Larger font
Smaller font
Thayer's Greek Lexicon - Contents
  • Results
  • Related
  • Featured
No results found for: "".
  • Weighted Relevancy
  • Content Sequence
  • Relevancy
  • Earliest First
  • Latest First
    Larger font
    Smaller font

    πλανάω — πόρνος


    (4105) πλανάω, πλανῶ; future πλανήσω; 1 aorist ἐπλάνησα; passive, present πλανωμαι; perfect πεπλάνημαι; 1 aorist ἐπλανήθην; (πλάνη); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; the Sept. for הִתְעָה; to cause to stray, to lead astray, lead aside from the rigid way;TGL πλανάω.2

    a. properly; in passive, the Sept. chiefly for תָּעָה, to go astray, wander, roam about (first so in Homer , Iliad 23, 321): Matthew 18:12; 1 Peter 2:25 (from Isaiah 53:6, cf. Exodus 23:4; Psalm 118:176 (Psalms 119:176); Hebrews 11:38.TGL πλανάω.3

    b. metaphorically, to lead away from the truth, to lead into error, to deceive: τινα, Matthew 24:4, Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:5, Mark 13:6; John 7:12; 1 John 2:26; 1 John 3:7; 2 Timothy 3:13; Revelation 2:20 G L T Tr WH ; Revelation 12:9; Revelation 13:14; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:3,Revelation 20:8,Revelation 20:10; ἑαυτόν, 1 John 1:8; passive, to be led into error (R. V. be led astray): Luke 21:8; John 7:47; Revelation 2:20 Rec. ; to err, Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:24, Mark 12:27; μή πλανᾶσθε, 1 Corinthians 11:9; 1 Corinthians 15:33; Galatians 6:7; James 1:16; especially through ignorance to be led aside from the path of virtue, to go astray, sin: Titus 3:3; Hebrews 5:2; τῇ καρδία, Hebrews 3:10; ἀπό τῆς ἀληθείας, James 5:19; to wander or fall away from the true faith, of heretics, 2 Timothy 3:13; 2 Peter 2:15; to be led away into error and sin, Revelation 18:23. (Compare: ἀποπλανάω.)TGL πλανάω.4


    (4106) πλάνη, πλάνης, , a wandering, a straying about, whereby one, led astray from the right way, roams hither and thither (Aeschylus (Herodotus ), Euripides , Plato , Demosthenes , others). In the N. T. metaphorically, mental straying, i. e. error, wrong opinion relative to morals or religion: Ephesians 4:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:11; 2 Peter 2:18; 2 Peter 3:17; 1 John 4:6; Jude 1:11 (on which (cf. Winer s Grammar, 189 (177) and) see ἐκχέω , b. at the end); error which shows itself in action, a wrong mode of acting: Romans 1:27; πλάνη ὁδοῦ τίνος (R. V. error of one's way i. e.) the wrong manner of life which one follows, James 5:20 (πλάνη ζωῆς, Wis. 1:12); as sometimes the Latin error, equivalent to that which leads into error, deceit, fraud: Matthew 27:64.TGL πλάνη.2


    (4107) πλανήτης, πλανητου, (πλανάω), a wanderer: ἀστέρες πλανῆται, wandering stars (Aristotle , Plutarch , others), Jude 1:13 (where WH marginal reading ἀστέρες πλανῆται (Xenophon , mem. 4, 7, 5)); see ἀστήρ , at the endTGL πλανήτης.2


    (4108) πλάνος, πλανον, wandering, roving; transitively and tropically, misleading, leading into error: πνεύματα πλανᾷ, 1 Timothy 4:1 (πλάνοι ἄνθρωποι, Josephus , b. j. 2, 13, 4). πλάνος substantively (Cicero , others,planus ), as we say, a vagabond, 'tramp,' impostor (Diodorus , Athen. , others); hence, universally, a corrupter, deceiver, (Vulg. seductor ): Matthew 27:63; 2 Corinthians 6:8; 2 John 1:7. (Cf. κοσμοπλάνος, 'Teaching ' etc. 16, 4 [ET].)TGL πλάνος.2


    (4109) πλάξ, πλακος, ((akin to πλάτος, etc.; Fick 4:161)), a flat thing, broad tablet, plane, level surface (as of the sea) (cf. our plate) (Pindar , Tragg., others; the Sept. for לוּחַ): αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης (see διαθήκη , 2, p. 136b), Hebrews 9:4; οὐκ ἐν πλαξί λιθίναις (tables of stone, such as those on which the law of Moses was written), ἀλλ' ἐν πλαξί καρδίας σαρκίναις, 2 Corinthians 3:3.TGL πλάξ.2


    (4110) πλάσμα, πλάσματος, τό (πλάσσω), what has been moulded or formed, as from wax (Plato , Theact., p. 197 d. and p. 200 b.); the thing formed by a potter, earthen vessel (Vulg. figmentum ): Romans 9:20 (with πηλοῦ added, Aristophanes av. 686).TGL πλάσμα.2


    (4111) πλάσσω: 1 aorist participle πλάσας; 1 aorist passive ἐπλασθην; ((perhaps akin to πλατύς; Curtius , § 367 b)); from Hesiod down; the Sept. chiefly for יָצַר; to form, mould (properly, something from clay, wax, etc.): used of a potter, Romans 9:20; of God as Creator (Genesis 2:7, Genesis 2:19 etc.), passive, 1 Timothy 2:13.TGL πλάσσω.2


    (4112) πλαστός, πλαστη, πλαστον (πλάσσω);TGL πλαστός.2

    1. properly, moulded, formed, as from clay, wax, stone (Hesiod , Plato , Aristotle , Plutarch , others).TGL πλαστός.3

    2. tropically, feigned: 2 Peter 2:3 ((Herodotus 1, 68), Euripides , Xenophon , Lucian , others).TGL πλαστός.4


    (4113) πλατεῖα, πλατείας, (feminine of the adjective πλατύς, namely, ὁδός (cf. Winer s Grammar, 590 (549))), a broad way, a street: Matthew 6:5; Matthew 12:19; Luke 10:10; Luke 13:26; Luke 14:21; Acts 5:15; Revelation 11:8; Revelation 21:21; Revelation 22:2. (Euripides , Plutarch , others; in the Sept. chiefly for רְחֹב.)TGL πλατεῖα.2


    (4114) πλάτος, πλάτους, τό ((cf. πλάξ ), from Herodotus down), breadth: Ephesians 3:18 (on which see μῆκος ); Revelation 21:16; carrying with it the suggestion of great extent, τῆς γῆς, opposed to the ends or corners of the earth, Revelation 20:9; (for מֶרְחָב, Habakkuk 1:6).TGL πλάτος.2


    (4115) πλατύνω; passive, perfect 3 person singular πεπλάτυνται (see μιαίνω ); 1 aorist ἐπλατυνθην; (πλατύς); to make broad, to enlarge: τί, Matthew 23:5; καρδία ἡμῶν πεπλάτυνται, our heart expands itself namely, to receive you into it, i. e. to welcome and embrace you in love, 2 Corinthians 6:11 (πλατύνειν τήν καρδίαν for לֵב הִרְחִב, to open the heart namely, to instruction, Psalm 118:32 (Psalms 119:32) (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 30)); πλατύνθητε καί ὑμεῖς, be ye also enlarged in heart, viz. to receive me therein, 2 Corinthians 6:13. (Xenophon , Plutarch , Anthol. , others.)TGL πλατύνω.2


    (4116) πλατύς, πλατεῖα, πλατύ (cf. Latinplanus, latus ; Curtius , § 367 b; Vanicek , p. 552), from Homer down, the Sept. several times for רָחַב, broad: Matthew 7:13.TGL πλατύς.2


    (4117) πλέγμα, πλεγματος, τό (πλέκω), what is woven, plaited, or twisted together; a web, plait, braid: used thus of a net, Xenophon , Cyril 1, 6, 28; of a basket, Euripides , Plato ; πλέγμα βιβλινον in which the infant Moses was laid, Josephus , Antiquities 2, 9, 4; by other writings in other senses. Braided hair (Vulg. crines torti , ringlets, curls): 1 Timothy 2:9 (cf. 1 Peter 3:3).TGL πλέγμα.2


    (4118) πλεῖστος, πλείστῃ, πλεῖστον (superlative of πολύς), most: plural Matthew 11:20; (ὄχλος πλεῖστος, a very great multitude, Mark 4:1 T Tr WH ); πλεῖστος ὄχλος, the most part of the multitude, Matthew 21:8 (Thucydides 7, 78; Plato , rep. 3, p. 397{d}; λαός, Homer , Iliad 16, 377); τό πλεῖστον, adverbially, at the most, 1 Corinthians 14:27.TGL πλεῖστος.2


    (4119) πλείων, πλείονος, , , neuter πλεῖον (eighteen times) and (in Luke 3:13; (John 21:15 L T Tr WH ); Acts 15:28) πλέον (cf. (WH s Appendix, p. 151); Matthiae , i., p. 333; Krüger , § 23, 7, 4; Kühner, § 156, 3; Passow , under the word πολύς, B. 1; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B.)), plural πλείονες and contracted πλείους, accusative πλείονας and contracted πλείους (which forms are used indiscriminately in the N. T.), neuter πλείονα and (L T Tr WH in Matthew 26:53; L T in Luke 21:3) contracted πλείω; (comparitive of πολύς); more, i. e.TGL πλείων.2

    1. greater in quantity: the object with which the comparison is made being added in the genitive, as πλείονας τῶν πρώτων, more in number than the first, Matthew 21:36; πλεῖον (or πλείω) πάντων, more than all, Mark 12:43; Luke 21:3; πλείονα... τούτων, more than these, John 7:31 (here L T Tr WH omit the genitive (see below)); πλείονα τῶν πρώτων, more than the first, Revelation 2:19; πλεῖον τούτων, more than these, John 21:15; (πλείονα τιμήν ἔχειν τοῦ οἴκου, Hebrews 3:3 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 190 (178), 240 (225))); περισσεύειν πλεῖον, more than, followed by a genitive (A. V. exceed), Matthew 5:20. πλείονες (πλείους) , Matthew 26:53 R G (L πλείω (br. )); John 4:1 (Tr marginal reading omits; WH brackets ). πλεῖον , more than, Luke 9:13; πλέον πλήν with a genitive Acts 15:28; πλέον παρά (τί or τινα (see παρά , III. 2 b.)), Luke 3:13; (Hebrews 3:3); is omitted before numerals without change of construction: ἐτῶν ἦν πλειόνων τεσσαράκοντα ἄνθρωπος, Acts 4:22; οὐ πλείους εἰσιν μοι ἡμέραι δεκαδύο, Acts 24:11 (here Rec. inserts ); ἡμέρας οὐ πλείους ὀκτώ δέκα (Rec. πλείους δέκα), Acts 25:6; add, Acts 23:13, Acts 23:21; as in Greek writings after a neuter: πλείω (Lachmann in brackets) δώδεκα λεγεῶνας, Matthew 26:53 (T Tr WH (but T λεγιωνων)) (πλεῖν — Attic for πλεῖονἑξακοσίους, Aristophanes av. 1251; ἔτη γεγονώς πλείω ἑβδομήκοντα, Plato , Apology Socrates , p. 17 d.; see , 3 a.; on the omission ofquam in Latin afterplus andamplius , cf. Ramshorn, Latin Gram., p. 491; (Roby, Latin Gram. § 1273)). the objects with which the comparison is made are not added because easily supplied from the context: John 4:41; (John 7:31 (see above)); John 15:2; Hebrews 7:23; τό πλεῖον, the more (viz., the greater debt mentioned), Luke 7:43; πλεῖον, adverbially, more, i. e. more earnestly, Luke 7:42; ἐπί πλεῖον, more widely, further, διανέμεσθαι, Acts 4:17; (cf. Acts 20:9 WH marginal reading (see below)); προκόπτειν, 2 Timothy 3:9; ἐπί πλεῖον ἀσεβείας, 2 Timothy 2:16; ἐπί πλεῖον, longer (than proper), Acts 20:9 (not WH marginal reading (see above)); Acts 24:4; plural πλείονα, more, i. e. a larger reward, Matthew 20:10 (but L Tr WH πλεῖον); without comparison, used of an indefinite number, with a substantive: Acts 2:40; Acts 13:31; Acts 18:20; Acts 21:10; Acts 24:17; Acts 25:14; Acts 27:20; Acts 28:23; neuter περί πλειόνων (A. V. of many things), Luke 11:53; with the article οἱ πλείονες (πλείους), the more part, very many: Acts 19:32; Acts 27:12; 1 Corinthians 9:19; 1 Corinthians 10:5; 1 Corinthians 15:6; 2 Corinthians 2:6; 2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 9:2; Philippians 1:14.TGL πλείων.3

    2. greater in quality, superior, more excellent: followed by the genitive of comparison, Matthew 6:25; Matthew 12:41, Matthew 12:42; Mark 12:33 (here T WH Tr text περισσότερον); Luke 11:31, Luke 11:32; Luke 12:23; (πλείονα θυσίαν... παρά Κάϊν, Hebrews 11:4 (see παρά , as above). From Homer down.)TGL πλείων.4


    (4120) πλέκω: 1 aorist participle πλέξαντες; ((cf. Curtius , § 103; Vanicek , p. 519)); from Homer down; to plait, braid, weave together: πλέξαντες στέφανον, Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:17; John 19:2. (Compare: ἐμπλέκω.)TGL πλέκω.2


    (4121) πλεονάζω; 1 aorist ἐπλεόνασα; (πλέον); the Sept. for עָדַף, and רָבָה;TGL πλεονάζω.2

    1. intransitive: used of one possessing, to superabound (A. V. to have over), 2 Corinthians 8:15. of things, to exist in abundance (R. V. be multiplied), 2 Corinthians 4:15; to increase, be augmented, Romans 5:20; Romans 6:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:8; Philippians 4:17; 2 Peter 1:8.TGL πλεονάζω.3

    2. transitive, to make to increase: τινα τίνι, one in a thing, 1 Thessalonians 3:12; for הִרְבָּה, Numbers 26:54; Psalm 70:21 (Psalms 71:21); add 1 Macc. 4:35. By secular writings ((from Hippocrates on)) in various other senses. (Compare: ὑπερπλεονάζω.)TGL πλεονάζω.4


    (4122) πλεονεκτέω, πλεονέκτω; 1 aorist ἐπλεονέκτησα; 1 aorist passive subjunctive 1 person plural πλεονεκτηθῶμεν; (πλεονέκτης);TGL πλεονεκτέω.2

    1. intransitive, to have more, or a greater part or share: Thucydides , Xenophon , Plutarch , others; to be superior, excel, surpass, have an advantage over, τίνος (genitive of person) τίνι (the dative of thing): Xenophon , Plato , Isocrates , Demosthenes , others.TGL πλεονεκτέω.3

    2. transitive, to gain or take advantage of another, to overreach: (Herodotus 8, 112), Plato , Diodorus , Dionysius Halicarnassus , Dio Cassius , others; and so in the N. T. in 2 Corinthians 7:2; 2 Corinthians 12:17, 2 Corinthians 12:18; 1 Thessalonians 4:6 (see πρᾶγμα , b.); passive (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 22) ὑπό τίνος, 2 Corinthians 2:11(10).TGL πλεονεκτέω.4


    (4123) πλεονέκτης, πλεονέκτου, (πλέον and ἔχω);TGL πλεονέκτης.2

    1. one eager to have more, especially what belongs to others ((Thucydides 1, 40, 1 (cf. Herodotus 7, 158)); Xenophon , mem. 1, 5, 3);TGL πλεονέκτης.3

    2. greedy of gain, covetous: 1 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 6:10; Ephesians 5:5; Sir. 14:9.TGL πλεονέκτης.4


    (4124) πλεονεξία, πλεονεξίας, (πλεονέκτης, which see), greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice: Luke 12:15; Romans 1:29; Ephesians 4:19; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 1 Thessalonians 2:5; 2 Peter 2:3 (on the omission of the article in the last two passages, cf. Winer 's Grammar, 120 (114)), 14; ὡς (Rec. ὥσπερ) πλεονεξίαν (as a matter of covetousness), i. e. a gift which betrays the giver's covetousness, 2 Corinthians 9:5 (here R. V. text extortion); plural various modes in which covetousness shows itself, covetings (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 27, 3; Buttmann , 77 (67)), Mark 7:22. (In the same and various other senses by secular writings from Herodotus and Thucydides down.) (Trench , N. T. Synonyms, § xxiv., and (in partial correction) Lightfoot 's Commentary on Colossians 3:5.)TGL πλεονεξία.2


    (4125) πλευρά, πλευρᾶς, , from Homer (who always uses the plural) down; the side of the body: John 19:34; John 20:20, John 20:25, John 20:27; Acts 12:7.TGL πλευρά.2


    (4126) πλέω; imperfect 1 person plural ἐπλέομεν; (allied with πλύνω, Latinpluo, fluo , our float, flow, etc.; Curtius , § 369); from Homer down; to sail, navigate, travel by ship: Luke 8:23; Acts 27:24; followed by εἰς with an accusative of place, Acts 21:3; Acts 27:6; ἐπί τόπον, Revelation 18:17 G L T Tr WH ; by a use common only to the poets (cf. Matthiae , § 409, 4{a}; Kühner, ii. § 409, 6; (Jelf , § 559; Winer 's Grammar, 224 (210))), with a simple accusative indicating the direction: Acts 27:2 (Euripides , Med. Acts 27:7), where L T Tr WH add εἰς (Compare: ἀποπλέω, διαπλέω, ἐκπλέω, καταπλέω, παραπλέω, ὑποπλέω.)TGL πλέω.2


    (4127) πληγή, πληγῆς, (πλήσσω), from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for מַכָּה, also for מַגֵּפָה;TGL πληγή.2

    1. a blow, stripe: plural, Luke 10:30; Luke 10:43; Acts 16:23, Acts 16:33; 2 Corinthians 6:5; 2 Corinthians 11:23; a wound: πληγή τοῦ θανάτου, deadly wound (R. V. death-stroke), Revelation 13:3, Revelation 13:12; τῆς μαχαίρας, wound made by a sword (sword-stroke), Revelation 13:14. (On its idiomatic omission (Luke 12:47, etc.) cf. Buttmann , 82 (72); Winer 's Grammar, § 64, 4.)TGL πληγή.3

    2. a public calamity, heavy affliction (cf. English plague) (now tormenting now destroying the bodies of men, and sent by God as a punishment): Revelation 9:18 (Rec. omits), Revelation 9:20; Revelation 11:6; Revelation 15:1,Revelation 15:6,Revelation 15:8; Revelation 16:9,(Revelation 16:21); Revelation 18:4,Revelation 18:8; Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:18. (Cf. πληγή Διός, Sophocles Aj. 137 (cf. 279); others.)TGL πληγή.4


    (4128) πλῆθος, πλήθους, τό (ΠΛΑΩ), from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for רֹב, often for הָמון; a multitude, i. e.TGL πλῆθος.2

    a. a great number, namely, of men or things: Acts 21:22 (not Tr WH ); Hebrews 11:12 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 120 (114) n.); with πολύ added, Mark 3:7, Mark 3:8; πλῆθος with a genitive, Luke 2:13; John 21:6; Acts 5:14; Acts 28:3 (A. V. bundle (L T Tr WH add τί)); James 5:20; 1 Peter 4:8; πολύ πλῆθος and πλῆθος πολύ (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 59, 2) with a genitive, Luke 5:6; Luke 11:17; Luke 23:27; John 5:3 (here L brackets G T Tr WH omit πολύ); Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4.TGL πλῆθος.3

    b. with the article, the whole number, the whole multitude; the assemblage: Acts 15:30; Acts 23:7; τοῦ λαοῦ, Acts 21:36; πᾶν τό πλῆθος, Acts 15:12; with a genitive, Luke 1:10; (Luke 8:37 (τῆς περιχώρου); Luke 19:37); Luke 23:1; Acts (Acts 4:32); Acts 5:16; (Acts 6:2,Acts 6:5); Acts 25:24; the multitude of people, Acts 2:6; Acts 19:9; with τῆς πόλεως added, Acts 14:4.TGL πλῆθος.4


    (4129) πληθύνω; future πληθύνω; 1 aorist optative 3 person singular πληθῦναι (2 Corinthians 9:10 Rec. ); passive, imperfect ἐπληθυνομην; 1 aorist ἐπληθυνθην; (from πληθύς fullness); Aeschyl, Aristotle , Herodian , Geoponica ; the Sept. very often for רָבָה, רִבָּה, הִרְבָּה, sometimes for רָבַב;TGL πληθύνω.2

    1. transitive, to increase, to multiply: 2 Corinthians 9:10; Hebrews 6:14 (from Genesis 22:17); passive, to be increased (be multiplied) multiply: Matthew 24:12; Acts 6:7; Acts 7:17; Acts 9:31; Acts 12:24; τίνι (A. V. be multiplied to one i. e.) be richly allotted to, 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2; Jude 1:2 (Daniel 3:31 (Daniel 3:98); Daniel 6:25, Theod. ; Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 1 inscr. (also Martyr. Polycarp , inscr., Apostolic Constitutions , inscr.)).TGL πληθύνω.3

    2. intransitive, to be increased, to multiply: Acts 6:1.TGL πληθύνω.4


    (4130) πίμπλημι; (a lengthened form of the theme ΠΛΑΩ, whence πλέος, πλήρης (cf. Curtius , § 366)): 1 aorist ἔπλησα; passive, 1 future πλησθήσομαι; 1 aorist ἐπλήσθην; from Homer on; the Sept. for מָלֵא, also for הִשְׂבִּיעַ (to satiate) and passive, שָׂבַע (to be full); to fill: τί, Luke 5:7; τί τίνος (Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 8 b.), a thing with something, Matthew 27:48; (John 19:29 R G ); in the passive, Matthew 22:10; Acts 19:29; (ἐκ τῆς ὀσμῆς, John 12:3 Tr marginal reading; cf. Winer s Grammar, as above note; Buttmann , § 132, 12). what wholly takes possession of the mind is said to fill it: passive, φοβοῦ, Luke 5:26; θάμβους, Acts 3:10; ἀνοίας, Luke 6:11; ζήλου, Acts 5:17; Acts 13:45; θυμοῦ, Luke 4:28; Acts 3:10; πνεύματος ἁγίου, Luke 1:15, 41, 67; Acts 2:4; Acts 4:8, 31; Acts 9:17; Acts 13:9. prophecies are said πλησθῆναι, i. e. to come to pass, to be confirmed by the event, Luke 21:22 G L T Tr WH (for Rec. πληρωθῆναι). time is said πλησθῆναι, to be fulfilled or completed, i. e. finished, elapsed, Luke 1:23, 57 (Winer s Grammar, 324 (304); Buttmann , 267 (230)); Luke 2:6, 21f; so נִמְלָא, Job 15:32; and מִלֵּא to (ful-)fill the time, i. e. to complete, fill up, Genesis 29:27; Job 39:2. (Compare: ἐμπίπλημι.)TGL πίμπλημι.2


    (4131) πλήκτης, πληκτου, (πλήσσω) (Vulg. percussor ), (A. V. striker), bruiser, ready with a blow; a pugnacious, contentious, quarrelsome person: 1 Timothy 3:3; Titus 1:7. (Plutarch , Marcell. 1; Pyrrh. 30; Crass. 9; Fab. 19; (Diogenes Laërtius 6, 38; others.)TGL πλήκτης.2


    (4132) πλήμμυρα (so all editions) (or πλημυρα (cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. § 7 Anm. 17 note; Lob. Rhemat., p. 264)) (better accented as proparoxytone; Chandler § 160), πλημμύρας and (so G T Tr WH ) πλημμύρης (see μάχαιρα ), (from πλημμη or πλημη i. e. πλησμη (from πλήθω, πίμπλημι, which see)), a flood, whether of the sea or of a river: Luke 6:48. (Job 40:18; (Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 1, 71); Josephus , Antiquities 2, 10, 2; Plutarch , Sextus Empiricus ; with ποταμῶν added, Philo de opif. mund. § 19; (cf. de vim Moys. i. § 36; iii, § 24; de Abrah. § 19; de leg. alleg. i. § 13).)TGL πλήμμυρα.2


    (4133) πλήν, adverb (from πλέον 'more' (Curtius , § 375; Lob. Path. Element. 1:143; 2:93 (cf. Lightfoot on Philippians 3:16)); hence, properly, beyond, besides, further); it stands:TGL πλήν.2

    1. adverbially, at the beginning of a sentence, serving either to restrict, or to unfold and expand what has preceded: moreover, besides, so that, according to the requirements of the context, it may also be rendered but, nevertheless; (howbeit; cf. Buttmann , § 146, 2): Matthew 11:22, Matthew 11:24; Matthew 18:7; Matthew 26:39, Matthew 26:64; Luke 6:24, Luke 6:35; Luke 10:11, Luke 10:14, Luke 10:20; Luke 11:41; Luke 12:31; Luke 13:33; Luke 17:1 L Tr text WH ; Luke 18:8; Luke 19:27; Luke 22:21,Luke 22:22,Luke 22:42; Luke 23:28; 1 Corinthians 11:11; Ephesians 5:33; Philippians 1:18 (R G (see Ellicott)); Philippians 3:16; Philippians 4:14; Revelation 2:25; πλήν ὅτι, except that, save that (examples from classical Greek are given by Passow , under the word, II. 1 e.; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. II. 4)): Acts 20:23 ((Winer 's Grammar, 508 (473); Philippians 1:18 L T Tr WH (R. V. only that)).TGL πλήν.3

    2. as a preposition, with the genitive (first so by Homer , Odyssey 8, 207; (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 54, 6)), besides, except, but: Mark 12:32; John 8:10; Acts 8:1; Acts 15:28; Acts 27:22. Cf. Klotz ad Devar. II. 2, p. 724f.TGL πλήν.4


    (4134) πλήρης, πλῆρες (ΠΛΑΩ), from Aeschylus and Herodotus down, the Sept. chiefly for מָלֵא;TGL πλήρης.2

    a. full, i. e. filled up (as opposed to empty): of hollow vessels, Matthew 14:20; Matthew 15:37; Mark 6:43 (R G L ); with a genitive of the thing, Mark 8:19; of a surface, covered in every part: λέπρας, Luke 5:12; of the soul, thoroughly permeated with: πνεύματος ἁγίου, Luke 4:1; Acts 6:3; Acts 7:55; Acts 11:24; πίστεως, Acts 6:5; χάριτος, Acts 6:8 (Rec. πίστεως); χάριτος καί ἀληθείας, John 1:14; δόλου, Acts 13:10 (Jeremiah 5:27); θυμοῦ, Acts 19:28; abounding in, ἔργων ἀγαθῶν, Acts 9:36.TGL πλήρης.3

    b. full i. e. complete; lacking nothing, perfect (so the Sept. sometimes for שָׁלֵם; σελήνη πλήρης, Sir. I. 6, cf. Herodotus 6, 106): μισθός, 2 John 1:8 (Ruth 2:12); σῖτος, a full kernel of grain (one completely filling the follicle or hull containing it), Mark 4:28.TGL πλήρης.4


    (4135) πληροφορέω, πληροφόρω: (1 aorist imperative πληροφόρησον, infinitive πληροφορησαι (Romans 15:13 L marginal reading); passive, present imperative πληροθορείσθω; perfect participle πεπληροφορημενος; 1 aorist participle πληροφορηθείς); (from the unused adjective πληροθορος, and this from πλήρης and φέρω); to bear or bring full, to make full;TGL πληροφορέω.2

    a. to cause a thing to be shown to the full: τήν διακονίαν, i. e. to fulfil the ministry in every respect, 2 Timothy 4:5 (cf. πληροῦν τήν διακονίαν, Acts 12:25); also τό κήρυγμα, 2 Timothy 4:17.TGL πληροφορέω.3

    b. "to carry through to the end, accomplish: πράγματα πεπληροφορημενα, things that have been accomplished (Itala and Vulg. completae ), Luke 1:1 (cf. ὡς ἐπληρώθη ταῦτα, Acts 19:21) (cf. Meyer edition Weiss at the passage).TGL πληροφορέω.4

    c. τινα, to fill one with any thought, conviction, or inclination: (Romans 15:13 L marginal reading (followed by ἐν with the dative of thing): others, πληρόω, which see, 1); hence, to make one certain, to persuade, convince, one (πολλαῖς οὖν λόγοις καί ὅρκοις πληροθορησαντες Μεγαβυζον, extracted from Ctesias () in Photius , p. 41, 29 ((edited by Bekker); but on this passive, see Lightfoot as below)); passive, to be persuaded, Romans 14:5; πληροθορηθεις, persuaded, fully convinced or assured, Romans 4:21; also πεπληροθορήμενοι, Colossians 4:12 L T Tr WH ; οἱ ἀπόστολοι... πληροθορηθεντες διά τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καί πιστωθενθες ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 42, 3 [ET]; frequent so in ecclesiastical writings; to render inclined or bent on, ἐπληροθορηθη καρδία... τοῦ ποιῆσαι τό πονηρόν, Ecclesiastes 8:11 (cf. Test xii. Patr. , test. Gad 2). The word is treated of fully by Bleek, Brief an d. Hebrews 2:2, p. 233ff; Grimm in the Jahrbb. f. Deutsche TheoI. for 1871, p. 38ff; (Lightfoot 's Commentary on Colossians 4:12. Cf. also Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word.)TGL πληροφορέω.5


    (4136) πληροθορια, πληροθοριας, (πληροθορέω, which see), fullness, abundance; πίστεως, Hebrews 10:22; τῆς ἐλπίδος, Hebrews 6:11; τῆς συνέσεως, Colossians 2:2; full assurance, most certain confidence (see πληροθορέω, c. (others give it the same meaning in one or other of the preceding passages also; cf. Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited)), 1 Thessalonians 1:5. (Not found elsewhere except in ecclesiastical writings (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 25).)TGL πληροφορία.2


    (4137) πληρόω πληρῶ (infinitive πληροῦν Luke 9:31, see WH 's Appendix, p. 166); imperfect 3 person singular ἐπλήρου; future πληρώσω; 1 aorist ἐπλήρωσα; perfect πεπλήρωκα; passive, present πληροῦμαι; imperfect ἐπληρουμην; perfect πεπλήρωμαι; 1 aorist ἐπληρώθην; 1 future πληρωθήσομαι; future middle πληρώσομαι (once, Revelation 6:11 Rec. ); (from ΠΛηΡΟΣ equivalent to πλήρης); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; the Sept. for מָלֵא;TGL πληρόω.2

    1. to make full, to fill, to fill up: τήν σαγηνην, passive, Matthew 13:48; equivalent to "to fill to the full, πᾶσαν χρείαν, Philippians 4:19; to cause to abound, to furnish or supply liberally: πεπλήρωμαι, I abound, I am liberally supplied, namely, with what is necessary for subsistence, Philippians 4:18; Hebraistically, with the accusative of the thing in which one abounds (cf. Buttmann , § 134, 7; Winer 's Grammar, § 32, 5): of spiritual possessions, Philippians 1:11 (where Rec. has καρπῶν); Colossians 1:9, (ἐνέπλησα αὐτόν πνεῦμα σοφίας, Exodus 31:3; Exodus 35:31); equivalent to to flood, οἰκία ἐπληρώθη (Tr marginal reading ἐπλήσθη) ἐκ τῆς ὀσμῆς, John 12:3 (see ἐκ , II. 5); ἦχος ἐπλήρωσε τόν οἶκον, Acts 2:2; with a genitive of the thing, τήν Ἱερουσαλήμ τῆς διδαχῆς, Acts 5:28 (Libanius , epistles 721 πάσας — i. e. πόλειςἐνέπλησας τῶν ὑπέρ ἡμῶν λόγων; Justin , hist. 11, 7 Phrygiam religionibus implevit); τινα, equivalent to to fill, diffuse throughout one's soul: with a genitive of the thing, Luke 2:40 R G L text T Tr marginal reading (see below); Acts 2:28; passive, Acts 13:52; Romans 15:13 (where L marginal reading πληροφορέω, which see in c.), 14; 2 Timothy 1:4; with a dative of the thing (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 7), passive (Luke 2:40 L marginal reading Tr text WH ); Romans 1:29; 2 Corinthians 7:4; followed by ἐν with a dative of the instrument: ἐν πνεύματι, Ephesians 5:18; ἐν παντί θελήματι Θεοῦ, with everything which God wills (used of those who will nothing but what God wills), Colossians 4:12 R G (but see πληροφορέω , c.); πληροῦν τήν καρδίαν τίνος, to pervade, take possession of, one's heart, John 16:6; Acts 5:3; Christians are said πληροῦσθαι, simply, as those who are pervaded (i. e. richly furnished) with the power and gifts of the Holy Spirit: ἐν αὐτῷ, rooted as it were in Christ, i. e. by virtue of the intimate relationship entered into with him, Colossians 2:10 (cf. ἐν , I. 6 b.); εἰς πᾶν τό πλήρωμα τοῦ Θεοῦ (see πλήρωμα , 1), Ephesians 3:19 (not WH marginal reading); Christ, exalted to share in the divine administration, is said πληροῦν τά πάντα, to fill (pervade) the universe with his presence, power, activity, Ephesians 4:10; also πληροῦσθαι (middle for himself, i. e. to execute his counsels (cf. Winer s Grammar, 258 (242); Buttmann , § 134, 7)) τά πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν, all things in all places, Ephesians 1:23 (μή οὐχί τόν οὐρανόν καί τήν γῆν ἐγώ πληρῶ, λέγει κύριος, Jeremiah 23:24; Grimm, Exeget. Hdbch. on Wis. 1:7, p. 55, cites examples from Philo and others; ((but ἐν πᾶσιν here is variously understood; see πᾶς , II. 2 b. δ. αα. and the commentaries))).TGL πληρόω.3

    2. to render full, i. e. to complete;TGL πληρόω.4

    a. properly, to fill up to the top: πᾶσαν φάραγγα, Luke 3:5; so that nothing shall be lacking to full measure, fill to the brim, μέτρον (which see, 1 a.), Matthew 23:32.TGL πληρόω.5

    b. to perfect, consummate;TGL πληρόω.6

    α. a number: ἕως πληρωθῶσι καί οἱ σύνδουλοι, until the number of their comrades also shall have been made complete, Revelation 6:11 L WH text,cf. Düsterdieck at the passage (see γ. below). by a Hebraism (see πίμπλημι , at the end) time is said πληροῦσθαι, πεπληρωμένος, either when a period of time that was to elapse has passed, or when a definite time is at hand: Mark 1:15; Luke 21:24; John 7:8; Acts 7:23, Acts 7:30; Acts 9:23; Acts 24:27 (Genesis 25:24; Genesis 29:21; Leviticus 8:33; Leviticus 12:4; Leviticus 25:30; Numbers 6:5; Josephus , Antiquities 4, 4, 6; 6, 4, 1; πληροῦν τόν τέλεον ἐνιαυτόν, Plato , Tim., p. 39d.; τούς χρόνους, legg. 9, p. 866a.).TGL πληρόω.7

    β. to make complete in every particular; to render perfect: πᾶσαν εὐδοκίαν κ.τ.λ. 2 Thessalonians 1:11; τήν χαράν, Philippians 2:2; passive, John 3:29; John 15:11; John 16:24; John 17:13; 1 John 1:4; 2 John 1:12; τά ἔργα, passive, Revelation 3:2; τήν ὑπακοήν, to cause all to obey, passive, 2 Corinthians 10:6; τό πάσχα, Luke 22:16 (Jesus speaks here allegorically: until perfect deliverance and blessedness be celebrated in the heavenly state).TGL πληρόω.8

    γ. to carry through to the end, to accomplish, carry out, (some undertaking): πάντα τά ῤήματα, Luke 7:1; τήν διακονίαν, Acts 12:25; Colossians 4:17; τό ἔργον, Acts 14:26; τόν δρόμον, Acts 13:25; namely, τόν δρόμον, Revelation 6:11 according to the reading πληρωσωσι (G T Tr WH marginal reading) or πληρωσονται (Rec. ) (see α. above); ὡς ἐπληρώθη ταῦτα, when these things were ended, Acts 19:21. Here belongs also πληροῦν τό εὐαγγέλιον, to cause to be everywhere known, acknowledged, embraced (A. V. I have fully preached), Romans 15:19; in the same sense τόν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Colossians 1:25.TGL πληρόω.9

    c. to carry into effect, bring to realization, realize;TGL πληρόω.10

    α. of matters of duty, to perform, execute: τόν νόμον, Romans 13:8; Galatians 5:14; τό δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου, passive, ἐν ἡμῖν, among us, Romans 8:4; πᾶσαν δικαιοσύνην, Matthew 3:15 (εὐσέβειαν, 4 Macc. 12:15); τήν ἔξοδον (as something appointed and prescribed by God), Luke 9:31.TGL πληρόω.11

    β. of sayings, promises, prophecies, to bring to pass, ratify, accomplish; so in the phrases ἵνα or ὅπως πληρωθῇ γραφή, τό ῤηθέν, etc. (el. Knapp, Seripta var. Arg., p. 533f): Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, Matthew 2:17, Matthew 2:23; Matthew 4:14; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Matthew 13:35; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 26:54, Matthew 26:56; Matthew 27:9, Matthew 27:35 Rec. ; Mark 14:49; Mark 15:28 (which verse G T WH omits; but Tr brackets it); Luke 1:20; Luke 4:21; Luke 21:22 Rec. ; Luke 24:44; John 12:38; John 13:18; John 15:25; John 17:12; John 18:9, John 18:32; John 19:24, John 19:36; Acts 1:16; Acts 3:18; Acts 13:27; James 2:23 (1 Kings 2:27; 2 Chronicles 36:22).TGL πληρόω.12

    γ. universally and absolutely, to fulfil, i. e. "to cause God's will (as made known in the law) to be obeyed as it should be, and God's promises (given through the prophets) to receive fulfilment": Matthew 5:17; cf. Weiss, Das Matthäusevang. as above with, p. 146f (Compare: ἀναπληρόω, ἀνταναπληρόω, προσαναπληρόω, ἐκπληρόω, συμπληρόω.)TGL πληρόω.13


    (4138) πλήρωμα, πληρώματος, τό (πληρόω), the Sept. for מְלֹא;TGL πλήρωμα.2

    1. etymologically it has a passive sense, that which is (or has been) filled; very rarely so in classical Greek: a ship, inasmuch as it is filled (i. e. manned) with sailors, rowers, and soldiers; ἀπό δύο πληρωματων Ἐμάχοντο, Lucian , ver. hist. 2, 37; πέντε εἶχον πληρώματα, ibid. 38. In the N. T. the body of believers, as that which is filled with the presence, power, agency, riches of God and of Christ: τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ephesians 4:13 (see ἡλικία , 1 c. (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 3 N. T ; Buttmann , 155 (136))); Ephesians 1:23; εἰς πᾶν τό πλήρωμα τοῦ Θεοῦ, that ye may become a body wholly filled and flooded by God, Ephesians 3:19 (but WH marginal reading reads πληρωθῇ πᾶν τόTGL πλήρωμα.3

    2. that which fills or with which a thing is filled: so very frequently in classical Greek from Herodotus down; especially of those things with which ships are filled, freight and merchandise, sailors, oarsmen, soldiers (cf. our 'complement' (yet cf. Lightfoot as below, p. 258f)) (of the animals filling Noah's ark, Philo de vit. Moys. ii. § 12); πλήρωμα πόλεως, the inhabitants or population filling a city, Plato , de rep. 2, p. 371 e.; Aristotle , polit. 3, 13, p. 1284{a}, 5; 4,4, p. 1291a, 17; others. So in the N. T. γῆ καί τό πλήρωμα αὐτῆς, whatever fills the earth or is contained in it, 1 Corinthians 10:26, 1 Corinthians 10:28 Rec. (Psalms 23:1 (Psalms 24:1); Psalms 49:12 (Psalms 50:12); Jeremiah 8:16; Ezekiel 12:19, etc.; τό πλήρωμα τῆς θαλάσσης, Psalms 95:11 (Psalms 96:11); 1 Chronicles 16:32); κοφίνων πληρώματα, those things with which the baskets were filled, (basketfuls), Mark 6:43 T Tr WH (on this passive, cf. Lightfoot as below, p. 260); also σπυρίδων πληρώματα, Mark 8:20; the filling (Latincomplementum ) by which a gap is filled up, Matthew 9:16; Mark 2:21; that by which a loss is repaired, spoken of the reception of all the Jews into the kingdom of God (see ἥττημα , 1), Romans 11:12. Of time (see πληρόω , 2 b. α.), that portion of time by which a longer antecedent period is completed; hence, completeness, fullness, of time: τοῦ χρόνου, Galatians 4:4; τῶν καιρῶν, Ephesians 1:10 (on which see οἰκονομία ).TGL πλήρωμα.4

    3. fullness, abundance: John 1:16; Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:9; full number, Romans 11:25.TGL πλήρωμα.5

    4. equivalent to πλήρωσις (see καύχημα , 2), i. e. a fulfilling, keeping: τοῦ νόμου (see πληρόω , 2 c. α.), Romans 13:10. For a full discussion of this word see Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, ii., p. 469ff; (especially Lightfoot 's Commentary on Colossians, p. 257ff).TGL πλήρωμα.6


    (4139) πλησίον (neuter of the adjective πλησίος, πλησια, πλησίον), adverb, from Homer down, near: with a genitive of place (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 54, 6), John 4:5; with the article, πλησίον namely, ὤν (cf. Buttmann , § 125, 10; Winer s Grammar, 24) (the Sept. very often for רֵעַ; sometimes for עָמִית), properly, Latinproximus (so Vulg. in the N. T.), a neighbor; i. e.TGL πλησίον.2

    a. friend: Matthew 5:43.TGL πλησίον.3

    b. any other person, and where two are concerned the other (thy fellow-man, thy neighbor) i. e., according to the O. T. and Jewish conception, a member of the Hebrew race and commonwealth: Acts 7:27; and Rec. in Hebrews 8:11; according to the teaching of Christ, any other man irrespective of race or religion with whom we live or whom we chance to meet (which idea is clearly brought out in the parable Luke 10:25-37): Matthew 19:19; Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31, Mark 12:33; Luke 10:27; Romans 13:9, Romans 13:10; (Romans 15:2); Galatians 5:14; Ephesians 4:25; James 2:8 and L T Tr WH in James 4:12; πλησίον εἶναι τίνος, to be near one (one's neighbor), i. e. in a passive sense, worthy to be regarded as a friend and companion, Luke 10:29; actively, to perform the offices of a friend and companion, Luke 10:36; (on the omission of the article in the last two examples see Buttmann , § 129, 11; Winer 's Grammar, § 19 at the end).TGL πλησίον.4


    (4140) πλησμονή, πλησμονῆς, (πίμπλημι (cf. Winer s Grammar, 94 (89))), repletion, satiety (Vulg. saturitas ): πρός πλησμονήν σαρκός, for the satisfying of the flesh, to satiate the desires of the flesh (see σάρξ , 4), Colossians 2:23, cf. Meyer at the passage; (others (including R. V. ) render the phrase against (i. e. for the remedy of) the indulgence of the flesh; see Lightfoot at the passage, and πρός. I. 1 c.). (Aristophanes , Euripides , Xenophon , Plato , Plutarch , others; the Sept. .)TGL πλησμονή.2


    (4141) πλήσσω (cf. πληγή (πέλαγος), Latinplango, plaga ; Curtius , § 367): 2 aorist passive ἐπλήγην; from Homer down; the Sept. for הִכָּה (see πατάσσω , at the beginning); to strike, to smite: passive (of the heavenly bodies smitten by God that they may be deprived of light and shrouded in darkness), Revelation 8:12. (Compare: ἐκπλήσσω, ἐπιπλήσσω.)TGL πλήσσω.2


    (4142) πλοιάριον, πλοιαριου, τό (diminutive of πλοῖον, see γυναικάριον , at the end), a small vessel, a boat: Mark 3:9; Mark 4:36 Rec. ; Luke 5:2 L marginal reading T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; John 6:1-71:(John 6:22), John 6:22 Rec. , John 6:23 (where L Tr marginal reading WH πλοῖα), John 6:24 L T Tr WH ; John 21:8. (Cf. B. D. , under the word Ship (13).) (Aristophanes , Xenophon , Diodorus , others.)TGL πλοιάριον.2


    (4143) πλοῖον, πλοίου, τό (πλέω), from Herodotus down, the Sept. chiefly for אנִיָּה, a ship: Matthew 4:21, Matthew 4:22; Mark 1:19; Luke 5:2 (R G L text Tr text WH text); John 6:17; Acts 20:13, and often in the historical books of the N. T.; James 3:4; Revelation 8:9; Revelation 18:19. (BB. DD. , under the word Ship .)TGL πλοῖον.2


    (4144) πλοος πλοῦς, genitive πλόου πλοῦ, and in later writings πλοός (Acts 27:9; Arrian peripl. erythr., p. 176 § 61; see νοῦς (and cf. Lob. Paralip., p. 173f)) (πλέω), from Homer , Odyssey 3, 169 down; voyage: Acts 21:7; Acts 27:9, Acts 27:10 (Wis. 14:1).TGL πλόος.2


    (4145) πλούσιος, πλουσία, πλούσιον (πλοῦτος), from Hesiod , Works, 22 down, the Sept. for עָשִׁיר, rich;TGL πλούσιος.2

    a. properly, wealthy, abounding in material resources: Matthew 27:57; Luke 12:16; Luke 14:12; Luke 16:1, Luke 16:19; Luke 18:23; Luke 19:2; πλούσιος, substantively, Luke 16:21, Luke 16:22; James 1:10, James 1:11; οἱ πλούσιοι, Luke 6:24; Luke 21:1; 1 Timothy 6:17; James 2:6; James 5:1; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; πλούσιος, without the article, a rich man, Matthew 19:23, Matthew 19:24; Mark 10:25; Mark 12:41; Luke 18:25.TGL πλούσιος.3

    b. metaphorically and universally, abounding, abundantly supplied: followed by ἐν with a dative of the thing in which one abounds (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 8 b. note), ἐν ἐληι, Ephesians 2:4; ἐν πίστει, James 2:5; absolutely, abounding (rich) in Christian virtues and eternal possessions, Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:17, on which see Düsterdieck. ἐπτώχευσε πλούσιος ὤν, of Christ, 'although as the ἄσαρκος λόγος he formerly abounded in the riches of a heavenly condition, by assuming human nature he entered into a state of (earthly) poverty,' 2 Corinthians 8:9.TGL πλούσιος.4


    (4146) πλουσίως, adverb (from Herodotus down), abundantly, richly: Colossians 3:16; 1 Timothy 6:17; Titus 3:6; 2 Peter 1:11.TGL πλουσίως.2


    (4147) πλουτέω, πλούτῳ; 1 aorist ἐπλούτησα; perfect πεπλούτηκα; (πλοῦτος); from Hesiod down; the Sept. sometimes for עָשַׁר;TGL πλουτέω.2

    a. to be rich, to have abundance: properly, of outward possessions, absolutely, Luke 1:53; 1 Timothy 6:9; 1 Timothy 1:1-20 aorist I have been made rich, hate become rich, have gotten riches (on this use of the aorist see βασιλεύω , at the end), ἀπό τίνος, Revelation 18:15 (Sir. 11:18; (cf. ἀπό , II. 2 a.)); also ἐκ τίνος (see ἐκ , II. 5), Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:19; ἐν τίνι (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 8 b. note; the Greeks say πλουτεῖν τίνος, or τίνι, or τί), 1 Timothy 6:18.TGL πλουτέω.3

    b. metaphorically, to be richly supplied: πλουτεῖν εἰς πάντας, is affluent in resources so that he can give the blessings of salvation unto all, Romans 10:12; πλουτεῖν εἰς Θεόν (see εἰς , B. II. 2 b. α.), Luke 12:21; aorist ἐπλούτησα, absolutely, I became rich, i. e. obtained the eternal spiritual possessions: 1 Corinthians 4:8; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Revelation 3:18; πεπλούτηκα, I have gotten riches, Revelation 3:17.TGL πλουτέω.4


    (4148) πλουτίζω; passive, present participle πλουτιζόμενος; 1 aorist ἐπλουτίσθην; (πλοῦτος); to make rich, to enrich: τινα, passive, 2 Corinthians 9:11; used of spiritual riches: τινα, 2 Corinthians 6:10; ἐν with a dative of the thing (see πλουτέω , a.), passive, to be richly furnished, 1 Corinthians 1:5. (Aeschylus , Sophicles, Xenophon , Plutarch ; the Sept. for הֶעֱשִׁיר.)TGL πλουτίζω.2


    (4149) πλοῦτος, πλούτου, , and (according to L T Tr WH in 2 Corinthians 8:2; Ephesians 1:7; Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 3:8, Ephesians 3:16; Philippians 4:19; Colossians 1:27; Colossians 2:2, but only in the nominative and accusative; cf. (Tdf. Proleg., p. 118; WH s Appendix, p. 158); Winer s Grammar, 65 (64); Buttmann , 22f (20)) τό πλοῦτος (apparently equivalent to πλεοτος, from πλέος full (cf. πίμπλημι )), from Homer down, the Sept. for עֹשֶׁר, and also for הָמון, a multitude, חַיִל, הול; riches, wealth;TGL πλοῦτος.2

    a. properly, and absolutely, abundance of external possessions: Matthew 13:22; Mark 4:19; Luke 8:14; 1 Timothy 6:17; James 5:2; Revelation 18:17 (16).TGL πλοῦτος.3

    b. universally, fullness, abundance, plenitude: with a genitive of the excellence in which one abounds, as τῆς χρηστότητος, Romans 2:4; Romans 9:23; 2 Corinthians 8:2; Ephesians 1:7, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 3:16; Colossians 1:21; Colossians 2:2. the πλοῦτος of God is extolled, i. e. the fullness of his perfections — of which two are mentioned, viz. σοφία and γνῶσις, Romans 11:33 (for σοφίας καί γνώσεως here depend on βάθος, not on πλούτου (cf. B. 155 (135); Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 3 N. 1)); the fullness of all things in store for God's uses, Philippians 4:19; in the same sense πλοῦτος is attributed to Christ, exalted at the right hand of God, Revelation 5:12; in a more restricted sense, πλοῦτος τοῦ Χριστοῦ is used of the fullness of the things pertaining to salvation with which Christ is able to enrich others, Ephesians 3:8.TGL πλοῦτος.4

    c. universally equivalent to a good ((to point an antithesis)): Hebrews 11:26; equivalent to that with which one is enriched, with a genitive of the person enriched, used of Christian salvation, Romans 11:12.TGL πλοῦτος.5


    (4150) πλύνω; imperfect ἔπλυνον; 1 aorist ἐπλυνα; ((cf. πλέω )); from Homer down; the Sept. for כִּבֵּס and רָחַץ; to wash: τά δίκτυα, Luke 5:2 L T Tr WH ((T WH marginal reading πλῦναν; see ἀποπλύνω )); used from Homer down especially in reference to clothing (Genesis 49:11; Exodus 19:10, Exodus 19:14; Leviticus 13:6, Leviticus 13:34, etc.); hence, figuratively πλύνειν τάς στολάς αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ἀρνίου is used of those who by faith so appropriate the results of Christ's expiation as to be regarded by God as pure and sinless, Revelation 7:14, and L T Tr WH in Revelation 22:14; cf. Psalms 50:4, Psalms 50:9 (Psalms 51:4,Psalms 51:9). (Compare: ἀποπλύνω. Synonym: see λούω , at the end.)TGL πλύνω.2


    (4151) πνεῦμα, πνεύματος, τό (πνέω), Greek writings from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; Hebrew רוּחַ, Latin spiritus ; i. e.:TGL πνεῦμα.2

    1. a movement of air (gentle) blast;TGL πνεῦμα.3

    a. of the wind: ἀνέμων πνεύματα, Herodotus 7, 16, 1; Pausanias , 5, 25; hence, the wind itself, John 3:8; plural Hebrews 1:7 (1 Kings 18:45; 1 Kings 19:11; Job 1:19; Psalms 103:4 (Psalms 104:4), etc.; often in Greek writings).TGL πνεῦμα.4

    b. breath of the nostrils or mouth, often in Greek writings from Aeschylus down: πνεῦμα τοῦ στόματος, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 (Psalms 32:6 (Psalms 33:6), cf. Isaiah 11:4); πνεῦμα ζωῆς, the breath of life, Revelation 11:11 (Genesis 6:17, cf. πνοή ζωῆς, Genesis 2:7). (πνεῦμα and πνοή seem to have been in the main coincident terms; but πνοή became the more poetic. Both retain a suggestion of their evident etymology. Even in classical Greek πνεῦμα became as frequent and as wide in its application as ἄνεμος. (Schmidt , chapter 55, 7; Trench , § lxxiii.))TGL πνεῦμα.5

    2. the spirit, i. e. the vital principle by which the body is animated ((Aristotle , Polybius , Plutarch , others; see below)): Luke 8:55; Luke 23:46; John 19:30; Acts 7:59; Revelation 13:15 (here R. V. breath); ἀφιέναι τό πνεῦμα, to breathe out the spirit, to expire, Matthew 27:50 cf. Sir. 38:23; Wis. 16:14 (Greek writings said ἀφιέναι τήν ψυχήν, as Genesis 35:18, see ἀφίημι , 1 b. and Kypke , Observations, i, p. 140; but we also find ἀφιέναι πνεῦμα θανσίμω σφαγή, Euripides , Hec. 571); σῶμα χωρίς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν, James 2:26; τό πνεῦμα ἐστι τό ζοωποιουν, σάρξ οὐκ ὠφελεῖ οὐδέν, the spirit is that which animates and gives life, the body is of no profit (for the spirit imparts life to it, not the body in turn to the spirit; cf. Chr. Frid. Fritzsche, Nova opuscc., p. 239), John 6:63. the rational spirit, the power by which a human being feels, thinks, wills, decides; the soul: τό πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τό ἐν αὐτῷ, 1 Corinthians 2:11; opposed to σάρξ (which see (especially 2 a.)), Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Colossians 2:5; opposed to τό σῶμα, Romans 8:10; 1 Corinthians 6:17, 1 Corinthians 6:20 Rec. ; 1 Corinthians 7:34; 1 Peter 4:6. Although for the most part the words πνεῦμα and ψυχή are used indiscriminately and so σῶμα and ψυχή put in contrast (but never by Paul; see ψυχή , especially 2), there is also recognized a threefold distinction, τό πνεῦμα καί ψυχή καί τό σῶμα, 1 Thessalonians 5:23, according to which τό πνεῦμα is the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts its influence; (πνεῦμα, says Luther, "is the highest and noblest part of man, which qualifies him to lay hold of incomprehensible, invisible, eternal things; in short, it is the house where Faith and God's word are at home" (see references at end)): ἄχρι μερισμοῦ ψυχῆς καί πνεύματος (see μερισμός , 2), Hebrews 4:12; ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, μία ψυχή, Philippians 1:27 (where instead of μία ψυχή Paul according to his mode of speaking elsewhere would have said more appropriately μία καρδία). τό πνεῦμα τίνος, Mark 2:8; Mark 8:12; Luke 1:47; Acts 17:16; Romans 1:9; Romans 8:16; 1 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 16:18; 2 Corinthians 2:13; 2 Corinthians 7:13; Galatians 6:18; (Philippians 4:23 L T Tr WH ); Philemon 1:25; 2 Timothy 4:22; Θεός τῶν πνευμάτων (for which Rec. has ἁγίων) τῶν προφητῶν, who incites and directs the souls of the prophets, Revelation 22:6, where cf. Düsterdieck. the dative τῷ πνεύματι is used to denote the seat (locality) where one does or suffers something, like our in spirit: ἐπιγινώσκειν, Mark 2:8; ἀναστενάζειν, Mark 8:12; ἐμβρίμασθαι, John 11:33; ταράσσεσθαι, John 13:21; ζηιν, Acts 18:25; Romans 12:11; ἀγαλλίασθαι, Luke 10:21 (but L T Tr WH here add ἁγίῳ); the dative of respect: 1 Corinthians 5:3; Colossians 2:5; 1 Peter 4:6; κραταιουσθαι, Luke 1:80; Luke 2:40 Rec. ; ἅγιον εἶναι, 1 Corinthians 7:34; ζοωποιηθεις, 1 Peter 3:18; ζῆν, 1 Peter 4:6; πτωχοί, Matthew 5:3; dative of instrument: δεδεμένος, Acts 20:22; συνέχεσθαι, Acts 18:5 Rec. ; Θεῷ λατρεύειν, Philippians 3:3 R G ; dative of advantage: ἄνεσιν τῷ πνεύματι μου, 2 Corinthians 2:13 (12); ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, is used of the instrument, 1 Corinthians 6:20 Rec. (it is surely better to take ἐν τῷ πνεύματι here locally, of the 'sphere' (Winer 's Grammar, 386 (362), cf. 1 Corinthians 6:19)); also ἐν πνεύματι, nearly equivalent to πνευματικῶς (but see Winer 's Grammar, § 51, 1 e. note), John 4:23; of the seat of an action, ἐν τῷ πνεύματι μου, Romans 1:9; τιθέναι ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, to propose to oneself, purpose in spirit, followed by the infinitive (πορεύεσθαι, Acts 19:21. πνεύματα προφητῶν, according to the context the souls (spirits) of the prophets moved by the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 14:32; in a peculiar sense πνεῦμα is used of a soul thoroughly roused by the Holy Spirit and wholly intent on divine things, yet destitute of distinct self-consciousness and clear understanding; thus in the phrases τό πνεῦμα μου προσεύχεται, opposed to νοῦς μου, 1 Corinthians 14:14; πνεύματι λαλεῖν μυστήρια, 1 Corinthians 14:2; προσεύχεσθαι, ψάλλειν, εὐλογεῖν, τῷ πνεύματι, as opposed to τῷ νοι, 1 Corinthians 14:15, 1 Corinthians 14:16.TGL πνεῦμα.6

    3. a spirit, i. e. a simple essence, devoid of all or at least all grosser matter, and possessed of the power of knowing, desiring, deciding, and acting;TGL πνεῦμα.7

    a. generically: Luke 24:37; Acts 23:8 (on which see μήτε , at the end); Acts 23:9; πνεῦμα σάρκα καί ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει, Luke 24:39; πνεῦμα ζοωποιουν (a life-giving spirit), spoken of Christ as raised from the dead, 1 Corinthians 15:45; πνεῦμα Θεός (God is spirit essentially), John 4:24; πατήρ τῶν πνευμάτων, of God, Hebrews 12:9, where the term comprises both the spirits of men and of angels.TGL πνεῦμα.8

    b. a human soul that has left the body ((Babrius 122, 8)): plural (Latin manes ), Hebrews 12:23; 1 Peter 3:19.TGL πνεῦμα.9

    c. a spirit higher than man but lower than God, i. e. an angel: plural Hebrews 1:14; used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceived of as inhabiting the bodies of men: (Mark 9:20); Luke 9:39; Acts 16:18; plural, Matthew 8:16; Matthew 12:45; Luke 10:20; Luke 11:26; πνεῦμα Πύθωνος or πύθωνα, Acts 16:16; πνεύματα δαιμονίων, Revelation 16:14; πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου, Luke 4:33 (see δαιμόνιον , 2); πνεῦμα ἀσθενείας, causing infirmity, Luke 13:11; πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον, Matthew 10:1; Matthew 12:43; Mark 1:23, Mark 1:26, Mark 1:27; Mark 3:11, Mark 3:30; Mark 5:2, Mark 5:8, Mark 5:13; Mark 6:7; Mark 7:25; Mark 9:25; Luke 4:36; Luke 6:18; Luke 8:29; Luke 9:42; Luke 11:24, Luke 11:26; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 18:2; ἄλαλον, κωφόν (for the Jews held that the same evils with which the men were afflicted affected the demons also that bad taken possession of them (cf. Wetstein , N. T. i. 279ff; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, Appendix xvi.; see δαιμονίζομαι etc. and references)), Mark 9:17, Mark 9:25; πονηρόν, Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Acts 19:12, Acts 19:13, Acts 19:15, Acts 19:16, (cf. Judges 9:23; 1 Samuel 16:14; 1 Samuel 19:9, etc.).TGL πνεῦμα.10

    d. the spiritual nature of Christ, higher than the highest angels, close to God and most intimately united to him (in doctrinal phraseology the divine nature of Christ): 1 Timothy 3:16; with the addition of ἁγιωσύνης (on which see ἁγιωσύνη , 1 (yet cf. 4 a. below)), Romans 1:4 (but see Meyer at the passage, Ellicott on 1 Timothy, the passage cited); it is called πνεῦμα αἰώνιον, in tacit contrast with the perishable ψυχαί of sacrificial animals, in Hebrews 9:14, where cf. Delitzsch (and especially Kurtz).TGL πνεῦμα.11

    4. The Scriptures also ascribe a πνεῦμα to God, i. e. God's power and agency — distinguishable in thought (or modalistice, as they say in technical speech) from God's essence in itself considered — manifest in the course of affairs, and by its influence upon souls productive in the theocratic body (the church) of all the higher spiritual gifts and blessings; (cf. the resemblances and differences in Philo's use of τό θεῖον πνεῦμα, e. g. de gigant. § 12 (cf. § 5f); quis rer. div. § 53; de mund. opif. § 46, etc.).TGL πνεῦμα.12

    a. This πνεῦμα is called in the O. T. אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ, יְהוָה רוּחַ; in the N. T. πνεῦμα ἅγιον, τό ἅγιον πνεῦμα, τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον (first so in Wis. 1:5 Wis. 9:17; for קֹדֶשׁ רוּחַ, in Psalms 50:13 (Psalms 51:13), Isaiah 63:10, Isaiah 63:11, the Sept. renders by πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης), i. e. the Holy Spirit (august, full of majesty, adorable, utterly opposed to all impurity): [Addendum: "the Sept. renders by" etc. -- not correct; the rendering in the Sept. in both passages is τὸ πν. τὸ ἅγιον] Matthew 1:18, Matthew 1:20; Matthew 3:11; Matthew 12:32; Matthew 28:19; Mark 1:8; Mark 3:29; Mark 12:36; Mark 13:11; Luke 1:15, Luke 1:35; Luke 2:25, Luke 2:26; Luke 3:16, Luke 3:22; Luke 4:1; Luke 11:13; Luke 12:10, Luke 12:12; John 1:33; John 7:39 (L T WH omit; Tr brackets ἅγιον); John 14:26; John 20:22; Acts 1:2, Acts 1:5, Acts 1:8, Acts 1:16; Acts 2:33, Acts 2:38; Acts 4:25 L T Tr WH ; Acts 5:3,Acts 5:32; Acts 8:18 (L T WH omit; Tr brackets τό ἅγιον), Acts 8:19; Acts 9:31; Acts 10:38,Acts 10:44,Acts 10:45,Acts 10:47; Acts 11:15,Acts 11:16,Acts 11:24; Acts 13:2,Acts 13:4,Acts 13:9,Acts 13:52; Acts 15:8,Acts 15:28; Acts 16:6; Acts 19:6; Acts 20:28; Romans 9:1; Romans 14:17; Romans 15:13, Romans 15:16, Romans 15:19 (L Tr WH in brackets); 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Corinthians 6:6; 2 Corinthians 13:13 (14); Ephesians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 2 Timothy 1:14; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 9:8; 1 John 5:7 Rec. ; Jude 1:20; other examples will be given below in the phrases; (on the use and the omission of the article, see Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, ii., p. 105 (in opposition to Harless (on Ephesians 2:22), et al.; cf. also Meyer on Galatians 5:16; Ellicott on Galatians 5:5; Winer s Grammar, 122 (116); Buttmann , 89 (78))); τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Ephesians 4:30; 1 Thessalonians 4:8; πνεῦμα Θεοῦ, Romans 8:9, Romans 8:14; τό τοῦ Θεοῦ πνεῦμα, 1 Peter 4:14; (τό) πνεῦμα (τοῦ) Θεοῦ, Matthew 3:16; Matthew 12:18, Matthew 12:28; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:16; Ephesians 3:16; 1 John 4:2; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν, 1 Corinthians 6:11; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ πατρός, Matthew 10:20; πνεῦμα Θεοῦ ζῶντος, 2 Corinthians 3:3; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος Ἰησοῦν, Romans 8:11; τό πνεῦμα τό ἐκ Θεοῦ (emanating from God and imparted unto men), 1 Corinthians 2:12; πνεῦμα and τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κυρίου, i. e. of God, Luke 4:18; Acts 5:9 (cf. Acts 5:4); Acts 8:39; κυρίου, i. e. of Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:17, 2 Corinthians 3:18 (cf. Buttmann , 343 (295)); τό πνεῦμα Ἰησοῦ, since the same Spirit in a peculiar manner dwelt in Jesus, Acts 16:7 (where Rec. omits Ἰησοῦ); Χριστοῦ, Romans 8:9; Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Philippians 1:19; τό ἐν τίνι (in one's soul (not WH marginal reading)) πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ, 1 Peter 1:11; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ (τοῦ Θεοῦ), Galatians 4:6; simply τό πνεῦμα or πνεῦμα: Matthew 4:1; Matthew 12:31, Matthew 12:32; Matthew 22:43; Mark 1:10, Mark 1:12; Luke 2:1, Luke 2:14; John 1:32, John 1:33; John 3:6, John 3:8, John 3:34; John 7:39; Acts 2:4; Acts 8:29; Acts 10:19; Acts 11:12, Acts 11:28; Acts 21:4; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:16, Romans 8:23, Romans 8:26, Romans 8:27; Romans 15:30; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:13 (where Rec. adds ἁγίου); 1 Corinthians 12:4,1 Corinthians 12:7,1 Corinthians 12:8; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 3:6, 2 Corinthians 3:8; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:5, Galatians 3:14; Galatians 4:29; Galatians 5:5, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:22, Galatians 5:25; Ephesians 4:3; Ephesians 5:9 Rec. ; Ephesians 6:17; Philippians 2:1; 2 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Timothy 4:1; James 4:5; 1 Peter 1:22 Rec. ; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:8; Revelation 22:17. Among the beneficent and very varied operations and effects ascribed to this Spirit in the N. T., the following are prominent: by it the man Jesus was begotten in the womb of the virgin Mary (Matthew 1:18, Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:35), and at his baptism by John it is said to have descended upon Jesus (Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22), so that he was perpetually (μένον ἐπ' αὐτόν) filled with it (John 1:32, John 1:33, cf. John 3:34; Matthew 12:28; Acts 10:38); hence, to its prompting and aid the acts and words of Christ are traced, Matthew 4:1; Matthew 12:28; Mark 1:12; Luke 4:1, Luke 4:14. After Christ's resurrection it was imparted also to the apostles, John 20:22; Acts 2:1-47. Subsequently other followers of Christ are related to have received it through faith (Galatians 3:2), or by the instrumentality of baptism (Acts 2:38; 1 Corinthians 12:13) and the laying on of hands (Acts 19:5, Acts 19:6), although its reception was in no wise connected with baptism by any magical bond, Acts 8:12, Acts 8:15; Acts 10:44. To its agency are referred all the blessings of the Christian religion, such as regeneration wrought in baptism (John 3:5, John 3:6, John 3:8; Titus 3:5 (but see the commentators on the passages, and references under the word βάπτισμα, 3)); all sanctification (1 Corinthians 6:11; hence, ἁγιασμός πνεύματος, 2 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Peter 1:2); the power of suppressing evil desires and practising holiness (Romans 8:2; Galatians 5:16,Galatians 5:22; 1 Peter 1:22 (Rec. ), etc.); fortitude to undergo with patience all persecutions, losses, trials, for Christ's sake (Matthew 10:20; Luke 12:11, Luke 12:12; Romans 8:26); the knowledge of evangelical truth (John 14:17, John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:12, John 16:13; 1 Corinthians 2:6-16; Ephesians 3:5) — hence, it is called πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας (John the passages cited; 1 John 4:6), πνεῦμα σοφίας καί ἀποκαλύψεως (Ephesians 1:17); the sure and joyful hope of a future resurrection, and of eternal blessedness (Romans 5:5; Romans 8:11; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:13); for the Holy Spirit is the seal and pledge of citizenship in the kingdom of God, 2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13. He is present to teach, guide, prompt, restrain, those Christians whose agency God employs in carrying out his counsels: Acts 8:29, Acts 8:39; Acts 10:19; Acts 11:12; Acts 13:2, Acts 13:4; Acts 15:28; Acts 16:6, Acts 16:7; Acts 20:28. He is the author of charisms or special gifts (1 Corinthians 12:7; see χάρισμα ), prominent among which is the power of prophesying: τά ἐρχόμενα ἀναγγελεῖ, John 16:13; hence, τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας (Revelation 19:10); and his efficiency in the prophets is called τό πνεῦμα simply (1 Thessalonians 5:19), and their utterances are introduced with these formulas: τάδε λέγει τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Acts 21:11; τό πνεῦμα λέγει, 1 Timothy 4:1; Revelation 14:13; with ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις added, Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:11, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:29; Revelation 3:6, Revelation 3:13, Revelation 3:22. Since the Holy Spirit by his inspiration was the author also of the O. T. Scriptures (2 Peter 1:21; 2 Timothy 3:16), his utterances are cited in the following terms: λέγει or μαρτυρεῖ τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 10:15; τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον ἐλάλησε διά Ἠσαΐου, Acts 28:25, cf. Acts 1:16. From among the great number of other phrases referring to the Holy Spirit the following seem to be noteworthy here: God is said διδόναι τίνι τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Luke 11:13; Acts 15:8; passive, Romans 5:5; more precisely, ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ, i. e. a portion from his Spirit's fullness (Buttmann , § 132, 7; Winer 's Grammar, 366 (343)), 1 John 4:13; or έ᾿κχειν ἀπό τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ, Acts 2:17, Acts 2:18 (for its entire fullness Christ alone receives, John 3:34); men are said, λαμβάνειν πνεῦμα ἅγιον, John 20:22; Acts 8:15, Acts 8:17, Acts 8:19; Acts 19:2; or τό πνεῦμα ἅγιον, Acts 10:47; or τό πνεῦμα τό ἐκ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 2:12; or τό πνεῦμα, Galatians 3:2, cf. Romans 8:15; πνεῦμα Θεοῦ ἔχειν, 1 Corinthians 7:40; πνεῦμα μή ἔχειν, Jude 1:19; πληροῦσθαι πνεύματος ἁγίου, Acts 13:52; ἐν πνεύματι, Ephesians 5:18; πλησθῆναι, πλησθήσεσθαι, πνεύματος ἁγίου, Luke 1:15, Luke 1:41, Luke 1:67; Acts 2:4; Acts 4:8, Acts 4:31; Acts 9:17; Acts 13:9; πνεύματος ἁγίου πλήρης, Acts 6:5; Acts 7:55; Acts 11:24; πλήρεις πνεύματος (Rec. adds ἁγίου) καί σοφίας, Acts 6:3; πνεύματι and πνεύματι Θεοῦ ἄγεσθαι, to be led by the Holy Spirit, Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18; φέρεσθαι ὑπό πνεύματος ἁγίου 2 Peter 1:21; the Spirit is said to dwell in the minds of Christians, Romans 8:9, Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 2 Timothy 1:14; James 4:5 (other expressions may be found under βαπτίζω, II. b. bb.; γεννάω, 1 at the end and 2 d.; ἐκχέω b.; χρίω, a.); γίνεσθαι ἐν πνεύματι, to come to be in the Spirit, under the power of the Spirit, i. e. in a state of inspiration or ecstasy, Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2. Dative πνεύματι, by the power and aid of the Spirit, the Spirit prompting, Romans 8:13; Galatians 5:5; τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ, Luke 10:21 L Tr WH ; πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, 1 Peter 1:12 (where R G T have ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ); πνεύματι Θεοῦ, Philippians 3:3 L T Tr WH ; also ἐν πνεύματι, Ephesians 2:22; Ephesians 3:5 (where ἐν πνεύματι must be joined to ἀπεκαλύφθη); ἐν πνεύματι, in the power of the Spirit, possessed and moved by the Spirit, Matthew 22:43; Revelation 17:3; Revelation 21:10; also ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, Luke 2:27; Luke 4:1; ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, Luke 10:21 Tdf. ; ἐν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ πνευματου, Luke 4:14; ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ εἰπεῖν, Mark 12:36; ἐν πνεύματι (ἁγίῳ) προσεύχεσθαι, Ephesians 6:18; Jude 1:20; ἐν πνεύματι Θεοῦ λαλεῖν, 1 Corinthians 12:3; ἀγάπη ἐν πνεύματι, love which the Spirit begets, Colossians 1:8; περιτομή ἐν πνεύματι, effected by the Holy Spirit, opposed to γράμματι, the prescription of the written law, Romans 2:29; τύπος γίνου τῶν πιστῶν ἐν πνεῦμα, in the way in which you are governed by the Spirit, 1 Timothy 4:12 Rec. ; (ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, Ephesians 2:18); ἑνότης τοῦ πνεύματος, effected by the Spirit, Ephesians 4:3; καινότης τοῦ πνευματου, Romans 7:6. τό πνεῦμα is opposed to σάρξ i. e. human nature left to itself and without the controlling influence of God's Spirit, subject to error and sin, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:19, Galatians 5:22; (Galatians 6:8); Romans 8:6; so in the phrases περιπατεῖν κατά πνεῦμα (opposed to κατά σάρκα), Romans 8:1 Rec. , 4; οἱ κατά πνεῦμα namely, ὄντες (opposed to οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες), those who bear the nature of the Spirit (i. e. οἱ πνευματικοί), Romans 8:5; ἐν πνεύματι εἶναι (opposed to ἐν σαρκί), to be under the power of the Spirit, to be guided by the Spirit, Romans 8:9; πνεύματι (dative of 'norm'; (cf. Buttmann , § 133, 22 b.; Winer 's Grammar, 219 (205))) περιπατεῖν (opposed to ἐπιθυμίαν σαρκός τέλειν), Galatians 5:16. The Holy Spirit is a δύναμις, and is expressly so called in Luke 24:49, and δύναμις ὑπιστου, Luke 1:35; but we find also πνεῦμα (or πνεῦμα ἅγιον) καί δύναμις, Acts 10:38; 1 Corinthians 2:4; and δύναμις τοῦ πνεύματος, Luke 4:14, where πνεῦμα is regarded as the essence, and δύναμις its efficacy; but in 1 Thessalonians 1:5 ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ is epexegetical of ἐν δυνάμει. In some passages the Holy Spirit is rhetorically represented as a Person ((cf. references below)): Matthew 28:19; John 14:16, John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:13-15 (in which passages from John the personification was suggested by the fact that the Holy Spirit was about to assume with the apostles the place of a person, namely of Christ); τό πνεῦμα, καθώς βούλεται, 1 Corinthians 12:11; what anyone through the help of the Holy Spirit has come to understand or decide upon is said to have been spoken to him by the Holy Spirit: εἶπε τό πνεῦμα τίνι, Acts 8:29; Acts 10:19; Acts 11:12; Acts 13:4; τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον διαμαρτύρεταί μοι, Acts 20:23. τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον ἔθετο ἐπισκόπους, i. e. not only rendered them fit to discharge the office of bishop, but also exercised such an influence in their election (Acts 14:23) that none except fit persons were chosen to the office, Acts 20:28; τό πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις in Romans 8:26 means, as the whole context shows, nothing other than this: 'although we have no very definite conception of what we desire (τί προσευξώμεθα), and cannot state it in fit language (καθό δεῖ) in our prayer but only disclose it by inarticulate groanings, yet God receives these groanings as acceptable prayers inasmuch as they come from a soul full of the Holy Spirit.' Those who strive against the sanctifying impulses of the Holy Spirit are said ἀντιπίπτειν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ, Acts 7:51; ἐνυβρίζειν τό πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος, Hebrews 10:29. πειράζειν τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κυρίου is applied to those who by falsehood would discover whether men full of the Holy Spirit can be deceived, Acts 5:9; by anthropopathism those who disregard decency in their speech are said λύπειν τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, since by that they are taught how they ought to talk, Ephesians 4:30 (παροξύνειν τό πνεῦμα, Isaiah 63:10; παραπικραίνειν, Psalms 105:33 (Psalms 106:33)). Cf. Grimm, Institutio theologiae dogmaticae, § 131; (Weiss, Biblical Theol. § 155 (and Index under the phrase, 'Geist Gottes,' 'Spirit of God') Kahnis, Lehre vom Heil. Geiste; Fritzsche, Nova opuscc. acad., p. 278ff; B. D. under the word Spirit the Holy ; Swete in Dict. of Christ. Biog. under the phrase, Holy Ghost).TGL πνεῦμα.13

    b. τά ἑπτά πνεύματα τοῦ Θεοῦ, Rev. (Revelation 3:1 (where Rec.st omit ἁπτα)); Revelation 4:5; Revelation 5:6 (here L omits; WH brackets ἑπτά), which are said to be ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ Θεοῦ (Revelation 1:4) are not seven angels, but one and the same divine Spirit manifesting itself in seven energies or operations (which are rhetorically personified, Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:6, Zechariah 4:10); cf. Düsterdieck on Revelation 1:4; (Trench , Epistles to the Seven Churches, edition 3, p. 7f).TGL πνεῦμα.14

    c. by metonymy, πενυμα is used ofTGL πνεῦμα.15

    α. one in whom a spirit (πνεῦμα) is manifest or embodied; hence, equivalent to actuated by a spirit, whether divine or demoniacal; one who either is truly moved by God's Spirit or falsely boasts that he is: 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 John 4:2, 1 John 4:3; hence, διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, 1 Corinthians 12:10; μή παντί πνεύματι πιστεύετε, 1 John 4:1; δοκιμάζετε τά πνεύματα, εἰ ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν, ibid.; πνεύματα πλανᾷ joined with διδασκαλιαι δαιμονίων, 1 Timothy 4:1. But in the truest and highest sense it is said κύριος τό πνεῦμα ἐστιν, he in whom the entire fullness of the Spirit dwells, and from whom that fullness is diffused through the body of Christian believers, 2 Corinthians 3:17.TGL πνεῦμα.16

    β. the plural πνεύματα denotes the various modes and gifts by which the Holy Spirit shows itself operative in those in whom it dwells (such as τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, τῆς σοφίας, etc.), 1 Corinthians 14:12.TGL πνεῦμα.17

    5. universally, the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soul of anyone; the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire, etc.: τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν, 2 Corinthians 12:18; ἐν πνεύματι ἡλίου, in the same spirit with which Elijah was filled of old, Luke 1:17; τά ῤήματα... πνεῦμα ἐστιν, exhale a spirit (and fill believers with it), John 6:63; οἵου πνεύματος ἐστε ὑμεῖς (what manner of spirit ye are of) viz. a divine spirit, that I have imparted unto you, Luke 9:55 (Rec. ; (cf. B. § 132, 11 I.; Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 5)); τῷ πνεύματι, ἐλάλει, Acts 6:10, where see Meyer; πραυ καί ἡσύχιον πνεῦμα, 1 Peter 3:4; πνεῦμα πρᾳότητος, such as belongs to the meek, 1 Corinthians 4:21; Galatians 6:1; τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, such as characterizes prophecy and by which the prophets are governed, Revelation 19:10; τῆς ἀληθείας, σοφίας καί ἀποκαλύψεως, see above, p. 521b middle (Isaiah 11:2; Deuteronomy 34:9; Wis. 7:7); τῆς πίστεως, 2 Corinthians 4:13; τῆς υἱοθεσίας, such as belongs to sons, Romans 8:15; τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ, of the life which one gets in fellowship with Christ, ibid. 2; δυνάμεως καί ἀγάπης καί σωφρονισμοῦ, 2 Timothy 1:7; ἕν πνεῦμα εἶναι with Christ, equivalent to to be filled with the same spirit as Christ and by the bond of that spirit to be intimately united to Christ, 1 Corinthians 6:17; ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, by the reception of one Spirit's efficency, 1 Corinthians 12:13; εἰς ἕν πνεῦμα, so as to be united into one body filled with one Spirit, ibid. R G ; ἕν πνεῦμα ποτίζεσθαι (made to drink of i. e.) imbued with one Spirit, ibid. L T Tr WH (see ποτίζω ); ἕν σῶμα καί ἐν πνεῦμα, one (social) body filled and animated by one spirit, Ephesians 4:4; — in all these passages although the language is general, yet it is clear from the context that the writer means a spirit begotten of the Holy Spirit or even identical with that Spirit ((cf. Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 46, 6 [ET]; Hermas , sim. 9, 13, 18 [ET]; Ignatius ad Magn. 7 [ET])). In opposition to the divine Spirit stand, τό πνεῦμα τό ἐνεργουν ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας (a spirit) that comes from the devil), Ephesians 2:2; also τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου, the spirit that actuates the unholy multitude, 1 Corinthians 2:12; δουλείας, such as characterizes and governs slaves, Romans 8:15; κατανύξεως, Romans 11:8; δειλίας, 2 Timothy 1:7; τῆς πλάνης, 1 John 4:6 (πλανήσεως, Isaiah 19:14; πορνείας, Hosea 4:12; Hosea 5:4); τό τοῦ ἀντιχρίστου namely, πνεῦμα, 1 John 4:3; ἕτερον πνεῦμα λαμβάνειν, i. e. different from the Holy Spirit, 2 Corinthians 11:4; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ νως, the governing spirit of the mind, Ephesians 4:23. Cf. Ackermann, Beiträge zur theol. Würdigung u. Abwägung der Begriffe πνεῦμα, νοῦς, u. Geist, in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1839, p. 873ff; Büchsenschütz, La doctrine de l'Esprit de Dieu selon l'aneien et nouveau testament. Strasb. 1840; Chr. From Fritzsche, De Spiritu Sancto commentatio exegetica et dogmatica, 4 Pts. Hal. 1840f, included in his Nova opuscula academica (Turici, 1846), p. 233ff; Kahnis, Die Lehre v. hiel. Geist. Part i. (Halle, 1847); an anonymous publication (by Prince Ludwig Solms Lich, entitled) Die biblische Bedeutung des Wortes Geist. (Giessen, 1862); H. H. Wendt, Die Begriffe Fleisch u. Geist im Biblical Sprachgebrauch. (Gotha, 1878); (Cremer , in Herzog edition 2, under the phrase, Geist des Menschen; G. L. Hahn, Theol. d. N. Test. i. § 149ff; J. Laidlaw, The Bible Doctrine of Man. (Cunningham Lects., 7th Series, 1880); Dickson, St. Paul's use of the terms Flesh and Spirit. (Glasgow, 1883); and references in B. D. (especially Amos edition) and Dict. of Christ. Biog. , as above, 4 a. at the end.)TGL πνεῦμα.18


    (4152) πνευματικός, πνευματικῇ, πνευματικόν (πνεῦμα), spiritual (Vulg. spiritalis ); in the N. T.TGL πνευματικός.2

    1. relating to the human spirit, or rational soul, as the part of man which is akin to God and serves as his instrument or organ, opposed to ψυχή (see πνεῦμα , 2): hence, τό πνευματικόν, that which possesses the nature of the rational soul, opposed to τό ψυχικόν, 1 Corinthians 15:46 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 592 (551)); σῶμα πνευματικόν, the body which is animated and controlled only by the rational soul and by means of which the rational life, of life of the πενυμα, is lived; opposed to σῶμα ψυχικόν, verse 44.TGL πνευματικός.3

    2. belonging to a spirit, or a being higher than man but inferior to God (see πνεῦμα , 3 c.): τά πνευματικά (i. e. spiritual beings or powers (R. V. spiritual hosts), cf. Winer 's Grammar, 239 (224)) τῆς πονηρίας (genitive of quality), i. e. wicked spirits, Ephesians 6:12.TGL πνευματικός.4

    3. belonging to the Divine Spirit;TGL πνευματικός.5

    a. in reference to things; emanating from the Divine Spirit, or exhibiting its effects and so its character: χάρισμα, Romans 1:11; εὐλογία, Ephesians 1:3; σοφία καί σύνεσις πνευματικῇ (opposed to σοφία σαρκικῇ, 2 Corinthians 1:12; ψυχική, James 3:15), Colossians 1:9; ᾠδαί, divinely inspired, and so redolent of the Holy Spirit, Colossians 3:16; (Ephesians 5:19 Lachmann brackets); νόμος (opposed to a σάρκινος man), Romans 7:14; θυσίαι, tropically, the acts of a life dedicated to God and approved by him, due to the influence of the Holy Spirit (tacitly opposed to the sacrifices of an external worship), 1 Peter 2:5; equivalent to produced by the sole power of God himself without natural instrumeutality, supernatural, βρῶμα, πόμα, πέτρα, 1 Corinthians 10:3, 1 Corinthians 10:4 ((cf. 'Teaching ' etc. 10, 3 [ET])); πνευματικά, thoughts, opinions, precepts, maxims, ascribable to the Holy Spirit working in the soul, 1 Corinthians 2:13 (on which see συγκρίνω , 1); τά πνευματικά, spiritual gifts — of the endowments called χαρίσματα (see χάρισμα ), 1 Corinthians 12:1; 1 Corinthians 14:1; universally, the spiritual or heavenly blessings of the gospel, opposed to τά σαρκικά, Romans 15:27; (1 Corinthians 9:11).TGL πνευματικός.6

    b. in reference to persons; one who is filled with and governed by the Spirit of God: 1 Corinthians 2:15 (cf. 1 Corinthians 2:10-13,1 Corinthians 2:16); (1 Corinthians 3:1); 1 Corinthians 14:37; Galatians 6:1; οἶκος πνευματικός, of a body of Christians (see οἶκος , 1 b. at the end), 1 Peter 2:5. (The word is not found in the O. T. (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 34, 3). In secular writings from Aristotle , down it means pertaining to the wind or breath; windy, exposed to the wind; blowing; (but Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the words, πνεῦμα οὐσία, Cleo. med. 1, 8, p. 46; τό πνεῦμα τό πάντων τούτων αἴτιον, Strabo 1, 3, 5, p. 78, 10 edition Kramer; and we find it opposed to σωματικον in Plutarch , mor., p. 129 c. (de sanitate praecepta 14); cf. Anthol. Pal. 8, 76. 175).)TGL πνευματικός.7


    (4153) πνευματικῶς, adverb, spiritually (Vulg. spiritaliter ): i. e. by the aid of the Holy Spirit, 1 Corinthians 2:14 (1 Corinthians 2:13 WH marginal reading); in a sense apprehended only by the aid of the Divine Spirit, i. e. in a hidden or mystical sense, Revelation 11:8. Its opposite σαρκικῶς in the sense of literally is used by Justin Martyr , dialog contra Trypho, c. 14, p. 231 d.TGL πνευματικῶς.2


    (4154) πνέω; 1 aorist ἔπνευσα; from Homer down; to breathe, to blow: of the wind, Matthew 7:25, Matthew 7:27; Luke 12:55; John 3:8; John 6:18; Revelation 7:1; τῇ πνεούσῃ namely, αὔρα (cf. Winer s Grammar, 591 (550); (Buttmann , 82 (72))), Acts 27:40. (Compare: ἐκπνέω, ἐνπνέω, ὑποπνέω.)TGL πνέω.2


    (4155) πνίγω: imperfect ἐπνιγον; 1 aorist ἐπνιξα; imperfect passive 3 person plural ἐπνίγοντο;TGL πνίγω.2

    a. to choke, strangle: used of thorns crowding down the seed sown in a field and hindering its growth, Matthew 13:7 T WH marginal reading; in the passive of perishing by drowning (Xenophon , anab. 5, 7, 25; cf. Josephus , Antiquities 10, 7, 5), Mark 5:13.TGL πνίγω.3

    b. to wring one's neck, throttle (A. V. to take one by the throat): Matthew 18:28. (Compare: ἀποπνίγω, ἐπιπνίγω, συμπνίγω.)TGL πνίγω.4


    (4156) πνικτός, πνικτη, πνικτόν (πνίγω), suffocated, strangled: τό πνικτόν (what is strangled, i. e.) an animal deprived of life without shedding its blood, Acts 15:20, Acts 15:29; Acts 21:25. ((Several times in Athen. and other later writ, chiefly of cookery; cf. our smothered as a culinary term.))TGL πνικτός.2


    (4157) πνοή, πνοῆς, (πνέω), from Homer down, the Sept. for נְשָׁמָהTGL πνοή.2

    1. breath, the breath of life: Acts 17:25 (Genesis 2:7; Proverbs 24:12; Sir. 30:29 (21); 2 Macc. 3:31 2Macc. 7:9).TGL πνοή.3

    2. wind: Acts 2:2 (Job 37:9). (Cf. πνεῦμα , 1 b.)TGL πνοή.4


    (4158) ποδήρης, ποδηρες, accusative ποδηρην, Lachmann's stereotyped edition; Tdf. edition 7 in Revelation 1:13; see ἄρσην (πούς, and ἀρῶ 'to join together,' 'fasten'), reaching to the feet (Aeschylus , Euripides , Xenophon , Plutarch , others): ποδήρης (namely, χιτών, Exodus 25:6; Exodus 28:4; Exodus 35:8; Ezekiel 9:3) or ποδήρης (namely, ἐσθής), a garment reaching to the ankles, coming down to the feet, Revelation 1:13 (Sir. 27:8 Sir. 45:8; χιτών ποδήρης, Xenophon , Cyril 6, 4, 2; Pausanias , 5, 19, 6; ὑποδύτης ποδήρης, Exodus 28:27; ἔνδυμα ποδήρης, Wis. 18:24; (Josephus , b. j. 5, 5, 7)). (Cf. Trench , § l. under the end.)TGL ποδήρης.2


    (4159) πόθεν, adverb (from Homer down), whence;TGL πόθεν.2

    a. of place,from what place: Matthew 15:33; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27; John 3:8; John 6:5; John 8:14; John 9:29, John 9:30; John 19:9; Revelation 7:13; from what condition, Revelation 2:5.TGL πόθεν.3

    b. of origin or source, equivalent to from what author or giver: Matthew 13:1-58:(Matthew 13:27),Matthew 13:54,Matthew 13:56; Matthew 21:25; Mark 6:2; Luke 20:7; John 2:9; James 4:1; from what parentage, John 7:27 (cf. John 6:42), see Meyer at the passage,TGL πόθεν.4

    c. of cause, how is it that? how can it be that? Mark 8:4; Mark 12:37; Luke 1:43; John 1:48 (John 1:49); John 4:11.TGL πόθεν.5


    (4160) ποιέω, ποιῶ; imperfect 3 person singular ἐποίει, plural 2 person ἐποιεῖτε, 3 person ἐποίουν; future ποιήσω; 1 aorist ἐποίησα, 3 person plural optative ποιήσειαν (Luke 6:11 R G ; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 13, 2 d.; (Buttmann , 42 (37))) and ποιήσαιεν (ibid. L T Tr WH (see WH 's Appendix, p. 167)); perfect πεποίηκα; pluperfect πεποιήκειν without augment (Mark 15:7; see Winer s Grammar, § 12, 9; Buttmann , 33 (29)); middle, present ποιοῦμαι; imperfect ἐποιουμην; future ποιήσομαι; 1 aorist ἐποιησάμην; perfect passive participle πεποιημενος (Hebrews 12:27); from Homer down; Hebrew עָשָׂה; Latin facio , that is,TGL ποιέω.2

    I. to make (Latin effcio ),TGL ποιέω.3

    1. τί;TGL ποιέω.4

    a. with the names of the things made, to produce, construct, form, fashion, etc.: ἀντρακιαν, John 18:18; εἰκόνα, Revelation 13:14; ἱμάτια, Acts 9:39; ναούς, Acts 19:24; σκηνάς, Matthew 17:4; Mark 9:5; Luke 9:33; τύπους, Acts 7:43; πηλόν, John 9:11, John 9:14; πλάσμα, Romans 9:20; according to some interpreters (also Winer 's Grammar, 256 n. 1 (210 n. 2)) ὁδόν ποιεῖν, to make a path, Mark 2:23 R G T Tr text WH text (so that the meaning is, that the disciples of Christ made a path for themselves through the standing grain by plucking the heads; see ὁδοποιέω , at the end. If we adopt this interpretation, we must take the ground that Mark does not give us the true account of the matter, but has sadly corrupted the narrative received from others; (those who do accept it, however, not only lay stress on the almost unvarying lexical usage, but call attention to the fact that the other interpretation (see below) finds the leading idea expressed in the participle — an idiom apparently foreign to the N. T. (see Winer 's Grammar, 353 (331)), and to the additional circumstance that Mark introduces the phrase after having already expressed the idea of 'going', and expressed it by substantially the same word (παραπορεύεσθαι) which Matthew (Matthew 12:1) and Luke (Luke 6:1) employ and regard as of itself sufficient. On the interpretation of the passage, the alleged 'sad corruption,' etc., see James Morison, Commentary on Mark, 2nd edition, p. 57f; on the other side, Weiss, Marcusevangelium, p. 100). But see just below, under c.). to create, to produce: of God, as the author of all things, τί or τινα, Matthew 19:4; Mark 10:6; Luke 11:40; Hebrews 1:2; Acts 4:24; Acts 7:50; Acts 17:24; Revelation 14:7; passive, Hebrews 12:27 (Wis. 1:13 Wis. 9:9; 2 Macc. 7:28, and often in the O. T. Apocrypha; for עָשָׂה in Genesis 1:7, Genesis 1:16, Genesis 1:25, etc.; for בָּרָא in Genesis 1:21, Genesis 1:27; Genesis 5:1, etc.; also in Greek writings: γένος ἀνθρώπων, Hesiod op. 109, etc.; absolutely, ποιῶν, the creator, Plato , Tim., p. 76 c.); here belongs also Hebrews 3:2, on which see Bleek and Lünemann ((cf. below, 2 c. β.)). In imitation of the Hebrew עָשָׂה (cf. Winer ('s Simonis (4th edition 1828)), Lex. Hebrew et Chald., p. 754; Gesenius, Thesaurus, ii., p. 1074f) absolutely of men, to labor, to do work, Matthew 20:12 (Ruth 2:19); equivalent to to be operative, exercise activity, Revelation 13:5 Relz . L T Tr WH (cf. Daniel 11:28; but others render ποιεῖν in both these examples spend, continue, in reference to time; see II. d. below).TGL ποιέω.5

    b. joined to nouns denoting a state or condition, it signifies to be the author of, to cause: σκάνδαλα, Romans 16:17; εἰρήνην (to be the author of harmony), Ephesians 2:15; James 3:18; ἐπισύστασιν (L T Tr WH ἐπίστασιν), Acts 24:12; συστροφήν, Acts 23:12; ποιῶ τίνι τί, to bring, afford, a thing to one, Luke 1:68; Acts 15:3 (so also Greek writings, as Xenophon , mem. 3, 10, 8 (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word A. II. 1 a.)).TGL ποιέω.6

    c. joined to nouns involving the idea of action (or of something which is accomplished by action), so as to form a periphrasis for the verb cognate to the substantive, and thus to express the idea of the verb more forcibly — in which species of periphrasis the Greeks more commonly use the middle (see 3 below, and Winer s Grammar, 256 (240); (Buttmann , § 135, 5)): μόνην ποιῶ παρά τίνι, John 14:23 (where L T Tr WH ποιησόμεθα; cf. Thucydides 1, 131); ὁδόν, to make one's way, go, Mark 2:23 (where render as follows: they began, as they went, to pluck the ears; cf. ποιῆσαι ὁδόν αὐτοῦ, Judges 17:8; the Greeks say ὁδόν ποιεῖσθαι, Herodotus 7, 42; see above, under a.); πόλεμον, Revelation 13:5 Rec.elz ; with the addition of μετά τίνος (equivalent to πολεμεῖν), Revelation 11:7; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 13:7 (here L omits; WH Tr marginal reading brackets the clause); Revelation 19:19 (see μετά , I. 2 d., p. 403{b}); ἐκδίκησιν, Luke 18:7, Luke 18:8; τίνι, Acts 7:24, (Micah 5:15); ἐνέδραν, equivalent to ἐνεδρεύω, to make an ambush, lay wait, Acts 25:3; συμβούλιον, equivalent to συμβουλεύομαι, to hold a consultation, deliberate, Mark 3:6 (R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading); Mark 15:1 (here T WH marginal reading συμβούλιον ἑτοιμασαντες); συνωμοσίαν, equivalent to συνόμνυμι, Acts 23:13 (where L T Tr WH ποιησάμενοι for Rec. πεποιηκότες; see in 3 below); κρίσιν, to execute judgment, John 5:27; Jude 1:15. To this head may be referred norms by which the mode or kind of action is more precisely defined; as δυνάμεις, δύναμιν, ποιεῖν, Matthew 7:22; Matthew 13:58; Mark 6:5; Acts 19:11; τήν ἐξουσίαν τίνος, Revelation 13:12; ἔργον (a notable work), ἔργα, of Jesus, John 5:36; John 7:3, John 7:21; John 10:25; John 14:10, John 14:12; John 15:24; κράτος, Luke 1:51; σημεῖα, τέρατα καί σημεῖα (Mark 13:22 Tdf. ); John 2:23; John 3:2; John 4:54; John 6:2, John 6:14, John 6:30; John 7:31; John 9:16; John 10:41; John 11:47; John 12:18, John 12:37; John 20:30; Acts 2:22; Acts 6:8; Acts 7:36; Acts 8:6; Acts 15:12; Revelation 13:13, Revelation 13:14; Revelation 16:14; Revelation 19:20; θαυμάσια, Matthew 21:15; ὅσα ἐποίει, ἐποίησαν, etc., Mark 3:8; Mark 6:30; Luke 9:10; in other phrases it is used of marvellous works, Matthew 9:28; Luke 4:23; John 4:45; John 7:4; John 11:45, John 11:46; John 21:25 (not Tdf. ); Acts 10:39; Acts 14:11; Acts 21:19; etc.TGL ποιέω.7

    d. equivalent to to make ready, to prepare: ἄριστον, Luke 14:12; δεῖπνον, Mark 6:21; Luke 14:16; John 12:2 (δεῖπνον ποιεῖσθαι, Xenophon , Cyril 3, 3, 25); δοχήν, Luke 5:29; Luke 14:13 (Genesis 21:8); γάμους, Matthew 22:2 (γάμον, Tobit 8:19).TGL ποιέω.8

    e. of things effected by generative force, to produce, bear, shoot forth: of trees, vines, grass, etc., κλάδους, Mark 4:32; καρπούς, Matthew 3:8, etc., see καρπός , 1 and 2 a. (Genesis 1:11, Genesis 1:12; Aristotle , de plant. (1, 4, p. 819b, 31); 2, 10 (829a, 41); Theophrastus , de caus. plant. 4, 11 ((?))); ἐλαίας, James 3:12 (τόν οἶνον, of the vine, Josephus , Antiquities 11, 3, 5); of a fountain yielding water, ibid.TGL ποιέω.9

    f. ποιῶ ἐμαυτῷ τί, to acquire, to provide a thing for oneself (i. e. for one's use): βαλάντια, Luke 12:33; φίλους, Luke 16:9; without a dative, to gain: of tradesmen (like our colloquialism, to make something), Matthew 25:16 (L Tr WH ἐκέρδησεν); Luke 19:18 (Polybius 2, 62, 12; pecuniam maximam facere, Cicero , Verr. 2, 2, 6).TGL ποιέω.10

    2. With additions to the accusative which define or limit the idea of making:TGL ποιέω.11

    a. τί ἐκ τίνος (genitive of material), to make a thing out of something, John 2:15; John 9:6; Romans 9:21; κατά τί, according to the pattern of a thing (see κατά , II. 3 c. α.), Acts 7:41. with the addition, to the accusative of the thing, of an adjective with which the verb so blends that, taken with the adjective, it may be changed into the verb cognate to the adjective: εὐθείας ποιεῖν (τάς τρίβους), equivalent to ἐυθύνειν, Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; τρίχα λευκήν μέλαιναν, equivalent to λευκαίνειν, μελαίνειν, Matthew 5:36; add, Acts 12:19; Hebrews 12:13; Revelation 21:5.TGL ποιέω.12

    b. τό ἱκανόν τίνι; see ἱκανός , a.TGL ποιέω.13

    c. ποιεῖν τινα with an accusative of the predicate,TGL ποιέω.14

    α. to (make i. e.) render one anything: τινα ἴσον τίνι, Matthew 20:12; τινα δῆλον, Matthew 26:73; add, Matthew 12:16; Matthew 28:14; Mark 3:12; John 5:11, John 5:15; John 7:23; John 16:2; Romans 9:28 (R G , Tr marginal reading in brackets); Hebrews 1:7; Revelation 12:15; τινας ἁλιεῖς, to make them fit (qualify them) for fishing, Matthew 4:19; (ποιῶν ταῦτα γνωστά ἀπ' αἰῶνος, Acts 15:17, G T Tr WH (see γνωστός , and cf. II. a. below)); τά ἀμφότερα ἕν, to make the two different things one, Ephesians 2:14; to change one thing into another, Matthew 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46; John 2:16; John 4:46; 1 Corinthians 6:15.TGL ποιέω.15

    β. to (make i. e.) constitute or appoint one anything: τινα κύριον, Acts 2:36; Revelation 5:10; to this sense some interpreters would refer Hebrews 3:2 also, where after τῷ ποιήσαντι αὐτόν they supply from the preceding context τόν ἀπόστολον καί ἀρχιερέα κτλ.; but it is more correct to take ποιεῖν here in the sense of create (see 1 a. above); τινα, ἵνα with the subjunctive to appoint or ordain one that etc. Mark 3:14.TGL ποιέω.16

    γ. to (make, i. e.) declare one anything: John 5:18; John 8:53; John 10:33; John 19:7, John 19:12; 1 John 1:10; 1 John 5:10; τί with an accusative of the predicate Matthew 12:33 (on which see Meyer).TGL ποιέω.17

    d. with adverbs: καλῶς ποιῶ τί, Mark 7:37 (A. V. do); τινα ἔξω, to put one forth, to lead him out (German hiuausthun), Acts 5:34 (Xenophon , Cyril 4, 1, 3).TGL ποιέω.18

    e. ποιῶ τινα with an infinitive to make one do a thing, Mark 8:25 (R G L Tr marginal reading); Luke 5:34; John 6:10; Acts 17:26; or become something, Mark 1:17; τινα followed by τοῦ with an infinitive to cause one to etc. Acts 3:12 (Winer s Grammar, 326 (306); Buttmann , § 140, 16 δ.); also followed by ἵνα (Buttmann , § 139, 43; Winer 's Grammar, § 44, 8 b. at the end), John 11:37; Colossians 4:16; Revelation 13:15 (here T omits; WH brackets ἵνα); Revelation 3:9; Revelation 13:12,Revelation 13:16; (other examples in Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word, 8).TGL ποιέω.19

    3. As the active ποιεῖν (see 1 c. above), so also the middle ποιεῖσθαι, joined to accusatives of abstract nouns forms a periphrasis for the verb cognate to the substantive; and then, while ποιεῖν signifies to be the author of a thing (to cause, bring about, as ποιεῖν πόλεμον, εἰρήνην), ποιεῖσθαι denotes an action which pertains in some way to the actor (for oneself, among themselves, etc., as σπονδάς, εἰρήνην ποιεῖσθαι), or which is done by one with his own resources ((the 'dynamic' or 'subjective' middle), as πόλεμον ποιεῖσθαι (to make, carry on, war); cf. Passow , under the word, I. 2 a. ii., p. 974f; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II. 4); Krüger , § 52, 8, 1; Blume ad Lycurgus , p. 55; (Winer s Grammar, § 38, 5 n.; Buttmann , § 135, 5); although this distinction is not always, observed even by the Greeks): ποιεῖσθαι μόνην (make our abode), John 14:23 L T Tr WH (see 1 c. above); συνωμοσίαν (Herodian , 7, 4, 7 (3 edition, Bekker); Polybius 1, 70, 6; 6, 13, 4; in the second instance Polybius might more fitly have said ποιεῖν), Acts 23:13 L T Tr WH , see 1 c. above; λόγον, to compose a narrative, Acts 1:1; to make account of, regard, (see λόγος , II. 2 (and cf. I. 3 a.)), Acts 20:24 (T Tr WH , λόγου); ἀναβολήν (see ἀναβολή ), Acts 25:17; ἐκβολήν (see ἐκβολή , b.), Acts 27:18; κοπετόν (equivalent to κόπτομαι), Acts 8:2 (here L T Tr WH give the active, cf. Buttmann , § 135, 5 n.); πορείαν (equivalent to πορεύομαι), Luke 13:22 (Xenophon , Cyril 5, 2, 31; anab. 5, 6, 11; Josephus , Vita §§11 and52; Plutarch , de solert. anim., p. 971 e.; 2 Macc. 3:8 2Macc. 12:10); κοινωνίαν, to make a contribution among themselves and from their own means, Romans 15:26; σπουδήν, Jude 1:3 (Herodotus 1, 4; 9, 8; Plato , legg. 1, p. 628 e.; Polybius 1, 46, 2 and often; Diodorus 1, 75; Plutarch , puer. educ. 7, 13; others); αὔξησιν (equivalent to ἀυξάνομαι), to make increase, Ephesians 4:16; δέησιν, δεήσεις, equivalent to δέομαι, to make supplication, Luke 5:33; Philippians 1:4; 1 Timothy 2:1; μνείαν (which see); μνήμην (which see in b.), 2 Peter 1:15; πρόνοιαν (equivalent to προνωυμαι), to have regard for, care for, make provision for, τίνος, Romans 13:14 (Isocrates paneg. §§ 2 and 136 (pp. 52 and 93, Lange edition); Demosthenes , p. 1163, 19; 1429, 8; Polybius 4, 6, 11; Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 5, 46; Josephus , b. j. 4, 5, 2; Antiquities 5, 7, 9; contra Apion 1, 2, 3; Aelian v. h. 12, 56; others; cf. Kypke , Observations, ii, p. 187); καθαρισμόν, Hebrews 1:3 (Job 7:21); βέβαιον ποιεῖσθαι τί, equivalent to βεβαιουν, 2 Peter 1:10.TGL ποιέω.20

    II. to do (Latin ago ), i. e. to follow some method in expressing by deeds the feelings and thoughts of the mind;TGL ποιέω.21

    a. universally, with adverbs describing the mode of action: καλῶς, to act rightly, do well, Matthew 12:12; 1 Corinthians 7:37, 1 Corinthians 7:38; James 2:19; καλῶς ποιεῖν followed by a participle (cf. Buttmann , § 144, 15 a.; Winer 's Grammar, § 45, 4 a.), Acts 10:33; Philippians 4:14; 2 Peter 1:19; 3 John 1:6 (examples from Greek writings are given by Passow , under II. 1 b. vol. ii., p. 977{a}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I. 3)); κρεῖσσον, 1 Corinthians 7:38; φρονίμως, Luke 16:8; οὕτω (οὕτως), Matthew 5:47 (R G ); Matthew 24:46; Luke 9:15; Luke 12:43; John 14:31; Acts 12:8; 1 Corinthians 16:1; James 2:12; ὡς καθώς, Matthew 1:24; Matthew 21:6; Matthew 26:19; Matthew 28:15; Luke 9:54 (T Tr text WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause); 1 Thessalonians 5:11; ὥσπερ, Matthew 6:2; ὁμοίως, Luke 3:11; Luke 10:37; ὡσαύτως, Matthew 20:5. κατά τί, Matthew 23:3; Luke 2:27; πρός τί, to do according to a thing (see πρός , I. 3 f.), Luke 12:47. with a participle indicating the mode of acting, ἀγνοῶν ἐποίησα, I acted (A. V. did it] ignorantly, 1 Timothy 1:13. with the accusative of a thing, and that the accusative of a pronoun: with τί indefinite 1 Corinthians 10:31; with τί interrogative, Matthew 12:3; Mark 2:25; Mark 11:3 (not Lachmann marginal reading); Luke 3:12, Luke 3:14; Luke 6:2; Luke 10:25; Luke 16:3, Luke 16:4; Luke 18:18; John 7:51; John 11:47, etc.; with a participle added, τί ποιεῖτε λύοντες; equivalent to διά τί λύετε; Mark 11:5; τί ποιεῖτε κλαίοντες; Acts 21:13; but differently τί ποιήσουσι κτλ.; i. e. what must be thought of the conduct of those who receive baptism? Will they not seem to act foolishly? 1 Corinthians 15:29. τί περισσόν, Matthew 5:47; with the relative , Matthew 26:13; Mark 14:9; Luke 6:3; John 13:7; 2 Corinthians 11:12, etc.; τοῦτο, i. e. what has just been said, Matthew 13:28; Mark 5:32; Luke 5:6; Luke 22:19 ((WH reject the passage)); Romans 7:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25; 1 Timothy 4:16; Hebrews 6:3; Hebrews 7:27, etc.; τοῦτο to be supplied, Luke 6:10; αὐτό τοῦτο, Galatians 2:10; ταῦτα, Matthew 23:23; Galatians 5:17; 2 Peter 1:10; (ταῦτα followed by a predicate adjective Acts 15:17, G T Tr WH (according to one construction; cf. R. V. marginal reading, see I. 2 c. α. above, and cf. γνωστός )); αὐτά, Romans 2:3; Galatians 3:10. With nouns which denote a command, or some rule of action, ποιῶ signifies to carry out, to execute; as, τόν νόμον, in classical Greek to make a law, Latin legem ferre , of legislators; but in Biblical Greek to do the law, meet its demands, legi satisfacere , John 7:19; Galatians 5:3, (Joshua 22:5; 1 Chronicles 22:12; הַתְּורָה עָשָׂה, 2 Chronicles 14:3 (4)); τά τοῦ νόμου, the things which the law commands, Romans 2:14; τάς ἐντολάς, Matthew 5:19; 1 John 5:2 L T Tr WH ; Revelation 22:14 R G ; τό θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ;, Matthew 7:21; Matthew 12:50; Mark 3:35; John 4:34; John 6:38; John 7:17; John 9:31; Ephesians 6:6; Hebrews 13:21; τά θελήματα τῆς σαρκός, Ephesians 2:3; τάς ἐπιθυμίας τίνος, John 8:44; τήν γνώμην τίνος, Revelation 17:17; μίαν γνώμην, to follow one and the same mind (purpose) in acting, ibid. R G T Tr WH ; τόν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Luke 8:21; τούς λόγους τίνος, Matthew 7:24, Matthew 7:26; Luke 6:47, Luke 6:49; or or , τί etc. λέγει τίς, Matthew 23:3; Luke 6:46; John 2:5; Acts 21:23; παραγγέλλει τίς, 2 Thessalonians 3:4; τήν πρόθεσιν, Ephesians 3:11; τά διαταχθέντα, Luke 17:10 (τό προσταχθεν, Sophocles Phil. 1010); αἰτεῖ τίς, John 14:13; Ephesians 3:20; ἐντέλλεται τίς, John 15:14; τά ἔθη, Acts 16:21. With nouns describing a plan or course of action, to perform, accomplish: ἔργα, Titus 3:5; ποιεῖν τά ἔργα τίνος, to do the same works as another, John 8:39, John 8:41; τά πρῶτα ἔργα, Revelation 2:5; τά ἔργα τοῦ Θεοῦ, delivered by God to be performed, John 10:37; τό ἔργον, work committed to me by God, John 17:4; τό ἐργοι εὐαγγελιστοῦ, to perform what the relations and duties of an evangelist demand, 2 Timothy 4:5; ἔργον τί, to commit an evil deed, 1 Corinthians 5:2 (T WH Tr marginal reading πράξας); plural 3 John 1:10; ἀγαθόν, to do good, Matthew 19:16; (Mark 3:4 Tdf. ); 1 Peter 3:11; τό ἀγαθόν, Romans 13:3; ἐάν ἀγαθόν, Ephesians 6:8; τά ἀγαθά, John 5:29; τό καλόν, Romans 7:21; 2 Corinthians 13:7; Galatians 6:9; James 4:17; τά ἀρεστά τῷ Θεῷ, John 8:29; τό ἀρεστόν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Hebrews 13:21; 1 John 3:22; τί πιστόν, to perform something worthy of a Christian (see πιστός , at the end), 3 John 1:5; τήν δικαιοσύνην, Matthew 6:1 (for Rec. ἐλεημοσύνην); 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7, 1 John 3:10 (not Lachmann; Revelation 22:11 G L T Tr WH ); τήν ἀλήθειαν (to act uprightly; see ἀλήθεια , I. 2 c.), John 3:21; 1 John 1:6; χρηστότητα, Romans 3:12; ἔλεος, to show oneself merciful, James 2:13; with μετά τίνος added (see ἔλεος , ἐλέους, 1 and 2 b.), Luke 1:72; Luke 10:37; ἐλεημοσύνην, Matthew 6:2; plural, Acts 9:36; Acts 10:2 (see ἐλεημοσύνη , 1 and 2). to commit: τήν ἁμαρτίαν, John 8:34; 1 John 3:4, 1 John 3:8; ἁμαρτίαν, 2 Corinthians 11:7; James 5:15; 1 Peter 2:22; 1 John 3:9; τήν ἀνομίαν, Matthew 13:41; ἁμάρτημα, 1 Corinthians 6:18; τά μή καθήκοντα, Romans 1:28; οὐκ ἔξεστιν, Matthew 12:2; Mark 2:24; ἄξια πληγῶν; Luke 12:48; βδέλυγμα, Revelation 21:27; φόνον, Mark 15:7; ψεῦδος, Revelation 21:27; Revelation 22:15; κακόν, Matthew 27:23; Mark 15:14; Luke 23:22; 2 Corinthians 13:7; τό κακόν, Romans 13:4; plural κακά, 1 Peter 3:12; τά κακά, Romans 3:8.TGL ποιέω.22

    b. ποιεῖν τί with the case of a person added;TGL ποιέω.23

    α. with an accusative of the person: τί ποιήσω Ἰησοῦν; what shall I do unto Jesus? Matthew 27:22; Mark 15:12; cf. Winer s Grammar, 222 (208); (Buttmann , § 131, 6; Kühner, § 411, 5); Matthiae , § 415, 1 a. β.; also with an adverb, εὖ ποιῶ τινα, to do well i. e. show oneself good (kind) to one (see εὖ , under the end), Mark 14:7 R G ; also καλῶς ποιῶ, Matthew 5:44 Rec.TGL ποιέω.24

    β. with a dative of the person, to do (a thing) unto one (to his advantage or disadvantage), rarely so in Greek writings (cf. Winer 's Grammar, and B as above; Kühner, as above Anm. 6): Matthew 7:12; Matthew 18:35; Matthew 20:32; Matthew 21:40; Matthew 25:40, Matthew 25:45; Mark 5:19, Mark 5:20; Mark 10:51; Luke 1:49; Luke 6:11; Luke 8:39; Luke 18:41; Luke 20:15; John 9:26; John 12:16; John 13:12; Acts 4:16; also with an adverb: καθώς, Mark 15:8; Luke 6:31; John 13:15; ὁμοίως, Luke 6:31; οὕτως, Luke 1:25; Luke 2:48; ὡσαύτως, Matthew 21:36; καλῶς ποιεῖν τίνι, Luke 6:27; εὖ, Mark 14:7 L Tr WH ; κακά τίνι, to do evil to one, Acts 9:13; τί, what (namely, κακόν), Hebrews 13:6 (according to punctuation of G L T Tr WH ); ταῦτα πάντα, all these evils, John 15:21 R G L marginal reading; ποιεῖν τίνι κατά τά αὐτά (L T Tr WH (Rec. ταῦτα)), in the same manner, Luke 6:23, Luke 6:26.TGL ποιέω.25

    γ. ποιεῖν τί with the more remote object added by means of a preposition: ἐν τίνι (German an einem), to do to one, Matthew 17:12; Luke 23:31 (here A. V. 'in the green tree,' etc.); also εἰς τινα, unto one, John 15:21 L text T Tr WH .TGL ποιέω.26

    c. God is said ποιῆσαι τί μετά τίνος, when present with and aiding (see μετά , I. 2 b. β.), Acts 14:27; Acts 15:4.TGL ποιέω.27

    d. with designations of time (Buttmann , § 131, 1), to pass, spend: χρόνον, Acts 15:33; Acts 18:23; μῆνας τρεῖς, Acts 20:3; νυχθήμερον, 2 Corinthians 11:25; ἐνιαυτόν or ἐνιαυτόν ἕνα, James 4:13 (Tobit 10:7; Josephus , Antiquities 6, 1, 4 at the end; Stallbaum on Plato , Phileb., p. 50 c., gives examples from Greek writings (and references; cf. also Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word 9); in the same sense עָשָׂה in Ecclesiastes 6:12 (Ecclesiastes 7:1); and the Latin facere : Cicero , ad Att. 5, 20 Apameae quinque dies morati,... Iconii decem fecimus ; Seneca , epistles 66 (l. 7, epistle 4, Haase edition), quamvis autem paucissimos una fecerimus dies ); some interpreters bring in here also Matthew 20:12 and Revelation 13:5 Rec. not elz L T Tr WH ; but on these passagaes see I. 1 a. above.TGL ποιέω.28

    e. like the Latin ago equivalent to to celebrate, keep, with the accusative of a noun designating a feast: τό πάσχα, Matthew 26:18 (Joshua 5:10; but in Hebrews 11:28 the language denotes to make ready, and so at the same time to institute, the celebration of the passover; German veranstalten); τήν ἑορτήν, Acts 18:21 Rec.TGL ποιέω.29

    f. equivalent to (Latin perficio ) to perform: as opposed to λέγειν, Matthew 23:3; to θέλειν, 2 Corinthians 8:10; to a promise, 1 Thessalonians 5:24. (Compare: περιποιέω, προσποιέω.)TGL ποιέω.30

    [SYNONYMS: ποιεῖν, πράσσειν: roughly speaking, ποιεῖν may be said to answer to the Latin facere or the English do, πράσσειν to agere or English practise; ποιεῖν to designate performance, πράσσειν intended, earnest, habitual, performance; ποιεῖν to denote merely productive action, πράσσειν definitely directed action; ποιεῖν to point to an actual result, πράσσειν to the scope and character of the result. "In Attic in certain connections the difference between them is great, in others hardly perceptible" (Schmidt ); see his Syn., chapter 23, especially § 11; cf. Trench , N. T. Synonyms, § xcvi.; Green , 'Critical Note' on John 5:29; (cf. πράσσω , at the beginning and 2). The words are associated in John 3:20, John 3:21; John 5:29; Acts 26:9, Acts 26:10; Romans 1:32; Romans 2:3; Romans 7:15; Romans 13:4, etc.]TGL ποιέω.31


    (4161) ποίημα, ποιήματος, τό (ποιέω), that which has been made; a work: of the works of God as creator, Romans 1:20; those κτισθέντες by God ἐπί ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς are spoken of as ποίημα τοῦ Θεοῦ (A. V. his workmanship), Ephesians 2:10. (Herodotus , Plato , others; the Sept. chiefly for מַעֲשֶׂה.)TGL ποίημα.2


    (4162) ποίησις, ποιήσεως, (ποιέω);TGL ποίησις.2

    1. a making (Herodotus 3, 22; Thucydides 3, 2; Plato , Demosthenes , others; the Sept. several times for מַעֲשֶׂה).TGL ποίησις.3

    2. a doing or performing: ἐν τῇ ποιήσει αὐτοῦ (in his doing, i. e.) in the obedience he renders to the law, James 1:25; add Sir. 19:20 (18).TGL ποίησις.4


    (4163) ποιητής, ποιητου, (ποιέω);TGL ποιητής.2

    1. a maker, producer, author (Xenophon , Plato , others).TGL ποιητής.3

    2. a doer, performer (Vulg. factor ): τοῦ νόμου, one who obeys or fulfils the law, Romans 2:13; James 4:11; James 1:1-27 Macc. 2:67 (see ποιέω , II. a.); ἔργου, James 1:25; λόγου, James 1:22, James 1:23.TGL ποιητής.4

    3. a poet: Acts 17:28 ((Herodotus 2, 53, etc.), Aristophanes , Xenophon , Plato , Plutarch , others).TGL ποιητής.5


    (4164) ποικίλος, ποικίλη, ποικίλον, from Homer down, various, i. e.TGL ποικίλος.2

    a. of divers colors, variegated: the Sept.TGL ποικίλος.3

    b. equivalent to of divers sorts: Matthew 4:24; Mark 1:34; Luke 4:40; 2 Timothy 3:6; Titus 3:3; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 13:9; James 1:2; 1 Peter 1:6; 1 Peter 4:10 ((A. V. in the last two examples manifold)).TGL ποικίλος.4


    (4165) ποιμαίνω; future ποιμανῶ; 1 aorist imperative 2 person plural ποιμάνατε (1 Peter 5:2); (ποιμήν, which see); from Homer down; the Sept. for רָעָה; to feed, to tend a flock, keep sheep;TGL ποιμαίνω.2

    a. properly: Luke 17:7; ποίμνην, 1 Corinthians 9:7.TGL ποιμαίνω.3

    b. tropically,TGL ποιμαίνω.4

    α. to rule, govern: of rulers, τινα, Matthew 2:6; Revelation 2:27; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15 (2 Samuel 5:2; Micah 5:6 (Micah 5:5); Micah 7:14, etc.; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 17)) (see ποιμήν , b. at the end); of the overseers (pastors) of the church, John 21:16; Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:2.TGL ποιμαίνω.5

    β. to furnish pasturage or food; to nourish: ἑαυτόν, to cherish one's body, to serve the body, Jude 1:12; to supply the requisites for the soul's needs (R. V. shall be their shepherd), Revelation 7:17. (Synonym: see βόσκω , at the end.)TGL ποιμαίνω.6


    (4166) ποιμήν, ποιμένος, (akin to the noun ποίᾳ, which see: (or from the root meaning 'to protect'; cf. Curtius , § 372; Fick 1:132)), from Homer down; the Sept. for רֹעֶה, a herdsman, especially a shepherd;TGL ποιμήν.2

    a. properly: Matthew 9:36; Matthew 25:32; Matthew 26:31; Mark 6:34; Mark 14:27; Luke 2:8, Luke 2:15, Luke 2:18, Luke 2:20; John 10:2, John 10:12; in the parable, he to whose care and control others have committed themselves, and whose precepts they follow, John 10:11, John 10:14.TGL ποιμήν.3

    b. metaphorically, the presiding officer, manager, director, of any assembly: so of Christ the Head of the church, John 10:16; 1 Peter 2:25; Hebrews 13:20 (of the Jewish Messiah, Ezekiel 34:23); of the overseers of the Christian assemblies (A. V. pastors), Ephesians 4:11; cf. Ritschl, Entstehung der altkathol. Kirche, edition 2, p. 350f; (Hatch, Barnpron Lects. for 1880, p. 123f). (Of kings and princes we find ποιμένες λαῶν in Homer and Hesiod .)TGL ποιμήν.4


    (4167) ποίμνη, ποίμνης, (contracted from ποιμενη; see ποιμήν ) (from Homer (Odyssey 9, 122) on), a flock (especially) of sheep: Matthew 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Corinthians 9:7; tropically (of Christ's flock i. e.) the body of those who follow Jesus as their guide and keeper, John 10:16.TGL ποίμνη.2


    (4168) ποίμνιον, ποιμνίου, τό (contracted from ποιμενιον, equivalent to ποίμνη, see ποιμήν ; (on the accent cf. Winer s Grammar, 52; Chandler § 313 b.)), a flock (especially) of sheep: so of a group of Christ's disciples, Luke 12:32; of bodies of Christians (churches) presided over by elders (cf. references under the word ποιμήν, b.), Acts 20:28, Acts 20:29; 1 Peter 5:3; with a possessive genitive added, τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 5:2, as in Jeremiah 13:17; τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Clement of Rome , 1 Corinthians 16:1-24, 1 Corinthians 16:1 [ET]; 44, 3 [ET]; 54, 2 [ET]; 57, 2 [ET]. (Herodotus , Sophicles, Euripides , Plato , Lucian , others; the Sept. chiefly for עֵדֶר and צֹאן.)TGL ποίμνιον.2


    (4169) ποίᾳ, ποίας, (cf. Curtius , § 387), herbage, grass: according to some interpreters formal in James 4:14; but ποίᾳ there is more correctly taken as the feminine of the adjective ποῖος (which see), of what sort. (Jeremiah 2:22; Malachi 3:2; in Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ποῖος.2


    (4170) πολεμέω, πολέμῳ; future πολεμήσω; 1 aorist ἐπολέμησα; (πόλεμος); (from Sophocles and Herodotus down); the Sept. chiefly for נִלְחַם; to war, carry on war; to fight: Revelation 19:11; μετά τίνος (on which construction see μετά , I. 2 d., p. 403{b}), Revelation 2:16; Revelation 12:7 (where Rec. κατά; (cf. on this verse Buttmann , § 140, 14 and under the word μετά as above)); Revelation 13:4; Revelation 17:14; equivalent to to wrangle, quarrel, James 4:2.TGL πολεμέω.2


    (4171) πόλεμος πολέμου, (from ΠΑΛΩ, πολέω, to turn, to range about, whence Latinpello, bellum ; (but cf. Fick 1:671; Vanicek , 513)) (from Homer down), the Sept. for מִלְחָמָה;TGL πόλεμος.2

    1. properly,TGL πόλεμος.3

    a. war: Matthew 24:6; Mark 13:7; Luke 14:31; Luke 21:9; Hebrews 11:31; in imitation of the Hebrew מִלְחָמָה עָשָׂה followed by אֵת or עִם (Genesis 14:2; Deuteronomy 20:12, Deuteronomy 20:20), πόλεμον ποιεῖν μετά τίνος, Revelation 11:7; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 13:7 (here L omits; WH Tr marginal reading brackets the clause); Revelation 19:19 (cf. μετά , I. 2 d.).TGL πόλεμος.4

    b. a fight, a battle (more precisely μάχη; "in Homer (where Iliad 7, 174 it is used even of single combat) and Hesiod the sense of battle prevails; in Attic that of tear" (Liddell and Scott, under the word); cf. Trench , § 86:and (in partial modification) Schmidt , chapter 138, 5 and 6): 1 Corinthians 14:8; Hebrews 11:34; Revelation 9:7, Revelation 9:9; Revelation 12:7; Revelation 16:14; Revelation 20:8.TGL πόλεμος.5

    2. a dispute, strife, quarrel: πόλεμοι καί μάχαι, James 4:1 (Sophocles El. 219; Plato , Phaedo, p. 66 c.).TGL πόλεμος.6


    (4172) πόλις, πολισεως, (πέλομαι, to dwell (or rather denoting originally 'fullness,' 'throng'; allied with Latin pleo, plebs , etc.; cf. Curtius , p. 79 and § 374; Vanicek , p. 499; (otherwise Fick 1:138))) (from Homer down), the Sept. chiefly for עִיר, besides for קִרְיָה, שַׁעַר (gate), etc., a city;TGL πόλις.2

    a. universally, Matthew 2:23; Mark 1:45; Luke 4:29; John 11:54; Acts 5:16, and very often in the historical books of the N. T.; κατά τήν πόλιν, through the city (A. V. in; see κατά , II. 1 a.), Acts 24:12; κατά πόλιν, κατά πόλεις, see κατά , II. 3a. α., p. 328a; opposed to κῶμαι, Matthew 9:35; Matthew 10:11; Luke 8:1; Luke 13:22; to κῶμαι καί ἀγροί, Mark 6:56; ἰδίᾳ πόλις, see ἴδιος , 1b., p. 297a; πόλις with the genitive of a person one's native city, Luke 2:4, Luke 2:11; John 1:44-45; or the city in which one lives, Matthew 22:7; Luke 4:29; Luke 10:11; Acts 16:20; Revelation 16:19; Jerusalem is called, on account of the temple erected there, πόλις τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως, i. e. in which the great King of Israel, Jehovah, has his abode, Matthew 5:35; Psalms 47:2 (Psalms 48:2), cf. Tobit 13:15; also ἅγια πόλις (see ἅγιος , 1 a., p. 7a) and ἠγαπημένη, the beloved of God, Revelation 20:9. with the genitive of a gentile noun: Δαμασκηνῶν, 2 Corinthians 11:32; Ἐφεσίων, Acts 19:35; τῶν Ἰουδαίων, Luke 23:51; τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Matthew 10:23; Σαμαρειτῶν, Matthew 10:5; with the genitive of a region: τῆς Γαλιλαίας, Luke 1:26; Luke 4:31; Ιουδα, of the tribe of Judah, Luke 1:39; Λυκαονίας, Acts 14:6; Κιλικίας, Acts 21:39; τῆς Σαμαρείας, John 4:5; Acts 8:5. As in classical Greek the proper name of the city is added — either in the nominative case, as πόλις Ἰόππη, Acts 11:5; or in the genitive, as πόλις Σοδομων, Γομορρας, 2 Peter 2:6; Θυατείρων, Acts 16:14.TGL πόλις.3

    b. used of the heavenly Jerusalem (see Ἱεροσόλυμα , 2), i. e.TGL πόλις.4

    α. the abode of the blessed, in heaven: Hebrews 11:10, Hebrews 11:16; with Θεοῦ ζῶντος added, Hebrews 12:22; μελλουσα πόλις, Hebrews 13:14.TGL πόλις.5

    β. in the visions of the Apocalypse it is used of the visible capital of the heavenly kingdom, to come down to earth after the renovation of the world: Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:14; Revelation 22:14; πόλις ἅγια, Revelation 22:19; with Ἱερουσαλήμ καινή added, Revelation 21:2.TGL πόλις.6

    c. πόλις by metonymy, for the inhabitants: Matthew 8:34; Acts 14:21; πᾶσα πόλις, Matthew 21:10; Acts 13:44; πόλις ὅλῃ, Mark 1:33; Acts 21:30; πόλις μερισθεῖσα καθ' ἑαυτῆς, Matthew 12:25.TGL πόλις.7


    (4173) πολιτάρχης, πολιταρχου, (i. e. ἄρχων τῶν πολιτῶν; see ἑκατοντάρχης ), a ruler of a city or citizens: Acts 17:6, Acts 17:8. (Boeckh, Corpus inscriptions Graec. ii., p. 52f no. 1967 (cf. Boeckh's note, and Tdf. Proleg., p. 86 note 2); in Greek writings πολίαρχος was more common.)TGL πολιτάρχης.2


    (4174) πολιτεία, πολιτείας, (πολιτεύω);TGL πολιτεία.2

    1. the administration of civil affairs (Xenophon , mem. 3, 9, 15; Aristophanes , Aeschines , Demosthenes (others)).TGL πολιτεία.3

    2. a state, commonwealth (2 Macc. 4:11 2Macc. 8:17 2Macc. 13:14; Xenophon , Plato , Thucydides (others)): with a genitive of the possessor, τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, spoken of the theocratic or divine commonwealth, Ephesians 2:12.TGL πολιτεία.4

    3. citizenship, the rights of a citizen (some make this sense the primary one): Acts 22:28 (3Macc. 3:21, 23; Herodotus 9, 34; Xenophon , Hell. 1, 1, 26; 1, 2, 10; (4, 4, 6, etc.); Demosthenes , Polybius , Diodorus , Josephus , others).TGL πολιτεία.5


    (4175) πολίτευμα, πολιτευματος, τό (πολιτεύω), in Greek writings from Plato down;TGL πολίτευμα.2

    1. the administration of civil affairs or of a commonwealth (R. V. text (Phil. as below) citizenship).TGL πολίτευμα.3

    2. the constitution of a commonwealth, form of government and the laws by which it is administered.TGL πολίτευμα.4

    3. a state, commonwealth (so R. V. marginal reading): ἡμῶν, the commonwealth whose citizens we are (see πόλις , b.), Philippians 3:20, cf. Meyer and Wiesinger at the passage; of Christians it is said ἐπί γῆς διατριβουσιν, ἀλλ' ἐν οὐρανῷ πολιτευονται, Epist. ad Diogn. c. 5 [ET]; (τῶν σοφῶν ψυχαί) πατρίδα μέν τόν οὐράνιον χῶρον, ἐν πολιτευονται, ξένον τόν περιγειον ἐν παρῴκησαν νομιζουσαι, Philo de confus. ling. § 17; (γυναῖκες... τῷ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐγγεγραμμεναι πολιτευματι, de agricult. § 17 at the end. Cf. especially Lightfoot on Philippians, the passage cited).TGL πολίτευμα.5


    (4176) πολιτεύω: middle (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 260 (244)), present imperative 2 person plural πολιτεύεσθε; perfect πεπολίτευμαι; (πολίτης);TGL πολιτεύομαι.2

    1. to be a citizen (Thucydides , Xenophon , Lysias , Polybius , others).TGL πολιτεύομαι.3

    2. to administer civil affairs, manage the state (Thucydides , Xenophon ).TGL πολιτεύομαι.4

    3. to make or create a citizen (Diodorus 11, 72); middleTGL πολιτεύομαι.5

    a. to be a citizen; so in the passages from Philo and the Ep. ad Diogn. cited in πολίτευμα, 3.TGL πολιτεύομαι.6

    b. to behave as a citizen; to avail oneself of or recognize the laws; so from Thucydides down; in Hellenistic writings to conduct oneself as pledged to some law of life: ἀξίως τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, Philippians 1:27 (R. V. text let your manner of life be worthy of etc.); ἀξίως τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Polycarp , ad Philip. 5, 2 [ET]; ἀξίως τοῦ Θεοῦ, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 21, 1 [ET]; ὁσίως, ibid. 6, 1 [ET]; κατά τό καθῆκον τῷ Χριστῷ, ibid. 3, 4 [ET]; μετά φοβοῦ καί ἀγάπης, ibid. 51, 2 [ET]; ἐννόμως, Justin Martyr , dialog contra Trypho, c. 67; ἠρξάμην πολιτεύεσθαι τῇ Φαρισαίων ἁιρεσει κατακολουθῶν, Josephus , Vita2; other phrases are cited by Grimm on 2 Macc. 6:1; τῷ Θεῷ, to live in accordance with the laws of God, Acts 23:1 (A. V. I have lived etc.).TGL πολιτεύομαι.7


    (4177) πολίτης, πολιτου, (πόλις), from Homer down, a citizen; i. e.TGL πολίτης.2

    a. the inhabitant of any city or conntry: πόλεως, Acts 21:39; τῆς χώρας ἐκείνης, Luke 15:15.TGL πολίτης.3

    b. the associate of another in citizenship, i. e. a fellow-citizen, fellow-countryman, (Plato , Apology, p. 37 c.; others): with the genitive of a person, Luke 19:14; Hebrews 8:11 (where Rec. has τόν πλησίον) from Jeremiah 38:34 (Jeremiah 31:34), where it is used for רֵעַ, as in Proverbs 11:9, Proverbs 11:12; Proverbs 24:43 (Proverbs 24:28).TGL πολίτης.4


    (4178) πολλάκις (from πολύς, πολλά), adverb (fr. Homer down), often, frequently: Matthew 17:15; Mark 5:4; Mark 9:22; John 18:2; Acts 26:11; Romans 1:13; Romans 15:22 L Tr marginal reading; 2 Corinthians 8:22; 2 Corinthians 11:23, 2 Corinthians 11:26; Philippians 3:18; 2 Timothy 1:16; Hebrews 6:7; Hebrews 9:25; Hebrews 10:11.TGL πολλάκις.2


    (4179) πολλαπλασίων, πολλαπλασιον, genitive πολλαπλασιονος, (πολύς), manifold, much more: Matthew 19:29 L T Tr WH ; Luke 18:30. (Polybius , Pint., others; (cf. Buttmann , 30 (27)).)TGL πολλαπλασίων.2


    (4180) πολυλογία, πολυλογίας, (πολύλογος), much speaking, (Plautus , Vulg. ,multiloquium ): Matthew 6:7. (Proverbs 10:19; Xenophon , Cyril 1, 4, 3; Plato , legg. 1, p. 641 e.; Aristotle , polit. 4, 10 (p. 1295{a}, 2); Plutarch , educ. puer. 8, 10.)TGL πολυλογία.2


    (4181) πολυμερῶς (πολυμερής), by many portions: joined with πολυτρόπως, at many times (Vulg. multifariam (or-rie )), and in many ways, Hebrews 1:1. (Josephus , Antiquities 8, 3, 9 (variant; Plutarch , mor., p. 537 d., i. e. de invid. et od. 5); οὐδέν δεῖ τῆς πολυμερους ταύτης καί πολυτροπου μουσης τέ καί ἁρμονίας, Max. Tyr. diss. 37, p. 363; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 463 (431)).)TGL πολυμερῶς.2


    (4182) πολυποίκιλος, πολυποικιλον (πολύς and ποικίλος);TGL πολυποίκιλος.2

    1. much-variegated; marked with a great variety of colors: of cloth or a painting; φαρεα, Euripides , Iph. T. 1149; στέφανον πολυποικιλον ἀνθεων, Eubulus ap Athen. 15, p. 679 d.TGL πολυποίκιλος.3

    2. much varied, manifold: σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ, manifesting itself in a great variety of forms, Ephesians 3:10; Theophil. ad Autol. 1, 6; ὀργή, Sibylline Oracles 8, 411; λόγος, the Orphica , hymn. 61, 4, and by other writings with other nouns.TGL πολυποίκιλος.4


    (4183) πολύς, πολλή (from an older form πολλός, found in Homer , Hesiod , Pindar ), πολύ; ((cf. Curtius , § 375)); the Sept. chiefly for רַב; much; usedTGL πολύς.2

    a. of multitude, number, etc., many, numerous, great: ἀριθμός, Acts 11:21; λαός, Acts 18:10; ὄχλος, Mark 5:24; Mark 6:34; (Mark 8:1 L T Tr WH ); Luke 7:11; Luke 8:4; John 6:2, John 6:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 19:6, etc.; πλῆθος, Mark 3:7; Luke 5:6; Acts 14:1, etc.; equivalent to abundant, plenteous (A. V. often much), καρπός, John 12:24; John 15:5, John 15:8; θερισμός (the harvest to be gathered), Matthew 9:37; Luke 10:2; γῆ, Matthew 13:5; Mark 4:5; χόρτος, John 6:10; οἶνος, 1 Timothy 3:8; plural πολλοί τελῶναι, Matthew 9:10; Mark 2:15; πολλοί προφῆται, Matthew 13:17; Luke 10:24; σοφοί, 1 Corinthians 1:26; πατέρες, 1 Corinthians 4:15; δυνάμεις, Matthew 7:22; Matthew 13:58, etc.; ὄχλοι, Matthew 4:25; Matthew 8:1; Matthew 12:15 (but here L T WH omit; Tr brackets ὄχλοι); Luke 5:15, etc.; δαιμόνια, Mark 1:34; and in many other examples; with participles used substantively, Matthew 8:16; 1 Corinthians 16:9, etc.; with the article prefixed: αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί, her sins which are many, Luke 7:47; τά πολλά γράμματα, the great learning with which I see that you are furnished, Acts 26:24; πολύς ὄχλος, the great multitude of common people present, Mark 12:37 (cf. ὄχλος πολύς, John 12:9 T Tr marginal reading WH ; see ὄχλος , 1). Plural masculine πολλοί, absolutely and without the article, many, a large part of mankind: πολλοί simply, Matthew 7:13, Matthew 7:22; Matthew 20:28; Matthew 26:28; Mark 2:2; Mark 3:10; Mark 10:45; Mark 14:24; Luke 1:1, Luke 1:14; Hebrews 9:28, and very often; opposed to ὀλίγοι, Matthew 20:16 (T WH omit; Tr brackets the clause); ἕτεροι πολλοί, Acts 15:35; ἄλλαι πολλαί, Mark 15:41; ἕτεραι πολλαί, Luke 8:3; πολλοί followed by a partitive genitive, as τῶν Φαρισαίων, Matthew 3:7; add, Luke 1:16; John 12:11; Acts 4:4; Acts 13:43; 2 Corinthians 12:21; Revelation 8:11, etc.; followed by ἐκ with a genitive of class, as πολλοί ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ, John 6:60; add, John 7:31,John 7:40; John 10:20; John 11:19,John 11:45; Acts 17:12; πολλοί ἐκ τῆς πόλεως, John 4:39. with the article prefixed, οἱ πολλοί, the many (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 110 (105)): those contrasted with εἷς (i. e. both with Adam and with Christ), according to the context equivalent to the rest of mankind, Romans 5:15, Romans 5:19, cf. Romans 5:12, Romans 5:18; we the (i. e. who are) many, Romans 12:5; 1 Corinthians 10:17; the many whom ye know, 2 Corinthians 2:17; the many i. e. the most part, the majority, Matthew 24:12; 1 Corinthians 10:33.TGL πολύς.3

    b. with nouns denoting an action, an emotion, a state, which can be said to have as it were measure, weight, force, intensity, size, continuance, or repetition, much equivalent to great, strong, intense, large: ἀγάπη, Ephesians 2:4; ὀδύνη, 1 Timothy 6:10; θρῆνος, κλαυθμός, ὀδυρμός, Matthew 2:18; χαρά (Rec.st χάρις), Philemon 1:7; ἐπιθυμία, 1 Thessalonians 2:17; μακροθυμία, Romans 9:22; ἔλεος, 1 Peter 1:3; γογγυσμός, John 7:12; τρόμος, 1 Corinthians 2:3; πόνος (Rec. ζῆλος), Colossians 4:13; ἀγών, 1 Thessalonians 2:2; ἄθλησις, Hebrews 10:32; θλῖψις, 2 Corinthians 2:4; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; καύχησις, 2 Corinthians 7:4; πεποίθησις, 2 Corinthians 8:22; πληροφορία, 1 Thessalonians 1:5; παρρησία, 2 Corinthians 3:12; 2 Corinthians 7:4; 1 Timothy 3:13; Philemon 1:8; παράκλησις, 2 Corinthians 8:4; συζήτησις (T WH Tr text ζήτησις), Acts 15:7; Acts 28:29 (Rec. ); στάσις, Acts 23:10; ἀσιτία, Acts 27:21; βία, Acts 24:7 (Rec. ); διακονία, Luke 10:40; σιγή, deep silence, Acts 21:40 (Xenophon , Cyril 7, 1, 25); φαντασία, Acts 25:23; δύναμις καί δόξα, Matthew 24:30; Luke 21:27; μισθός, Matthew 5:12; Luke 6:23, Luke 6:35; εἰρήνη, Acts 24:2 (3); περί οὗ πολύς ἡμῖν λόγος, about which (but see λόγος , I. 3 a.) we have much (in readiness) to say, Hebrews 5:11 (πολύν λόγον ποιεῖσθαι περί τίνος, Plato , Phaedo, p. 115{d}; cf. Lex. Plato , iii., p. 148).TGL πολύς.4

    c. of time, much, long: πολύν χρόνον, John 5:6; μετά χρόνον πολύν, Matthew 25:19; ὥρα πολλή, much time (i. e. a large part of the day) is spent (see ὥρα , 2), Mark 6:35; ὥρας πολλῆς γενομένης (Tdf. γινομένης), of a late hour of the day, ibid. (so πολλῆς ὥρας, Polybius 5, 8, 3; --but see p. 679bline 2. ἐπί πολλήν ὥραν, Josephus , Antiquities 8, 4, 4; Ἐμάχοντο... ἄχρι πολλῆς ὥρας, Dionysius Halicarnassus , 2, 54); πολλοῖς χρόνοις, for a long time, Luke 8:29 (οὐ πολλῷ χρόνῳ, Herodian , 1, 6, 24 (8 edition, Bekker); χρόνοις πολλοῖς ὕστερον, Plutarch , Thes. 6; (see χρόνος , under the end)); εἰς ἔτη πολλά, Luke 12:19; (ἐκ or) ἀπό πολλῶν ἐτῶν, Acts 24:10; Romans 15:23 (here WH Tr text ἀπό ἱκανῶν ἐτῶν); ἐπί πολύ, (for) a long time, Acts 28:6; μετ' οὐ πολύ, not long after (see μετά , II. 2 b.), Acts 27:14.TGL πολύς.5

    d. Neuter singular πολύ, much, substantively, equivalent to many things: Luke 12:48; much, adverbially, of the mode and degree of an action: ἠγάπησε, Luke 7:47; πλανᾶσθε, Mark 12:27; namely, ὠφελεῖ, Romans 3:2. πολλοῦ as a genitive of price (from Homer down; cf. Passow , under the word, IV. b. vol. ii., p. 1013a; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 206 (194))): πραθῆναι, for much, Matthew 26:9. ἐν πολλῷ, in (administering) much (i. e. many things), Luke 16:10; with great labor, great effort, Acts 26:29 (where L T Tr WH ἐν μεγάλῳ (see μέγας , 1 a. γ.)). with a comparitive (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 35, 1): πολύ σπουδαιότερον, 2 Corinthians 8:22 (in Greek writings from Homer down); πολλῷ πλείους, many more, John 4:41; πολλῷ (or πολύ) μᾶλλον, see μᾶλλον , 1 a. following with the article, τό πολύ, German das Viele (opposed to τό ὀλίγον), 2 Corinthians 8:15 (cf. Buttmann , 395 (338); Winer 's Grammar, 589 (548)). Plural, πολλάTGL πολύς.6

    α. many things; as, διδάσκειν, λαλεῖν, Matthew 13:3; Mark 4:2; Mark 6:34; John 8:26; John 14:30; παθεῖν, Matthew 16:21; Mark 5:26; Mark 9:12; Luke 9:22, etc., and often in Greek writings from Pindar Ol. 13, 90 down; ποιεῖν, Mark 6:20 (T Tr marginal reading WH ἀπόρειν); πρᾶξαι, Acts 26:9; add as other examples, Matthew 25:21, Matthew 25:23; Mark 12:41; Mark 15:3; John 16:12; 2 Corinthians 8:22; 2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:13; πολλά καί ἀλλά, John 20:30. (On the Greek (and Latin) usage which treats the notion of multitude not as something external to a thing and consisting merely in a comparison of it with other things, but as an attribute inhering in the thing itself, and hence, capable of being co-ordinated with another attributive word by means of καί (which see, I. 3), see Kühner, § 523, 1 (or on Xenophon , mem. 1, 2, 24); Bäumlein , Partikeln, p. 146; Krüger , § 69, 32, 3; Lob. Paral., p. 60; Herm. ad Vig. , p. 835; Winer s Grammar, § 59, 3 at the end; Buttmann , 362f (311). Cf. Passow , under the word, I. 3 a.; Liddell and Scott, under II. 2.)TGL πολύς.7

    β. adverbially (cf. Winer s Grammar, 463 (432); Buttmann , § 128, 2), much: Mark (Mark 6:20 T Tr marginal reading (?) WH (see ἀπορέω )); Mark 9:26; Romans 16:6, Romans 16:12 (L brackets the clause); in many ways, James 3:2; with many words (R. V. much), with verbs of saying; as, κηρύσσειν, παρακαλεῖν, etc., Mark 1:45; Mark 3:12; Mark 5:10, Mark 5:23, Mark 5:43; 1 Corinthians 16:12; many times, often, repeatedly: Matthew 9:14 (R G Tr WH marginal reading) (and often in Greek writings from Homer down; cf. Passow , under the word, V. 1 a. vol. ii., p. 1013{b}; (Liddell and Scott, III. a.); Stallbaum on Plato , Phaedo, p. 61 c.); with the article πολλά, for the most part (R. V. these many times) (Vulg. plurimum ), Romans 15:22 (L Tr marginal reading πολλάκις) (examples from Greek writings are given by Passow , the passage cited (Liddell and Scott, the passage cited), and by Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, iii., p. 281).TGL πολύς.8


    (4184) πολυεύσπλαγχνος, πολυευσπλαγχνον (πολύ and εὔσπλαγχνος), very tender-hearted, extremely full of pity: so a few minuscule manuscripts in James 5:11, where others have πολύσπλαγχνος, which see (Ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.)TGL πολύσπλαγχνος.2


    (4185) πολυτελής, πολυτελές (πολύς, and τέλος cost) (from Herodotus down), precious;TGL πολυτελής.2

    a. requiring great outlay, very costly: Mark 14:3; 1 Timothy 2:9. (Thucydides and following; the Sept. )TGL πολυτελής.3

    b. excellent, of surpassing value (A. V. of great price): 1 Peter 3:4. ((Plato , others.))TGL πολυτελής.4


    (4186) πολύτιμος, πολύτιμον (πολύς, τιμή), very valuable, of great price: Matthew 13:46; Matthew 26:7 L T Tr marginal reading; John 12:3; comparitive πολυτιμότερον, 1 Peter 1:7, where Rec. πολύ τιμιώτερον. (Plutarch , Pomp. 5; Herodian , 1, 17, 5 (3 edition, Bekker); Anthol. , others.)TGL πολύτιμος.2


    (4187) πολυτρόπως (from πολυτρόπος, in use in various senses from Homer down), adverb, in many manners: Hebrews 1:1 ((Philo de incor. mund. § 24)); see πολυμερῶς .TGL πολυτρόπως.2


    (4188) πόμα (Attic πῶμα; (cf. Lob. Paralip., p. 425)), πόματος, τό (πίνω, πέπομαι), drink: 1 Corinthians 10:4; Hebrews 9:10.TGL πόμα.2


    (4189) πονηρία, πονηρίας, (πονηρός) (from Sophocles down), the Sept. for רֹעַ and רָעָה, depravity, iniquity, wickedness ((so A. V. almost uniformly)), malice: Matthew 22:18; Luke 11:39; Romans 1:29; 1 Corinthians 5:8; Ephesians 6:12; plural αἱ πονηρίαι (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 27, 3; Buttmann , § 123, 2; R. V. wickednesses), evil purposes and desires, Mark 7:22; wicked ways (A. V. iniquities), Acts 3:26. (Synonym: see κακία , at the end.)TGL πονηρία.2


    (4190) πονηρός (on the accent cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 3 Göttling , Lehre v., Accent, p. 304f; (Chandler §§ 404, 405); Lipsius , Grammat. Untersuch., p. 26), πονηρά, πονηρόν; comparitive πονηρότερος (Matthew 12:45; Luke 11:26); (πονέω, πόνος); from Hesiod (Homer (ep. 15, 20), Theog.) down; the Sept. often for רַע;TGL πονηρός.2

    1. full of labors, annoyances, hardships;TGL πονηρός.3

    a. pressed and harassed by labors; thus Hercules is called πονηροτατος καί ἄριστος, Hesiod fragment 43, 5.TGL πονηρός.4

    b. bringing toils, annoyances, perils: (καιρός, Sir. 51:12); ἡμέρα πονηρά, of a time full of peril to Christian faith and steadfastness, Ephesians 5:16; Ephesians 6:13 (so in the plural ἡμέραι πονηραί the Epistle of Barnabas 2, 1 [ET]); causing pain and trouble (A. V. grievous), ἕλκος, Revelation 16:2.TGL πονηρός.5

    2. bad, of a bad nature or condition;TGL πονηρός.6

    a. in a physical sense: ὀφθαλμός, diseased or blind, Matthew 6:23; Luke 11:34 (πονηρία ὀφθαλμῶν, Plato , Hipp., min., p. 374 d.; the Greeks use πονηρῶς ἔχειν or διακεῖσθαι of the sick; ἐκ γενετῆς πονηρούς ὑγιεῖς πεποιηκέναι, Justin Martyr , Apology 1, 22 ((cf. Otto's note); others take πονηρός in Matthew and Luke as above ethically; cf. b. and Meyer on Matt.)); καρπός, Matthew 7:17.TGL πονηρός.7

    b. in an ethical sense, evil, wicked, bad, etc. ("this use of the word is due to its association with the working (largely the servile) class; not that contempt for labor is thereby expressed, for such words as ἐργάτης, δραστηρ, and the like, do not take on this evil sense, which connected itself only with a word expressive of unintermitted toil and carrying no suggestion of results" (cf. Schmidt , chapter 85, § 1); see κακία , at the end); of persons: Matthew 7:11; Matthew 12:34; Matthew 18:32; Matthew 25:26; Luke 6:45; Luke 11:13; Luke 19:22; Acts 17:5; 2 Thessalonians 3:2; 2 Timothy 3:13; γενεά πονηρά, Matthew 12:39, Matthew 12:45; Matthew 16:4; Luke 11:29; πνεῦμα πονηρόν, an evil spirit (see πνεῦμα , 3 c.), Matthew 12:45; Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Luke 11:26; Acts 19:12, Acts 19:15; substantively οἱ πονηροί, the wicked, bad men, opposed to οἱ δίκαιοι, Matthew 13:49; πονηροί καί ἀγαθοί, Matthew 5:45; Matthew 22:10; ἀχάριστοι καί πονηροί, Luke 6:35; τόν πονηρόν, the wicked man, i. e. the evil-doer spoken of, 1 Corinthians 5:13; τῷ πονηρῷ, the evil man, who injures you, Matthew 5:39. πονηρός is used pre-eminently of the devil, the evil one: Matthew 5:37; Matthew 6:13; Matthew 13:19, Matthew 13:38; Luke 11:4 R L ; John 17:15; 1 John 2:13; 1 John 3:12; 1 John 5:18 (on which see κεῖμαι , 2{c}); Ephesians 6:16. of things: αἰών, Galatians 1:4; ὄνομα (which see 1, p. 447a bottom), Luke 6:22; ῤᾳδιούργημα, Acts 18:14; the heart as a storehouse out of which a man brings forth πονηρά words is called θησαυρός πονηρός, Matthew 12:35; Luke 6:45; συνείδησις πονηρά, a soul conscious of wickedness (conscious wickedness; see συνείδησις , b. sub at the end), Hebrews 10:22; καρδία πονηρά ἀπιστίας, an evil heart such as is revealed in distrusting (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 24; Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 4), Hebrews 3:12; ὀφθαλμός (which see), Matthew 20:15; Mark 7:22; διαλογισμοί, Matthew 15:19; James 2:4; ὑπόνοιαι, 1 Timothy 6:4; καύχησις; James 4:16; ῤῆμα, a reproach, Matthew 5:11 (R G ; others omit ῤῆμα); λόγοι, 3 John 1:10; ἔργα, John 3:19; John 7:7; 1 John 3:12; 2 John 1:11; Colossians 1:21; ἔργον (according to the context) wrong committed against me, 2 Timothy 4:18; αἰτία, charge of crime, Acts 25:18 L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading The neuter πονηρόν, and τό πονηρόν, substantively, evil, that which is wicked: εἶδος πονηροῦ (see εἶδος , 2; (others take πονηροῦ here as an adjective, and bring the example under εἶδος, 1 (R. V. marginal reading appearance of evil))), 1 Thessalonians 5:22; 2 Thessalonians 3:3 (where τοῦ πονηροῦ is held by many to be the genitive of the masculine πονηρός, but cf. Lünemann ad loc.); (τί πονηρόν, Acts 28:21); opposed to τό ἀγαθόν, Luke 6:45; Romans 12:9; plural (Winer 's Grammar, § 34, 2), Matthew 9:4; Luke 3:19; wicked deeds, Acts 25:18 Tr text WH text; ταῦτα τά πονηρά, these evil things i. e. the vices just enumerated, Mark 7:23.TGL πονηρός.8


    (4191) πονηρός (on the accent cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 3 Göttling , Lehre v., Accent, p. 304f; (Chandler §§ 404, 405); Lipsius , Grammat. Untersuch., p. 26), πονηρά, πονηρόν; comparitive πονηρότερος (Matthew 12:45; Luke 11:26); (πονέω, πόνος); from Hesiod (Homer (ep. 15, 20), Theog.) down; the Sept. often for רַע; 1. full of labors, annoyances, hardships;TGL πονηρότερος.2

    a. pressed and harassed by labors; thus Hercules is called πονηροτατος καί ἄριστος, Hesiod fragment 43, 5.TGL πονηρότερος.3

    b. bringing toils, annoyances, perils: (καιρός, Sir. 51:12); ἡμέρα πονηρά, of a time full of peril to Christian faith and steadfastness, Ephesians 5:16; Ephesians 6:13 (so in the plural ἡμέραι πονηραί the Epistle of Barnabas 2, 1 [ET]); causing pain and trouble (A. V. grievous), ἕλκος, Revelation 16:2.TGL πονηρότερος.4

    2. bad, of a bad nature or condition;TGL πονηρότερος.5

    a. in a physical sense: ὀφθαλμός, diseased or blind, Matthew 6:23; Luke 11:34 (πονηρία ὀφθαλμῶν, Plato , Hipp., min., p. 374 d.; the Greeks use πονηρῶς ἔχειν or διακεῖσθαι of the sick; ἐκ γενετῆς πονηρούς ὑγιεῖς πεποιηκέναι, Justin Martyr , Apology 1, 22 ((cf. Otto's note); others take πονηρός in Matthew and Luke as above ethically; cf. b. and Meyer on Matt.)); καρπός, Matthew 7:17.TGL πονηρότερος.6

    b. in an ethical sense, evil, wicked, bad, etc. ("this use of the word is due to its association with the working (largely the servile) class; not that contempt for labor is thereby expressed, for such words as ἐργάτης, δραστηρ, and the like, do not take on this evil sense, which connected itself only with a word expressive of unintermitted toil and carrying no suggestion of results" (cf. Schmidt , chapter 85, § 1); see κακία , at the end); of persons: Matthew 7:11; Matthew 12:34; Matthew 18:32; Matthew 25:26; Luke 6:45; Luke 11:13; Luke 19:22; Acts 17:5; 2 Thessalonians 3:2; 2 Timothy 3:13; γενεά πονηρά, Matthew 12:39, Matthew 12:45; Matthew 16:4; Luke 11:29; πνεῦμα πονηρόν, an evil spirit (see πνεῦμα , 3 c.), Matthew 12:45; Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Luke 11:26; Acts 19:12, Acts 19:15; substantively οἱ πονηροί, the wicked, bad men, opposed to οἱ δίκαιοι, Matthew 13:49; πονηροί καί ἀγαθοί, Matthew 5:45; Matthew 22:10; ἀχάριστοι καί πονηροί, Luke 6:35; τόν πονηρόν, the wicked man, i. e. the evil-doer spoken of, 1 Corinthians 5:13; τῷ πονηρῷ, the evil man, who injures you, Matthew 5:39. πονηρός is used pre-eminently of the devil, the evil one: Matthew 5:37; Matthew 6:13; Matthew 13:19, Matthew 13:38; Luke 11:4 R L ; John 17:15; 1 John 2:13; 1 John 3:12; 1 John 5:18 (on which see κεῖμαι , 2{c}); Ephesians 6:16. of things: αἰών, Galatians 1:4; ὄνομα (which see 1, p. 447a bottom), Luke 6:22; ῤᾳδιούργημα, Acts 18:14; the heart as a storehouse out of which a man brings forth πονηρά words is called θησαυρός πονηρός, Matthew 12:35; Luke 6:45; συνείδησις πονηρά, a soul conscious of wickedness (conscious wickedness; see συνείδησις , b. sub at the end), Hebrews 10:22; καρδία πονηρά ἀπιστίας, an evil heart such as is revealed in distrusting (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 24; Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 4), Hebrews 3:12; ὀφθαλμός (which see), Matthew 20:15; Mark 7:22; διαλογισμοί, Matthew 15:19; James 2:4; ὑπόνοιαι, 1 Timothy 6:4; καύχησις; James 4:16; ῤῆμα, a reproach, Matthew 5:11 (R G ; others omit ῤῆμα); λόγοι, 3 John 1:10; ἔργα, John 3:19; John 7:7; 1 John 3:12; 2 John 1:11; Colossians 1:21; ἔργον (according to the context) wrong committed against me, 2 Timothy 4:18; αἰτία, charge of crime, Acts 25:18 L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading The neuter πονηρόν, and τό πονηρόν, substantively, evil, that which is wicked: εἶδος πονηροῦ (see εἶδος , 2; (others take πονηροῦ here as an adjective, and bring the example under εἶδος, 1 (R. V. marginal reading appearance of evil))), 1 Thessalonians 5:22; 2 Thessalonians 3:3 (where τοῦ πονηροῦ is held by many to be the genitive of the masculine πονηρός, but cf. Lünemann ad loc.); (τί πονηρόν, Acts 28:21); opposed to τό ἀγαθόν, Luke 6:45; Romans 12:9; plural (Winer 's Grammar, § 34, 2), Matthew 9:4; Luke 3:19; wicked deeds, Acts 25:18 Tr text WH text; ταῦτα τά πονηρά, these evil things i. e. the vices just enumerated, Mark 7:23.TGL πονηρότερος.7


    (4192) πόνος, πόνου, (πένομαι (see πένης )), from Homer down, the Sept. for עָמָל, יְגִיעַ, etc., labor, toil;TGL πόνος.2

    1. equivalent to great trouble, intense desire: ὑπέρ τίνος (genitive of person), Colossians 4:13 (where Rec. has ζῆλον (cf. Lightfoot at the passage)).TGL πόνος.3

    2. pain: Revelation 16:10; Revelation 21:4. (Synonym: see κόπος , at the end.)TGL πόνος.4


    (4193) Ποντικός, Ποντικη, Ποντικόν (Πόντος, which see), belonging to Pontus, born in Pontus: Acts 18:2. ((Herodotus , others.))TGL Ποντικός.2


    (4194) Πόντιος, Ποντίου, , Pontius (a Roman name), the praenomen of Pilate, procurator of Judaea (see Πιλᾶτος ): Matthew 27:2 (R G L ); Luke 3:1; Acts 4:27; 1 Timothy 6:13.TGL Πόντιος.2


    (4195) Πόντος, Πόντου, , Pontus, a region of eastern Asia Minor, bounded by the Euxine Sea (from which circumstance it took its name), Armenia, Cappadocia, Galatia, Paphlagonia (BB. DD. , under the word; Ed. Meyer, Gesch. d. Königreiches Pontos (Leip. 1879)): Acts 2:9; 1 Peter 1:1.TGL Πόντος.2


    (4196) Πόπλιος, Ποπλίου, , Publius (a Roman name), the name of a chief magistrate ((Greek πρῶτος) but see Dr. Woolsey's addition to the article 'Publius' in B. D. (American edition)) of the island of Melita; nothing more is known of him: Acts 28:7, Acts 28:8.TGL Πόπλιος.2


    (4197) πορεία, πορείας, (πορεύω), from Aeschylus down; the Sept. for הֲלִיכָה; a journey: Luke 13:22 (see ποιέω , I. 3); Hebraistically (see ὁδός , 2 a.), a going i. e. purpose, pursuit, undertaking: James 1:11.TGL πορεία.2


    (4198) πορεύω: to lead over, carry over, transfer (Pindar , Sophocles , Thucydides , Plato , others); middle (from Herodotus down), present πορεύομαι; imperfect ἐπορευόμην; future πορεύσομαι; perfect participle πεπορευμένος; 1 aorist subjunctive 1 person plural πορευσώμεθα (James 4:13 Rec.st Griesbach); 1 aorist passive ἐπορεύθην; (πόρος a ford (cf. English pore i. e. passage through; Curtius , § 356; Vanicek , p. 479)); the Sept. often for הָלַך, הִתְהַלֵּך, יָלַך; properly, to lead oneself across; i. e. to take one's way, betake oneself, set out, depart;TGL πορεύω.2

    a. properly: τήν ὁδόν μου, to pursue the journey on which one has entered, continue one's journey (A. V. go on one's way), Acts 8:39; πορεύειν followed by ἀπό with a genitive of place, to depart from, Matthew 24:1 (R G ); ἀπό with a genitive of the person, Matthew 25:41; Luke 4:42; ἐκεῖθεν, Matthew 19:15; ἐντεῦθεν, Luke 13:31; followed by εἰς with an accusative of place, to go, depart, to some place: Matthew 2:20; Matthew 17:27; Mark 16:12; Luke 1:39; Luke 2:41; Luke 22:39; Luke 24:13; John 7:35; John 8:1; Acts 1:11, Acts 1:25; Acts 20:1; Romans 15:24; James 4:13, etc.; with an accusative denoting the state: εἰς εἰρήνην, Luke 7:50; Luke 8:48 (also ἐν εἰρήνη, Acts 16:36; see εἰρήνη , 3); εἰς θάνατον, Luke 22:33; followed by ἐπί with an accusative of place, Matthew 22:9; Acts 8:26; Acts 9:11; ἐπί with the accusative of a person Acts 25:12; ἕως with a genitive of place, Acts 23:23; ποῦ (which see) for ποῖ, John 7:35; οὗ (see ὅς , II. 11 a.) for ὅποι, Luke 24:28; 1 Corinthians 16:6; πρός with the accusative of a person, Matthew 25:9; Matthew 26:14; Luke 11:5; Luke 15:18; Luke 16:30; John 14:12, John 14:28; John 16:28; John 20:17; Acts 27:3; Acts 28:26; κατά τήν ὁδόν,Acts 8:36; διά with a genitive of place, Matthew 12:1; (Mark 9:30 L text Tr text WH text); the purpose of the journey is indicated by an infinitive: Matthew 28:8-9Rec. ; Luke 2:3; Luke 14:19, Luke 14:31; John 14:2; by the preposition ἐπί with an accusative (cf. ἐπί , C. I. 1 f.), Luke 15:4; followed by ἵνα, John 11:11; by σύν with a dative of the attendance, Luke 7:6; Acts 10:20; Acts 26:13; 1 Corinthians 16:4; ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, to go before one, John 10:4. absolutely equivalent to to depart, go one's way: Matthew 2:9; Matthew 8:9; Matthew 11:7; Matthew 28:11; Luke 7:8; Luke 17:19; John 4:50; John 8:11; John 14:3; Acts 5:20; Acts 8:27; Acts 21:5; Acts 22:21, etc.; equivalent to to be on one's way, to journey: (Luke 8:42 L Tr marginal reading); Luke 9:57; Luke 10:38; Luke 13:33; Acts 9:3; Acts 22:6. to enter upon a journey; to go to do something: 1 Corinthians 10:27; Luke 10:37. In accordance with the oriental fashion of describing an action circumstantially, the participle πορευόμενος or πορευθείς is placed before a finite verb which designates some other action (cf. ἀνίστημι , II. 1 c. and ἔρχομαι, I. 1 a. α., p. 250b bottom): Matthew 2:8; Matthew 9:13 (on which cf. the rabbinical phrase וּלְמֹד צֵא (cf. Schoettgen or Wetstein at the passage)); Matthew 11:4; Matthew 27:66; Matthew 28:7; Luke 7:22; Luke 9:13, Luke 9:52; Luke 13:32; Luke 14:10; Luke 15:15; Luke 17:14; Luke 22:8; 1 Peter 3:19.TGL πορεύω.3

    b. By a Hebraism, metaphorically,TGL πορεύω.4

    α. to depart from life: Luke 22:22; so הָלַך, Genesis 15:2; Psalm 39:14.TGL πορεύω.5

    β. ὀπίσω τίνος, to follow one, i. e. become his adherent (cf. Buttmann , 184 (160)): Luke 21:8 (Judges 2:12; 1 Kings 11:10; Sir. 46:10); to seek (cf. English run after) anything, 2 Peter 2:10.TGL πορεύω.6

    γ. to lead or order one's life (see περιπατέω , b. α. and ὁδός, 2 a.); followed by ἐν with a dative of the thing to which one's life is given up: ἐν ἀσελγείαις, 1 Peter 4:3; ἐν ταῖς ἐντολαῖς τοῦ κυρίου, Luke 1:6; κατά τάς ἐπιθυμίας, 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 1:16, Jude 1:18; ταῖς ὁδοῖς μου, dative of place (to walk in one's own ways), to follow one's moral preferences, Acts 14:16; τῇ ὁδῷ τίνος, to imitate one, to follow his ways, Jude 1:11; τῷ φόβῳ τοῦ κυρίου, Acts 9:31; see Winer s Grammar, § 31, 9; Buttmann , § 133, 22 b.; ὑπό μεριμνῶν, to lead a life subject to cares, Luke 8:14, cf. Bornemann at the passage; (Meyer edition Weiss at the passage; yet see ὑπό , I. 2 a.; Winer s Grammar, 369 (346) note; Buttmann , § 147, 29; R. V. as they go on their way they are choked with cares, etc. Compare: διαπορεύω, εἰσπορεύω (μαι), ἐκπορεύω (ἐκπορεύομαι), ἐνπορεύω (ἐνπορεύομαι), ἐπιπορεύω (ἐπιπορεύομαι), παραπορεύω (παραπορεύομαι), προπορεύω, προσπορεύω (προσπορεύομαι), συνπορεύω (συνπορεύομαι). Synonym: see ἔρχομαι , at the end)TGL πορεύω.7


    (4199) πορθέω: imperfect ἐπόρθουν; 1 aorist participle πορθήσας; (πέρθω, πεπορθα, to lay waste); from Homer down; to destroy, to overthrow (R. V. uniformly to make havock): τινα, Acts 9:21; τήν ἐκκλησίαν, Galatians 1:13; τήν πίστιν, ibid. 23.TGL πορθέω.2


    (4200) πορισμός, πορισμοῦ, (πορίζω to cause a thing to get on well, to carry forward, to convey, to acquire; middle to bring about or procure for oneself, to gain; from πόρος (cf. πορεύω ));TGL πορισμός.2

    a. acquisition, gain (Wis. 13:19 Wis. 14:2; Polybius , Josephus , Plutarch ).TGL πορισμός.3

    b. a source of gain: 1 Timothy 6:5 (Plutarch Cat. Maj. 25; (Test xii. Patr. , test. Isa. § 4)).TGL πορισμός.4


    (4201) Πόρκιος, see Φῆστος . See related Strong's entry Strong's 5347.TGL Πόρκιος.2


    (4202) πορνεία, πορνείας, (πορνεύω), the Sept. for תַּזְנוּת, זְנוּת, זְנוּנִים, fornication (Vulg. fornicatio (and (Revelation 19:2) prostitutio )); usedTGL πορνεία.2

    a. properly, of illicit sexual intercourse in general (Demosthenes , 403, 27; 433, 25): Acts 15:20, Acts 15:29; Acts 21:25 (that this meaning must be adopted in these passages will surprise no one who has learned from 1 Corinthians 6:12 how leniently converts from among the heathen regarded this vice and how lightly they indulged in it; accordingly, all other interpretations of the term, such as of marriages within the prohibited degrees and the like, are to be rejected); Romans 1:29 Rec. ; 1 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Corinthians 6:13, 1 Corinthians 6:18; 1 Corinthians 7:2; 2 Corinthians 12:21; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:3; Revelation 9:21; it is distinguished from μοιχεία in Matthew 15:19; Mark 7:21; and Galatians 5:19 Rec. ; used of adultery ((cf. Hosea 2:2 (4), etc.)), Matthew 5:32; Matthew 19:9.TGL πορνεία.3

    b. In accordance with a form of speech common in the O. T. and among the Jews which represents the close relationship existing between Jehovah and his people under the figure of a marriage (cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, i., p. 422{a} following), πορνεία is used metaphorically of the worship of idols: Revelation 14:8; Revelation 17:2, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:3; Revelation 19:2; ἡμεῖς ἐκ πορνείας οὐ γεγεννήμεθα (we are not of a people given to idolatry), ἕνα πατέρα ἔχομεν τόν Θεόν, John 8:41 (ἄθεος μέν ἄγονος, πολύθεος δέ ἐκ πόρνης, τυφλωττων περί τόν ἀληθῆ πατέρα καί διά τοῦτο πολλούς ἀνθ' ἑνός γονεῖς αἰνιττόμενος, Philo de mig. Abr. § 12; τέκνα πορνείας, of idolaters, Hosea 1:2; (but in John, the passage cited others understand physical descent to be spoken of (cf. Meyer))); of the defilement of idolatry, as incurred by eating the sacrifices offered to idols, Revelation 2:21.TGL πορνεία.4


    (4203) πορνεύω; 1 aorist ἐπόρνευσα; (πόρνος, πόρνη which see); the Sept. for זָנָה; in Greek writings ((Herodotus ), Demosthenes , Aeschines , Dio Cassius , Lucian , others)TGL πορνεύω.2

    1. to prostitute one's body to the lust of another. In the ScripturesTGL πορνεύω.3

    2. to give oneself to unlawful sexual intercourse; to commit fornication (Vulg. fornicor ): 1 Corinthians 6:18; 1 Corinthians 10:8; Revelation 2:14, Revelation 2:20; (Mark 10:19 WH (rejected) marginal reading).TGL πορνεύω.4

    3. by a Hebraism (see πορνεία , b.) metaphorically, to be given to idolatry, to worship idols: 1 Chronicles 5:25; Psalm 72:27 (Psalms 73:27); Jeremiah 3:6; Ezekiel 23:19; Hosea 9:1, etc.; μετά τίνος, to permit oneself to be drawn away by another into idolatry, Revelation 17:2; Revelation 18:1-24.TGL πορνεύω.5


    (4204) πόρνη, πόρνης, (from περάω, πέρνημι, to sell; Curtius , § 358), properly a woman who sells her body for sexual uses (cf. Xenophon , mem. 1, 6, 13), the Sept. for זונָה;TGL πόρνη.2

    1. properly, a prostitute, a harlot, one who yields herself to defilement for the sake of gain (Aristophanes , Demosthenes , others); in the N. T. universally, any woman indulging in unlawful sexual intercourse, whether for gain or for lust: Matthew 21:31; Luke 15:30; 1 Corinthians 6:15; Hebrews 11:31; James 2:25.TGL πόρνη.3

    2. Hebraistically (see πορνεία , b. and πορνεύω, 3), metaphorically, an idolatress; so of 'Babylon' i. e. Rome, the chief seat of idolatry: Revelation 17:1, Revelation 17:5, Revelation 17:15; Revelation 19:2.TGL πόρνη.4


    (4205) πόρνος, πορνου, (for the etym. see πόρνη ), a man who prostitutes his body to another's lust for hire, a male prostitute, ((Aristophanes ), Xenophon , Demosthenes , Aeschines , Lucian ); universally, a man who indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse, a fornicator (Vulg. fornicator ,fornicarius (Revelation 22:15impudicus )): 1 Corinthians 5:9-11; 1 Corinthians 6:9; Ephesians 5:5; 1 Timothy 1:10; Hebrews 12:16; Hebrews 13:4; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15. (Sir. 23:16f.)TGL πόρνος.2

    Larger font
    Smaller font