttmann, 50 (43)], Revelation 1:4, [Revelation 1:8; Revelation 4:8]; Revelation 11:17; Revelation 16:5; ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν λόγος, John 1:1; πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι, ἐγὼ εἰμί, John 8:58 [so WH marginal reading in 24, 28; John 13:19 (see II. 5 below)]; πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι, John 17:5; ἦν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι καίπερ ἐστίν Rec. , according to the better reading καὶ πάρεσται [G Tr WH, but L T πάρεσται, correctly; cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. § 108 Anm. 20; Chandler § 803], Revelation 17:8; ἐσμέν, Acts 17:28; τὰ μή ὄντα and τὰ ὄντα things that are not, things that are, Romans 4:17; things that have some or have no influence, of some or of no account, 1 Corinthians 1:28, (ἐκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς οὐκ ὄντας καὶ ἠθέλησεν ἐκ μὴ ὄντος εἶναι ἡμᾶς, Clement of Rome, 2 Corinthians 1:8 [cf. Gebh. and Harn. at the passage and especially on Hermas, vis. 1, 1, 6 ]). Hence,TGL εἰμί.5

    b. equivalent to to live: εἰ ἤμεθα [or ἦμεν Rec. ] ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had been (viz. living) in the days of our fathers, Matthew 23:30; οὐκ εἶναι is used (as in classical Greek, cf. Passow, i., p. 792 [Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. I. 1]) of the dead [who are not, are no more]: Matthew 2:18.TGL εἰμί.6

    c. equivalent to to stay, remain, be in a place: Matthew 2:13, Matthew 2:15; Mark 1:45 [L WH brackets ἦν]; Mark 5:21; Luke 1:80; see V. 4 below.TGL εἰμί.7

    d. equivalent to to be found, the subject being anarthrous; as, ἦν ἄνθρωπος there was (found, German es gab) a man, etc.: Luke 16:1, Luke 16:19; Luke 18:23; John 3:1; John 4:6; John 5:2; John 6:10; 1 Corinthians 8:5; 1 Corinthians 12:4-6; 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:44; 1 John 5:16, and often; ἔσονται ἐμπαῖκται Jude 1:18; ἐστι, ἦν, ἔσται with a negative: οὐκ ἔστι δίκαιος there is not (namely, found) a righteous man, Romans 3:10; add Romans 3:12, Romans 3:18; χρόνος οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι there shall be no longer time, Revelation 10:6; add, Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:5 [Rec. adds ἐκεῖ]; Revelation 21:25 [here ἐκεῖ stands]; ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, 1 Corinthians 15:12; μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν, Matthew 22:23 and its parallel; Acts 23:8. Here belong also the phrases εἰσίν, οἱ etc., οἵτινες etc., there are (some) who etc.: Matthew 16:28; Matthew 19:12; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27; John 6:64; Acts 11:20; οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς, Mark 9:39; Mark 10:29; Luke 1:61; Luke 18:29; with a noun added, ἓξ ἡμέραι εἰσίν, ἐν αἷς etc. Luke 13:14; τίς ἐστιν, ὅς, Matthew 7:9 [L Tr WH omit ἐστ.]; Matthew 12:11 [Tr omits; WH brackets ἐστ.]: ἔστιν with a participle there is (viz., is not lacking) one that etc. John 5:32 [?], John 5:45; John 8:50.TGL εἰμί.8

    e. when used of things, events, facts, etc., εἶναι is equivalent to to happen, take place: νῦν κρίσις ἐστιν, John 12:31; γογγυσμός ἦν, John 7:12 θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ. Mark 14:2; σχίσμα, σχίσματα, John 9:16; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 12:25; ἔριδες, 1 Corinthians 1:11; αἱρέσεις, 1 Corinthians 11:19: πένθος, πόνος, κραυγή, Revelation 21:4; ἔσονται λιμοὶ κ. λοιμοὶ [R G Tr marginal reading in brackets, others omit κ. λοιμ.] κ. σεισμοί, Matthew 24:7; ἀνάγκη μεγάλη, Luke 21:23; ἀνάστασιν μέλλειν ἔσεσθαι, Acts 24:15. of times and seasons: χειμών ἐστιν, John 10:22; νύξ, John 13:30; ψῦχος, John 18:18; καύσων, Luke 12:55; ἑσπέρα, Acts 4:3 πρωΐα, John 18:28 [Rec. ]; σκοτία, John 20:1: ἔστι, ἦν ὥρα, — as ἕκτη, Luke 23:44; John 4:6; John 19:14 [L T Tr WH] John 1:39 (John 1:40), etc.; also of feasts: John 5:1, John 5:10; John 9:14; Acts 12:3; Luke 23:54; Mark 15:42. universally, τὸ ἐσόμενον what will be, follow, happen: Luke 22:49; πότε ταῦτα ἔσται; Matthew 24:3; πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο; Luke 1:34; after the Hebrew, καὶ ἔσται (equivalent to וְהָיָה) followed by the future of another verb: Acts 2:17 (from Joel 2:28 (Joel 3:1)); Acts 2:21 (from Joel 2:32 (Joel 3:5)); Acts 3:23: Romans 9:26 (from Hosea 1:10 (Hosea 2:1)). τί οὖν ἐστίν; what then is it? i. e. how stands the case? What follows therefore? Acts 21:22; 1 Corinthians 14:15, 1 Corinthians 14:26.TGL εἰμί.9

    2. equivalent to πάρειμι, to be present; to be at hand; to be in store: οἶνος οὐκ ἔστιν, John 2:3 Tdf. ; παμπόλλοῦ [Rec. ] ὄχλου ὄντος, when there was present, Mark 8:1; add, Mark 2:15; Matthew 12:10 R G; Hebrews 8:4; οὔπω γὰρ ἦν πνεῦμα (ἅγιον), was not yet present, i. e. had not yet been given [which some authorities add], John 7:39; so also in the words εἰ πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἔστιν [but R G Tr accent ἅγιόν ἐστ., cf. Chandler § 938], Acts 19:2; ἀκούσας... ὄντα σῖτα, that there was an abundance of grain, Acts 7:12; δύναμις κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτούς, was present to heal them, Luke 5:17.TGL εἰμί.10

    3. ἔστιν with an infinitive, as in Greek writings from Homer down (see Passow, i., p. 792f; [Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. VI.]; see examples from the O. T. Apocrypha in Wahl, Clavis apocryph., p. 155), it is possible to etc.; with a negative (as more common in classic Greek also), it is impossible: Hebrews 9:5; 1 Corinthians 11:20, [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44, 2 b.].TGL εἰμί.11

    II. εἰμί [as a copula] connects the subject with the predicate, where the sentence shows who or what a person or thing is as respects character, nature, disposition, race, power, dignity, greatness, age, etc.TGL εἰμί.12

    1. universally: ἐγώ εἰμι πρεσβύτης, Luke 1:18; ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριήλ, Luke 1:19; ἔρημός ἐστιν τόπος, Matthew 14:15; προφήτης εἶ σύ, John 4:19; σὺ εἶ Χριστός, Matthew 26:63; καθαροί ἐστε, John 13:10; ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς, Matthew 5:13; Ἰουδαίους εἶναι ἑαυτούς, Revelation 3:9, cf. Revelation 2:9, and countless other examples.TGL εἰμί.13

    2. εἰμί, as a copula, indicates that the subject is or is to be compared to the thing expressed by the predicate: σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε, ye are, as it were, the seal attesting my apostleship, i. e. your faith is proof that the name of apostle is given me rightfully, 1 Corinthians 9:2; ἐπιστολὴ (namely, συστατικη, cf. 1 Corinthians 9:1) ὑμεῖς ἐστε, i. e. ye yourselves are like a letter of recommendation for me, or ye serve as a substitute for a letter of recommendation, 2 Corinthians 3:2; τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου, this which I now hand to you is, as it were, my body, Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; ὑμεῖς ναὸς θεοῦ ἐστέ [L text T Tr text WH ἡμεῖς... ἐσμέν] ye [we] are to be regarded as the temple of God, 2 Corinthians 6:16, cf. 1 Corinthians 6:19; θεὸς ναὸς αὐτῆς ἐστίν [ἐστι(ν) R G Tr], κ. τὸ ἀρνίον, they are to be regarded as its temple, they occupy the place of a temple in the city because present with everyone in it, Revelation 21:22. Hence,TGL εἰμί.14

    3. εἶναι, getting an explicative force, is often equivalent to to denote, signify, import, as ἀγρός ἐστιν κόσμος, Matthew 13:37-39, Matthew 13:19, Matthew 13:22; Luke 8:11, Luke 8:14; Galatians 4:24; Revelation 17:15; Revelation 19:8, (Sept. Genesis 41:26; Ezekiel 37:11); τοῦτ’ ἔστιν [so T WH uniformly, except that WH omits ν. ἐφελκ. in Hebrews 2:14], Lachmann τοῦτέστιν [except in Romans 10:6, Romans 10:7, Romans 10:8; also Treg. except in Matthew 27:46; Mark 7:2; Acts 1:19; Romans 9:8; Romans 10:6, Romans 10:7, Romans 10:8; sometimes written τοῦτό ἐστιν, see Tdf. Proleg., p. 111; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; Buttmann, 11 (10)], an explanatory formula (equivalent to τοῦτο σημαίνει) which is either inserted into the discourse as a parenthesis, or annexed to words as an apposition [cf. Winers Grammar, 530 (493); Buttmann, 400 (342). It is to be distinguished from τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν: τουτ’ ἔστιν introduces an incidental explanation for the most part of the language; τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν subjoins an explanatory statement, relating generally to the thought; (cf. our "that is to say," and "that is"); see Romans 1:12 and Fritzsche at the passage]: Matthew 27:46; Mark 7:2; Acts 1:19; Romans 7:18; Romans 10:6-8; Philemon 1:12; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 7:5, etc.; likewise ἐστι, Mark 3:17; Mark 7:11, Mark 7:34; Hebrews 7:2; ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, this signifies, when interpreted, etc. Mark 15:34; Acts 4:36; see 6 c. below.TGL εἰμί.15

    4. In the Bible far more frequently than in secular authors, and in the N. T. much more often in the historical than in the other books, a participle without the article serves as the predicate, being connected with the subject by the verb εἶναι (cf. Winers Grammar, § 45, 5 and especially Buttmann, 309ff (265ff)); andTGL εἰμί.16

    a. so as to form a mere periphrasis of the finite verb;TGL εἰμί.17

    α. with the present participle is formed — a periphrasis of the present: ἐστὶ προσαναπληροῦσα... καὶ περισσεύουσα, 2 Corinthians 9:12; — a periphrasis of the imperfect or of the aorist, mostly in Mark and Luke [Buttmann, 312 (268)]: ἦν καθεύδων, Mark 4:38; ἦν προάγων, Mark 10:32; ἦν συγκαθήμενος, Mark 14:54; ἦν διανεύων, Luke 1:22; ἦσαν καθήμενοι, Luke 5:17; ἦν ἐκβάλλων, Luke 11:14; ἦσαν καθεζόμενοι [Lachmann, others, καθήμενοι], Acts 2:2, and other examples; once in Paul, Philippians 2:26 ἐπιποθῶν ἦν; — a periphrasis of the future: ἔσονται πίπτοντες [ἐκπ. R G], Mark 13:25.TGL εἰμί.18

    β. with the perfect participle is formed — a periphrasis of the aorist [imperfect (?)]: ἦν ἑστώς, Luke 5:1; — a periphrasis of the pluperfect: ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες, συνεληλυθυῖαι, Luke 5:17; Luke 23:55; especially with the perfect passive participle: ἦν ἐπιγραφὴ ἐπιγεγραμμένη, Mark 15:26; ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον, Luke 2:26; ἦν τεθραμμένος, Luke 4:16; add, Luke 8:2; Luke 23:51; Acts 1:17, etc.TGL εἰμί.19

    γ. once with an aorist participle a periphrasis of the pluperfect is formed: ἦν... βληθεὶς (R G L Tr marginal reading βεβλημένος) ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ, Luke 23:19 T Tr text WH; on the same use of the aorist sometimes in Greek writings cf. Passow, i., p. 793; [Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. 2; yet cf. Buttmann, § 144, 24 at the end].TGL εἰμί.20

    b. so as to indicate continuance in any act or state [Buttmann, 310f (266)]: ἦν διδάσκων was accustomed to teach, Mark 1:22; Luke 4:31; Luke 19:47; ἦν [T Tr text WH ἦλθεν] κηρύσσων, Mark 1:39; Luke 4:44; ἦσαν νηστεύοντες held their fast, Mark 2:18; ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες were talking, Mark 9:4; ἦν συγκύπτουσα, Luke 13:11; ἦν θέλων, Luke 23:8; ἦν προσδεχόμενος, Mark 15:43 (Luke 23:51 προσεδέχετο); once in Paul, Galatians 1:23 ἦσαν ἀκούοντες· with the future [cf. Buttmann, 311 (267)]: ἔσται δεδεμένον, ἔσται λελυμένον, equivalent to shall remain bound, shall remain loosed, Matthew 16:19; ἔσται πατουμένη shall continue to be trodden down, Luke 21:24, and other examples.TGL εἰμί.21

    c. to signify that one is in the act of doing something: ἦν ἐρχόμενον was in the act of coming, John 1:9 [cf. Meyer edition Weiss at the passage]; ἦν ὑποστρέφων, Acts 8:28.TGL εἰμί.22

    d. the combination of εἶναι with a participle seems intended also to give the verbal idea more force and prominence by putting it in the form of a noun [see Buttmanns Grammar, and Winer's Grammar, as above]: ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά (German wohlhabend, [English was one that had]), Matthew 19:22; Mark 10:22; ἔσῃ σιωπῶν, Luke 1:20; ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος (obedient, in subjection), Luke 2:51; ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων, be thou ruler over, Luke 19:17; ἦν συνευδοκῶν Acts 8:1; ζῶν εἰμι, Revelation 1:18, and in other examples three times in Paul: εἰ... ἠλπικότες ἐσμὲν μόνον if we are those who have only hoped, or to whom nothing is left but hope, 1 Corinthians 15:19; ἦν... καταλλάσσων, the reconciler, 2 Corinthians 5:19; ἅτινά ἐστι λόγον ἔχοντα σοφίας, are things having a reputation of wisdom, Colossians 2:23, (Matthiae, § 560 [(so Kühner, § 353 Anm. 3)] gives examples from secular authors in which several words intervene between εἶναι and the participle).TGL εἰμί.23

    e. Of quite another sort are those examples in which εἶναι has its own force, being equivalent to to be found, to be present, to stay, (see I. above), and the participle is added to express an act or condition of the subject (cf. Buttmann, § 144, 27): ἐν τοῖς μνήμασι... ἦν was i. e. stayed) κράζων, Mark 5:5; ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ (was kept there)... βοσκομένη, Mark 5:11; Matthew 8:30; ἦσαν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἀναβαίνοντες, Luther correctly, they were in the road, going up etc. Mark 10:32; εἰσὶν ἄνδρες... εὐχὴν ἔχοντες, Acts 21:23; add, Matthew 12:10 [R G]; Matthew 27:55; Mark 2:6, (in the last two examples ἦσαν were present); Luke 4:33; John 1:28; John 3:23; Acts 25:14; Romans 3:12, etc.; ἄνωθέν ἐστιν, καταβαῖνον etc. (insert a comma after ἐστίν), is from above, καταβαῖνον etc. being added by way of explanation, James 1:17 [cf. Buttmann, 310 (266)].TGL εἰμί.24

    5. The formula ἐγώ εἰμι (I am he), frequent in the Gospels, especially in John, must have its predicate supplied mentally, inasmuch as it is evident from the context (cf. Krüger, § 60, 7); thus, ἐγώ εἰμι, namely, Ἰησοῦς Ναζ. John 18:5 [here L marginal reading expresses Ἰησοῦς, WH marginal reading Ἰησ.], John 18:6, John 18:8; it is I whom you see, not another, Matthew 14:27; Mark 6:50; Luke 24:36 (Lachmann in brackets); John 6:20; namely, καθήμενος κ. προσαιτῶν, John 9:9; simply εἰμί, I am teacher and Lord, John 13:13; οὐκ εἰμί namely, ἐξ αὐτῶν, Luke 22:58; John 18:25; I am not Elijah, John 1:21; specifically, I am the Messiah, Mark 13:6; Mark 14:62; Luke 21:8; John 4:26; John 8:24, John 8:28; John 13:19; I am the Son of God, Luke 22:70 (like הוּא אֲנִי, Deuteronomy 32:39; Isaiah 43:10); cf. Keim, 3:320 [English translation, 6:34; Hofmann, Schriftbeweis, i. 63f]. The third person is used in the same way: ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν, namely, υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, John 9:37; namely, παραδώσων ἐμέ, John 13:26.TGL εἰμί.25

    6. Of the phrases having a pronoun in place of a predicate, the following deserve notice:TGL εἰμί.26

    a. τίς εἰμι, εἶ, ἐστίν, a formula of inquiry, used by those desiring — either to know what sort of a man one is whom they see, or what his name is, John 1:19; John 8:25; John 21:12; Acts 26:15 — or that they may see the face of some one spoken of, and that he may be pointed out to them, Luke 19:3; John 9:36; σὺ τίς εἶ with a participle, who (i. e. how petty) art thou, that etc.? the question of one administering a rebuke and contemptuously denying another's right to do a thing, Romans 9:20; Romans 14:4 (Strabo 6, 2, 4, p. 271 σὺ τίς εἶ τὸν Ὅμηρον ψέγων ὡς μυθόγραφον); ἐγὼ τίς εἰμι; who (how small) am I? the language of one holding a modest opinion of himself and recognizing his weakness, Acts 11:17, cf. Exodus 3:11.TGL εἰμί.27

    b. εἰμὶ τὶς, like sum aliquis in Latin, to be somebody (eminent): Acts 5:36; εἶναί τι, like the Latin aliquid esse , to be something (i. e., something excellent): Galatians 2:6; Galatians 6:3; in these phrases τὶς and τὶ are emphatic; cf. Kühner, § 470, 3; [Winers Grammar, 170 (161); Buttmann, 114 (100)]; εἶναί τι after a negative, to be nothing, 1 Corinthians 3:7, cf. Meyer at the passage; also in questions having a negative force, 1 Corinthians 10:19 [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 6, 2]. οὐδέν εἰμι, 1 Corinthians 13:2; 2 Corinthians 12:11; οὐδέν ἐστιν, it is nothing, is of no account, Matthew 23:16, Matthew 23:18; John 8:54; Acts 21:24; 1 Corinthians 7:19.TGL εἰμί.28

    c. τίς ἐστι, for example παραβολή, what does it mean? what is the explanation of the thing? Luke 8:9 τίς εἴη παραβολὴ αὕτη; Acts 10:17 τί ἄν εἴν τὸ ὅραμα; Mark 1:27 τί ἐστι τοῦτο; what is this? expressive of astonishment, Luke 15:26 τί εἴν ταῦτα; what might be the cause of the noise he heard? Luke 18:36; John 10:6, τίνα ἦν, ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς. τί ἐστι what does it mean? Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7; Luke 20:17; John 16:17; τί ἐστιν εἰ μὴ ὅτι, Ephesians 4:9; see II. 3 above.TGL εἰμί.29

    d. οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτό ἐστιν followed by a noun, equivalent to in this is seen, is contained, etc.TGL εἰμί.30

    α. is so employed that the pronoun refers to something which has just been said: οὗτος γάρ ἐστι νόμος, the law is summed up in what I have just mentioned, comes to this, Matthew 7:12.TGL εἰμί.31

    β. in John's usage it is so employed that the pronoun serves as the subject, which is defined by a noun that follows, and this noun itself is a substitute as it were for the predicate: αὕτη ἐστὶν νίκη... πίστις ἡμῶν 1 John 5:4; αὕτη ἐστὶν μαρτυρία τοῦ θεοῦ, ἣν, etc. 1 John 5:9 Rec. οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτό ἐστι followed by ὅτι [Buttmann, 105 (92); cf. Winer's Grammar, 161 (152)]: John 3:19; 1 John 1:5; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:14; followed by ἵνα (to say that something ought to be done, or that something is desired or demanded [cf. Winers Grammar, 338 (317); Buttmann, 240 (207)]): John 6:29, John 6:39; John 15:12; 1 John 3:11, 1 John 3:23; 1 John 5:3; followed by ὅτε etc. John 1:19 [Winer's Grammar, 438 (408)].TGL εἰμί.32

    7. The participle ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν, ὄντες, ὄντα, joined to a substantive or an adjective, has the force of an intercalated clause, and may be translated since or although I am, thou art, etc. [here the English use of the participle agrees in the main with the Greek]: εἰ οὖν ὑμεῖς, πονηροὶ ὄντες, οἴδατε, Matthew 17:11; add, Matthew 12:34; Luke 20:36; John 3:4; John 4:9; Acts 16:21; Romans 5:10; 1 Corinthians 8:7; Galatians 2:3; James 3:4, and often; twice with other participles, used adjectively [Buttmann, 310 (266)]: ὄντες ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι, Colossians 1:21; ἐσκοτισμένοι [R G, others -τωμενοι], Ephesians 4:18.TGL εἰμί.33

    8. Sometimes the copula ἔστιν (with the accent [see Chandler § 938]) stands at the beginning of a sentence, to emphasize the truth of what the sentence affirms or denies: Luke 8:11; 1 Timothy 6:6; ἔστι δὲ πίστις etc. Hebrews 11:1 (although some explain it here [as a substantive verb], 'but faith exists' or 'is found,' to wit in the examples adduced immediately after [see Winers Grammar, § 7, 3]); several times so used in Philo in statements (quoted by Delitzsch on Hebrews 11:1) resembling definitions. οὐκ ἔστιν: Matthew 13:57; Mark 12:27; Acts 10:34; 1 Corinthians 14:33; James 3:15.TGL εἰμί.34

    III. εἰμί joined with adverbs;TGL εἰμί.35

    1. with adverbs of place;TGL εἰμί.36

    a. where? to be, be busy, somewhere: ἐκεῖ, Matthew 2:15; Matthew 27:55; Mark 3:1 [L omits; Tr brackets ἦν], etc.; ἐνθάδε, Acts 16:28; ἔσω, John 20:26; οὗ, Matthew 2:9; Matthew 18:20; Acts 16:13; ὅπου, Mark 2:4; Mark 5:40; John 6:62; Acts 17:1, etc.; ποῦ, Matthew 2:2; John 7:11, etc.; ὧδε, Matthew 28:6; Mark 9:5, etc.TGL εἰμί.37

    b. with adverbs of distance: ἀπέναντί τινος, Romans 3:18 (Psalms 35:2 (Psalms 36:2)); ἐκτός τινος, 2 Corinthians 12:2 [2 Corinthians 12:3 χωρίς τ. L T Tr WH]; ἐμπροσθέν τινος, Luke 14:2; ἐντός τινος. Luke 17:21; ἐνώπιόν τινος, Revelation 1:4; Revelation 7:15; μακρὰν ἀπό τινος, John 21:8; Mark 12:34; πόρρω, Luke 14:32; ἐπάνω, John 3:31a [John 3:31b G T WH marginal reading omits the clause]; of the situation of regions and places: ἀντιπέρα [or -τιπέρα etc. see under the word] τινός, Luke 8:26; ἐγγύς — now standing absolutely, John 19:42; now with the genitive, John 11:18; John 19:20, etc.; now with the dative, Acts 9:38; Acts 27:8.TGL εἰμί.38

    c. whence? to be from some quarter, i. e. to come, originate, from: πόθεν, Matthew 21:25; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27; John 7:27; John 9:29; John 19:9; John 2:9 (πόθεν ἐστίν namely, οἶνος, whence the wine was procured); ἐντεῦθεν, John 18:36.TGL εἰμί.39

    2. with adverbs of quality; οὕτως εἰμί, to be thus or so, to be such; absolutely, Matthew 13:49; with ἐν ὑμῖν added, Matthew 20:26 [here R G T ἔσται]; οὕτως ἔσται, so will it be, i. e. come to pass, Matthew 13:40, (Matthew 13:40 [see above]); οὕτως ἐστίν or ἔσται, of things, events, etc., such is or will be the state of the case [Winer's Grammar, 465 (434)]: Matthew 19:10; Matthew 24:27, Matthew 24:37, Matthew 24:39; Mark 4:26; Romans 4:18 (Genesis 15:5); so of persons, John 3:8. καθώς ἐστιν as, even as, he, etc. is, 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:7; 1 John 4:17; εἰμὶ ὥσπερ τις to be, to do as one, to imitate him, be like him, Matthew 6:5 [R G]; Luke 18:11 [R G T WH text]; ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ etc. regard him as a heathen and a publican, i. e. have no fellowship with him, Matthew 18:17; εἰμὶ ὡς or ὡσεί τις, to be as, i. e. like or equal to anyone, [Matthew 6:5 L T Tr WH]; Matthew 22:30; Matthew 28:3; Luke 11:44; [Luke 18:11 L Tr WH marginal reading]; Luke 22:27; 1 Corinthians 7:29; τὰ σπλάγχνα περισσοτέρως εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐστιν he is moved with the more abundant love toward you, 2 Corinthians 7:15. — But see each adverb in its place.TGL εἰμί.40

    IV. εἰμί with the oblique cases of substantives or of pronouns;TGL εἰμί.41

    1. εἶναί τινος, like the Latin alicuius esse , equivalent to to pertain to a person or a thing, denotes any kind of possession or connection (possessive genitive); cf. Krüger, § 47, 6, 4ff; Winers Grammar, § 30, 5 b.; Buttmann, § 132, 11.TGL εἰμί.42

    a. of things which one owns: ἔσται σου πᾶσα [Rec. πάντα], Luke 4:7; οὗ ἐστὶν ζώνη αὕτη, Acts 21:11; add, Mark 12:7; John 10:12; John 19:24; — or for the possession of which he is fitted: τινός ἐστιν βασιλεία τ. οὐρ. or τοῦ θεοῦ, he is fit for a share in the kingdom of God, Matthew 5:3, Matthew 5:10; Matthew 19:14; Mark 10:14; Luke 18:16. πάντα ὑμῶν ἐστι, all things serve your interests and promote your salvation, 1 Corinthians 3:21.TGL εἰμί.43

    b. of things which proceed from one: 2 Corinthians 4:7.TGL εἰμί.44

    c. to be of one's party, be devoted to one: 1 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Timothy 2:19; τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Mark 9:41; Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Corinthians 10:7; hence also τῆς ὁδοῦ (namely, τοῦ κυρίου) εἶναι, Acts 9:2 [cf. Buttmann, 163 (142)].TGL εἰμί.45

    d. to be subject to one; to be in his hands or power: Matthew 22:28; Acts 27:23; Romans 9:16; Romans 14:8; 1 Corinthians 3:23; 1 Corinthians 6:19, 1 Corinthians 6:20 Rec. ; πνεύματος, Luke 9:55 Rec. Hence,TGL εἰμί.46

    e. to be suitable, fit, for one: Acts 1:7.TGL εἰμί.47

    f. to be of a kind or class: εἶναι νυκτός, σκότους, ἡμέρας, 1 Thessalonians 5:5, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; or to be of the number of [a partitive genitive, cf. Buttmann, 159 (139)]: Acts 23:6; 1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 1:15.TGL εἰμί.48

    g. with a genitive of quality: Hebrews 10:39; Hebrews 12:11.TGL εἰμί.49

    h. with a genitive of age: Mark 5:42; Luke 3:23; Acts 4:22, (Tobit 14:11). With this use (viz. 1) of εἶναι, those examples must not be confounded in which a predicate nominative is to be repeated from the subject (cf. Krüger, § 47, 6, 1): οὐκ ἔστιν θεὸς νεκρῶν, ἀλλά ζώντων, namely, θεός, Matthew 22:32, cf. Mark 12:27; Luke 20:38; ταῦτα τὰ ῤήματα οὐκ ἔστι δαιμονιζομένου, namely, ῤήματα, John 10:21; οὐκ ἔστιν ἀκαταστασίας θεός, ἀλλὰ εἰρήνης, 1 Corinthians 14:33; ἄλλο βιβλίον, ἐστι τῆς ζωῆς, Revelation 20:12; add, 2 Corinthians 2:3; 1 Peter 3:3.TGL εἰμί.50

    2. εἰμί with the dative (cf. Krüger, § 48, 3 [who appears to regard the dative as expressing a less close or necessary relationship than the genitive]; Winers Grammar, § 31, 2);TGL εἰμί.51

    a. ἔστι μοι, ἡμῖν, etc. it is mine, ours, etc., I, we, etc., have: Luke 1:7; Luke 2:7, Luke 2:10; Luke 14:10; John 18:10, John 18:39; John 19:40; Acts 7:5; Acts 8:21; Acts 10:6; Romans 9:2, Romans 9:9; 1 Corinthians 9:16; 1 Peter 4:11, and often. οὐκ ἔστι ἡμῖν [others ὑμ.] πάλη πρός etc. we have not a struggle against etc. Ephesians 6:12; εἰσὶν ἡμῖν we have here etc. Acts 21:23; τί ἔσται ἡμῖν what shall we have? what will be given us? Matthew 19:27; ὑμῖν ἐστιν ἐπαγγελία the promise belongs to you, Acts 2:39.TGL εἰμί.52

    b. εἶναί τινί τι to be something to (or for) someone, used of various relations, as of service, protection, etc.: σκεῦος ἐκλογῆς ἐστί μοι οὗτος namely, τοῦ with an infinitive Acts 9:15; ἔσεσθέ μοι μάρτυρες, [Acts 1:8 R G, cf.] Acts 22:15; ἔσομαι αὐτῷ θεὸς κ. αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι υἱός, Revelation 21:7; ἔσονταί μοι λαός, 2 Corinthians 6:16 [R G]; εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν... πατέρα... τοῖς etc. Romans 4:11.TGL εἰμί.53

    c. εἶναί τινί τι, to be to one as or for something, to pass for etc.: 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 9:2, cf. Matthew 18:17.TGL εἰμί.54

    d. εἶναί τινί τι, to be, i. e. conduce, redound to one for (or as) something (cf. Krüger, § 48, 3, 5): 1 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Corinthians 2:15; Philippians 1:28; οὐαί δέ μοί ἐστι, 1 Corinthians 9:16 (Hosea 9:12).TGL εἰμί.55

    e. ἔσται τινί, will come upon, befall, happen to, one: Matthew 16:22; Luke 1:45.TGL εἰμί.56

    f. Acts 24:11 οὐ πλείους εἰσί μοι ἡμέραι δεκαδύο [L T Tr WH omit and read δώδεκα] not more than twelve days are (namely, passed) to me, i. e. it is not more than twelve days. Luke 1:36 οὗτος μὴν ἕκτος ἐστὶν αὐτῇ this is the sixth month to (with) her. Those passages must not be brought under this head in which the dative does not belong to the verb but depends on an adjective, as καλός, κοινωνός, φίλος, etc.TGL εἰμί.57

    V. εἰμί with prepositions and their cases.TGL εἰμί.58

    1. ἀπό τίνος (τόπου), to come from, be a native of: John 1:44 (John 1:45) [cf. ἀπό , II. 1 a.].TGL εἰμί.59

    2. εἴς τι,TGL εἰμί.60

    a. to have betaken oneself to some place and to be there, to have gone into (cf. Winers Grammar, § 50, 4 b.; [Buttmann, 333 (286)]: εἰς οἶκον, Mark 2:1 [R G; others ἐν]; εἰς τὸν ἀγρόν, Mark 13:16 [R G]; εἰς τ. κοίτην, Luke 11:7; εἰς τὸν κόλπον, John 1:18, where cf. Tholuck, [Winers Grammar, 415 (387); Buttmann, as above]; (on Acts 8:20 see ἀπώλεια , 2 a.). metaphorically, to come to: εἰς χολήν πικρίας (hast fallen into), Acts 8:23.TGL εἰμί.61

    b. to be directed towards a thing: ὥστε τὴν πίστιν ὑμῶν... εἶναι εἰς θεόν, 1 Peter 1:21; to tend to anything: Romans 11:36 [Winers Grammar, § 50, 6].TGL εἰμί.62

    c. to be for, i. e. conduce or inure to, serve for, [Buttmann, 150f (131f); Winer's Grammar, § 29, 3 a.]: 1 Corinthians 14:22; Colossians 2:22; James 5:3; ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστι, it results for me in, i. e. I account it, a very small thing, 1 Corinthians 4:3, (εἰς ὠφέλειαν, Aesop fab. 124, 2).TGL εἰμί.63

    d. In imitation of the Hebrew הָיָה followed by לְ, εἶναι εἴς τινα or τι stands where the Greeks use a nominative [Winers Grammar and Buttmann, as above; especially Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word εἰς, 3]: Matthew 19:5 and Mark 10:8 and 1 Corinthians 6:16 and Ephesians 5:31 ἔσονται εἰς σάρκα μίαν (from Genesis 2:24); 1 John 5:8 εἰς τὸ ἔν εἰσιν, unite, conspire, towards one and the same result, agree in one; 2 Corinthians 6:18 (Jeremiah 38:1 (Jeremiah 31:1)); Hebrews 1:5 (2 Samuel 7:14); Hebrews 8:10.TGL εἰμί.64

    3. ἔκ τινος,TGL εἰμί.65

    a. to be of, i. e. a part of anything, to belong to, etc. [Winers Grammar, 368 (345); cf. Buttmann, 159 (139)]: 1 Corinthians 12:15; ἔκ τινων, of the number of: Matthew 26:73; Mark 14:69; Luke 22:58; John 1:24; John 6:64, John 6:71 [R T]; John 7:50; John 10:26; John 18:17, John 18:25; Acts 21:8; 2 Timothy 3:6; 1 John 2:19; Revelation 17:11, (Xenophon, mem. 3, 6, 17); ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τινων, Luke 22:3.TGL εἰμί.66

    b. to be of, i. e. to have originated, sprung, come, from [Winers Grammar, § 51, 1 d.; Buttmann, 327 (281f)]: Luke 23:7; John 1:46 (John 1:47); John 3:31 ( ὢν ἐκ τῆς γῆς); John 4:22; John 7:52; John 8:23; John 18:36; Acts 4:6; Acts 19:25; Acts 23:34; Galatians 3:21; 1 John 4:7; ὅς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν, your fellow-countryman, Colossians 4:9.TGL εἰμί.67

    c. to be of, i. e. proceed from one as the author [Winers Grammar, 366f (344f); Buttmann, 327 (281)]: Matthew 5:37; John 7:17; Acts 5:38; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 1 John 2:16; Hebrews 2:11; εἶναι ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, to be instituted by the authority of God, by the authority of men, Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:30; Luke 20:4; to be begotten of one, Matthew 1:20.TGL εἰμί.68

    d. to be of, i. e. be connected with one; to be related to, [cf. Winer's § 51, 1 d.; cf. in ἐκ, II. 1 a. and 7]: νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως, has no connection with faith, Galatians 3:12; ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι (Luth. mit Werken umgehen ), Galatians 3:10; especially in John's usage, to depend on the power of one, to be prompted and governed by one, and reflect his character: thus εἶναι ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου, John 8:44; 1 John 3:8; ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ, 1 John 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου, John 15:19; John 17:14, John 17:16; 1 John 4:5; when this expression is used of wickedness, it is equivalent to produced by the world and pertaining to it, 1 John 2:16; opposed to ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ εἶναι, John 8:47; 1 John 4:1-3; this latter phrase is used especially of true Christians, as begotten anew by the Spirit of God (see γεννάω , 2 d.): 1 John 4:4, 1 John 4:6; 1 John 5:19; 3 John 1:11; ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι, either to come from the love of truth as an effect, as 1 John 2:21, or, if used of a man, to be led and governed by the love and pursuit of truth, as John 18:37; 1 John 3:19; ὢν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐστί, he who is from the earth as respects origin bears the nature of this his earthly origin, is earthly, John 3:31.TGL εἰμί.69

    e. to be of, i. e. formed from: Revelation 21:21; 1 Corinthians 11:8.TGL εἰμί.70

    4. ἔν τινι,TGL εἰμί.71

    a. with the dative of place, to be in, i. e. be present, to stay, dwell;TGL εἰμί.72

    α. prop Matthew 24:26; Luke 2:49, etc.; on the surface of a place (Germ auf ), as ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, Mark 10:32 and elsewhere; ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ, Luke 15:25. at: ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ, Romans 8:34; to live, dwell, as in a city: Luke 18:3; Acts 9:10; Philippians 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:2, etc.; of God, ἐν οὐρανοῖς, Ephesians 6:9; of things which are found, met with, in a place: 2 Timothy 2:20, etc.TGL εἰμί.73

    β. things so pertaining to locality that one can, in a proper sense, be in them or be surrounded by them, are spoken of in the same way metaphorically and improperly, as εἶναι ἐν τῷ φωτί, ἐν τῇ σκοτία: 1 John 2:9, 1 John 2:11; 1 Thessalonians 5:4; ἐν σαρκί, Romans 7:5; Romans 8:8 (see σάρξ , 4).TGL εἰμί.74

    b. to be in a state or condition [see Buttmann, 330 (284); cf. Winer's Grammar, § 29, 3 b. and ἐν, I. 5 e.]: ἐν εἰρήνη, Luke 11:21; ἐν ἐχθρᾷ, Luke 23:12; ἐν κρίματι, Luke 23:40; ἐν περιτομῇ, ἐν ἀκροβυστία, Romans 4:10; ἐν δόξῃ, 2 Corinthians 3:8, etc.; hence, spoken of ills which one is afflicted with: ἐν ῤύσει αἵματος, Mark 5:25; Luke 8:43, (ἐν τῇ νόσῳ, Sophocles Aj. 271; in morbo esse , Cicero, Tusc. 3, 4, 9); of wickedness in which one is, as it were, merged, ἐν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις, 1 Corinthians 15:17; of holiness, in which one perseveres, ἐν πίστει, 2 Corinthians 13:5.TGL εἰμί.75

    c. to be in possession of, provided with a thing [Winer's Grammar, 386 (361)]: Philippians 4:11; ἐν ἐξουσία, Luke 4:32; ἐν βαρεῖ (see βάρος , at the end), 1 Thessalonians 2:7 (6).TGL εἰμί.76

    d. to be occupied in a thing (Bernhardy, p. 210; [see ἐν, I. 5 g.]): ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ, in celebrating the feast, John 2:23; to be sedulously devoted to [A. V. give oneself wholly to] a thing, 1 Timothy 4:15 (Horace, epistles 1, 1, 11 omnis in hoc sum ).TGL εἰμί.77

    e. a person or thing is said to be in one, i. e. in his soul: thus, God (by his power and influence) in the prophets, 1 Corinthians 14:25; Christ (i. e. his holy mind and power) in the souls of his disciples or of Christians, John 17:26; 2 Corinthians 13:5; τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας, John 14:17; friends are said to be ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ of one who loves them, 2 Corinthians 7:3. vices, virtues, and the like, are said to be in one: as δόλος, John 1:47 (John 1:48); ἀδικία, John 7:18; ἄγνοια, Ephesians 4:18; ἁμαρτία, 1 John 3:5; ἀλήθεια, John 8:44; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Ephesians 4:21; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 2:4, (ἀλήθεια καὶ κρίσις, 1 Macc. 7:18); ἀγάπη, John 17:26; 1 John 2:15; λόγος αὐτοῦ (τ. θεοῦ) οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἡμῖν, God's word has not left its impress on our souls, 1 John 1:10; τὸ φῶς οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν αὐτῷ, the efficacy or influence of the light is not in his soul, [rather, an obvious physical fact is used to suggest a spiritual truth: the light is not in him, does not shine from within outwards], John 11:10; σκοτία, 1 John 1:5; σκάνδαλον, 1 John 2:10, i. e. there is nothing within him to seduce him to sin (cf. Düsterdieck and Huther at the passage). Acts 13:15 (if ye have in mind any word of exhortation etc. [Winers Grammar, 218 (204f)].TGL εἰμί.78

    f. ἐν τῷ θεῷ εἶναι is saidTGL εἰμί.79

    α. of Christians, as being rooted, so to speak, in him, i. e. intimately united to him, 1 John 2:5; 1 John 5:20;TGL εἰμί.80

    β. of all men, because the ground of their creation and continued being is to be found in him alone, Acts 17:28.TGL εἰμί.81

    g. with a dative of the person to be in, — [i. e. either] among the number of: Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40; Luke 2:44; Romans 1:6; — [or, in the midst of: Acts 2:29; Acts 7:44 Rec. , etc.]TGL εἰμί.82

    h. noteworthy, further, are the following: ἔστι τι ἔν τινι there is something (to blame) in one, Acts 25:5; something is (founded [A. V. stand]) in a thing, 1 Corinthians 2:5; οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν οὐδενὶ ἄλλῳ σωτηρία salvation is (laid up, embodied) in none other, can be expected from none, Acts 4:12; with the dative of the thing, is (contained, wrapped up) in something: Ephesians 5:18; Hebrews 10:3; 1 John 4:18.TGL εἰμί.83

    5. εἰμὶ ἐπίTGL εἰμί.84

    a. τινός, to be on: ἐπὶ τοῦ δώματος, Luke 17:31; ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς, John 20:7; to be (set) over a thing, Acts 8:27; to preside, rule, over, Romans 9:5.TGL εἰμί.85

    b. τινί, to be at [Winer's Grammar, 392 (367)]: ἐπὶ θύραις, Matthew 24:33; Mark 13:29.TGL εἰμί.86

    c. τινά, to be upon one: χάρις ἦν ἐπί τινα, was with him, assisted him, Luke 2:40; Acts 4:33; πνεῦμα ἦν ἐπί τινα, had come upon one, was impelling him, Luke 2:25, cf. Luke 4:18; Sept. Isaiah 61:1; add, Galatians 6:16; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, to be (assembled) together [cf. αὐτός , III. 1], Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1, Acts 2:44; of cohabitation, 1 Corinthians 7:5 (according to the reading ἦτε for Rec. συνέρχεσθε).TGL εἰμί.87

    6. εἰμί κατάTGL εἰμί.88

    a. τινός, to be against one, to oppose him: Matthew 12:30; Luke 9:50; Luke 11:23; Galatians 5:23; Romans 8:31 (opposed to ὑπέρ τινος, as in Mark 9:40).TGL εἰμί.89

    b. κατά τι, according to something: κατὰ σάρκα, κατὰ πνεῦμα, to bear the character, have the nature, of the flesh or of the Spirit, Romans 8:5; εἶναι κατ' ἄνθρωπον, Galatians 1:11; κατ’ ἀλήθειαν, Romans 2:2.TGL εἰμί.90

    7. μετά τινος,TGL εἰμί.91

    a. to be with (i. e., to associate with) one: Matthew 17:17; Mark 3:14; Mark 5:18; Luke 6:3; John 3:26; John 12:17; John 16:32; Acts 9:39, and often in the Gospels; Revelation 21:3; of ships accompanying one, Mark 4:36; of what is present with one for his profit, 2 John 1:2; Romans 16:20; Hebraistically, to be with one, i. e. as a help, (of God, becoming the companion, as it were, of the righteous): Luke 1:66; John 3:2; John 8:29; John 16:32; Acts 7:9; Acts 10:38; Acts 11:21; Acts 18:10; 2 Corinthians 13:11; Philippians 4:9; 2 John 1:3, cf. Matthew 28:20, (Genesis 21:20; Judges 6:12, etc.).TGL εἰμί.92

    b. to be (i. e. to cooperate) with: Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:23 (Xenophon, an. 1, 3, 5 [others ἰέναι]).TGL εἰμί.93

    8. εἰμὶ παράTGL εἰμί.94

    a. τινός, to (have come and so) be from one: Christ is said εἶναι παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, John 6:46; John 7:29; John 9:16, John 9:33; τὶ παρά τινος, is from i. e. given by one, John 17:7.TGL εἰμί.95

    b. τινί, to be with one: Matthew 22:25; οὐκ εἶναι παρὰ τῷ θεῷ is used to describe qualities alien to God, as προσωπολημψία, Romans 2:11; Ephesians 6:9; ἀδικία, Romans 9:14.TGL εἰμί.96

    c. τινά (τόπον), by, by the side of: Mark 5:21; Acts 10:6.TGL εἰμί.97

    9. πρός τινα [cf. Winers Grammar, 405 (378)],TGL εἰμί.98

    a. towards: πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστί it is towards evening, Luke 24:29.TGL εἰμί.99

    b. by (turned towards): Mark 4:1.TGL εἰμί.100

    c. with one: Matthew 13:56; Mark 6:3; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; John 1:1 [cf. Meyer at the passage].TGL εἰμί.101

    10. σύν τινι,TGL εἰμί.102

    a. to associate with one: Luke 22:56; Luke 24:44; Acts 13:7; Philippians 1:23; Colossians 2:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:17.TGL εἰμί.103

    b. to be the companion of one, to accompany him: Luke 7:12 [Relz T Tr brackets WH]; Luke 8:38; Acts 4:13; Acts 22:9; 2 Peter 1:18.TGL εἰμί.104

    c. to be an adherent of one, be on his side: Acts 5:17; Acts 14:4 [A. V. to hold with] (Xenophon, Cyril 5, 4, 37).TGL εἰμί.105

    11. εἰμὶ ὑπέρTGL εἰμί.106

    a. τινός, to be for one, to favor his side: Mark 9:40; Luke 9:50; Romans 8:31, (opposed to εἰμὶ κατά τινος).TGL εἰμί.107

    b. τινά, to be above one, to surpass, excel him: Luke 6:40.TGL εἰμί.108

    12. ὑπό τινα [cf. Buttmann, 341 (293)],TGL εἰμί.109

    a. to be under (i. e., subject to) one: Matthew 8:9 R G T Tr; Romans 3:9; Romans 6:14; Galatians 3:10, Galatians 3:25; Galatians 5:18; 1 Timothy 6:1.TGL εἰμί.110

    b. to be (locally) under a thing: e. g. under a tree, John 1:48 (John 1:49); a cloud, 1 Corinthians 10:1. Further, see each preposition in its own place.TGL εἰμί.111

    VI. As in classical Greek, so also in the N. T. εἰμί is very often omitted (cf. Winer's Grammar § 64, I. 2, who gives numerous examples [cf. 596 (555); 350 (328f)]; Buttmann, 136f (119f)), ἐστίν most frequently of all the parts: Luke 4:18; Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 4:20; 2 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 5:13, etc.; in exclamations, Acts 19:28, Acts 19:34; in questions, Romans 9:14; 2 Corinthians 6:14-16; τί γάρ, Philippians 1:18; Romans 3:3; τί οὖν, Romans 3:9; Romans 6:15; also εἶ, Revelation 15:4; εἰμί, 2 Corinthians 11:6; ἐσμέν, ἐστέ, 1 Corinthians 4:10; εἰσί, Romans 4:14; 1 Corinthians 13:8, etc.; the imperative ἔστω, Romans 12:9; Hebrews 13:4; ἔστε, Romans 12:9; 1 Peter 3:8; εἴν in wishes, Matthew 16:22; Galatians 6:16, etc.; even the subjunctive after ἵνα, Romans 4:16; 2 Corinthians 8:11 [after ὅπως], 2 Corinthians 8:13; often the participle ὤν, ὄντες, as (see Buttmann, § 144, 18) in Mark 6:20; Acts 27:33; in the expressions οἱ ἐκ περιτομῆς, ἐκ πίστεως, οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον, etc. [Compare: ἄπ-, ἔν- (ἔξεστι,) πάρ-, συμπάρ-, σύνειμι.]TGL εἰμί.112


    (1511) *For 1511 see Strong's entry Strong's 1510.TGL εἶναι.2

    εἴ περ

    (1512) εἴπερ, see εἰ , III. 13. See Strong's entry Strong's 1487 and Strong's 4007.TGL εἴ περ.2

    εἴ πως

    (1513) εἴπως, see εἰ , III. 14. See Strong's entry Strong's 1487 and Strong's 4458.TGL εἴ πως.2


    (1514) εἰρηνεύω; (εἰρήνη);TGL εἰρηνεύω.2

    1. to make peace: 1 Macc. 6:60; Dio Cassius, 77, 12, etc.TGL εἰρηνεύω.3

    2. to cultivate or keep peace, i. e. harmony; to be at peace, live in peace: 2 Corinthians 13:11; ἐν ἀλλήλοις, Mark 9:50; ἐν ἑαυτοῖς [T Tr αὐτοῖς], 1 Thessalonians 5:13; μετά τινος, Romans 12:18; (Plato, Theaet., p. 180 b. Dio Cassius, 42, 15, etc.; Sept. ).TGL εἰρηνεύω.4


    (1515) εἰρήνη, -ης, , (apparently from εἴρω, to join; [others from εἴρω equivalent to λέγω; Etym. Magn. 303, 41; Vanicek, p. 892; Lob. Path. Proleg., p. 194; Benfey, Wurzellex. 2, p. 7]), Sept. chiefly for שָׁלום; [from Homer down]; peace, i. e.TGL εἰρήνη.2

    1. a state of national tranquility; exemption from the rage and havoc of war: Revelation 6:4; πολλὴ εἰρήνη, Acts 24:2 (Acts 24:3); τὰ [WH text omits τά] πρὸς εἰρήνην, things that look toward peace, as an armistice, conditions for the restoration of peace, Luke 14:32; αἰτεῖσθαι εἰρήνην, Acts 12:20; ἔχειν εἰρήνην, of the church free from persecutions, Acts 9:31.TGL εἰρήνη.3

    2. peace between individuals, i. e. harmony, concord: Matthew 10:34; Luke 12:51; Acts 7:26; Romans 14:17; 1 Corinthians 7:15; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 2:17; Ephesians 4:3; equivalent to the anthor of peace, Ephesians 2:14 [cf. Buttmann, 125 (109)]; ἐν εἰρήνη, where harmony prevails, in a peaceful mind, James 3:18; ὁδὸς εἰρήνης, way leading to peace, a course of life promoting harmony, Romans 3:17 (from Isaiah 59:8); μετ’ εἰρήνης, in a mild and friendly spirit, Hebrews 11:31; ποιεῖν εἰρήνην, to promote concord, James 3:18; to effect it, Ephesians 2:15; ζητεῖν, 1 Peter 3:11; διώκειν, 2 Timothy 2:22; with μετὰ πάντων added, Hebrews 12:14; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης διώκειν, Romans 14:19 [cf. Buttmann, 95 (83); Winers Grammar, 109 (103f)]. Specifically, good order, opposed to ἀκαταστασία, 1 Corinthians 14:33.TGL εἰρήνη.4

    3. after the Hebrew שָׁלום, security, safety, prosperity, felicity, (because peace and harmony make and keep things safe and prosperous): Luke 19:42; Hebrews 7:2; εἰρήνη κ. ἀσφάλεια, opposed to ὄλεθρος, 1 Thessalonians 5:3; ἐν εἰρήνη ἐστὶ τὰ ὑπάρχοντα, αὐτοῦ, his goods are secure from hostile attack, Luke 11:21; ὕπαγε εἰς εἰρήνην, Mark 5:34, and πορεύου εἰς εἰρ. Luke 7:50; Luke 8:48, a formula of wishing well, blessing, addressed by the Hebrews to departing friends (לְשָׁלום לֵךְ 1 Samuel 1:17; 1 Samuel 20:42, etc.; properly, depart into a place or state of peace; [cf. Buttmann, 184 (160)]); πορεύεσθαι ἐν εἰρήνη, Acts 16:36, and ὑπάγετε ἐν εἰρήνη, James 2:16, go in peace, i. e. may happiness attend you; ἀπολύειν τινὰ μετ’ εἰρήνης, to dismiss one with good wishes, Acts 15:33; ἐν εἰρήνη, with my wish fulfilled, and therefore happy, Luke 2:29 (see ἀπολύω , 2 a.); προπέμπειν τινὰ ἐν εἰρ. free from danger, safe, 1 Corinthians 16:11 [others take it of inward peace or of harmony; cf. Meyer at the passage]. The Hebrews in invoking blessings on a man called out לְךָ שָׁלום (Judges 6:23; Daniel 10:19); from this is to be derived the explanation of those expressions which refer apparently to the Messianic blessings (see 4 below): εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ, let peace, blessedness, come to this household, Luke 10:5; υἱὸς εἰρήνης, worthy of peace [cf. Winers Grammar, § 34, 3 N. 2; Buttmann, 161f (141)], Luke 10:6; ἐλθέτω εἰρήνη ἐπ’ αὐτόν, let the peace which ye wish it come upon it, i. e. be its lot, Matthew 10:13; to the same purport ἐπαναπ. εἰρ. ὑμ. ἐπ’ αὐτόν, Luke 10:6; εἰρ. ὑμ. πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐπιστραφήτω, let your peace return to you, because it could not rest upon it, i. e. let it be just as if ye had not uttered the wish, Matthew 10:13.TGL εἰρήνη.5

    4. Specifically, the Messiah's peace: Luke 2:14; ὁδὸς εἰρήνης, the way that leads to peace (salvation), Luke 1:79; εἰρ. ἐν οὐρανῷ, peace, salvation, is prepared for us in heaven, Luke 19:38; εὐαγγελίζεσθαι εἰρήνην, Acts 10:36.TGL εἰρήνη.6

    5. according to a conception distinctly peculiar to Christianity, the tranquil state of a soul assured of its salvation through Christ, and so fearing nothing from God and content with its earthly lot, of whatsoever sort that is: Romans 8:6; ἐν εἰρήνη namely, ὄντες; is used of those who, assured of salvation, tranquilly await the return of Christ and the transformation of all things which will accompany that event, 2 Peter 3:14; [πληροῦν πάσης... εἰρήνης ἐν τῷ πιστεύειν, Romans 15:13 (where L marginal reading ἐν π. εἰρήνη)]; ἔχειν ἐν Χριστῷ εἰρήνην (opposed to ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ θλῖψιν ἔχειν), John 16:33; ἔχειν εἰρ. πρὸς τ. θεόν, with God, Romans 5:1, (εἰρ. πρός τινα, Plato, rep. 5, p. 465 b.; cf. Diodorus 21, 12; [cf. Meyer on Romans, the passage cited; Winer's Grammar, 186 (175); 406 (379)]); εὐαγγελίζεσθαι εἰρήνην, Romans 10:15 [R G Tr marginal reading in brackets]; τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς εἰρήνης, Ephesians 6:15; in the expression εἰρήνην ἀφίημι κτλ., John 14:27, in which Christ, with allusion to the usual Jewish formula at leave-taking (see 3 above), says that he not merely wishes, but gives peace; εἰρήνη τοῦ Χριστοῦ, which comes, from Christ, Colossians 3:15 [Rec. θεοῦ]; τοῦ θεοῦ, Philippians 4:7 [cf. Winers Grammar, 186 (175)]. Comprehensively, of every kind of peace (blessing), yet with a predominance apparently of the notion of peace with God, εἰρήνη is used — in the salutations of Christ after his resurrection, εἰρήνη ὑμῖν (לָכֶם שָׁלום), Luke 24:36 [T omits; WH reject the clause]; John 20:19, John 20:21, John 20:26; in the phrases κύριος τῆς εἰρήνης, the Lord who is the author and promoter of peace, 2 Thessalonians 3:16; θεός τῆς εἰρ. Romans 15:33; Romans 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:11; Philippians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Hebrews 13:20; in the salutations at the beginning and the close of the apostolic Epistles: Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 1:3; Galatians 6:16; Ephesians 1:2; Ephesians 6:23; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:16; 1 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:2; Titus 1:4; [Philemon 1:3]; 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 5:14; 2 Peter 1:2; 2 John 1:3; 3 John 1:15 (3 John 1:14); [Jude 1:2]; Revelation 1:4. Cf. Kling in Herzog 4, p. 596f under the words Friede mit Gott; Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T. § 83 b.; [Otto in the Jahrbb. für deutsch. Theol. for 1867, p. 678ff; cf. Winer's Grammar, 549 (511)].TGL εἰρήνη.7

    6. of the blessed state of devout and upright men after death (Wis. 3:3): Romans 2:10.TGL εἰρήνη.8


    (1516) εἰρηνικός, , -όν,TGL εἰρηνικός.2

    1. relating to peace:ἐπιστῆμαι, the arts of peace, Xenophon, oec. 1, 17; ἔργα, ibid. 6, 1; χρεῖαι, Diodorus 5, 31; often in 1 Macc.TGL εἰρηνικός.3

    2. peaceable, pacific, loving peace: James 3:17; (Plato, Isocrates, others; Sept. ).TGL εἰρηνικός.4

    3. bringing peace with it, peaceful, salutary, (see εἰρήνη , 3): Hebrews 12:11.TGL εἰρηνικός.5


    (1517) εἰρηνοποιέω, -ῶ: [1 aorist εἰρηνοποίησα]; (εἰρηνοποιός); to make peace, establish harmony: Colossians 1:20. (Proverbs 10:10; in the middle, Hermes quoted in Stobaeus, eclog. ph. 1 , 52 [984].)TGL εἰρηνοποιέω.2


    (1518) εἰρηνοποιός, -όν, masculine a peace-maker (Xenophon, Hell. 6, 3, 4; Dio Cassius); pacific, loving peace: Matthew 5:9; [others (cf. A. V. ) dispute this secondary meaning; see Meyer at the passage].TGL εἰρηνοποιός.2


    (1519) εἰς, a preposition governing the accusative, and denoting entrance into, or direction and limit: into, to, toward, for, among. It is used:TGL εἰς.2

    A. ProperlyTGL εἰς.3

    I. of place, after verbs of going, coming, sailing, flying, falling, living, leading, carrying, throwing, sending, etc.;TGL εἰς.4

    1. of a place entered, or of entrance into a place, into; andTGL εἰς.5

    a. it stands before nouns designating an open place, a hollow thing, or one in which an object can be hidden: as εἰς (τήν) πόλιν, Matthew 26:18; Matthew 28:11; Mark 1:45, and often; εἰς τόν οἶκον, Matthew 9:7; συναγωγήν, Acts 17:10; πλοῖον, Matthew 8:23; John 6:17; Acts 21:6; θάλασσαν, Matthew 17:27; ἄβυσσον, Luke 8:31; οὐρανόν, Luke 2:15; κόσμον, John 1:9; John 3:19, etc.; τά ἰδίᾳ, John 1:11; John 16:32; Acts 21:6; ἀποθήκην, Matthew 3:12; εἰς τά ὦτα, Luke 1:44; εἰς τάς ζώνας or ζώνην, Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8, etc.; εἰς ἀέρα, 1 Corinthians 14:9; εἰς πῦρ, Mark 9:22, etc.; εἰς αὐτόν, of a demon entering the body of a man, Mark 9:25. with the accusative of person (German zu jemand hinein), into the house of one (cf. Kühner, § 432, 1, 1 a.; (Jelf , § 625, 1 a.)): εἰς τήν Λυδίαν, Acts 16:40 Rec. , but here more correctly πρός with G L T Tr WH ; cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 49, a, α. (εἰς ἐμαυτόν, Wis. 8:18). γίνομαι εἰς with the accusative of place, see γίνομαι , 5 g.TGL εἰς.6

    b. before names of cities, villages, and countries, εἰς may be rendered simply to, toward, (German nach; as if it indicated merely motion toward a destination; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 49, a, α.)); as εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα εἰς Δαμασκόν, εἰς Βέροιαν, etc.; εἰς Σπανίαν, Αἴγυπτον, Γαλιλαίαν, etc.; but it is not to be so translated in such phrases as εἰς τήν Ιουδαίαν γῆν, etc., John 3:22; Matthew 2:12 cf. Matthew 20:1-34, Matthew 20:21; εἰς τά μέρη τῆς Γαλιλαίας, Matthew 2:22, etc.TGL εἰς.7

    c. elliptical expressions are — εἰς ᾅδου, namely, δομον, Acts 2:27 (Rec. ), 31 (not T WH ); see ᾅδης, 2. ἐπιστολαί εἰς Δαμασκόν, to be carried to D., Acts 9:2; διακονία μου εἰς (L Tr marginal reading ἐν) Ἱερουσαλήμ (see in διακονία , 3), Romans 15:31; cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 216.TGL εἰς.8

    d. εἰς means among (in among) before nouns comprising a multitude; as, εἰς τούς λῃστάς, Luke 10:36; εἰς (L marginal reading ἐπί) τάς ἀκάνθας, Mark 4:7 (for which Luke 8:7 gives ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀκανθῶν); or before persons, Mark 8:19; Luke 11:49; John 21:23; Acts 18:6; Acts 20:29; Acts 22:21, Acts 22:30; Acts 26:17; see ἀποστέλλω , 1 b.; or before a collective noun in the singular number, as εἰς τόν δῆμον, Acts 17:5; Acts 19:30; εἰς τόν ὄχλον, Acts 14:14; εἰς τόν λαόν, Acts 4:17.TGL εἰς.9

    2. If the surface only of the place entered is touched or occupied, εἰς, like the Latin in , may (often) be rendered on, upon, (German auf) (sometimes by unto, — (idioms vary)), to mark the limit reached, or where one sets foot. Of this sort are εἰς τό πέραν (A. V. unto), Matthew 8:18; Matthew 14:22; Mark 4:35; εἰς τήν γῆν, Luke 12:49 (L T Tr WH ἐπί); Acts 26:14; Revelation 8:5, Revelation 8:7; Revelation 9:3; Revelation 12:4, Revelation 12:9 εἰς τήν κλίνην, Revelation 2:22; εἰς ὁδόν, Matthew 10:5; Mark 6:8; Luke 1:79; εἰς τήν ὁδόν, Mark 11:8{a} (L marginal reading ἐν with the dative, 8{b} R G L ); εἰς τόν ἀγρόν, Matthew 22:5; Mark 13:16; εἰς τό ὄρος (or εἰς ὄρος; here A. V. uses into), Matthew 5:1; Matthew 14:23; Matthew 15:29; Matthew 17:1; Mark 3:13; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28; John 6:3, etc.; εἰς τά δεξιά, John 21:6; σπείρειν εἰς τί (τήν σάρκα), Galatians 6:8 (here A. V. unto; cf. Ellicott at the passage); ἀναπίπτειν εἰς τόπον, Luke 14:10; δέχομαι εἰς τάς ἀγκάλας, Luke 2:28; τύπτειν εἰς τήν κεφαλήν, Matthew 27:30 (εἰς τήν σιαγόνα, Luke 6:29 Tdf. ; ῥαπίζειν εἰς τήν... σιαγόνα, Matthew 5:39 L T Tr text WH , where R G ἐπί), and in other phrases.TGL εἰς.10

    3. of motion (not into a place itself, but) into the vicinity of a place; where it may be rendered to, near, toward, (cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 81f (for examples only)): εἰς τήν. θάλασσαν, Mark 3:7 G L T Tr marginal reading; εἰς πόλιν, John 4:5 cf. John 4:28; εἰς τό μνημεῖον, John 11:31, John 11:38; John 20:1, John 20:3, John 20:8; ἐγγιζεινεις etc. Matthew 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 18:35; Luke 19:29; εἰς τούς φραγμούς, Luke 14:23; πίπτειν εἰς τί πόδας, at, John 11:32 (T Tr WH πρός); κλίνειν τό πρόσωπον εἰς τήν γῆν, Luke 24:5; εἰς τήν χεῖρα, on, Luke 15:22.TGL εἰς.11

    4. of the limit to which; with the accusative of place, as far as, even to: λάμπειν ἐκ... εἰς, Luke 17:24; with the accusative plural of person to, unto Acts 23:15 (εἰς ὑμᾶς, for R G πρός); Romans 5:12; Romans 16:19; 2 Corinthians 9:5 (L Tr πρός); 2 Corinthians 10:14.TGL εἰς.12

    5. of local direction;TGL εἰς.13

    a. after verbs of seeing: ἐπαίρειν τούς ὀφθαλμούς εἰς τί, τινα, Luke 6:20 βλέπειν, Luke 9:62; John 13:22; Acts 3:4; ἀναβλέπειν, Mark 6:41; Luke 9:16; Acts 22:13; ἐμβλέπειν, Matthew 6:26; ἀτενίζειν, which seeTGL εἰς.14

    b. after verbs of saying, teaching, announcing, etc. (cf. German die Rede richten an etc.; Latin dicere ad or coram ; (English direct one's remarks to or toward); examples from Greek authors are given by Bernhardy (1829), p. 217; Passow , i., p. 802{b}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, I. b. 3); Krüger , § 68, 21, 6): κηρύσσειν, as ἦν κηρύσσων εἰς τάς συναγωγάς αὐτῶν εἰς ὅλην τήν Γαλιλαίαν, preaching to the synagogues throughout all Galilee, Mark 1:39 (Rec. ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς, as Luke 4:44 (where T WH Tr text now εἰς; cf. Winer s Grammar, 416 (387); Buttmann , 333 (287); but in Mark, the passage cited T Tr text WH now read ἦλθεν κηρύσσων κτλ.)); τό εὐαγγέλιον εἰς ὅλον τόν κόσμον, Mark 14:9; εἰς πάντα τά ἔθνη, Mark 13:10; Luke 24:47; εἰς ὑμᾶς, 1 Thessalonians 2:9; ἀπαγγέλλειν (Rec. ἀναγγέλλειν) τί εἰς, Mark 5:14; Luke 8:34; γνωρίζειν, Romans 16:26; εὐαγγελίζεσθαι, 2 Corinthians 10:16; εἰς ὑμᾶς, 1 Peter 1:25; λέγειν (Rec. ; others, λαλεῖν) εἰς τόν κόσμον, John 8:26; (λαλεῖν τόν λόγον εἰς τήν Πέργην, Acts 14:25 T WH marginal reading); διαμαρτύρεσθαι and μαρτυρεῖν, Acts 23:11.TGL εἰς.15

    II. of Time;TGL εἰς.16

    1. it denotes entrance into period which is penetrated, as it were, i. e. duration through a time (Latin in ; German hinein, hinaus): εἰς τόν αἰῶνα and the like, see αἰών , 1 a.; εἰς τό διηνεκές, Hebrews 7:3; Hebrews 10:1, Hebrews 10:12, Hebrews 10:14; εἰς πολλά, Luke 12:19; τῇ ἐπιφωσκούσῃ (ἡμέρα) εἰς μίαν σαββάτων, dawning into (A. V. toward) the first day of the week, Matthew 28:1. Hence,TGL εἰς.17

    2. of the time in which a thing is done; because he who does or experiences a thing at any time is conceived of as, so to speak, entering into that time: εἰς τόν καιρόν αὐτῶν, in their season, Luke 1:20; εἰς τό μέλλον namely, ἔτος, the next year (but under the word μέλλω, 1. Grimm seems to take the phrase indefinitely, thenceforth (cf. Greek text)), Luke 13:9; εἰς τό μεταξύ σάββατον, on the next sabbath, Acts 13:42; εἰς τό πάλιν, again (for the second, third, time), 2 Corinthians 13:2.TGL εἰς.18

    3. of the (temporal) limit for which anything is or is done; Latin in ; our for, unto: Revelation 9:15; εἰς τήν αὔριον namely, ἡμέραν, for the morrow, Matthew 6:34; Acts 4:3; εἰς ἡμέραν κρίσεως, 2 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 3:7; εἰς ἡμέραν Χριστοῦ, Philippians 1:10; Philippians 2:16; εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, Ephesians 4:30.TGL εἰς.19

    4. of the (temporal) limit to which; unto, i. e. even to, until: Acts 25:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; εἰς ἐκείνην τήν ἡμέραν, 2 Timothy 1:12. On the phrase εἰς τέλος, see τέλος , 1 a.TGL εἰς.20

    B. Used Metaphorically, εἰςTGL εἰς.21

    I. retains the force of entering into anything,TGL εἰς.22

    1. where one thing is said to be changed into another, or to be separated into parts, or where several persons or things are said to be collected or combined into one, etc.: ἀποβαίνειν εἰς τί, Philippians 1:19; γίνεσθαι εἰς τί, see γίνομαι , 5 d.; εἶναι εἰς τί, see εἰμί , V. 2 (a. at the end) c. and d.; στρέφειν τί εἰς τί Revelation 11:6; μεταστρέφειν, Acts 2:20; James 4:9; μεταλλάσνειν, Romans 1:26; μετασχηματίζεσθαι, 2 Corinthians 11:13; συνοικοδομεῖσθαι, Ephesians 2:22; κτίζειν τινα εἰς, Ephesians 2:15; λαμβάνειν τί εἰς, Hebrews 11:8; λογίζεσθαι εἰς τί, see λογίζομαι , 1 a. ἐσχίσθη εἰς δύο, Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38 (Polybius 2, 16, 11 σχίζεται εἰς δύο μέρη); δηιν εἰς δέσμας, Matthew 13:30 (G omits; Tr WH brackets εἰς); εἰς ἐν τελειουσθαι, John 17:23; συνάγειν εἰς ἐν, John 11:52.TGL εἰς.23

    2. after verbs of going, coming, leading, etc., εἰς is joined to nouns designating the conditional state into which one passes, falls, etc.: ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς τήν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν or τοῦ Θεοῦ, see βασιλεία , 3, p. 97{b}; εἰς τήν ζωήν, Matthew 18:8; Matthew 19:17; Matthew 25:46; εἰς τήν χαράν, Matthew 25:21, Matthew 25:23; εἰς κόλασιν αἰώνιον, Matthew 25:46; ἔρχεσθαι εἰς κρίσιν, John 5:24; εἰσφέρειν, ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς πειρασμόν, Matthew 6:13; Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38 (T WH ἔλθητε); ἔρχεσθαι εἰς τό χεῖρον, Mark 5:26; εἰς ἀπελεγμόν, Acts 19:27; εἰς προκοπήν, Philippians 1:12; μεταβαίνειν εἰς τήν ζωήν, John 5:24; 1 John 3:14; πορεύεσθαι εἰς θάνατον, Luke 22:33; ὑπάγειν εἰς ἀπώλειαν, Revelation 17:8, Revelation 17:11; ὑπάγειν or πορεύεσθαι εἰς εἰρήνην, see εἰρήνη , 3; ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφοράν, Acts 13:34; συντρέχειν εἰς ἀνάχυσιν, 1 Peter 4:4; βάλλειν εἰς θλῖψιν, Revelation 2:22; περιτρέπειν εἰς μανίαν, Acts 26:24; μεταστρέφειν and στρέφειν εἰς τί, Acts 2:20; Revelation 11:6; ὁδηγεῖν τήν ἀλήθειαν (T ἐν τῇ ἀλήθειαν), John 16:13; αἰχμαλωτίζειν εἰς ὑπακοήν, 2 Corinthians 10:5; παραδιδόναι εἰς θλῖψιν, Matthew 24:9; εἰς θάνατον, 2 Corinthians 4:11; εἰς κρίμα θανάτου, Luke 24:20; συγκλείειν εἰς ἀπείθειαν, Romans 11:32; ἐμπίπτειν εἰς κρίμα, εἰς ὀνειδισμόν καί παγίδα, εἰς πειρασμόν, 1 Timothy 3:6; 1 Timothy 6:9.TGL εἰς.24

    3. it is used of the business which one enters into, i. e. of what he undertakes: ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς τόν κόπον τίνος, to take up and carry on a labor begun by another, John 4:38; τρέχειν εἰς πόλεμον, Revelation 9:9; ἔρχομαι εἰς ἀποκαλύψεις, I come, in my narrative, to revelations, i. e. to the mention of them, 2 Corinthians 12:1.TGL εἰς.25

    II. εἰς after words indicating motion or direction or end;TGL εἰς.26

    1. it denotes motion to something, after verbs of going, coming, leading, calling, etc., and answers to the Latin ad , to: καλεῖν τινα εἰς γάμον, γάμους, δεῖπνον, etc. to invite to, etc., Matthew 22:3; Luke 14:8, Luke 14:10; John 2:2; καλεῖν τινα εἰς μετάνοιαν, etc., Luke 5:32; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; ἄγειν τινα εἰς μετάνοιαν, Romans 2:4; ἐπιστρέφειν εἰς τό φῶς, Acts 26:18; ἐκτρέπεσθαι εἰς ματαιολογίαν, 1 Timothy 1:6; μετατίθεσθαι εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον Galatians 1:6; χωρῆσαι εἰς μετάνοιαν, 2 Peter 3:9, etc.TGL εἰς.27

    2. of ethical direction or reference;TGL εἰς.28

    a. universally, of acts in which the mind is directed toward, or looks to, something: βλέπειν εἰς πρόσωπον τίνος (see βλέπω , 2 c.); ἀποβλέπειν εἰς τήν μισθαποδοσίαν, Hebrews 11:26; ἀφοραν εἰς... Ἰησοῦν, Hebrews 12:2 (see A. I. 5 a. above); πιστεύειν εἰς τινα, and the like, cf. under πιστεύω, πίστις, ἐλπίζω (ἐλπίς), etc.; ἐπιθυμίαν ἔχειν εἰς τί, directed toward etc. Philippians 1:23; λέγειν εἰς τινα, to speak with reference to one, Acts 2:25 (Diodorus Siculus 11, 50); λέγειν τί εἰς τί, to say something in reference to something, Ephesians 5:32; λαλεῖν τί εἰς τί, to speak something relating to something, Hebrews 7:14; ὀμνύειν εἰς τί, to swear with the mind directed toward, Matthew 5:35; ἐυδόκειν εἰς τινα, Matthew 12:18 (R G ); 2 Peter 1:17.TGL εἰς.29

    b. for one's advantage or disadvantage;TGL εἰς.30

    α. for, for the benefit of, to the advantage of: εἰς ἡμᾶς, Ephesians 1:19; εἰς ὑμᾶς, 2 Corinthians 13:4 (but WH brackets); Ephesians 3:2; Colossians 1:25; πλουτεῖν εἰς θεόν to abound in riches made to subserve God's purposes and promote his glory, Luke 12:21 (so too Winer 's Grammar, 397 (371); but cf. Meyer edition Weiss, at the passage); Christ is said πλουτεῖν εἰς πάντας, to abound in riches redounding to the salvation of all men, Romans 10:12; πλεονάζειν εἰς τί, Philippians 4:17; ἐλεημοσύνην ποιεῖν εἰς τό ἔθνος, Acts 24:17; εἰς τούς πτωχούς, for the benefit of the poor, Romans 15:26; εἰς τούς ἁγίους, 2 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Corinthians 9:1, cf. 2 Corinthians 9:13; κοπιαν εἰς τινα, Romans 16:6; Galatians 4:11; εἰς Χριστόν, to the advantage and honor of Christ, Philemon 1:6; ἐργάζεσθαι τί εἰς τινα, Mark 14:6 Rec. ; 3 John 1:5; λειτουργός εἰς τά ἔθνη, Romans 15:16; γενόμενα εἰς Καθαρναουμ (for Rec. ἐν Καπερναούμ (cf. Winer s Grammar, 416 (388); Buttmann , 333 (286))), Luke 4:23.TGL εἰς.31

    β. unto in a disadvantageous sense (against): μηδέν ἄτοπον εἰς αὐτόν γενόμενον, Acts 28:6.TGL εἰς.32

    c. of the mood or inclination, affecting one toward any person or thing; of one's mode of action toward;TGL εἰς.33

    α. in a good sense: ἀγάπη εἰς τινα, unto, toward, one, Romans 5:8; 2 Corinthians 2:4, 2 Corinthians 2:8; Colossians 1:4; 1 Thessalonians 3:12; τό αὐτό εἰς ἀλλήλους φρονεῖν, Romans 12:16; φιλόστοργος, Romans 12:10; φιλόξενος, 1 Peter 4:9; χρηστός, Ephesians 4:32; ἀποκαταλλάσσειν εἰς αὐτόν (others, αὐτόν see αὑτοῦ , Colossians 1:20 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 397 (371)).TGL εἰς.34

    β. in a bad sense: ἁμαρτάνειν εἰς τινα (see ἁμαρτάνω , b.); λόγον εἰπεῖν and βλασθήμειν εἰς τινα, Luke 12:10; Mark 3:29; βλασθημος εἰς τινα, Acts 6:11; βλασθημων λέγω εἰς τινα, Luke 22:65; ἐπιβουλή εἰς τινα, Acts 23:30; ἔχθρα, Romans 8:7; ἀντιλογία, Hebrews 12:3; θάρρειν εἰς τινα, 2 Corinthians 10:1.TGL εἰς.35

    d. of reference or relation; with respect to, in reference to; as regards, (cf. Kühner, 2:408 c.; (Jelf , § 625, 3 e.)): Luke 7:30; Acts 25:20 (T Tr WH omit εἰς; Romans 4:20; Romans 15:2; 2 Corinthians 10:16; 2 Corinthians 13:3; Galatians 6:4; Ephesians 3:16; Philippians 1:5; Philippians 2:22; 1 Thessalonians 5:18; εἰς τί ἐδίστασας; '(looking) unto what (i. e. wherefore) didst thou doubt? Matthew 14:31; cf. Hermann ad Oed. C. 528' (Fritzsche). of the consideration influencing one to do anything: μετανοεῖν εἰς κήρυγμα τίνος, at the preaching of one, i. e. out of regard to the substance of his preaching, Matthew 12:41; δέχεσθαι τινα εἰς ὄνομα τίνος, Matthew 10:41; εἰς διαταγάς ἀγγέλων (see διαταγή ), Acts 7:53.TGL εἰς.36

    e. with the accusative of the person toward (German nach einem hin), but in sense nearly equivalent to the simple dative to, unto, after verbs of approving, manifesting, showing oneself: ἀποδεδειγμένος εἰς ὑμᾶς, Acts 2:22; ἔνδειξιν ἐνδείκνυσθαι, 2 Corinthians 8:24; φανερωθέντες εἰς ὑμᾶς, 2 Corinthians 11:6 (L T Tr WH φανερώσαντες namely, τήν γνῶσιν).TGL εἰς.37

    3. it denotes the end; andTGL εἰς.38

    a. the end to which a thing reaches or extends, i. e. measure or degree: (ἔφερεν εἰς τριάκοντα, Mark 4:8 T Tr text WH ; cf. Buttmann , 80 (27); Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. III. 2); εἰς τά ἄμετρα, 2 Corinthians 10:13; εἰς περισσείαν, 2 Corinthians 10:15; εἰς ὑπερβολήν (often in Greek writings, as Euripides , Hipp. 939; Aeschines f. leg. § 4), 2 Corinthians 4:17. of the limit: εἰς τό σωφρονεῖν, unto moderation, modesty, i. e. not beyond it, Romans 12:3.TGL εἰς.39

    b. the end which a thing is adapted to attain (a use akin to that in B. II. 2 b.; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 213 (200))): ἀργός καί ἄκαρπος εἰς τί, 2 Peter 1:8; ἐυρηετος, Luke 9:62 R G ; Luke 14:35 (Luke 14:34); εὔχρηστος, 2 Timothy 4:11; χρήσιμος, 2 Timothy 2:14 R G , δυναμουμενος, Colossians 1:11; θεοδίδακτος, 1 Thessalonians 4:9; βραδύς, James 1:19; σοφός, Revelation 16:19; φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν, Luke 2:32; δύναμις εἰς etc. Romans 1:16; Hebrews 11:11; ἀναγενναν εἰς, 1 Peter 1:3; ἀνακαινόω, Colossians 3:10; σοφίζειν τινα εἰς, 2 Timothy 3:15; ἰσχύειν εἰς, Matthew 5:13.TGL εἰς.40

    c. the end which one has in view, i. e. object, purpose;TGL εἰς.41

    α. associated with other prepositions (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 50, 5): ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν, to produce faith Romans 1:17, cf. Fritzsche, Meyer, Van Hengel, at the passage; ἐξ αὐτοῦ καί δἰ αὐτοῦ καί εἰς αὐτόν, answering to his purposes (the final cause), Romans 11:36; ἐξ οὗ τά πάντα καί ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, 1 Corinthians 8:6; δἰ αὐτοῦ καί εἰς αὐτόν (see διά , A. III. 2 b. under the end), Colossians 1:16; δἰ αὐτοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, Colossians 1:20.TGL εἰς.42

    β. shorter phrases: εἰς τοῦτο, to this end, Mark 1:38; (Luke 4:43 R G Tr marginal reading); εἰς αὐτό τοῦτο (R. V. for this very thing), 2 Corinthians 5:5; εἰς τοῦτο... ἵνα etc. John 18:37; 1 John 3:8; Romans 14:9; 2 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Peter 4:6; εἰς αὐτό τοῦτο... ὅπως etc. Romans 9:17; ἵνα, Colossians 4:8; Ephesians 6:22; εἰς τί, to what purpose, Matthew 26:8; Mark 14:4; εἰς , to which end, for which cause, 2 Thessalonians 1:11; Colossians 1:29.TGL εἰς.43

    γ. universally: βαπτίζω εἰς τινα, τί (see βαπτίζω , II. b. aa.); παιδαγωγός εἰς τόν Χριστόν, Galatians 3:24; συγκεκλεισμένοι εἰς τήν πίστιν, that we might the more readily embrace the faith when its time should come, Galatians 3:23; φρουρούμενοι εἰς τήν σωτηρίαν, that future salvation may be yours, 1 Peter 1:5; ἀγοράζειν εἰς τήν ἑορτήν, John 13:29; εἰς ὄλεθρον σαρκός, 1 Corinthians 5:5; εἰς τήν ἡμετέραν διδασκαλίαν, Revelation 15:4, and in many other examples especially after verbs of appointing, choosing, preparing, doing, coming, sending, etc.: κεῖμαι, Luke 2:34; Philippians 1:17 (16); 1 Thessalonians 3:3; τασσο, 1 Corinthians 16:15; τάσσομαι, Acts 13:48; ἀφορίζω, Revelation 1:1; Acts 13:2; πρωρίζω, Ephesians 1:5; 1 Corinthians 2:7; ἁιρέομαι, 2 Thessalonians 2:13; τίθεμαι, 1 Timothy 1:12; 1 Peter 2:8; καταρτίζω, Romans 9:22; ἀποστέλλω, Hebrews 1:14; πέμπω, 1 Thessalonians 3:2, 1 Thessalonians 3:5; Colossians 4:8; Philippians 4:16 (L brackets εἰς); 1 Peter 2:14; ἔρχομαι, John 9:39; ποιεῖν τί εἰς, 1 Corinthians 10:31; 1 Corinthians 11:24. Modeled after the Hebrew are the phrases, ἐγείρειν τινα εἰς βασιλέα, to be king, Acts 13:22; ἀνατρέφεσθαι τινα εἰς υἱόν, Acts 7:21; τέθεικά σε εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν, Acts 13:47 (from Isaiah 49:6 Alex. ); cf. Gesenius, Lehrgeb., p. 814; Buttmann , 150 (131); (Winer 's Grammar, § 32, 4b.).TGL εἰς.44

    δ. εἰς τί, indicating purpose, often depends not on anyone preceding word with which it coalesces into a single phrase, but has the force of a telic clause added to the already complete preceding statement; thus, εἰς δόξαν τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 15:7; Philippians 1:11; Philippians 2:11; εἰς φόβον, that ye should fear, Romans 8:15; εἰς ἔνδειξιν, that he might show, Romans 3:25; εἰς ζωήν, to procure eternal life (namely, for those mentioned), John 4:14; John 6:27 (in which passages the phrase is by many interpretations (e. g. DeWette, Meyer, Lange; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 397 (371) note) incorrectly joined with ά῾λλεσθαι and μένειν (cf. Thol., Luthardt, others)); Romans 5:21; 1 Timothy 1:16; Jude 1:21; add, Matthew 8:4; Matthew 27:7; Mark 6:11; Acts 11:18; Romans 10:4; Philippians 1:25; Philippians 2:16; 2 Timothy 2:25; Revelation 22:2, etc.TGL εἰς.45

    ε. εἰς τό followed by an infinitive, a favorite construction with Paul (cf. Buttmann , 264f (227f); Harmsen in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1874, pp. 345-360), is like the Latin ad with the gerundive. It is of two kinds; eitherTGL εἰς.46

    αα. εἰς τό combines with the verb on which it depends into a single sentence, as παραδώσουσιν αὐτόν... εἰς τό ἐμπαῖξαι (Vulg. ad deludendum ), Matthew 20:19; εἰς τό σταυρωθῆναι, Matthew 26:2; οἰκοδομηθήσεται εἰς τό τά εἰδωλόθυτα ἐσθίειν (Vulg. aedificabitur ad manducandum idolothyta ), 1 Corinthians 8:10; μή οἰκίας οὐκ ἔχετε εἰς τό ἐσθίειν καί πίνειν, 1 Corinthians 11:22; εἰς τό προσφέρειν δῶρα τέ καί θυσίας καθίσταται (Vulg. ad offerenda munera et hostias ), Hebrews 8:3; add, Hebrews 9:28; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; 1 Thessalonians 4:9; Philippians 1:23; orTGL εἰς.47

    ββ. εἰς τό with the infinitive has the force of a separate telic clause (equivalent to ἵνα with the subjunctive) (Meyer (on Romans 1:20) asserts that this is its uniform force, at least in Romans (cf. his note on 2 Corinthians 8:6); on the other hand, Harmsen (u. s.) denies the telic force of εἰς τό before an infinitive present; cf. also Winer s Grammar, 329 (309); especially Buttmann , as above and p. 265 note; Ellicott on 1 Thessalonians 2:12; and see below, d. at the end): Luke 20:20 R G ; Acts 3:19 (T WH πρός); Romans 1:11; Romans 4:16, Romans 4:18; Romans 11:11; Romans 12:2; Romans 15:8, Romans 15:13; 1 Corinthians 9:18; 1 Corinthians 10:6; Galatians 3:17; Ephesians 1:12, Ephesians 1:18; 1 Thessalonians 2:12, 1 Thessalonians 2:16; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; 2 Thessalonians 2:2, 2 Thessalonians 2:10; James 1:18; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 9:14, Hebrews 9:28; Hebrews 12:10; Hebrews 13:21; εἰς τό μή, lest, 2 Corinthians 4:4; 1 Peter 3:7.TGL εἰς.48

    d. the end by which a thing is completed, i. e. the result or effect: Acts 10:4; Romans 6:19 (εἰς τήν ἀνομίαν (but WH brackets), so that iniquity was the result); Romans 10:10; Romans 13:14; 1 Corinthians 11:17; 2 Corinthians 2:16; Ephesians 5:2, etc.; εἰς τό with an infinitive so that (cf. ββ. above): Romans 1:20; 2 Corinthians 8:6.TGL εἰς.49

    C. Constructions that are peculiar in some respects.TGL εἰς.50

    1. Various forms of pregnant and brachylogical construction (Winer s Grammar, § 66, 2; (less fully, Buttmann , 327 (282)); Bernhardy (1829), p. 348f): σῴζειν τινα εἰς etc. to save by translating into etc. 2 Timothy 4:18 (see σῴζω , b. under the end); διασώζειν, 1 Peter 3:20 (the Sept. Genesis 19:19, and often in Greek writings); μισθουσθαι ἐργάτας εἰς τήν ἀμπελῶνα, to go into etc. Matthew 20:1; ἐλευθερουν εἰς etc. Romans 8:21; ἀποδιδόναι τινα εἰς Αἴγυπτον, Acts 7:9; ἔνοχος εἰς γηνναν, to depart into etc. (cf. Buttmann , 170 (148) note), Matthew 5:22; κλαν εἰς τινας, to break and distribute among etc. Mark 8:19; ἀσφαλίζεσθαι εἰς τό ξύλον, Acts 16:24; κτᾶσθαι χρυσόν εἰς τάς ζώνας, Matthew 10:9; ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον, rolled up and laid away in etc. John 20:7.TGL εἰς.51

    2. Akin to this is the very common use of εἰς after verbs signifying rest or continuance in a place, because the idea of a previous motion into the place spoken of is involved (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 50, 4b.; Buttmann , 332f (286f); Kühner, ii., p. 317; (Jelf , § 646, 1); Bernhardy (1829), p. 215; (yet cf. also examples in Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word εἰς, 1)): ὑρεθη εἰς Ἄζωτον, namely, transferred or carried off to, Acts 8:40, cf. Acts 8:39 πνεῦμα κυρίου ἥρπασε τόν Φίλιππον (Esther 1:5, τοῖς ἔθνεσι τοῖς εὑρεθεῖσιν εἰς τό πόλιν; so φανεῖσθαι is followed by εἰς in 2 Macc. 1:33 2Macc. 7:22). δεῖ με τήν ἑορτήν ποιῆσαι εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, namely, by going, Acts 18:21 Rec. ; likewise ἑτοίμως ἔχω ἀποθανεῖν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, Acts 21:13 (ἡφαιστιων εἰς Ἐκβάτανα ἀπέθανε, Aelian v. h. 7, 8); συνέβαλεν ἡμῖν εἰς Ασσον, Acts 20:14; μελλουσα δόξα εἰς ἡμᾶς ἀποκαλυφθῆναι, which shall be revealed (and conferred) on us, Romans 8:18.κατοικεῖν εἰς πόλιν, εἰς γῆν, to come into a city and dwell there, Matthew 2:23; Matthew 4:13; Acts 7:4 (cf. Numbers 35:33; 2 Chronicles 19:4 etc.); also παροικεῖν, Hebrews 11:9 (ἐνοικεῖν, Xenophon , an. 1, 2, 24); στῆναι, ἑστηκεναι (because it is nearly equivalent to to have placed oneself) εἰς τί, Luke 6:8; John 20:19, John 20:26; 1 Peter 5:12; καθῆσθαι, to have gone unto a place and to be sitting there, Mark 13:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (on this use of these two verbs in Greek authors cf. Matthiae , ii., p. 1344f; (cf. Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann , as above)). εἶναι εἰς with the accusative of place see εἰμί , V. 2 a.; οἱ εἰς τόν οἶκον μου namely, ὄντες, Luke 9:61; τοῖς εἰς μακράν namely, οὖσι (German ins Ferne hin befindlich), Acts 2:39. συνάγεσθαι followed by εἰς with the accusative of place: to go to a place and assemble there, Matthew 26:3 and Acts 4:5 R T , (1 Esdr. 5:46 (1 Esdr 5:47); 1 Esdr 9:3). Sometimes a word implying motion, occurring in the same sentence, seems to have occasioned the connection of a verb of rest with εἰς, as it were by a kind of attraction (Buttmann , as above): ἐξερχόμενος ηὐλίζετο εἰς τό ὄρος, Luke 21:37; ἀκούσας... ὄντα σιτία εἰς Αἴγυπτον (Rec. σῖτα ἐν Αἴγυπτον.) ἐξαπέστειλεν etc. Acts 7:12; παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς συνέδρια καί εἰς συναγωγάς δααρησεσθε, Mark 13:9 (Winer s Grammar, 416 (387), Buttmann , 333 (287)); ὕπαγε, νίψαι (but L brackets) εἰς τήν κολυμβήθραν, John 9:7, although νίπτεσθαι εἰς τί can also be used (as λούεσθαι εἰς τό βαλανεῖον, Alciphron , epistles 3, 43; εἰς λουτρωνας, Athen. 10, p. 438 e.; λούειν τινα εἰς σκάφην, Epictetus diss. 3, 22, 71), since the water with which one bathes flows down into the pool. Cf. Beyer, De praepositt. εἰς; et ἐν in N. T. permutatione. Lipsius 1824, 4to.TGL εἰς.52

    D. Adverbial phrases (cf. Matthiae , § 578 d.): εἰς τέλος (see τέλος 1 a.); εἰς τό πάλιν, see A. II 2 above; εἰς τό παντελές, perfectly, utterly, Luke 13:11 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 51, 1 c.); εἰς κενόν (see κενός , 3); εἰς ὑπάντησιν and εἰς ἀπάντησιν, see each substantive.TGL εἰς.53

    In composition εἰς is equivalent to the Latin in and ad .TGL εἰς.54


    (1520) εἷς, μία, ἐν, genitive ἑνός, μιᾶς, ἑνός, a cardinal numeral, one. Used:TGL εἷς.2

    1. universally,TGL εἷς.3

    a. in opposed to many; andTGL εἷς.4

    α. added to nouns after the manner of an adjective: Matthew 25:15 (opposed to πέντε δύο); Romans 5:12 (opposed to πάντες); Matthew 20:13; Matthew 27:15; Luke 17:34 (but L WH brackets); Acts 28:13; 1 Corinthians 10:8; James 4:13 (R G ), and often; παρά μίαν namely, πληγήν (Winer s Grammar, 589 (548); Buttmann , 82 (72)), save one (Winer 's Grammar, § 49, g.), 2 Corinthians 11:24; with the article, εἰς ἄνθρωπος, the one man, of whom I have spoken, Romans 5:15.TGL εἷς.5

    β. substantively, with a partitive genitive — to denote one, whichever it may be: μίαν τῶν ἐντολῶν, one commandment, whichever of the whole number it may be, Matthew 5:19; add, Matthew 6:29; Matthew 18:6; Mark 9:42; Luke 12:27; Luke 17:2, Luke 17:22; or, that one is required to be singled out from a certain number: Luke 23:39; John 19:34, etc. followed by ἐκ with the genitive of a noun signifying a whole, to denote that one of (out of) a company did this or that: Matthew 22:35; Matthew 26:21; Matthew 27:48; Mark 14:18; Luke 17:15; John 1:40 (John 1:41); John 6:8,John 6:70; John 12:2 (T WH Tr marginal reading in brackets), John 12:4 (Tr omits ἐκ); John 13:21,John 13:23 (Rec. omits ἐκ); John 18:26; Revelation 5:5; Revelation 7:13; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 13:3 (Rec. omits ἐκ.TGL εἷς.6

    γ. absolutely: Matthew 23:8-10; Hebrews 2:11; Hebrews 11:12; and where it takes the place of a predicate, Galatians 3:20 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 593 (551)), Galatians 3:28 (ye that adhere to Christ make one person, just as the Lord himself); συνάγειν εἰς ἐν, to gather together into one, John 11:52; ποιεῖν τά ἀμφότερα ἐν, Ephesians 2:14; with the article, εἰς, the one, whom I have named, Romans 5:15, Romans 5:19.TGL εἷς.7

    b. in opposed to a division into parts, and in ethical matters to dissensions: ἐν σῶμα πολλά μέλη, Romans 12:4; 1 Corinthians 12:12, 1 Corinthians 12:20; ἐν εἶναι, to be united most closely (in will, spirit), John 10:30; John 17:11, John 17:21-23; ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, μία ψυχή, Philippians 1:27 cf. Acts 4:32 (cf. Cicero , Lael. 25 (92) amicitiae vis est in eo, ut unus quasi animus fiat ex pluribus ); ἀπό μιᾶς (see ἀπό , III., p. 59{b}), Luke 14:18.TGL εἷς.8

    c. with a negative following joined to the verb, εἰς... οὐ or μή (one... not, i. e.) no one, (more explicit and emphatic than οὐδείς): ἐν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐ πεσεῖται, Matthew 10:29; besides, Matthew 5:18; Luke 11:46; Luke 12:6; this usage is not only Hebraistic (as that language has no particular word to express the notion of none), but also Greek (Aristophanes ecclesiastical 153: thesm. 549; Xenophon , an. 5, 6, 12; Dionysius Halicarnassus , verb. comp. 18, etc.), cf. Winer s Grammar, 172 (163); (Buttmann , 121 (106)).TGL εἷς.9

    2. emphatically, so that others are excluded, and εἰς is the same asTGL εἷς.10

    a. a single (Latin unus equivalent to unicus ); joined to nouns: Matthew 21:24; Mark 8:14 (οὐκ... εἰ μή ἕνα ἄρτον); Mark 12:6; Luke 12:52; John 11:50; John 7:21; 1 Corinthians 12:19; Ephesians 4:5, etc.; absolutely: 1 Corinthians 9:24; 2 Corinthians 5:14 (15); 1 Timothy 2:5; James 4:12, etc.; οὐδέ εἰς, not even one: Matthew 27:14; John 1:3; Acts 4:32; Romans 3:10; 1 Corinthians 6:5 (R G ); οὐκ ἐστιν ἕως ἑνός (there is not so much as one), Romans 3:12 from Psalms 13:3 (Psalms 14:3); cf. Latin omnes ad unum , all to a man. Neuter, ἐν, one thing, exclusive of the rest; one thing before all others: Mark 10:21; Luke 18:22; Luke 10:42 (but WH only text); John 9:25; Philippians 3:13 (Philippians 3:14); James 2:10.TGL εἷς.11

    b. alone: οὐδείς... εἰ μή εἰς Θεός, Mark 2:7 (for which in Luke 5:21 μόνος Θεός); Mark 10:18; Luke 18:19.TGL εἷς.12

    c. one and the same (not at variance with, in accord with oneself): Romans 3:30; Revelation 17:13, Revelation 17:17 (L omits); Revelation 18:8; τό ἐν φρονεῖν, Philippians 2:2 (WH marginal reading αὐτό); ἕν εἶναι are one, i. e. are of the same importance and esteem, 1 Corinthians 3:8; εἰς τό ἐν εἶναι (see εἰμί , V. 2 d.), 1 John 5:8; more fully τό ἐν καί τό αὐτό. 1 Corinthians 12:11; ἐν καί τό αὐτό τίνι, 1 Corinthians 11:5.TGL εἷς.13

    3. the numerical force of εἰς is often so weakened that it hardly differs from the indefinite pronoun τίς, or from our indefinite article (Winer s Grammar, 117 (111) (cf. 29 note 2; Buttmann , 85 (74))): Matthew 8:19 εἰς γραμματεύς); Matthew 19:16; Matthew 26:69; John 6:9 (παιδάριον ἐν, where T Tr WH omit and L brackets ἐν); Revelation 8:13; Revelation 9:13 (Aristophanes av. 1292; Xenophon , mem. 3, 3, 12; Plato , de rep. 6, p. 494 d.; legg. 9, p. 855 d., etc.; especially later writings; (Tobit 1:19 Tobit 2:3; 3Esdr. 4:18 [LXX 1 Ezra 4:18]; Genesis 21:15; 2 Samuel 2:18; Judith 14:6); so the Hebrew אֶחָד, Daniel 8:3; Genesis 22:13; 1 Samuel 1:2; 1 Kings 21:13 (1 Kings 20:13); see Gesenius, Lchrgeb., p. 655); εἰς τίς (Latin unus aliquis ), a certain one; one, I know not who; one who need not be named: with a substantive, Mark 14:51 (L Tr WH omit εἰς); or followed by a genitive Mark 14:47 where L Tr omit; WH brackets τίς; followed by ἐκ, ἐξ, with the genitive: Luke 22:50; John 11:49 (ἕν τί τῶν ῤημάτων, Judith 2:13, and often in Greek writings; cf. Wetstein on Mark 14:51; Matthiae , § 487).TGL εἷς.14

    4. it is used distributively (Winer s Grammar, § 26, 2; especially Buttmann , 102 (90));TGL εἷς.15

    a. εἰς... καί εἰς, one... and one: Matthew 17:4; Matthew 20:21; Matthew 24:40 L T Tr WH , Matthew 24:41; Matthew 27:38; Mark 4:8 (R G L WH marginal reading); Mark 4:20 (R G L Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading in brackets); Mark 9:5; Mark 10:37; Mark 15:27; Luke 9:33; John 20:12; Galatians 4:22; (in Greek authors, εἰς μέν... εἰς δέ, as Aristotle , eth. 6, 1, 5; Xcn. Cyril 1, 2, 4); with the article prefixed, εἰς the one, Luke 24:18 R G ; followed by εἰς, the one... the other, Matthew 24:40 R G ; followed by ἕτερος, Matthew 6:24; Luke 7:41; Luke 16:13{b}; Luke 17:34 R WH ; Luke 18:10 R G T WH marginal reading; Acts 23:6; εἰς (without the article... ἕτερος: Luke 16:13{c}; Luke 17:34 G L T Tr ; Luke 18:10 L Tr WH text; πέντε... εἰς... ἄλλος, Revelation 17:10.TGL εἷς.16

    b. εἰς ἕκαστος, everyone: Acts 2:6; Acts 20:31; Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 4:6; followed by a partitive genitive: Luke 4:40; Luke 16:5; Acts 2:3; Acts 17:27; Acts 21:26; 1 Corinthians 12:18; Ephesians 4:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:11; cf. Buttmann , 102f (89f); ἀνά εἰς ἕκαστος (see ἀνά , 2), Revelation 21:21.TGL εἷς.17

    c. a solecism, common in later Greek (cf. Lucian , solace. (Pseudosoph.) § 9; Winer s Grammar, § 37, 3; Buttmann , 30f (26f); Fritzsche on Mark, p. 613f; (Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word καθεῖς)), is καθ' εἰς, and in combination καθεῖς (so that either κατά is used adverbially, or εἰς as indeclinablc): καθ' εἰς, equivalent to εἰς ἕκαστος, Romans 12:5 (where L T Tr WH τό καθ', as respects each one, severally; cf. what is said against this reading by Fritzsche, commentary, iii., p. 44f, and in its favor by Meyer); with a partitive genitive 3Macc. 5:84; εἰς καθ' (T WH Tr marginal reading κατά) εἰς, everyone, one by one, Mark 14:19; John 8:9; καθ' ἕνα, καθ' ἕν (as in Greek writings), of a series, one by one, successively: καθ' ἐν, all in succession, John 21:25 (not Tdf. ); καθ' ἕνα πάντες, 1 Corinthians 14:31 (Xenophon , venat. 6, 14); καθ' ἕν ἕκαστον, Acts 21:19 (Xenophon , Cyril 1, 6, 22 (27); Ages. 7, 1); ὑμεῖς οἱ καθ' ἕνα ἕκαστος, ye severally, every one, Ephesians 5:33.TGL εἷς.18

    5. like the Hebrew אֶחָד, εἰς is put for the ordinal πρῶτος, first (Winer s Grammar, § 37, 1; Buttmann , 29 (26)): μία σαββάτων the first day of the week, Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1, John 20:19; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2 (L T Tr WH μία σαββάτου); (in Greek writings so used only when joined with other ordinal numbers, as εἷς καί τριηκοστος, Herodotus 5, 89: Diodorus 16. 71. Cicero , de senect. 5 uno et octogesimo anna . (Cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word)).TGL εἷς.19


    (1521) εἰσάγω: 2 aorist εἰσήγαγον; [present passive ἐισάγομαι]; [from Homer down]; Sept. chiefly for הֵבִיא;TGL εἰσάγω.2

    1. to lead in: τινά followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, Luke 22:54 [Tr marginal reading brackets]; Acts 9:8; Acts 21:28, Acts 21:29, Acts 21:37; Acts 22:24 (for Rec. ἄγεσθαι); ὧδε Luke 14:21; the place into which not being expressly noted: John 18:16 (namely, εἰς τὴν αὐλήν); Hebrews 1:6 ὅταν... εἰσαγάγῃ, λέγει, God, having in view the time when he shall have again brought in the firstborn into the world (i. e., at the time of the παρουσία) says etc.TGL εἰσάγω.3

    2. to bring in, the place into which not being expressly stated: Acts 7:45 (namely, εἰς τὴν γῆν); Luke 2:27 (namely, εἰς τὸ ἱερόν). [Compare: παρεισάγω.]TGL εἰσάγω.4


    (1522) εἰσακούω: future εἰσακούσομαι; passive, 1 aorist ἐισηκουσθην; 1 future ἐισακουσθήσομαι; Sept. very often for שָׁמַע, but also for עָנָה to answer; in Greek writings from Homers Iliad 8, 97 down; to hearken unto, to give ear to; i. e.TGL εἰσακούω.2

    1. to give heed to, comply with, admonition; to obey (Latin obedio , i. e. ob-audio ): τινός, 1 Corinthians 14:21, (Deuteronomy 1:43; Deuteronomy 9:23; Sir. 3:6, etc.).TGL εἰσακούω.3

    2. to listen to, assent to, a request; passive to be heard, to have one's request granted;TGL εἰσακούω.4

    a. of persons offering up prayers to God: Hebrews 5:7 (on which see ἀπό , I. 3 d. at the end); Matthew 6:7.TGL εἰσακούω.5

    b. of the prayers offered up: Luke 1:13; Acts 10:31 (Psalms 4:2; Sir. 31:29 (Sir. 34:26), etc.).TGL εἰσακούω.6


    (1523) εἰσδέχομαι: future εἰσδέχομαι; to receive kindly, i. e. contextually, to treat with favor: τινά, 2 Corinthians 6:17. [From Pindar and Sophocles down. Synonym: cf. δέχομαι , at the end.]TGL εἰσδέχομαι.2


    (1524) εἴσειμι, infinitive εἰσιέναι; imperfect ἐισεηιν; (εἰμί (cf. Buttmann, 50 (43))); [from Homer down]; to go into, enter: followed by εἰς with the name of the place (cf. Winer's De verb. comp. etc. Part ii., p. 11), Acts 3:3; Acts 21:26; Hebrews 9:6 (Winer's Grammar, 267 (251)); πρός τινα, Acts 21:18.TGL εἴσειμι.2

    (Related entry) εἶμι, to go, approved of by some in John 7:34, John 7:36, for the ordinary εἰμί, but cf. Winer's Grammar § 6, 2; [Buttmann, 50 (43). Compare: ἄπ- εἴσ-, ἐξ-, ἐπ-, σύνειμι.]TGL εἴσειμι.3


    (1525) εἰσέρχομαι future εἰσελεύσομαι; 2 aorist εἰσῆλθον, 2 person plural εἰσήλθατε (Luke 11:52, but Rec. εἰσήλθετε), imperative εἰσέλθατε (Matthew 7:13 but R G εἰσέλθετε (3rd person singular ἐισεθάτω Mark 13:15, R G εἰσελθέτω)); see ἀπέρχομαι , at the beginning; perfect εἰσελήλυθα, 3 person plural ἐισεληλυθαν (James 5:4, for R G εἰσεληλύθασιν, see γίνομαι , at the beginning); the Sept. mostly for בּוא; to go or come into or in; to enter;TGL εἰσέρχομαι.2

    1. properly, of men and of animals: followed by εἰς with specification of the place (cf. Winer 's De verb. comp. etc. Part ii., p. 12f), as into a house, into a city, Matthew 8:5; Matthew 10:12; Mark 2:1; Mark 11:11; Acts 23:16, Acts 23:33, and often. without specification of place — when mention of it has already been made, as Matthew 9:25; (Mark 7:25 Tdf. ); Luke 7:45; Luke 14:23; Luke 15:28, cf. Luke 15:25; Luke 24:3; Acts 1:13; Acts 5:7, Acts 5:10; Acts 10:25; 1 Corinthians 14:23; or it can be easily supplied from the context, as Luke 13:24; Luke 17:7; εἰς is also added to signify among: Acts 19:30; Acts 20:29; ἐισέρχεσθαι διά τίνος, to enter (a place) through something: διά τῆς πύλης, to enter the kingdom of God (compared to a palace) through the gate, Matthew 7:13; Luke 13:24; διά τῆς θύρας εἰς τήν αὐλήν, John 10:1; add, Matthew 19:24 G T Tr text WH text; (Mark 10:25 Rst L marginal reading Tr marginal reading); Luke 18:25 R G T Tr text WH ; ἐισέρχεσθαι ὑπό τήν στέγην, by entering to come under the roof, i. e. enter my house, Matthew 8:8; with adverbs: ὅπου, Mark 14:14; Hebrews 6:20; ὧδε, Matthew 22:12; ἔσω Matthew 26:58; εἰς with the accusative of person, into one's house, Acts 16:40, but on this passage see εἰς , A. I. 1 a. ἐισέρχεσθαι πρός τινα, to one, i. e. into his house, visit, Mark 15:43; Luke 1:28; Acts 10:3; Acts 11:3; Acts 16:40 G L T Tr WH ; Acts 28:8; Revelation 3:20; to an assembly of persons, Acts 17:2. Moreover, the following deserve notice:TGL εἰσέρχομαι.3

    a. the phrase ἐισέρχεσθαι καί ἐξέρχεσθαι, to go in and out, (the Hebrew וְצֵאת בּוא or reversed וּבוא צֵאת, usually denotes one's whole mode of living and acting, Deuteronomy 28:6; 1 Samuel 29:6, etc.; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus i., p. 184f), is used of familiar contact with one: ἐν παντί χρόνῳ εἰσῆλθε καί ἐξῆλθεν ἐφ' ἡμᾶς κύριος, equivalent to εἰσῆλθε ἐφ' ἡμᾶς καί. ἐξηλθεαφ' ἡμ. Acts 1:21 (Euripides , Phoen. 536 ἐς οἴκους εἰσῆλθε καί ἐξηλθ' (Winer s Grammar, 624f (580); but cf. Buttmann , 390 (334))); figuratively, of moral pursuits unimpeded by difficulties, John 10:9.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.4

    b. ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς is joined with nouns designating not a place, but what occurs in a place: εἰς τούς γάμους, Matthew 25:10; εἰς τήν χαράν τοῦ κυρίου, 21, 23.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.5

    c. εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τινα is used of demons or of Satan taking possession of the body of a person: Mark 9:25; Luke 8:30; Luke 22:3; John 13:27.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.6

    d. of things: — as of food, that enters into the eater's mouth, Matthew 15:11; Acts 11:8; figuratively, hope is called ἄγκυρα ἐισερχομενη εἰς τό ἐσώτερον τοῦ καταπετάσματος, i. e. we firmly rely on the hope that we shall be received into heaven, Hebrews 6:19; cries of complaint are said ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς τά ὦτα τίνος, i. e. to be heard, James 5:4; of forces and influences: πνεῦμα ζωῆς εἰσῆλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς (Tr omits; WH brackets ἐν; Rec. ἐπ' αὐτούς (Buttmann , 338 (291))), a pregnant construction, the breath of life entered into and remained in them, Revelation 11:11 (Winer s Grammar, § 50, 4; Buttmann , 329 (283)).TGL εἰσέρχομαι.7

    2. Metaphorically used,TGL εἰσέρχομαι.8

    a. of entrance into any condition, state of things, society, employment: εἰς τήν ζωήν, Matthew 18:8; Matthew 19:17; Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45; εἰς τήν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν or τοῦ Θεοῦ (see βασιλεία , 3, p. 97{b}): τούς εἰσερχομένους, that are trying to enter, or rather, that have taken the road to enter, are (engaged in) entering, Matthew 23:13 (14); Luke 11:52; used absolutely of those who come into (i. e. become members of) the Christian church, Romans 11:25 (hence, in 1 Corinthians 5:12 οἱ ἔσω and οἱ ἔξω are distinguished); εἰς τήν κατάπαυσιν, Hebrews 3:11, Hebrews 3:18; Hebrews 4:1, Hebrews 4:3, Hebrews 4:5, Hebrews 4:10; εἰς τήν δόξαν, Luke 24:26; εἰς πειρασμόν, to come (i. e., fall) into temptation, Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38 (T WH ἔλθητε); Luke 22:40, Luke 22:46; εἰς τόν κόπον τίνος (see εἰς , B. I. 3), John 4:38. ἐισερχέσθεσθαι εἰς τόν κόσμον, to enter the world (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 18), isTGL εἰσέρχομαι.9

    α. equivalent to to arise, come into existence, begin to be (i. e., among men): used thus of sin and death, Romans 5:12; of death, Wis. 2:24; Clement of Rome , 1 Corinthians 3:1-23, 1 Corinthians 3:4 [ET]; of idols, Wis. 14:14.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.10

    β. of men, to come into life: whether by birth, Antoninus 6, 56; or by divine creation, Philo , opif. mund. § 25.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.11

    γ. to come before the public: 2 John 1:7 (Rec. ); to come to men, of Christ, John 18:37; εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τόν κόσμον, when he cometh into the world, i. e. when he was on the point of entering it, viz. at his incarnation, Hebrews 10:5.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.12

    b. of thoughts coming into the mind: εἰσῆλθε διαλογισμός ἐν αὐτοῖς, a pregnant construction, there came in and established itself within (others take ἐν outwardly: among (cf. διαλογέομαι at the end)) them, Luke 9:46 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 413 (385)). The Greeks from Homer down use ἐισέρχεσθαι τινα of thoughts and feelings, as φόβος, μένος, πόθος, etc. (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 427 (398). Compare: ἐπέρχομαι, παρέρχομαι, συνέρχομαι, εἰσέρχομαι.TGL εἰσέρχομαι.13


    (1526) *For 1526 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἰσί.2

    εἷς καθ᾽ εἷς

    (1527) *For 1527 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἷς καθ᾽ εἷς.2


    (1528) εἰσκαλέομαι, -οῦμαι, (middle of εἰσκαλέω): 1 aorist participle εἰσκαλεσάμενος; to call in unto oneself, to invite in to one's house: τινά, Acts 10:23. [Polybius, others.]TGL εἰσκαλέομαι.2


    (1529) εἴσοδος, -ου, , (ὁδός), [from Homer on], an entrance, i. e. both the place or way leading into a place (as, a gate), and the act of entering; only in the latter sense in the N. T. With the genitive of place, τῶν ἁγίων, entrance into the holy place, i. e. reception into heaven, Hebrews 10:19 [but in 20 apparently called ὁδός]; εἰς τ. βασιλείαν τοῦ κυρίου, 2 Peter 1:11; of the act of coming forward to administer an office, Acts 13:24; with πρός τινα added, 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:1.TGL εἴσοδος.2


    (1530) εἰσπηδάω -ῶ: 1 aorist ἐισεπήδησα; to spring in: εἰς τὸν ὄχλον, Acts 14:14 Rec. (see ἐκπηδάω ); to rush in impetuously, Acts 16:29. (Xenophon, Dem, others; Sept. Amos 5:19.)TGL εἰσπηδάω.2


    (1531) εἰσπορεύομαι (passive of εἰσπορεύω to lead into, Euripides, El. 1285); imperfect εἰσεπορευόμην (Mark 6:56); to go into, enter;TGL εἰσπορεύομαι.2

    1. properly,TGL εἰσπορεύομαι.3

    a. of persons: followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, Mark 1:21; Mark 6:56; Mark 11:2; Acts 3:2; ὅπου, Mark 5:40; οὗ, Luke 22:10 [R G, cf. Buttmann, 71 (62); Winer's Grammar, § 54, 7]; without specification of place where that is evident from the context, Luke 8:16; Luke 11:33; Luke 19:30; κατὰ τοὺς οἴκους, to enter house after house [A. V. every house, see κατά , II. 3 a. α.], Acts 8:3; πρός τινα, to visit one at his dwelling, Acts 28:30; εἰσπορεύεσθαι κ. ἐκπορεύεσθαι μετά τινος, to associate with one, Acts 9:28 (ἐνώπιόν τινος, Tobit 5:18; see εἰσέρχομαι , 1 a.).TGL εἰσπορεύομαι.4

    b. when used of things it is equivalent to to be carried into or put into: so of food, which is put into the mouth, Mark 7:15, Mark 7:18, [Mark 7:19]; Matthew 15:17 (see εἰσέρχομαι , 1 d.).TGL εἰσπορεύομαι.5

    2. metaphorically: [εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ, Luke 18:24 T Tr text WH; see βασιλεία , 3, p. 97b]; of affections entering the soul, Mark 4:19; see εἰσέρχομαι , 2 b. (Of the earlier Greek writings Xenophon, alone uses this verb, Cyril 2, 3, 21; Sept. often for בּוא.)TGL εἰσπορεύομαι.6


    (1532) εἰστρέχω: 2 aorist εἰσέδραμον; to run in: Acts 12:14. [Thucydides, Xenophon, others.]TGL εἰστρέχω.2


    (1533) εἰσφέρω; 1 aorist ἐισήνεγκα; 2 aorist ἐισήνεγκον; [present passive ἐισφέρομαι; from Homer down]; to bring into, in or to;TGL εἰσφέρω.2

    a. τί, followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, 1 Timothy 6:7; passive Hebrews 13:11; τινά namely, εἰς τ. οἰκίαν, Luke 5:18; [τινὰ ἐπὶ τ. συναγωγάς etc. Luke 12:11 T Tr text WH]; τὶ εἰς τὰς ἀκοάς τινος, i. e. to tell one a thing, Acts 17:20 (φέρειν τι εἰς τὰ ὦτά τινος, Sophocles Aj. 149).TGL εἰσφέρω.3

    b. to lead into: τινὰ εἰς πειρασμόν, Matthew 6:13; Luke 11:4. [Compare: παρεισφέρω.]TGL εἰσφέρω.4


    (1534) εἶτα, adverb of time, then; next; after that: Mark 8:25; Luke 8:12; John 13:5; John 19:27; John 20:27; James 1:15; with the addition of a genitive absolutely to define it more precisely, Mark 4:17; as in classic Greek, it stands in enumerations, to mark a sequence depending either on temporal succession, as Mark 4:28 (see εἶτεν ); 1 Corinthians 15:5-7 (εἶτα [T ἔπειτα, so in marginal reading Tr WH]... ἔπειτα... ἔπειτα... εἶτα [T ἔπειτα, so in marginal reading L Tr WH]); 1 Corinthians 15:24 (ἔπειτα... εἶτα); 1 Timothy 2:13; or on the nature of the things enumerated, 1 Corinthians 12:28 (πρῶτον... δεύτερον... τρίτον... ἔπειτα... εἶτα for which L T Tr WH ἔπειτα); [1 Timothy 3:10]; in arguments it serves to add a new reason, furthermore (German sodann): Hebrews 12:9.TGL εἶτα.2

    Related entry: εἶτεν a very rare [Ionic] form for εἶτα (which see): Mark 4:28 T WH. [Cf. Kuenen et Cobet, Nov. Test. etc. praef. p. 33; Lob. Phryn. p. 124, also Pathol. Gr. Element. 2:155; Stephanus Thesaurus under the word and under the word ἔπειτεν.]TGL εἶτα.3


    (1535) *For 1535 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἴτε.2

    εἴ τις

    (1536) *For 1536 see Strong's Definition.TGL εἴ τις.2

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